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Introduction to Surds

Introduction to Surds

Summary

LearnNext Lesson Video

HD 14:15

Table of Contents[Show]

Surd: If n is a positive integer and a rational number a(> 0) is the not the n th power of some

rational number, then the irrational number a n or a 1 n (the positive nth root of a) is called a

surd or radical.

It has to be noted that while a is a positive rational number, a n is a positive irrational number.

e.g. 23 , 4 3 , 5 4

Note: Every surd is an irrational number but every irrational number may not necessarily be a

surd.

e.g.

64 is not a surd since the value is equal to 8.

Simple surd: A surd which consists of a single term is called a simple surd or a monomial surd.

Mixed Surd: If p is a rational number and square root of root q is a surd, then p + q and p - q

are called mixed surds.

Compound Surd: A surd which is the sum or difference of two or more surds is called a

Compound Surd.

e.g. 2 + 6 , 5 + 6 10 - 2 3

Binomial Surd: A compound surd which has only to terms is called a binomial surd.

e.g.

3+7,2+34.

Similar Surds: Surds which are different multiples of the same surd are called similar surds.

e.g.

7 5 , 8 cube root of 7.

Laws of Radicals

p n × q n = pq n

LHS: p n × q n = ( p 1 n × q 1 n )

= (p × q) 1 n = (pq) 1 n

= pq n : RHS

Alternate method:

LHS : ( p n × q n ) n

= (p1n×q1n)n

=pnn×qnn

= p × q = pq

p n × q n = pq n

pnqn=pqn

=pq1n

pqn : RHS

a q p = a pq = a p q

LHS : a q p = ( a q ) 1 p = ( a qn n ) 1 p = ( a qn ) 1 pn = a qn pn : RHS

a q p = a pq = a p q

{ a q p } pq

= { a 1 q p } pq = { a 1 pq } pq = a pq pq = a

a q p = a pq = a p q

a p n = ( a p ) m m n = a pm mn

( a p ) m m n = a pm m n = a pm m n = a p n = a p m

a p n = ( a p ) m m n = a pm mn

Comparision of Surds

Two surds can be can be compared only when the order of the surds is equal to each other.

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