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1.

HEAT TRANSFER STUDIES IN A TUBE FITTED


WITH VARIANT HELICAL SCREW INSERTS
USING NANOFLUIDS
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

i) By using the same helical screw twisted set, heat transfer


augmentation for various fluids can be taken up for further
research.
ii) These variants of helical screw twisted tapes can be used for
the study of heat transfer augmentation with respect to
refrigeration system.
iii) Experiments can also be conducted with trapezoid cut
twisted tape inserts; such arrangements may provide high
intensity of swirl.
iv) For the same helical screw twisted set, heat transfer and
friction characteristics can be studied for transient flow
condition.

INVESTIGATION ON FORCED CONVECTION


2.
SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH THERMAL
STORAGE MATERIALS
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

i) The experiments can be extended to study the improvement


of air heater efficiency by providing the double glazing with
increased air gap with iron scraps.
ii) The investigation on solar air heater can be done to explore
the influence of scrap geometry and its size on thermal
performance.
iii) The convective loss from the glass surface due to the wind
movement can be taken into account to obtain the accurate
results.
iv) Better insulating materials with suitable thickness can be
used to reduce the conductive loss at the bottom.
v) Quantity of heat storage materials used has to be optimized.
vi) CFD analysis can be carried out to find the flow and thermal
performance of solar air heater based on varying width and
length for various thermal storage materials by considering
boundary layer effect.
vii) CFD analysis can be extended for different turbulent models
to study the swirling effect of the air flow.

3. Theoretical and experimental investigations on


heat transfer and friction in solar air heater duct
with artificial roughness on the absorber surface

4. MODELLING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES


ON ENERGY AND EXERGY OF SOLAR HYBRID
PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL SYSTEMS

SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK


The effect of heat pipe based cooling system can be further
analysed.
􀁸 The influence of nano fluids can also be investigated.
􀁸 Cooling the PV panels by using thermoelectric cooling system
(TEC) with peltier module can be used to further improve in
the performance of the system.
􀁸 The use of two fluids (bi-fluid) can create a greater range of
thermal applications and offer options in which hot and/or
cold air and/or water can be utilized depending on the energy
needs and applications.
􀁸 EGM can be applied in PVT collector by using CFD software.

5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THERMAL


ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
Analysis of stratification performance under discharging
conditions.
Analyse the stratification performance with different heat
transfer fluids.
To study the performance of the storage system by varying the
location and the mass of the PCM in the storage tank and the
geometric parameters such as the aspect ratio, inlet and exit
locations.
6. INVESTIGATIONS ON SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC
THERMAL HYBRID HEAT PUMP WORKING
WITH CIRCULAR AND TRIANGULAR
EVAPORATOR TUBE CONFIGURATIONS
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
a) Use of spiral tube configurations may be tried.
b) Optimization of operating parameters of PV-T evaporators.
c) Reliability of PV-T evaporators needs further investigation.
7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND
NUMERICAL MODELING OF MULTIPURPOSE
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
The present work employs water as the working fluid. The
performance of the system can be analyzed using various
refrigerants as working fluid.
2. The present work analyses the performance of the system using
plain tube risers in the storage tank. A possible option that can
be suggested is to analyze the performance of the system with
fins attachment to the riser tubes in a solar air heater.
3. The present study reports the heat transfer by plain tubes in a
multipurpose solar water heater. Thermal performance
improvement of the system can be analyzed by using helical
and Left-Right twists tubes with various twist ratio.
4. The present experimental system keeping the air heater in
horizontal position due to drying process carried out in air
heater drying chamber. A possible option that can be suggested
is to inclined the air heater and analyze the performance of the
both MPSAH and solar dryer of the system.

8. STUDY AND PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS OF


SOLAR AIR HEATER
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
9. RHEOLOGICAL, WEAR AND THERMALSTABILITY
STUDIES ON SUNFLOWER OILWITH NATURAL AND
NANO METAL ADDITIVES
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
1Optimization of SFME yield can be tried by using the
Optimization techniques like RSM, Factorial design and
Genetic Algorithm etc.
2Other Nanoparticles can be added as an additive like CuO,
Ce2O3 etc.
3The sunflower based lubricants may be used as metal
working fluids in the machining operations.
4The thermal conductivity of lubricant can be carried out.
Oxidation stability of biolubricants can be checked by using
rotary bomb oxidation test.
5Perform the cost and feasibility studies leading to
commercial usage

10. WEAR, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND


RHEOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SOYA BEAN
LUBRICANT WITH NANO METAL ADDITIVES
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
1. Trans-esterification using higher order alcohols (pentanol, octanol,
etc.) to make medium viscosity samples.
2. Role of nano particles in improving oxidation stability of the biolubricant.
3. Studies on different percentage of nano particles on base stock.
4. Performance of nano metal additives in combination with natural
additives (Caster oil, Palm oil, etc.) for vegetable oils.
5. Investigations on Nano particle suspended SBO for engineering
applications such as engine oil, cutting fluid, etc.

11. WEAR AND CORROSION STUDIES ON IRON -


BASED ALLOY POWDERS DEPOSITED BY
HVOF COATING METHOD
SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK
The parameters of thermal spraying may be varied and the changes
in micro structure and mechanical properties may be analyzed.
The temperature and velocity of particle in-flight during spraying
process for each coating may be analyzed to understand the development of
microstructures on the coatings.
Different binding materials may be used for coating and their
mechanical properties may be analyzed.
Phase analysis of the coating may be carried out using
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

12.

SCOPE OF FOR FUTURE WORK


In the pathway of research oriented towards the development of the
nanomaterials embedded PCMs, it is obvious that great potential is available
for exploring innovative thoughts and means for developing the energy
efficient and cost effective cool and heat thermal storage systems. Some
suggestions for the future research are presented below:
􀁸 An experimental investigation on the thermal conductivity
enhancement of these PCMs dispersed with metal NPs,
graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes can be
implemented.
􀁸 A study on the optimal mass fraction and pH value of NPs
dispersed in these PCMs for determining the longer dispersion
stability and the maximum thermal conductivity enhancement
can be accomplished.
􀁸 A study on the effect of surface modification on the thermal
and rheological properties of nanomaterials embedded PCMs
can be carried out.
􀁸 An experimental investigation on the thermal conductivity
enhancement of these PCMs dispersed with core shell
nanoparticles can be accomplished.
􀁸 An analytical study for determining the transient interface
position of the nanomaterials embedded PCMs filled with
cylindrical encapsulation can be implemented.
13. TAGUCHI METHOD BASED OPTIMISATION OF
A CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH ETHANOL
DIESEL BLENDS
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
􀁸 To extend the possibility of optimisation by using the higher
percentage of ethanol in diesel fuel with additives and/or
ignition enhancing (CN) improver.
􀁸 To analyse the effect of ethanol blended diesel fuel on
injection system corrosion, vibration of engine parts, acoustic
and aldehyde emission.
􀁸 This optimisation technique can be used to study the other
renewable fuels like methanol, bio-diesel and hydrogen.
􀁸 Use the strategy, on automotive engine for getting out of
maximum mileage and minimum emission.
􀁸 A computer simulation can be used for theoretical
investigation of the engine, so that, time consumption and cost
for adjusting various design and operating parameters of the
engine in the experimentation process could be reduc

14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON A D.I.


DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH DIESEL
KAPOK OIL METHYL ESTER BLENDS
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
Investigation on the performance and emission characteristics of
diesel engine fuelled with KOME can be studied on varying
intake charge temperature, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR),
compression ratio, preheating of fuel, injection rate and swirl
level.
Investigation on multi cylinder diesel engine fuelled with
KOME can be studied.
Investigation on diesel engine fuelled with KOME can be
studied for longer run of operation.
Short term and long term problems in diesel engine fuelled with
KOME can be minimised.
The knock in conjunction with noise generation can be
investigated.
15. PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE
FUELLED WITH CASHEW NUT SHELL
LIQUID (CNSL) BIO-OIL
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
Performance and emission study of a single cylinder CI engine with
CNSL bio-oil as fuel and remove the drawbacks, bio additives are added.
This study may be extended to multi cylinder heavy duty engines.
In the present research, bio additives are added to rectify the
disadvantages while using biodiesel as fuel in CI engines. Instead of bio
additive, nano particles additive may be used. Many researchers had done
their researches by using nanoparticle additives. While selecting the
nanoparticles great care should be taken in the sense of harmfulness amount,
size of the nanoparticle, reaction, blending methods and emission strategies.
The research may be extended by coating of nanoparticles in the top portion
of piston and inside cylinder wall surfaces (Prabhahar & Rajan 2013). In the
future, to control the nano particle emission in the exhaust, researchers use
micro particulate traps in the exhaust chamber of the CI engines.
From the present research, the EGT is high while using biodiesel as
fuel. Using the exhaust gas temperature, preheat the incoming bio fuel blends
to the engine. Preheating the bio fuel blends may reduce the viscosity and
hence some improved results may be obtained. The NO emission may be
increased because of high temperature in the engine cylinder. This may
eliminated by exhaust gas treatment techniques.
132
In the present work, attempt to investigate the influence of only
four additives other than that several additives, are available such as ethylene
glycol mono-n-butyl ether, butylatedhydroxyl toluene, tert-butylhydroquinone
and α-tocopherol (Ryu 2009). So the future researches may investigate such
additive and also the combinations of two or more additive and find the
outcome.
In the future work in this blends with additive on fuel and the
exhaust emission may be reduced by using catalytic converter particulate
traps, exhaust gas recirculation techniques and NOx reduction methods (Kim
& Choi 2013).
In the existing fuel blends with additive, small engine modification
also incorporated to achieve better results. The fuel injection angle and
injection time may be altered and also the injection pressure may be increased
(Kannan & Anand 2012, Gumus et al 2012). The future researches find the
influence of above said method on the performance and emission
characteristics of biodiesel fuelled CI engines.
16 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON
THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS OF A DI DIESEL ENGINE
USING DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF
ETHANOL IN ETHANOL DIESEL BLEND
SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
While this work is fairly comprehensive there are a number of
improvements and additional diagnostics that can be performed to progress.
Many obstacles were faced throughout the course of study. Out of them, few
problems are addressed here to extend this work further and to predict the root
cause of the problems.
Almost all methods have performed well except the methods that
have handled higher ethanol blends. More specifically, higher ethanol blends
have struggled to maintain unstable operation at full load. This was observed
in dual fuel operation also.
Hence, this investigation could be extended by adding suitable
methods that has an ability to control the unstable operation. Also this work
could be extended by adding a suitable methods for emission control of
ethanol fuelled DICI and DF engine.
In addition to it, using wet ethanol in the proposed methods have
also helped to extend this work further.
A detailed modeling study of ethanol combustion using suitable
software would help to understand the chemical kinetics of this fuel. Another
beneficial study would be to perform a detailed analysis concerning the spray
characteristics of ethanol.

17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON


PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE CYLINDER
DIESEL ENGINE USING DIFFERENT BIODIESEL
BLENDS AND CATALYST COATED CONVERTERS
18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE
PERFORMANCE, EMISSION AND COMBUSTION
CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED
WITH POLYMER OIL-ALCOHOL BLEND
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
It should be noted that increase in HC formation has been
observed, while using Polymer oil-alcohol blend. Strategies to
reduce HC emission may be explored.
Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of
variable compression ratio engine testing in a variety of
polymer oil-alcohol blend and find out the suitable
compression ratio for the different blends.
The present study can be extended to multi cylinder
automotive diesel engines.
Ceramic coatings with various parts such as piston top alone,
cylinder head with valves alone and other combinations also
used to validate the model.
Study the effect of polymer oil operation in LHR diesel
engine.
19. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL
INVESTIGATION ON ESTERS OF NON
EDIBLE OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE
FUEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE

 SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Adding some anti-freezing additives is needed to improve the
cold flow properties of bio diesel to use under severe winter
conditions.
Analysis is necessary to determine the susceptibility of
different engine and vehicle types to B30 to identify operating
issues.
Study on oil cake, to process it as fertilizer or to use it as
feedstock for biogas generation is to be encouraged.
Blends of bio diesel and ethanol can be investigated on the
various injection timing on diesel engine.
Measurement of aldehyde emissions can be carried out
20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DIRECT
INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE USING WASTE
PORK LARD BIODIESEL AND ITS
OPTIMIZATION PARAMETERSBY TAGUCHI METHOD
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The present experimental investigation using waste pork lard
biodiesel brings out several scopes for further research.
• Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a
diesel engine with different animal fat biodiesels for varied
engine parameters like compression ratio, fuel injection
timing, fuel injection pressure may be carried out to find
optimum values for different blends.
• The possibility of using combination of animal fat biodiesel
with vegetable oil biodiesel may be carried out to obtain its
suitability as an alternative to diesel fuel in internal
combustion engine.
• Suitability of using preheated animal fat biodiesel as an
alternative to diesel fuel may be carried out in a diesel engine
for the analysis of performance, emission and combustion
characteristics. Animal fat biodiesel that exhibits higher
viscosity than vegetable oil biodiesel and standard diesel can
affect the emissions due to different size of droplets and
different primary zone equivalence ratio without change in
fuel nozzle.
• Further studies on low heat rejection engine (Thermal barrier
coated) may be carried out to analyse performance, emission
and combustion characteristics of animal fat biodiesel.
21.
EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL
STUDIES ON DIRECT INJECTION
DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH
DIESEL - OXYGENATED BLENDS
1. STUDIES ON HEAT PIPES USING
AND COATED SURFACES NANO FLUIDS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics of heat pipe using
nanofluids with coated wick and coated wall are reported. The use of nanofluid
as
the working fluid in heat pipes finds a wide variety of applications appears
promising. But the development of the heat pipe with nanofluid field is hindered
by
(i) the particle deposition in the wick region; (ii) poor characterization of
suspensions; and (iii) lack of theoretical understanding of the mechanisms
responsible for changes in properties. Therefore, more experimental studies
related
to the performance study of heat pipe with nanofluids are needed. Many issues,
such
as thermal conductivity, the Brownian motion of particles, particle migration, and
thermophysical property change with temperature, must be carefully considered
in
heat pipes when nanofluids are used. The use of nanofluids in heat pipes has
shown an enhancement in the performance characteristics and considerable
reduction in
thermal resistance. However, the particle aggregation and deposition in heat pipe
are
big challenges for the stable operation of heat pipe
Further study is required in these areas to identify the reasons for deposition
and the effects of particle deposition on the performance of heat pipe. From the
present investigation, it is observed that the thin porous deposition present in the
heat pipe influences the pool boiling heat transfer leading to the enhancement in
the
heat transfer characteristics of the heat pipe. Also a cost effective thin porous
coating developed on the inner wall of thermosyphon is promising and enhances
the
heat transfer capability of the same. Finally, there appears to be hardly any
research
in heat pipes or thermosyphons with thin porous coating operated using
refrigerant
as the working fluid. Hence nanoparticles - refrigerant dispersions in heat transfer
devices can be studied to explore the possibility of improving the heat transfer
performance of the commercial devices.
2.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON A FOUR STROKE
COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE USING ECO-FRIENDLY NON-EDIBLE
VEGETABLE OILS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
1) Blending of oils can be done by varying the blend proportions to optimize the best blend
among the oils used. 2) Garlic treatment can be extended to more number of oils to study
its effectiveness on them. 3) Garlic treatment can be extended to blends to reap better
results. 4) Endurance tests can be performed to study the long term operational difficulties.

3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PERFORMANCE


AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE
USING BIO-DIESEL AS AN ALTERNATE FUEL
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

4. PARAMETRIC STUDY AND THERMODYNAMIC


ANALYSIS OF SUPERCRITICAL POWER CYCLE
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Earlier researchers have established that regeneration of steam in


between expansion of the steam in turbine enhances the
performance of cycle with the use of steam in the subcritical
conditions. Similar studies are required to be carried out for the
steam in supercritical condition.
Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of Supercritical Rankine
cycle with feed water heaters in supercritical conditions to be
carried out.
Research work on development of new material, nickel based alloys
which can sustain supercritical conditions. Hence, there is huge
scope for the research in the newer advanced materials.
Emission analysis of flue gas for coal based thermal power plant
may be carried out.
6.
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM FOR
ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Experimentation can be attempted with more blends to investigate better
alternatives.

Attempts can be made to reduce GWP with the same setup


7.
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF GAS TURBINE – FUEL CELL
COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR MICRO POWER GENERATION
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The present work is an attempt to model the basic Gas Turbine - Fuel Cell
Combined Cycle Power Plant for different fuels. This work can be further extended
in the following directions.
1) The Performance of the system can be further improved by adopting inter
cooling in between two compressors, if the air is compressed in the low pressure
and high pressure compressor

2) The performance of the system can also be improved by reheating the exhaust
gases in between two turbines i.e. Gas turbine which drives the compressor and
the power turbine

3) Economic analysis of Gas Turbine - Fuel Cell combined Cycle Power Plant can
be carried out to find unit cost for power generation.

4) Though Gas Turbine - Fuel Cell hybrid systems are costlier, experimental work
can be carried out starting with low capacities. BHEL has already started 5KW
SOFC power systems experimentation.
8. Energy & Exergy Analysis of Refrigeration Systems
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
1. Fabrication and performance evaluation of modified VAR system using exergueconomic
evaluation of the systems and other thermal energy conversion systems.
2. Modification of VAR system using biogas, solar energy with the use of conversion
devices as solar collector and solar PV to make it a zero energy system and to
study this system using exergy and exergieconomic analysis for both heating and
cooling applications.
9. AN HFC/HC REFRIGERANT MIXTURE FOR
AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

10. STUDIES ON R22 WINDOW AIRCONDITIONER


RETROFITTED WITH R407C AND INTERNAL
HEAT EXCHANGER
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

i) Further research might be performed to develop an advanced


mathematical design tool to correctly size the internal heat
exchanger for varying operating conditions, various system
capacities and various refrigerants.
ii) Also analytical and experimental studies may be performed
to optimize the system components when internal heat
exchanger is included in the system.
11.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE
PERFORMANCE OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN A VAPOUR
COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM AS
ALTERNATIVE TO CFC12 AND HFC134a
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
1. Studies on ternary mixtures can be carried out with the same
experimental setup.
2. The studies performed with magnets can be carried out as a
separate work by varying the Gauss level and position of the
magnets.
3. These selected mixtures can be studied in a domestic
refrigerator and the capillary tube length can be optimized.
4. The experimentation can be further extended to different
branded systems and compressors so that the required charge
quantity, capillary length and condenser length can be
recommended more accurately for the different refrigeration
systems applications available in the market.
12. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF AIR CONDITIONER
WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
In the present research work, the system is operated on a recirculation
mode. The system can be operated on once through mode by adjusting the flow
rate such that the exit temperature of cooling water from the condenser is at the
required hot water temperature of 45°C - 50°C. Under such once through mode,
the performance can be evaluated.
During the present study, hot water distribution system to the hostel bath
rooms are not fabricated and tested. This may also be carried out and final
outcome can be tested.
13. STUDIES ON R22 ROOM AIR CONDITIONER
WITH ELECTRONIC EXPANSION VALVE AND
RETROFITTED WITH R407C AND R290
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The present study can be extended in the following directions:
(i) Further research might be performed to develop a suitable
EEV to fit for different smaller capacity air conditioner
available in the market.
(ii) Also analytical and experimental studies can be performed to
optimize the system components when EEV is used in the
system.
(iii) Studies with R32 can also be performed.
14. STUDIES ON AN AIR-COOLED GAX BASED
AMMONIA-WATER VAPOUR ABSORPTION
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Further to this study, it is possible to carry out research in the
following broad areas in connection with the ammonia-water vapour
absorption refrigeration system.
(a) Heat transfer modeling of the air-cooled GAX based vapour
absorption refrigeration system.
(b) Combined drying and storage of agricultural products with aircooled
ammonia-water absorption heat pump system for rural
area applications.
(c) Combined refrigeration and power cycle with the GAX
concept, which will give the highest power and refrigeration
output.
15. STUDIES ON BIOMASS ASSISTED ABSORPTION
COOLING SYSTEMS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

16. COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATIONS ON THE


PERFORMANCE OF AN ECO-FRIENDLY R-407C/R-600a/R-
290 REFRIGERANT MIXTURE IN R-22 WINDOW AIR-
CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH