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Tutorial

KINETICS
MODEL SETUP FOR
CONTACT SIMULATION
Table of Contents

1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 2
1.1. Prerequisites .................................................................................. 2
1.2. Problem description ........................................................................ 2
1.3. Data files ........................................................................................ 2
2. Setup of the model ................................................................................ 3
2.1. Open the initial model ..................................................................... 3
2.2. Creating the joints........................................................................... 3
2.3. Set the Units ................................................................................... 6
2.4. Definition of gravity ......................................................................... 6
2.5. Definition of the contacts ................................................................ 7
2.6. Definition of initial conditions .......................................................... 8
3. Running the simulation.......................................................................... 8
4. Viewing the results .............................................................................. 10

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

1. Introduction
This tutorial presents how to setup a kinetic model with all the appropriate entities in order to run a
contact simulation with the ANSA kinetics solver.

1.1. Prerequisites
Reading the pages of section 2-User Interface of User’s Guide is recommended in order to obtain a
familiarization with the ANSA interface and terminology.

1.2. Problem description


The model to setup is a horizontal crankshaft-rod-piston type of assembly whose piston moves
(bounces) between two planes. A small gap between the piston and the planes exists. The objective
is to demonstrate how to setup a kinetic model and also investigate how the characteristics of the
contact can affect the movement of the piston.

1.3. Data files


The files required for this tutorial are:
• One ANSA file [*.ansa] file of the initial model.
[../tutorials/ANSA_tutorials/KINETICS /tutorial_files/model_setup_for_contact_simulation/]

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

2. Setup of the model

2.1. Open the initial model

Start ANSA and activate File>Open to read the initial model. The Open window appears. Navigate
and select the file initial.ansa.

Switch to KINETICS menu

Initially the model contains the Kin_Graphics and Kin_Bodies. Graphics are the geometric objects
that give shape to the model (they don't carry any CAD information). Bodies are the container
entities that can consist of any ANSA entities and they represent a physical body in real life. In other
words, graphics do not represent a body by their own. They have to be defined as Kin_Bodies.

In the initial model the bodies are already defined and the correct mass and inertia tensors values
have been given. Specifically, there are the three crankshaft-conrod-piston bodies and a fourth
body which is the ground. The top and bottom planes belong to the ground body, and between
them the piston is allowed to move.

2.2. Creating the joints

At this step, all the joints of the model will be defined. Joints are constraints that are imposed to a
model and according to their type, they enforce the bodies that they connect to follow specific
movements. Defining in a model more joints than necessary (over-constrained model) or joints of the
wrong type, can lead to model lock-ups and errors during a simulation.

Press F1 to view the XY plane of the model. The model should be able to move in the XY plane after
the definition of the joints.

Therefore three joints are needed for this model:


• A revolute joint that allows the crankshaft to rotate with respect to ground at a specific point around
the Z axis of the Global coordinate system (GCS).
• A revolute joint that allows the crankshaft and conrod bodies to rotate each other at their connection
point and around the Z axis of the GCS.
• A revolute joint that allows the piston and conrod bodies to rotate each other at their connection
point and around the Z axis of the GCS.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

ASSISTANT
In order to create a revolute joint
activate the JOINTs>ASSISTANT function.

The Joint Assistant window appears.

For the first joint, select a revolute type of joint to


be created. Press Next to continue.

two bodies that will rotate with respect to each


other. To do this, type “?” in the two RIGID BODY
fields and select the two bodies of the joint (the
crankshaft and ground bodies)

Specify the two bodies between which the


revolute joint will be defined. To do this input the
ids of the crankshaft and ground bodies.

Press Next to continue.

Select as direction type of the joint the option


1Point-1Axis.

This means that for the joint, only one point and
one axis around which the bodies will revolute,
need to be defined.

Press Next to continue.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

Define the point around which the two bodies will


rotate each other. This is the anchor point where
the joint is created and hence the point where the
two markers of the joint will be created.

To do this, activate the visibility of 3D-Points.


Some 3D-Points are already present in the model
that denote the anchor points of the joints.

Select the appropriate point from screen.

Press Next to continue.

Define the joint's axis (this is the z axis of its


markers) around which the two bodies will rotate
each other. This will be the Z axis of the GCS, so
on the Z1 fields input for Z_z the value 1. In
other words, the Z axis of the markers of the joint
will have the same orientation with the Z axis of
the GCS.

Press Finish.

The KIN_JOINT card appears. The joint's card


has been set according to the selections that
have been made.

Press OK to confirm and create the joint.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

The joint is now created.

In a similar manner create the other two revolute


joints like the first picture of this tutorial shows.
The one that connects the crankshaft with the
conrod and the other that connects the piston
with the conrod.

2.3. Set the Units

UNITS
Activate the AUXILIATIES>UNITS
function.

The correct units should be specified and these


will be taken into account during the simulation.

Make sure that the same units shown in the


image beside are defined.

Press OK to confirm.

2.4. Definition of gravity

GRAVITY
In order to define gravity force,
activate the FORCEs>GRAVITY function.

The Gravity card appears.

Select definition By Numerical input.

The gravity should be defined on the negative Y


axis of the GCS. So press the –Y button. This will
define the default earth gravity value in the
negative Y axis.

Press OK to confirm.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

2.5. Definition of the contacts

In order to enforce the piston body to move between the planes (ground body), a Kin_Contact entity
should be defined. Kin_Contacts are container entities that consist of Kin_Bodies. So upon their
definition, between all the bodies that are contained, contacts may appear during a simulation.

CONTACT
In order to define a contact,
activate the CONTACTs>CONTACT function.

The “Modifying KIN_CONTACT” window


appears. The only available entity type in the list
is the KIN_RBODY, as a contact can be defined
on KIN_RBODYs only.

Double-click on the KIN_RBODY entity type.

The “KIN_RBODY” list window opens up.


Select from the list the piston and ground bodies
where between them a contact will be defined.

Press OK to confirm the selection.

The KIN_CONTACT card appears.

Within the FRICTION_COEF field specify a


friction coefficient value of 0,01.

Within the RESTITUTION_N field a restitution


factor for the normal direction of the contact is
specified. Input a value of 0,3. This factor defines
to what extent the velocity of a body after a
contact (collision) is maintained with respect to its
velocity before the contact.
A value of 0,3 means that the velocity of a body
just after the contact will be the 30% of its velocity
just before the contact.

Set the Shape type of the piston body to Convex. Any body can be considered as convex, if the line
between any pair of points (A, B) of the body always remains within its boundaries. Considering a
body as convex, will aid the collision detection engine to detect collision incidents faster and more
accurately and this leads to faster contact simulation solutions.

In this tutorial the Thickness Scale values do not have any meaning because the bodies of this
model that consist only of Kin_Graphic objects do not have any properties assigned and therefore
no property thickness. Just leave the default values.

Press OK to confirm and create the contact entity.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

2.6. Definition of initial conditions

In this step initial conditions are defined, that will


be taken into account when the simulation
begins.

Specifically, an initial velocity is needed for the


crankshaft that will transmit motion to the model.

Open the crankshaft's KIN_RBODY card.

Activate the INITIAL_VELOCITIES from the


respective pull down menu.

In the WZ field specify the value 150. This will


apply an initial angular velocity around the Z axis
of the COG marker of the crankshaft.

Press OK to confirm.

3. Running the simulation

In order to run a simulation, activate the


SIMULATION>SIMULATOR function.

The Kinetics Simulator window appears.

Select as Simulation Type=Contact.

Activate the “Animate during calculation” option

Input as End time the value 0,5. That means that


the simulation will run for 0,5 seconds. To start
the simulation press the Run button.

The progress bar underneath will show the


progress of the simulation.

When the simulation has finished, in the bottom


list the first Kin_Results entity will appear that
contains all the results that were calculated

Close the window.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

Next, we would like to see how a change of the


restitution factor value would affect the results. So
at this point we will change the restitution factor
value and then run a second simulation.

To change the restitution factor value, press the


CONTACTs>LIST button. From the list that
appears select the contact entity that exists and
press Edit.

The KIN_CONTACT edit card appears.

Change the restitution factor value of the normal


direction of the contact from 0,3 to 0,45.

Press OK to confirm and close the card.

Activate the SIMULATION>SIMULATOR function


to run a second simulation with the same options
as before.

After the simulation has finished, in the bottom list


the second Results entity will appear.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

4. Viewing the results

RESULTS
In order to view the results, activate the SIMULATION>RESULTS function.

The Kinetics Results Viewer window appears.

In this tutorial, we would like to see how the piston body bounces between the two planes.
Therefore, as shown in the image below, from the Kinetic Results Entities list, select one of the
results entities that were created and from the pull down menu of the List column select the option
Bodies. That means that we would like to check the results of the bodies.

Underneath in the first column all the bodies are listed. Select the piston body.

In the second column select Time to represent the X axis. That means that the results of the piston
will be plotted with respect to time.

In the third column check which characteristic result of the piston should be plotted. This represents
the Y axis of the plot. Select the Location option. This will plot the location (displacement) of the
COG of the piston with respect to time and will show how it bounces up and down between the two
planes.

In the fourth column select the axis (component) according to which, the location (displacement) of
the piston should be plotted. The piston moves in the XY plane of the GCS, so select the Y
component to plot how the piston bounces up and down in the Y axis. Note that the components
always refer to the GCS.

Press the Add Curves button to plot the result.

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KINETICS – Model Setup for Contact Simulation

In the same manner, select the other result entity and plot the same characteristic result for the
piston body. After the second plot is added, a comparison between the results of the two
simulations is shown.

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