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FLUID MACHINERY

UNIVERSITY 2 MARK QUESTIONS (upto2015 November)


1. Write the expression for force exerted by a jet on stationary inclined flate plate.

Fx = 𝜌𝑎𝑉²sin²𝜃
Fy = 𝜌𝑎𝑉²sin𝜃cos𝜃
2. Define mechanical efficiency of turbine.
It is defined as the ratio of Shaft power of the turbine to the Runner power.
Power at the shaft of the turbine
𝜂m =
Power deliverd by the water to the runner
S.P
=
R.P
3. Write down the parts of hydraulic turbine.
Pelton wheel consists of the following main parts
1. Penstock.
2. Runner with buckets.
3. Break nozzle.
4. Outer casing.
4. Define breaking jet.
When the Nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward
direction, the amount of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due
to inertia goes on revolving for a long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a small
nozzle is provided which directs the jet of water on the back of the vane. This jet of
water is called Breaking Jet.
5. Define degree of reaction.(R)
Degree of Reaction is defined as the ratio of pressure energy change inside a
runner to the total energy change inside the runner. It is represented by ’R’. Hence
mathematically it is written as
Change of pressure energy inside the Turbine
R=
Change of total energy inside the turbine
(V12 – V22 )
=1− =0
(V12 – V22 )
6. What is priming of centrifugal pump?
The delivery valve is closed and the suction pipe, casing and portion of the
delivery pipe up to delivery valve are completely filled with the liquid so that no air
pocket is left. This is called as priming.

7. Define NPSH in pump.


 The term NPSH is very commonly used in pump industry. Actually the
minimum suction conditions are more frequently used in terms of NPSH.
 It is defined as the absolute pressure head at the inlet to the pump, minus the
vapour pressure head plus the velocity head.
8. What is hydraulic intensifier.
The device which is used to increase the intensity of pressure of water by
means of hydraulic energy available from large amount of water at low pressure is
called hydraulic intensifier.
9. Explain the term hydraulic efficiency.
It is the defined as ratio of power given by water to the runner of a turbine to
the power supplied by the water at the inlet of the turbine.
Power delivered to runner
𝜂h =
Power supplied at inlet
R.P
=
W.P
R.P = Q [Vw1 ± Vw2] x u kW ....for Pelton Turbine
R.P = Q [Vw1 u1 ± Vw2 u2] kW ....for a radial flow turbine
W.P = g x Q x H kW ......when flowing fluid is water
W.P = 𝜌𝑔𝑄𝐻/1000 kW .......when flowing fluid is other than the water
10. What are the ranges of head(m) for pelton, francis and Kaplan turbine?
 High head turbines – which work under high heads (above 250m) but with less
quantity of water.
Example: Pelton wheel
 Medium head turbines – work under medium heads (60m to 250m)-they require
relatively large quantity of water.
Example: Francis turbines
 Low head turbines – work under heads less than 60m – they require a very large
quantity of water.
Example: Kaplan turbine
11. How can you determine the minimum speed required to start centrifugal pump?
If the pressure raise in the impeller is more than or equal to manometric head,
the centrifugal pump will start delivering the water.
N = (120 x𝜂man x Vw2 x D2)/(𝜋[D22 – D12])
12. Define volumetric efficiency of a compressor.
Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio of volume of free air sucked into
the compressor per cycle to the stroke volume of the cylinder.
Isothermal work
. 𝜂vol=
vs
va = suction volume
vS = stroke volume
13. Write advantages of air lift pump?
 The air lift pump is not having any moving parts below water level and hence there
are no chances of suspended solid particles damaging the pump.
 This pump can raise more water through a bore hole of given diameter than any other
pump.
14. State the use of unit quantities.
To predict the behaviour of a turbine working under different conditions of head, speed,
output and gate opening, the results are expressed interms of quantities which may be obtained
when the head on the turbine is reduced to unity. The conditions of the turbine under unit head are
such that the efficiency of the turbine remains unaffected.
15. Define the term jet propulsion.
Jet propulsion means the propulsion or movement of the bodies such as ships, air
crafts , rockets etc. with the help of jet. The reaction of the jet coming out from the orifice
provided in the bodies is used to move the bodies.
16. Classify turbines based on the type of energy at inlet.
 Impulse turbine.
 Reaction turbine.
17. Define suction head.
It is the vertical height of the centre line of the centrifugal pump above the water
surface in the tank or pump from which water is to be lifted . this height is also called
suction head and is denoted by hs.
18. Why priming is necessary in centrifugal pump?
Pump is the process in which the impeller of a centrifugal pump will get fully
submerged in liquid without any air trap inside. this is especially required when there is a
first start up. But it is advisable to start the pump only after pumping.
19. Why intercooling is needed in multi stage compressor?
Intercooling purpose is reduce the temperature of the compress gas which reduce its
volume, so the work done by the compressor will be less for less volume, which will
reduce the input power. After the intercooler there should be a separator to prevent any
liquid from entering the compressor.
20. Name any positive displacement compressors.
 Reciprocating compressors
 Rotary screw compressors
 Rotary vane compressors
 Scroll compressors
21. Differentiate fluid coupling from torque convertor.
The fluid or hydraulic coupling is a device used for transmitting power from driving
shaft to driven shaft with the help of fluid, there are no mechanical connection between
the two shafts.
The hydraulic torque converter is a device used for transmitting increased torque at
the driven shaft. The torque transmitted at the driven shaft may be more or less than the
driving shaft.
22. What is mixed flow turbine?
In mixed flow water enters the blades radially and comes out axially, parallel to the
turbine shaft. Example: Modern Francis turbine.
23. Define governing of turbines?
The governing of a turbine is the operation by which the speed of the turbine is kept
constant by controlling the discharge irrespective of the fluctuations of load on the
turbine.
24. List the various types of casings adopted for centrifugal pumps.
 Volute casing
 Vortex casing
 Casing with guide blades.
25. State the advantages of multistage compressor.
 The work done per kg of air is reduced in multistage compression with inter
cooler as compared to single stage compression for the same delivery pressure.
 It improves the volumetric efficiency for the given pressure ratio.
 The size of the cylinders (i.e., high pressure and low pressure) may be adjusted to
suit the volume and the pressure of the air.
 It reduces the leakage loss considerably.
 It gives more uniform torque and hence a smaller size flywheel is required.
 It provides effective lubrication because of lower operating temperature.
 It reduces the cost of the compressor.

26. What is meant by mechanical advantage?


The ratio of the output force produced by a machine to the applied input force.
27. List the two types of hydraulic lift.
The hydraulic lift is a device used for carrying passenger or goods from one place to
another place in multi-stored building. The hydraulic lifts are two types namely,
i. Direct acting hydraulic lift
ii. Suspended hydraulic lift

28. write an expression to find the force exerted by a jet of water of cross sectional area
A striking on flat fixed vertical plate with a velocity V.

Fx = 𝜌𝑎𝑉²
Fy = 0

29. Define the term “unit speed” of turbine.


The specific speed of any turbine is the speed in r.p.m of a turbine geometrically
similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will
develop 1 metric horsepower when working under unit head.
Ns = N√𝑃 / H5/4
Where Ns = specific speed
P = power in HP 25.
30. Why draft tube is used in reaction turbine?
If a reaction turbine is not fitted with a draft tube, the pressure at the outlet of the runner
will be equal to atmospheric pressure.
The water from the outlet of the runner will discharge freely into the tail race. the net
head on the turbine will be less than that of a reaction turbine fitted with a draft tube.
Also without a draft tube, the kinetic energy rejected at the outlet of the runner will go
waste to the tail race.
31. What do you mean by overall efficiency of turbine?
It is defined as the ratio of power available at the shaft of the turbine to the power
supplied by the water at inlet of the turbine.
Shaft Power
𝜂 o=
Water Power
S.P
=
W.P
32. Mention any two advantages of a centrifugal pump over reciprocating pump?

 Centrifugal pump gives uniform delivery of water compare to reciprocating pump.


 Centrifugal pump are small in size for the same discharge compared with reciprocating
pump.

33. Give the relationship between pressures for minimum work required to run a two
stage air compressor.
2n  ( p3)  n  1
W= p1v1 (   2n - 1 )KJ
n 1  ( p1) 

34. Define the term “degree of reaction” related to multi stage air compressor.
Degree of reaction or reaction ratio is defined as the ratio of static pressure drop in the
rotor to the static pressure.
The pressure difference between the entry and exit of the rotor.

35. Which law governs the working of hydraulic press?


 The hydraulic press is a device used for lifting heavy weights by the application of
a much smaller force.
 It is based on Pascal’s law, which states that the intensity of pressure in a static
fluid is transmitted equally in all direction

36. Mention any two applications of torque convertor.


Main application of torque convertor is clutch and gear mechanism in automobile
transmissions
37. What are specific quantities?
1. To predict the behaviour of a turbine working under different conditions.
2. Make comparison between the performances of turbine of same types of different
sizes.

38. How are hydraulic turbines classified?


Action of the water flowing:
a. Impulse turbine.
b. Reaction turbine.
Main direction of water flow:
i) Tangential flow turbine.
ii) Radial flow turbine.
iii) Axial flow turbine.
iv) Mixed flow turbine.
Head and quantity basis:
i) High head turbine.
ii) Medium head turbine
iii) Low head turbine.
Specific speed basis:
i) Low specific speed.
ii) Medium specific speed.
iii) High specific speed

39. Why is priming is necessary in centrifugal pump?


If the pump is primed with water, the head generated is same metre of water. But as the
density of air is very low, the generated head of air in terms of equivalent metre of water
head is negligible and hence the water may not be sucked from the pump. to avoid this
difficulty, priming is necessary.

40. What is meant by intercooler?


An inter cooler is a simple heat exchanger. It exchanges the heat of compressed air
from the low-pressure compressor to the circulating water before the air enters to the
high-pressure compressor. The purpose of inter cooling is to minimize the work of
compression.
41. What is meant by self priming pump?
Self priming pump is designed to lift water from low level below the pump suction
without having to fill the suction pipe with liquid. Classification of self primers is
 Clear water self primers
 Solid handling self primers
42. What is the application of torque convertor?
Main application of torque convertor is clutch and gear mechanism in automobile
transmissions.
43. What is meant by impact of jet?
Force is obtained from Newton’s second law of motion or from impulse momentum equation.
Thus impact of jet means the force exerted by the jet on a plate which may be stationary or
moving.
i. Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate when
a. Plate is vertical to the jet
b. Plate is inclined to the jet
c. Plate is curved
ii. Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate when
a. Plate is vertical
b. Plate is inclined
c. Plate is curved

44. Name the different types of draft tubes.


Conical draft tubes, simple elbow tubes, moody spreading tubes and elbow draft tube
with circular inlet and rectangular outlet.
45. What is hydraulic brake in pelton wheel?
When the Nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward direction, the amount
of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a
long time.
To stop the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of water on the
back of the vane. This jet of water is called Breaking Jet.
46. What is meant by cavitations?
It is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of a flowing liquid in
a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and the sudden
collapsing of these vapour bubbles in a region of higher pressure.
47. Write any two factors affecting the volumetric efficiency of compressor.
The volumetric efficiency of air compressor increases with decrease in clearance of the
compressor.
Compressor with clearance volume,
compressor without clearance volume.
48. Define isothermal efficiency?
It is defined as the ratio of isothermal work to Indicated work Isothermal efficiency
(Compressor efficiency)
𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘
𝜂iso=
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘

49. What is hydraulic accumulator?


The hydraulic accumulator is a device used for storing energy of a liquid in the form
of pressure energy, which may be supplied for any sudden or intermittent requirement.
50. Write down the impulse momentum principle.
The force exerted by a fluid as its direction of motion or its velocity.
51. What are the different types of fluid machines?
i. The hydraulic press
ii. The hydraulic accumulator
iii. The hydraulic intensifier
iv. The hydraulic ram
v. The hydraulic lift
vi. The hydraulic crane
vii. The fluid or hydraulic coupling
viii. The fluid or hydraulic torque converter
ix. The air lift pump
x. The gear-wheel pump

.
52. Define mechanical efficiency of centrifugal pump?
It is the ratio between output of the pump to the power imparted by the impeller.
𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝
𝜂mech=
𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟
53. Define slip of a reciprocating pump?
The difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge is called slip of
the pump. Slip = Qth – Qact
Qth – Qact
slip Percentage = × 100
Qth
But in sometimes, Qact may be higher than Qth, in such case Cd is greater than unity
and the slip will be negative called as negative slip.
54. What are the differences between axial and centrifugal compressor?
AXIAL COMPRESSOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
Starting torque is high Starting torque is low
Isentropic efficiency is around 85% Isentropic efficiency is around 70%
It is suitable for multistage compression It is not suitable for multistage compression
Less frontal area is required more frontal area is required.
Manufacturing cost is high Manufacturing cost is low
Running cost is high Running cost is low

55. What do you mean by NPSH?


The term (net positive suction head) is very commonly used in the pump industry.
Actually the minimum suction conditions are more frequently specified in terms of
NPSH.
56. Define NPSH ?
The net positive suction head (NPSH) is defined as the absolute pressure head at the
inlet to the pump, minus the vapour pressure head ( in absolute units) plus the velocity
head.
NPSH = Absolute pressure head at inlet of the pump – vapour pressure head
57. Write the names of two special purpose pumps?
Jet pump and submersible pump.

58. Give one example for impulse turbine and reaction turbine ?
Impulse turbine – pelton turbine
Reaction turbine – Francis turbine.

59. Write the uses of draft tube?


It permits a negative head to be established at the outlet of the runner and thereby
increases the head on the turbines. The turbine may be placed above the tail race
without any loss of net head and hence turbine may be inspected properly.
It converts a large proportion of the kinetic energy rejected at the outlet of the
turbine into useful pressure energy. Without the draft tube, the kinetic energy rejected
at the outlet of the turbine will go waste to the tail race..
60. What is meant by cavitations?
It is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of a flowing
liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and
the sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in a region of higher pressure.
61. What is clearance volume?
The volume of the cylinder when the piston is at TDC is known as clearance
volume.

62. What are types of rotary pumps?


The various types of rotary pumps are
1. External pump.
2. Internal gear pump.
3. Lobe pump.
4. Vane pump.

63. What is a torque convertor?


The hydraulic torque converter is a device used for transmitting increased
torque at the driven shaft. The torque transmitted at the driven shaft may be more or
less than the driving shaft.