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K-12 Wiki

K-12 Wiki

Number System and Surds

 Introduction to Surds
Introduction to Surds

Summary
LearnNext Lesson Video

HD 14:15

Table of Contents[Show]
Surd: If n is a positive integer and a rational number a(> 0) is the not the n th power of some
rational number, then the irrational number a n or a 1 n (the positive nth root of a) is called a
surd or radical.

It has to be noted that while a is a positive rational number, a n is a positive irrational number.
e.g. 23 , 4 3 , 5 4

Note: Every surd is an irrational number but every irrational number may not necessarily be a
surd.
e.g.
64 is not a surd since the value is equal to 8.

Different Types of Surds:


Simple surd: A surd which consists of a single term is called a simple surd or a monomial surd.

Mixed Surd: If p is a rational number and square root of root q is a surd, then p + q and p - q
are called mixed surds.

Compound Surd: A surd which is the sum or difference of two or more surds is called a
Compound Surd.

e.g. 2 + 6 , 5 + 6 10 - 2 3

Binomial Surd: A compound surd which has only to terms is called a binomial surd.
e.g.
3+7,2+34.

Similar Surds: Surds which are different multiples of the same surd are called similar surds.
e.g.
7 5 , 8 cube root of 7.

Laws of Radicals

Multiplication of two radicals

p n × q n = pq n

LHS: p n × q n = ( p 1 n × q 1 n )
= (p × q) 1 n = (pq) 1 n
= pq n : RHS

Alternate method:
LHS : ( p n × q n ) n
= (p1n×q1n)n
=pnn×qnn
= p × q = pq
p n × q n = pq n

Division of two radicals

pnqn=pqn

=pq1n

pqn : RHS

a q p = a pq = a p q

LHS : a q p = ( a q ) 1 p = ( a qn n ) 1 p = ( a qn ) 1 pn = a qn pn : RHS

a q p = a pq = a p q

{ a q p } pq

= { a 1 q p } pq = { a 1 pq } pq = a pq pq = a

a q p = a pq = a p q

a p n = ( a p ) m m n = a pm mn

( a p ) m m n = a pm m n = a pm m n = a p n = a p m

a p n = ( a p ) m m n = a pm mn

Comparision of Surds
Two surds can be can be compared only when the order of the surds is equal to each other.
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