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Service Training STUDENT

Course Materials MATERIALS

"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADER SYSTEMS


BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS
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STUDENT NOTES
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COURSE DESCRIPTION......................................................................................................4

PRE-COURSE/POST-COURSE ASSESSMENT ..................................................................6

COURSE PLAN/OUTLINE...................................................................................................9

STUDENT LITERATURE CHECKLIST ............................................................................12

MODULE: MACHINE ORIENTATION ............................................................................19

MODULE: ENGINE SYSTEMS .......................................................................................23

MODULE: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ................................................................................35

MODULE: STANDARD POWER TRAIN .......................................................................42

MODULE: AUTOSHIFT AND POWER SHIFT TRANSMISSIONS ..............................58

MODULE: AXLES AND BRAKES ..................................................................................74

MODULE: ENGINE, ELECTRICAL AND POWER TRAIN TROUBLESHOOTING ...81

MODULE: STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS ........................92

MODULE: STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS


TROUBLESHOOTING......................................................................................................118

MODULE: ALL WHEEL STEERING ELECTRICAL & Hydraulic Systems ...............124


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COURSE DESCRIPTION
Backhoe Loader Systems
Course Length: 4 1/2 Days
Course Ends: 4:00 P.M. Fifth Day
Class size: 8 students maximum

CONTENT WHO SHOULD ATTEND:


• Training Instructors
• Technical Communicators

This course is designed to teach systems used on "D" series backhoe


loaders. Some of these systems have been used on previous backhoe
loaders.
Classroom work (approximately 30%) will consist of a product
performance update and a brief review of both systems operation and
testing and adjusting procedures.
Students may be required to do additional homework in the evenings.
Quizzes will be used to monitor student’s progress.
Machine "bugging" exercises will be preformed to reinforce student's
understanding of system operation and to improve their troubleshooting
skills.
Major systems to be considered and a brief description of lab exercises
are as follows:
• Machine Orientation - Students will operate the vehicle noting the
characteristics of the brakes, transmission, transmission controls,
implement controls, and interaction of the loader function with
steering.
• Engine Labs - Students will identify and locate components, check
high and low idle, torque converter stall, and check engine oil
pressure.
• Electrical Labs - Students will locate various electrical components
and perform proper methods for checking the batteries, starter,
alternator, key start switch and relays. The students will "bug" the
machine to demonstrate the effects of electrical component
malfunction.
• Transmission Labs - Major emphasis is place on power shift
transmission featuring autoshift. The non-power shift transmission
will also be also be covered.
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• Brakes and Axles Lab - Students will perform proper brake


performance checks and will be able to explain power flow through
the drive train and differential lock. Performance checks for All
Wheel Steer will be performed if machine is available.
• Hydraulic System Labs - Students will perform hydraulic system
tests as described in the service module for maximum system
pressure, margin pressure, and low pressure standby. The students
will "bug" the machine to demonstrate the effects of component
malfunction in the pump control valve and the implement circuits.

SKILLS TAUGHT

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to perform the
following diagnostic tests:
• Test the engine for correct in-chassis operation
• Test the transmission system (including autoshift)
• Test and adjust the implement hydraulic system
• Test the electrical starting and charging system

KEY DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS USED IN CLASS


• 9U7400 Multitach II Group
• 9U7330 Fluke 87
• 8T0900 AC/DC Clamp- on Ammeter
• 1U5796 Differential Gauge Group
• Electronic Technician (power shift transmission)

COURSE PRE-REQUISITES
SUGGESTED It is suggested that students complete the following prerequisite tests at
PREREQUISITE TESTS least one to two weeks before students take the course.
Students should pass the following pretests with 90% or better.
• Graphic Fluid Power Symbols Pretest SEBV0556
• Basic Hydraulic Pretest SEBV0557
• Basic Electrical Pretest SEBV0558
SUGGESTED It is suggested that students complete the following self study courses or
PREREQUISITE
COURSES equivalent courses prior to attending.
• "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics" TEMV9001
• "Fundamentals of Electricity" TEMV9002
• "Fundamentals of Drive Trains" TEMV9004
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PRE-COURSE/POST-COURSE ASSESSMENT

Student can not do. Needs more


Student has demonstrated his

Student can perform task but


Use the following assessment to determine if a student either needs to
attend a course and what skills they need to improve. The assessment
needs more practice

then should be used at the completion of the course to measure the


student's progress.
competence

training

OBJECTIVES
❑ ❑ ❑ 1. Perform a 10 hour/daily machine inspection for a BCP backhoe
loader using the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

❑ ❑ ❑ 2. Using the handout provided and the related service manual modules
locate the following components on a backhoe loader: fuel filter,
governor, fuel shutdown solenoid, priming (lift) pump, water
separator, oil filter, engine oil dipstick, engine oil pressure test port,
engine oil cooler (turbo models only), primary air filter, secondary
air filter, turbocharger (if equipped), air filter indicator, radiator,
water pump, cold start advance solenoid, low idle adjustment screw,
high idle adjustment screw, and temperature regulator housing.

❑ ❑ ❑ 3. Using the handout provided and the related service manual modules,
perform engine tests for engine high idle, low idle, torque converter
stall and engine oil pressure.

❑ ❑ ❑ 4. Using the provided service literature perform tests for the battery,
alternator, and starter on the machine using a voltmeter and clamp on
ammeter.

❑ ❑ ❑ 5. Using the electrical schematic and the provided handout. Draw and
numerically code the wires to correctly connect the components of
the starting and charging system.

❑ ❑ ❑ 6. Locate the following power train hydraulic oil system components


and service points on the machine: fill tube, filter, suction screen,
torque converter housing, transmission directional control selector
lever, transmission control valve, torque converter inlet relief valve,
cold start relief valve ( if equipped), AWD solenoid valve (if
equipped) and transmission oil cooler.
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Student can not do. Needs more


Student has demonstrated his

Student can perform task but


needs more practice
competence

training

❑ ❑ ❑ 7. Locate the following power train hydraulic oil system components


and service points on the machine for a power shift transmission: fill
tube, filter, suction screen, torque converter housing, transmission
directional control selector lever, relief valve, cold start relief valve,
torque converter inlet relief valve, AWD solenoid valve (if equipped),
transmission oil cooler, solenoid no. 1 - Forward High , solenoid no.
2 - Reverse, solenoid no. 3 - Forward Low, solenoid no. 4 - speed
clutch no. 1, solenoid no. 5 - speed clutch no. 2, and solenoid no. 6 -
speed clutch no. 3.

❑ ❑ ❑ 8. Using the appropriate service manual module, locate the test location
and perform checks on the machine for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressure: pump supply pressure, torque
converter outlet pressure, torque converter inlet pressure, lube
pressure, FORWARD HIGH clutch , REVERSE clutch, FORWARD
LOW clutch, speed clutch no. 1, speed clutch no. 2, speed clutch no.
3, and AWD clutch pressure (if equipped).

❑ ❑ ❑ 9. Using the appropriate service manual module, locate the test location
and perform checks on the machine for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressures: lube pressure, FORWARD clutch
pressure, REVERSE clutch pressure, pump supply pressure, AWD
clutch pressure, and torque converter outlet pressure.

❑ ❑ ❑ 10. On the machine, locate the following: hydraulic tank, hydraulic oil
filter, pump, pump control valve, loader valve group, backhoe valve
group, implement controls, pump supply pressure test port, signal
pressure test port, and torque limiter.

❑ ❑ ❑ 11. Perform performance checks and/or adjust: max system pressure,


low pressure standby, and margin pressure.

❑ ❑ ❑ 12. Perform cycle time checks and signal system checks to identify
resolver or pump control problems per the provided handout.
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Post Course Assessment Only - Student should review the above


objective and place checks in those boxes as appropriate. Student
should then sign his name below.

Student's Signature:

Instructor's Signature:

Date:

Instructor's comments:
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COURSE PLAN/OUTLINE
GET ACQUAINTED

MODULE: MACHINE ORIENTATION


- Objectives
- Lesson: Machine Orientation
- Slide presentation
- Shop Lab
- Machine Orientation Quiz
- Module Summary

MODULE: ENGINE SYSTEMS


- Objectives
- Lesson: Engine Systems
- Slide presentation on engine systems
- Cooling system homework assignment
- Shop lab
- Slide presentation on the fuel system
- Lesson: Engine Systems Tests
- Perform engine tests
- Review cooling system homework assignment
- Module Summary

MODULE: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


- Objectives
- Lesson: Electrical Systems
- Slide presentation on starting and charging system
- Electrical schematic discussion
- Identify electrical components
- Trace electrical schematic
- Lesson: Electrical System Tests
- Starting and charging system components
- Quiz: Electrical System
- Module Summary
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MODULE: POWER TRAIN


- Objectives
- Lesson: Power Train Component Identification
- Slide presentation on power train components
- Identify components on the machine
- Lesson: Control Valve Operation
- Lesson: Power Train System Tests
- Perform diagnostic tests
- Case Study: Power Train
- Quiz: Power Train
- Module Summary

MODULE: AUTOSHIFT AND POWER SHIFT TRANSMISSION


SYSTEMS
- Objectives
- Lesson: Power Shift System Component Identification and
Operation
- Slide presentation on the power shift system
- Identify components
- Operate system
- Lesson: Power Shift System Tests
- Perform diagnostic tests
- Module Summary

MODULE: AXLES AND BRAKES


- Objectives
- Lesson: Axles and Brakes Component Identification
- Slide presentation on the axles and brake system
- Identify axle and brake system components on the machine
- Lesson: Brake System Tests
- Perform diagnostic tests
- Quiz: Axle and Brakes
- Module Summary

MODULE: ENGINE, ELECTRICAL, AND POWER TRAIN


TROUBLESHOOTING
- Objectives
- Lesson: Troubleshooting
- Install "bugs" in the engine, transmission, and electrical system
- Perform appropriate tests
- Repair systems
- Module Summary
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MODULE: STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS
- Objectives
- Lesson: Basic LS/PC Hydraulics
- Slide presentation on LS/PC hydraulics
- Quiz: LS/PC Hydraulics
- Lesson: Implement Hydraulic System Component Identification
- Slide presentation on the hydraulic systems
- Identify hydraulic system components
- Lesson: Hydraulic Pump Component Identification (optional)
- Lesson: Implement Control Valve Component Identification
(optional)
- Lesson: Implement Hydraulic System Tests
- Perform diagnostic tests
- Case Study: Implement Hydraulic System
- Quiz: Implement Hydraulic System
- Module Summary

MODULE: STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS TROUBLESHOOTING
- Objectives
- Lesson: Troubleshooting
- Install "bugs" in the hydraulic system
- Perform appropriate tests
- Repair systems
- Module Summary

MODULE: ALL WHEEL STEERING ELECTRICAL &


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
- Objectives
- Lesson: All Wheel Steer System Component Identification
- Slide presentation on the AWS system
- Identify AWS system components
- Module Summary

COURSE WRAP-UP
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REQUIRED STUDENT STUDENT LITERATURE CHECKLIST


MATERIALS

❑ Description Form No.


Binder SENR2910

Fluid Power Graphic Symbols SEEV0529

Know Your Cooling System SEBD0518

3054 Engine for Cat Built Machines - SOTA SENR5816

3054B Machine Engine - SOTA SENR5010

Lucas Fuel System Supplement SENR6525

❑ D Series
416D Specification Sheet AEHQ5419

420D Specification Sheet AEHQ5420

430D Specification Sheet AEHQ5421

D Series Direct Drive Transmission - Spec/SOTA. RENR3574

Autoshift Transmission - Spec/SOTA RENR3575

Autoshift Transmission Electronic Control RENR2869

D Series Axles, Differentials, and Brakes RENR3577

Hydraulic & Steering System -Systems Operation RENR3583

Hydraulic & Steering System -Test & Adjust RENR3584

420D/430D/432D/442D Hydraulic Schematic RENR3569

416D/424D Hydraulic Schematic RENR3586

D Series Electrical System Schematic RENR3587

BHL Auxiliary Hydraulics Electronic Control RENR3588


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STUDENT REFERENCE Reference Materials



MATERIALS
Optional
Battery Test Procedures SEHS7633
Machine Security System SOTA RENR2462

❑ D Series
424D Backhoe Loader Specifications
428D Backhoe Loader Specifications
438D Backhoe Loader Specifications
432D Backhoe Loader Specifications
442D Backhoe Loader Specifications

416D Hydraulic System Operation RENR3580

416D Hydraulic System T&A RENR3581

428D/438D Hydraulic Schematic RENR3586


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❑ Operation and Maintenance Manuals - at least two copies of the


following O&M Guides should be available until Lube and
Maintenance Charts are made available in order to expedite the
first module.
416D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7398
420D/430D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7399
424D/428D/438D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7400
432D/442D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7401

❑ Service Manuals - the service manuals will provide answers to questions


on disassembly and assembly of components along with additional
specifications.
416C, 426C, 428C, 436C, and 438C Backhoe Loader Service
Manual SENR1200
D Series Service Manual RENR3570
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❑ D Series Parts Manual


416D Backhoe Loader BFP1-Up SEBP3202

416D Backhoe Loader BGJ1-Up SEBP3236

416D Backhoe Loader (G Version) BKG1-Up SEBP3241

420D Backhoe Loader FDP1-Up SEBP3203

420D Backhoe Loader BLN1-Up SEBP3204

420D Backhoe Loader BKC1-Up SEBP3237

420D Backhoe Loader BMC1-Up SEBP3238

430D Backhoe Loader BNK1-Up SEBP3205

430D Backhoe Loader BMC1-Up SEBP3206

424D Backhoe Loader BGP1-Up, BKR1-Up SEBP3207

428D Backhoe Loader BLL1-Up, BNB1-Up SEBP3208

428D Backhoe Loader BMT1-Up, BNS1-Up SEBP3209

438D Backhoe Loader BPE1-Up, BPN1-Up SEBP3211

432D Backhoe Loader BLD1-Up SEBP3210

442D Backhoe Loader BRG1-Up, BRY1-Up SEBP3212


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❑ Video Tapes
"The DPA Pump" - Check with local fuel injection shops

"Introduction to LS/PC Hydraulics Systems" SEVN1804

"Introduction to Variable Displacement Pumps and


Controls in LS/PC Hydraulics" SEVN1837

"Introduction to Pressure Compensated Valves in


LS/PC Hydraulics" SEVN1900

"C-Series Power Shift Transmission" SEVN4241

"Introduction to 416-446 BHLs - LS/PC Hyd." SEVN1988

"All Wheel Steer Backhoe Loader" TEVN3230

❑ Laboratory Requirements
Mechanic's Tool Boxes with hand tools (include metric)

The following machines:


1 - 416D backhoe loader with a standard transmission
1 - 420D/430D backhoe loader with a autoshift transmission
NOTE: Corresponding sideshift machines may also be used.
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❑ Tooling Requirements
2-6V3121 Multitach Group or 9U7400 Multitach II Group or
2 - 1U6602 Hand held Phototachs.
2-1U5481 Pressure Gauge Groups or 2 - 198-4240 Digital
Pressure Indicator Groups
2-1U5482 Pressure Hose and Adapter Groups
2-6V7800 Multimeters, 9U7330 Fluke 87, 212-2126 Multimeter,
or 146-4080 Multimeter
2-8T0900 AC/DC Ammeter or 155-5176 Ammeter
1-127-8078 Battery Tester or 177-2330 Battery Analyzer
8-6V3965 Nipples
8-3J1907 O-rings
2-8T0856 Pressure Gauge (0 to 870 psi)
4-8T0859 Pressure Gauge (0 to 3600 psi)
1-1U5796 Differential Gauge Group or 1 - 198-4240 Digital
Pressure Indicator Group
1-Laptop Computer with ET
1-7X1700 Communications Adapter
1-7X1570 Cable - to machine
1-7X1851 Cable - between adapter and PC
2-Stop Watch
1-Tape Measure
1-6V4142 Nipple
1-8C7575 or 8C7576 adapter
2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools

Should have access to the following to repair wiring


1-6V3000 Sure-seal Connector Kit
1-9U7246 Deutsch Connector Kit
1-1U5804 Crimp Tool (Deutsch connectors)
To check transfer pressure on the Series II or D Series backhoes.
Modify fitting 8T7861. A 6V6560 Seal is also required. About
.100 in of thread length needs to be removed for the fitting to
work. If the threads are not removed the fitting will block fuel
flow in the pump. NOTE: On D Series you will have trouble
shutting the engine off unless you fully restrict the air flow or
crack a fuel line.
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MODULE: MACHINE ORIENTATION


The purpose of this module is to make you aware of some of the changes
from the previous model or models and to make you familiar with some
of the service requirements for the machines. The module is composed
of one lesson which includes a quiz.

OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this module you will be able to:

❑ 1. Using the appropriate specalogs, identify machine features on a quiz


for the engine, electrical system, cab, implement hydraulic system,
axles and brakes, and power train.

NOTE: For the following objectives, use the Operation and


Maintenance Guide as a reference during the lab activities.

❑ 2. Perform a 10 hour/daily machine inspection for a Caterpillar


backhoe loader.

❑ 3. Identify the following Caterpillar backhoe loader controls: Steering


and implement control levers, steering and brake controls, governor
controls, keystart switch, gauges, and accessory switches and
controls.

❑ 4. Locate and read all machine warning labels for operating and
servicing the machine

❑ 5. Demonstrate proper machine starting and stopping procedures for a


Caterpillar backhoe loader.
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Lesson: Machine Orientation

BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the correct machine
INFORMATION maintenance and operation guidelines, plus, machine features and
benefits.

Shop Lab
❑ • View introduction slide presentation

❑ • Perform a 10 hour/daily inspection before starting and or operating the


vehicle using the Machine Walk-around Checklist.

❑ • Identify the following machine controls: Implement control levers,


steering wheel, brake controls, governor controls, keystart switch,
warning indicators, and accessory switches and controls using the
Machine Walk-around Checklist.

❑ • Perform startup and machine shutdown procedures. Operate the


machine (optional) - If feasible, move the vehicle, noting steering &
brake characteristics, transmission shifting, implement control function,
on-the go shifting, etc.

❑ • Operate the implements (optional) - note the operation of the different


functions. Operate two circuits simultaneously.
Operate the "return to dig." If properly adjusted the front bucket edge
should be parallel to the ground. Back drag in FLOAT position.
Notice steering priority. Operate loader lift or bucket circuit then
activate steering. Implements should slow down.

❑ • Remove floor plate and sheet metal (in preparation for later lab
exercises.)

Materials Needed
❑ Specalogs (for the machines used)
Operation and Maintenance Chart (if available)
Machine Walk-around Checklist
Operation and Maintenance Guide (for the machine used)
1-Mechanics Tool Box

Quiz
❑ • Complete "Quiz: Machine Orientation."

Materials Needed
❑ Student Quizzes handout
Specalogs (for the machines used)
5/1/00
BCP BHL

"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADERS


CENTER PIVOT SIDE SHIFT
FEATURE DESCRIPTION 416D 420D 430D 424D 428D 438D 432D 442D

3054 Naturally Aspirated Engine S S


3054 Turbocharged Engine O S S S S S S
12-V Electrical System S S S S S S S S
Standard Transmission S S S S S S S S
Autoshift Transmission (option) O O O O O O
Single Tilt S S S S O
IT Linkage O O S S S S
Ride Control O O O O O O O O
Pump Flow 139 L/min (37 gal/min) S S
- 20 -

Pump Flow 163 L/min (43 gal/min) S S S S S S


Dynamic Bleed Steering S S S S S S S S
Maximum Pressure 20 685 kPa (3000 PSI) S S
Maximum Pressure 22 754 kPa (3300 PSI) S S S S S S
Mechanical Hydraulic Controls - Loader S S S S S S
Mechanical Hydraulic Controls - Backhoe S S S S
Pilot Hydraulic Controls - Loader (IT only) O O O O S S
Pilot Hydraulic Controls - Backhoe S S S S
Auto Up Stabilizers O O O O O O
All Wheel Drive (AWD) O O O O S S S S
All Wheel Steer (option) O O
Machine Security System (option) O O O O O

S = Standard O = Option
Student Materials
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Service Magazine Media Number - SEPD0624-00


Publication Date - 2002/04/08 Date Updated - 2002/04/08

The D-series Backhoe Loader Has Been Updated {1058, 1273, 4203, 7056, 7451}
SMCS - 1058; 1273; 4203; 7056; 7451

Backhoe Loader:
416D (S/N: BFP1-UP)
420D (S/N: BLN1-UP; FDP1-UP)
430D (S/N: BML1-UP; BNK1-UP)

The D-series Backhoe Loader has been updated with new features. The following information
describes the new features that are available. The new features are being installed on current
production machines.
Revised Front Counterweight Group: Refer to Service Magazine, SEPD0601, 22 October 2001, "A
Revised Counterweight Group Is Now in Production". The 120-8482 has been revised. The new front
counterweight group reduces potential damage that is caused by the former 120-8482 Front
Counterweight Group .
Improvement to the Single Tilt Loader Circuit: The single tilt loader circuit has been redesigned.
Improvements to the tilt cylinder and to the hydraulic circuit increase the downward force of the tilt
circuit. This change improves the backdragging operation. The increase in downward force improves
stabilization during backhoe operation. Note: The bucket breakout force and the lifting capacity are
not affected by this improvement.
Open Circuit Oil Breather: The Open Circuit Oil Breather is designed for machines as an air
management system for the engine. This option is capable of separating oil from the blowby gases that
are expelled from the crankcase ventilation valve. The oil that is separated is drained into the oil pan.
This option is useful in environmentally sensitive areas. This option is available as a kit. Refer to Table
1 for availability and serial number effectivity. Refer to Special Instruction, REHS1228, "Field
Installation of the Open Circuit Oil Breather Gp (Engine Kit)" for installation of the Breather Group .
Fuel Tank Group: Refer to Service Magazine, SEPD0613, 21 January 2002, "A New Fuel Tank
Group Improves Serviceability" for a complete description of the fuel tank group. The fuel tank group
was introduced in order to increase serviceability. The filler neck is bolted on top of the tank assembly.
The filler neck is coated in order to increase rust protection. The diameter of the filler neck was
increased to 76.2 mm (3 inch). The fuel cap is made from a nonmetallic material. Also, the fuel cap is
lockable. The fuel tank group improves protection against contamination.
Anti-Drift Valves: Anti-Drift Valves are designed to decrease cylinder drift. Anti-Drift Valves are
installed on the following hydraulic circuits: boom cylinder, stick cylinder and extendable stick. The
valves decrease cylinder drift during overnight storage. Also, the valves decrease drift when material is
being lifted or material is being placed.
21L x 24 Rear Tires: The 21L x 24 rear tire is now available for the D-series machine. This option
provides a larger tire for applications that require low ground pressure.
BCP BHL - 22 - Student Materials
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Rotating Vandal Cover: The new rotating vandal cover rotates to a closed position in order to
completely protect the gauges and panel switches. The cover is lockable in the closed position. The
new rotating vandal cover provides better security for the gauge panel. Also, the rotating vandal cover
provides better visibility over the side console.
The Parts Manual is Shipped as a CD-ROM: The Parts Manual is shipped as a CD-ROM for each
machine. The 0P-0423 option can be included in the machine order system in order to obtain a paper
copy of the Parts Manual in addition to the CD-ROM.
Hydraulic Cylinders: The elbows for the cylinder ports and the connector assemblies have been
combined into one part number. The hydraulic lines can be attached directly to the rod end of the
cylinder.
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Machine Walk-around Checklist


Directions: Use this sheet when performing the machine orientation lab exercise.
Place a check in the blank if the fluid level is acceptable.
D D Model
Engine oil level
Transmission oil level
Hydraulic system oil level
Brake system oil level
Cooling system fluid level
Fuel level

Place a check in the blank if acceptable or after task was performed.


Drain water separator
Check seat belt
Check air filter indicator

Place a check in the blank if the indicator, switch or control is working correctly.
Keystart switch
Turn signal
Tachometer
Engine coolant gauge
Power train/converter oil temperature gauge
Fuel level gauge
Parking brake light
Turn signal
Horn
Running lights
Front work lights
Rear work lights
Windshield wipers
Heating and air conditioner controls
Service hour meter
Backup alarm
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Machine Walk-around Checklist - continued


Place a check in the blank after locating and reading the following warnings label on the machine.
D D Model
Before operating
Use of ether
Boom/swing area
Loader arm brace
ROPS
Use of Jumpers

Place a check in the blank after locating each of the following controls
Front governor pedal
Steering wheel
Directional shifter
Speed selector or shifter
Directional or transmission neutral lock
Transmission neutralizer switches (both)
All wheel drive (AWD) switch (if equipped)
Transmission Auto/Manual switch (autoshift only)
Differential lock pedal (if equipped)
Brake pedals
Parking brake lever (and release for C)
Loader lift and tilt controls
Attachment lever (mechanical controls)
Attachment switch for IT machine
Rear governor lever
Stabilizer controls
Boom lock lever
Boom lever
Swing lever or pedals
Stick lever
Bucket lever
E-stick/attachment control
NA Pattern changer lever (if equipped)
NA Pilot shutoff/hydraulic lock switch (if equipped)
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MODULE: ENGINE SYSTEMS


The purpose of this module is to have you locate and identify engine
components. You will also perform various systems tests for the engine.
This module is composed of two lessons.

OBJECTIVES
❑ 1. Using the handout provided and the related service manual modules
locate the following components on a backhoe loader: fuel filter,
governor, fuel shutdown solenoid, priming (lift) pump, water
separator, oil filter, engine oil dipstick, engine oil pressure test port,
engine oil cooler (turbo models only), primary air filter, secondary
air filter, turbocharger (if equipped), air filter indicator, radiator,
water pump, Cold start advance solenoid, low idle adjustment screw,
high idle adjustment screw, and temperature regulator housing.

❑ 2. Using the handout provided and the related service materials,


identify and record the engine tests specifications for engine high
idle, low idle, torque converter stall and engine oil pressure.

❑ 3. Using the handout provided and the related service manual modules,
perform engine tests for engine high idle, low idle, torque converter
stall and engine oil pressure.

❑ 4. (Optional) Using the handout provided and the related service


manual modules, perform engine tests additional checks may include
fuel injector testing, fuel bleed procedures, injection pump timing,
cooling system tests, valve lash adjustment, cylinder compression,
fuel transfer pressure, waste gate test, and engine boost (turbo
models).

❑ 5. As a homework assignment, read "Know Your Cooling System"


(form SEBD0518) and the O&M Manual on the cooling system.
Answer questions on the Cooling System worksheet. The answers
will be reviewed.

❑ 6. Identify at least 10 different engine components by matching the


component to its function in a quiz.
BCP BHL - 26 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Engine Systems


BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to become familiar with identifying engine
INFORMATION system components.

This lesson allows you to become familiar with identifying system


components

Classroom Lab ❑ • Watch a slide presentation on the engine. If available, watch a video on
"The DPA Pump."

• While watching the slide presentation label the Fuel Pump and
Governor Component Checklists I and II.

Shop Lab
❑ • Use the Engine Systems Checklist to locate the engine components on
the machine. Put a check in the blank next to each engine component
located.

Classroom Lab ❑ • For homework, read "Know Your Cooling System" and refer to the
O&M Manual to complete the Cooling System Review Worksheet.
Suggested reference article:
SM 1/22/96 - SMCS 1395 " Mixing Caterpillar Long Life Coolant
with Conventional Cat Diesel Engine Antifreeze and/or Other
Commercially Available Antifreeze is Not Recommended"
NOTE: The instructor will identify key tests to be used when identifying
cooling system problems, discuss the need for coolant conditioners
and the correct water to antifreeze mix.

Materials Needed ❑ The DPA Pump - Video


Backhoe Loader Engine Systems Checklist
Fuel Pump and Governor Component Checklist
Cooling System Review Worksheet
Related service manual modules
1-Mechanics Tool Box
BCP BHL - 27 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Engine Checklist


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation. During the engine lab, use this sheet
as a checklist when identifying components.

D Model
Fuel filter
Fuel injection pump
Fuel Shutdown Solenoid
Priming (lift) pump )
Primary air filter
Secondary air filter
Oil filter
Water separator w/ fuel filter
Engine oil dipstick
Engine oil pressure test port
Engine oil cooler (turbocharged models only)
Turbocharger (if equipped)
Air filter indicator
Thermal starting aid / Start aid coil
Cold start advance solenoid
Radiator
Water pump
Temperature regulator housing
High idle adjustment screw
Low idle adjustment screw
Engine oil pressure test port
Plug for checking engine boost
Plugs for checking coolant temperatures
5/1/00

FUEL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


ENGINE RUNNING
BCP BHL

BOOST TRANSFER
WATER MAIN
PRESSURE PRESSURE
FUEL TANK SEPARATOR FILTER
REGULATOR

BOOST FEED
CONTROLLER PUMP

SHUTOFF
SOLENOID
INJECTOR
FUEL RETURN
TORQUE
CHECK VALVE VENT ORIFICE
TRIMMER
DELIVERY
VALVE

ROTOR
CAM
RING
ROLLERS TRANSFER
- 28 -

PUMP
METERING
VALVE
PLUNGERS

SHOES
FLAT
AUTOMATIC HYDRAULIC
SCROLL PLATES
ADVANCE HEAD
MECHANISM COLD ADVANCE
DEVICE

ORIFICE
CHECK VALVE
LIGHT LOAD
LATCH
ADVANCE VALVE
VALVE
Student Materials
5/1/00

FUEL INJECTION PUMP


BCP BHL

LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE THROTTLE LEVER


STOP STOP
GOVERNOR METERING VALVE
SPRING
FUEL SHUTOFF
SOLENOID
VENT ORIFICE
FUEL INLET

FUEL RETURN TRANSFER


CHECK VALVE PRESSURE
REGULATOR

SCROLL LINK
- 29 -

PLATE SCREEN

TRANSFER
DRIVE PUMP
SHAFT

SHIFTER AND
SLEEVE PLUNGERS

TO INJECTOR
GOVERNOR
FLYWEIGHTS SHOES

SCROLL PLATES
ROLLERS CAM RING AUTOMATIC ADVANCE ORIFICE
MECHANISM CHECK VALVE
Student Materials
BCP BHL - 30 - Student Materials
8/02/02

COOLING SYSTEM REVIEW WORKSHEET


Directions: The following are true or false. Enter T for true and F for false. If false, circle the word
or words that make the statement false and replace with a word or words that make the statement
correct.

1. When the engine is cold, the temperature regulator directs the flow of coolant to the
radiator and prevents the flow of coolant back to the water pump.

2. An increase in cooling system pressure will lower the boiling point of the coolant.

3. Rate of heat transfer is measured by the specific heat properties of a given liquid.

4. Water with a high chloride concentration is best for cooling system usage.

5. Coolant conditioner is not necessary in cooling systems that use distilled water.

6. A 40% concentration of antifreeze in water will protect the cooling system to


approximately -40o Fahrenheit.

7. When filling the cooling system, never fill faster than 5 gallons per minute.

8. An engine should never be operated with the temperature regulators removed.

9. When measuring the temperatures in the cooling system, the temperature in the radiator top
tank should be below the coolant boiling point.

10. The temperature of the water pump outlet must be approximately 8o to 20oF above the
temperature in the radiator top tank.

11. The most common cause of engine overcooling is temperature regulators stuck closed.

12. High sulfur fuel will cause increased engine wear during overcooling when the operating
temperature is below 175oF

13. Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) or a commercial ELC that meets the Caterpillar
specification (EC-1) is the preferred antifreeze to use in Cat engines.

14. Commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification is
acceptable for use in Caterpillar engines.

15. The service life for the Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) is for 5000 hours.

16. Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) does not require a frequent addition of a
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SLC) only an extender needs to be added at 3000 hours or
every two years.

17. The effectiveness of the Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC) is reduced is it is mixed
with other types of antifreeze such as Caterpillar (DEAC).
BCP BHL - 31 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Engine System Tests


BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to become familiar with typical engine system
INFORMATION tests

Shop Lab ❑ • Perform engine tests for engine high idle, low idle, torque converter
stall, and engine oil pressure. Enter specifications on the worksheet in
the classroom before performing the tests.

❑ • Perform optional checks as required by the instructor: fuel injector


testing, fuel bleed procedures, injection pump timing, cooling system
tests, valve lash adjustment, cylinder compression, and engine boost
(turbo models).
Suggested reference articles:
Fuel System Pressure - Test 3054 Engine for Caterpillar Built
Machines Media Number - SENR5816-07 Date Updated -
2002/03/21 SMCS - 1250-081; 1256-081" Pressure Test For The
Fuel Transfer Pump"
TIB Engine Data For D-Series Backhoe Loaders Media Number -
TIBU3587-00 - 2002/04/25 "Engine Data For D-Series Backhoe
Loaders". Problem: The engine specifications for D-series Backhoe
Loaders are not provided in Service Manual RENR3574.
TIB 3/20/96 - SMCS 1050 "Inlet Manifold Pressure for
Turbocharged 3054 Engines in Backhoe Loader Applications"

Materials Needed ❑ 3054 Engine In Chassis Test Sheet


Related service manual modules
Related engine specifications
1-6V3121 Multitach Group or 9U7400 Multitach II Group
1-1U5481 Pressure Gauge Group or 1 - 198-4240 Digital
Pressure Indicator Group
1-1U5482 Pressure Hose and Adapter Group
1-4C8054 - Fitting to check fuel transfer pressure.
1-6V4142 Nipple
1-8C7575 or 8C7576 adapter
1-Mechanics Tool Box

(Optional)
1-5P0957 Coolant and Battery Tester
1-4C6500 Digital Thermometer group
BCP BHL - 32 - Student Materials
5/1/00

1-8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Group


To check transfer pressure on the Series II or D Series backhoes.
Modify fitting 8T7861. A 6V6560 Seal is also required. About
.100 in of thread length needs to be removed for the fitting to
work. If the threads are not removed the fitting will block fuel
flow in the pump. NOTE: On D Series you will have trouble
shutting the engine off unless you fully restrict the air flow or
crack a fuel line.
BCP BHL - 33 - Student Materials
8/02/02

3054 Engine In Chassis Test Sheet


Machine Model Dealer
Name/Code Customer
Machine PIN (S/N) Job
Transmission S/N Application
Engine S/N Date
S.M.H. Serviceman

VISUAL CHECKS: Fuel Level Engine Oil level


Coolant level Power Train Oil level
Oil/Coolant/Fuel Leaks Air Filters and Precleaner Inspection

TEST SPECS ACTUAL COMMENTS


Engine rpm: High Idle
Low Idle

Torque Converter Stall Check - Full throttle with brakes


applied, and transmission engaged in:
Fourth Speed - Forward
Fourth Speed - Reverse
Inlet Manifold Pressure @ TC Stall RPM (reference only)
Fuel Transfer Pressure (High Idle)
Engine RPM at Torque Converter Stall [with temperature
regulator (thermostat) fully opened]
Radiator Top Tank Temperature ºC (ºF)
[Should be less than 43 ºC (110°F) over ambient]

Water Pump Inlet Temperature - ºC (ºF)


[Should be 4.5ºC to 11ºC (8°F to 20°F) less than Top Tank Temperature]

Engine Oil Pressure at: max rpm


Idle

ADD. CHECKS: Fuel Type Engine Oil Type


Antifreeze Protection Temp Coolant Conditioner %
Battery Voltage Alternator Output Voltage
Starter Cold Cranking Amps

Note: Remove the engine oil pressure switch and install a pipe thread 8C7575 or 8C7576 adapter and
6V4142 test nipple to check engine oil pressure on B and C backhoes
On D backhoes, use the pre-installed pressure tap.
Use 4C8054 fitting to check fuel transfer pressure on the B & C backhoes
BCP BHL - 34 - Student Materials
8/02/02

3054 Engine In Chassis Test Sheet


Machine Model Dealer
Name/Code Customer
Machine PIN (S/N) Job
Transmission S/N Application
Engine S/N Date
S.M.H. Serviceman

VISUAL CHECKS: Fuel Level Engine Oil level


Coolant level Power Train Oil level
Oil/Coolant/Fuel Leaks Air Filters and Precleaner Inspection

TEST SPECS ACTUAL COMMENTS


Engine rpm: High Idle
Low Idle

Torque Converter Stall Check - Full throttle with brakes


applied, and transmission engaged in:
Fourth Speed - Forward
Fourth Speed - Reverse
Inlet Manifold Pressure @ TC Stall RPM (reference only)
Fuel Transfer Pressure (High Idle)
Engine RPM at Torque Converter Stall [with temperature
regulator (thermostat) fully opened]
Radiator Top Tank Temperature ºC (ºF)
[Should be less than 43 ºC (110°F) over ambient]

Water Pump Inlet Temperature - ºC (ºF)


[Should be 4.5ºC to 11ºC (8°F to 20°F) less than Top Tank Temperature]

Engine Oil Pressure at: max rpm


Idle

ADD. CHECKS: Fuel Type Engine Oil Type


Antifreeze Protection Temp Coolant Conditioner %
Battery Voltage Alternator Output Voltage
Starter Cold Cranking Amps

Note: Remove the engine oil pressure switch and install a pipe thread 8C7575 or 8C7576 adapter and
6V4142 test nipple to check engine oil pressure on B and C backhoes
On D backhoes, use the pre-installed pressure tap.
Use 4C8054 fitting to check fuel transfer pressure on the B & C backhoes
BCP BHL - 35 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


The purpose of this module is to make the student locate and identify
electrical system components. Students will also learn how to use the
electrical system schematic to locate components and to trace the starting
and charging circuit. Systems tests for the electrical system will also be
performed by each student. The module is composed of two labs with a
review quiz.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. Use the electrical schematic and the provided handout to locate (on
the schematic and on the machine) and determine the part number of
the following electrical components: starter motor, alternator,
battery, fuse holder (use main fuse panel or keystart fuse), engine oil
pressure switch, coolant temperature switch, coolant temperature
sender, power train oil temperature sender (converter), fuel level
sender, engine shutdown solenoid, key start switch, start relay, start
aid switch, start aid coil

❑ 2. Using the provided service literature perform tests for the battery,
alternator, and starter on the machine using a voltmeter and clamp on
ammeter.

❑ 3. Using the electrical schematic and the provided handout. Draw and
numerically code the wires to correctly connect the components of
the starting and charging system.

❑ 4. Using the electrical schematic, complete a quiz related to


information found on the schematic and the shop labs.

❑ 5. (Optional) Using the provided service literature, demonstrate the


function of the engine shutdown solenoid and start aid switch.
BCP BHL - 36 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Electrical System

BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to become familiar with locating electrical system
INFORMATION components on the machine and in using the machine electrical
schematic.

Classroom Lab
❑ • View a slide presentation on the starting and charging system.

❑ • Use the electrical schematic and to locate and identify the listed
electrical components on the Electrical System Checklist. Record the
schematic coordinates, part number and machine location in the
provided blanks.
NOTE: The instructor will discuss how to use the electrical schematic
for troubleshooting (color coding, switch specification chart), and how
to locate components on the machine.

Shop Lab
❑ • Use the checklist to locate the engine and electrical components on the
machine. Put a check in the blank next to each engine component
located or circle the electrical component location letters recorded
previously.

Classroom Lab
❑ • Use the provided electrical schematic and the Starting and Charging
System Worksheet. Draw and numerically code the wires to correctly
connect the components of the starting and charging system.
NOTE: Depending on which electrical schematic is used, a resistor may
have to be added to the schematic and the alternator ground
modified.

Materials Needed
❑ D Series Electrical System Checklist
D Series Starting and Charging System Sheet
D Series Machine electrical schematic
1-Mechanics Tool Box
BCP BHL - 37 - Student Materials
5/1/00

"D" Series - Electrical System Checklist


Directions: During a lab exercise, use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components on the
machine and for recording information from the electrical schematic.

Machine Schematic
Location Part No. Location Parts Manual Description Schematic Description

Starter motor

Alternator

Battery

Keystart fuse

Engine oil pressure switch

Power train oil temperature


sender (converter)

Fuel level sender

Engine shutdown solenoid

Key start switch

Start relay

Start aid switch

Thermal starting aid coil

Cold start advance solenoid

Auto/Manual switch (if


equipped)

Autoshift control (if equipped -


ECM)

Ride control relay (if equipped)

Backhoe shutoff switch (if


equipped)
D Series Starting and Charging System Worksheet
5/1/00

Directions: Use the machine electrical schematic to complete this schematic. Label all wires.
BCP BHL

G S

ACTION LAMP
MTR BAT GROUP
101-RD

MOTOR
STARTER 309-GY
1 2 3
L IG P TACH.
CBL RD-00

B+
ATTACHMENT ALT ALTERNATOR
RELAY POS NEG POS NEG
COLD START
TEMP SW.
TO FUSES A
C COLD START
°T ADVANCE
SOLENOID
TO RR LIGHTING RELAY

TO HVAC RELAY FUEL


1 A
2 B SHUTDOWN
CAB SOLENOID
A
RELAY C
- 38 -

TO FUSES

FUSE RELAY BLOCK 2

BATTERY 1
GROUND 2 202-BK
FORWARD SOL. RETURN 3
REVERSE SOL. RETURN 4 SHUTTLE START
TO FUSES FORWARD SOL. OUT 5
15 A CONTROL AID SW.
REVERSE SOL. OUT 6
THERMAL START START RELAY COIL. OUT 7 THERMAL
10A AID KEY START SW. TO BAT. 8 STARTING
MAIN
TRANSMISSION NEUTRALIZER SW. TO BAT 9
RELAY PARK BRAKE ALARM OUT 10
AID
A PARK BRAKE SW. TO GND . 11
10A
C NEUTRAL LOCK SW. TO GND 12
ENGINE FUEL R

1
START RELAY C OFF
2
S ON
20A 3 ST
START B
4
RELAY
A
KEY START
TO FUSES
C SWITCH
TO FRONT
KEY START LIGHTING
5A RELAY
Student Materials

FUSE RELAY BLOCK 1


BCP BHL - 39 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Electrical System Tests

BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to become familiar with typical on the machine
INFORMATION electrical system tests using a voltmeter and ammeter.

Shop Lab
❑ • Perform the following electrical system test on the machine using a
voltmeter, clamp on ammeter, and battery analyzer:
batteries
alternator
starter

Refer to service magazine articles below which are in the 12-V and 24V
Electrical Systems handout for procedures.
a) Batteries - SM 6/20/88
b) Alternator - SM 5/4/87
c) Starter - SM 5/28/90

❑ • Demonstrate the function of the engine shutdown solenoid.

❑ • Perform start aid tests.

❑ • Perform optional checks as required by the instructor (i.e. - key start


switch, bucket kickouts). List the optional tests performed below:
- Key Start Switch - Service Magazine 3/27/89.
- Main Relay - Service Magazine 10/27/86 & 8/29/88.
- Identify all relays behind side console on machines

Materials Needed
❑ 12-V and 24-V Electrical Systems - Student Reference Materials
Electrical System Tests Worksheet
1-6V7800 Multimeters or 9U7330 Fluke 87
1-8T0900 AC/DC Clamp- on Ammeter
1-127-8078 Battery Tester or 177-2330 Battery Analyzer
1-Mechanics Tool Box

Optional
1-6V3000 Sure-seal Connector Kit
1-9U7246 Deutsch Connector Kit
1-1U5804 Crimp Tool (Deutsch connectors)
BCP BHL - 40 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Electrical System Tests Worksheet

I. Battery Test: Reference - Batteries - SM 6/20/88

Voltage

II. Starter Tests: Reference - Starter - SM 5/28/90

Test A. Check battery voltage at the battery posts while cranking, or attempting to crank.
NOTE: Use the posts representing 12 or 24 Volts. Do not Chart A-Typical System Voltage During
check voltage on the cable post clamps. Cranking Versus Ambient Temperature
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than what is shown in -23°C To-7°C -7°C To 10°C 10°C To 27°C
Chart A? Temp. (-10°F To 20°F) (20°F to 50°F) (50°F To 80°F)
24 Volt 12V to 16V 14V to 18V 16V to 20V
Record Voltage ___________
System
. . . Yes - Go to Test B. 12 Volt 6V to 8V 7V to 9V 8V to 10V
System

Test B. Measure starter motor voltage from TP4 to TP5 while cranking, or attempting to crank.
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than that shown in Chart
A? Chart B-Maximum Allowable System
Voltage Drops During Cranking
Record Voltage ___________
Absolute Maximum
. . . Yes - Batteries and starter cables down to motor are Voltage Reading
electrically within specifications. Go to Test C. Circuit 24V 12V
Batt. Pos. Post to Starter 0.5V 0.3V
. . . No - Voltage drop (loss) between batteries and starter
Pos. Post (TP10 to TP6)
is too great. Go to next step.
Batt. Neg. Post to Starter 1.4V 0.7V
NOTE: For this exercise, assume your answer is "NO" Neg. Post (TP7 to TP5)
and then perform the next step. Enter results in CHART Drop Across Only 1.0V .5V
B. Disconnect Switch
(TP8 to TP9)
2. Measure voltage drops in cranking circuit per Chart B. Start Relay Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
Are all voltages within specifications? (TP3 to TP6)
. . . Yes - Check engine. Go to Test C. Solenoid Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
(TP6 to TP4)
. . . No - Repair and/or replace faulty electrical
component .

III. Alternator Tests: Reference - Alternator - SM 5/4/87

Initial Amperage (step 4.)

Voltage (step 5)

Amperage (step 6)
BCP BHL - 41 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Electrical System Tests Worksheet

I. Battery Test: Reference - Batteries - SM 6/20/88

Voltage

II. Starter Tests: Reference - Starter - SM 5/28/90

Test A. Check battery voltage at the battery posts while cranking, or attempting to crank.
NOTE: Use the posts representing 12 or 24 Volts. Do not Chart A-Typical System Voltage During
check voltage on the cable post clamps. Cranking Versus Ambient Temperature
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than what is shown in -23°C To-7°C -7°C To 10°C 10°C To 27°C
Chart A? Temp. (-10°F To 20°F) (20°F to 50°F) (50°F To 80°F)
24 Volt 12V to 16V 14V to 18V 16V to 20V
Record Voltage ___________
System
. . . Yes - Go to Test B. 12 Volt 6V to 8V 7V to 9V 8V to 10V
System

Test B. Measure starter motor voltage from TP4 to TP5 while cranking, or attempting to crank.
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than that shown in Chart
A? Chart B-Maximum Allowable System
Voltage Drops During Cranking
Record Voltage ___________
Absolute Maximum
. . . Yes - Batteries and starter cables down to motor are Voltage Reading
electrically within specifications. Go to Test C. Circuit 24V 12V
Batt. Pos. Post to Starter 0.5V 0.3V
. . . No - Voltage drop (loss) between batteries and starter
Pos. Post (TP10 to TP6)
is too great. Go to next step.
Batt. Neg. Post to Starter 1.4V 0.7V
NOTE: For this exercise, assume your answer is "NO" Neg. Post (TP7 to TP5)
and then perform the next step. Enter results in CHART Drop Across Only 1.0V .5V
B. Disconnect Switch
(TP8 to TP9)
2. Measure voltage drops in cranking circuit per Chart B. Start Relay Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
Are all voltages within specifications? (TP3 to TP6)
. . . Yes - Check engine. Go to Test C. Solenoid Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
(TP6 to TP4)
. . . No - Repair and/or replace faulty electrical
component .

III. Alternator Tests: Reference - Alternator - SM 5/4/87

Initial Amperage (step 4.)

Voltage (step 5)

Amperage (step 6)
BCP BHL - 42 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: POWER TRAIN


The purpose of this module is to have you locate and identify power train
system components. You will also learn how the transmission control
valve works and explain the function of their components. System tests
for the power train will also be performed by you. The module is
composed of four lessons, a case study and a quiz. One of the lessons is
optional.

OBJECTIVES
❑ 1. On a schematic for the D Series machines, identify the following
power train hydraulic oil system components: filter, suction screen,
torque converter, transmission pump, main relief valve, AWD
solenoid valve, cold start relief valve, torque converter inlet relief
valve, transmission control valve, and transmission oil cooler.
Also, identify related pressure test ports: lube pressure, FORWARD
clutch pressure, REVERSE clutch pressure, pump supply pressure,
AWD clutch pressure, and torque converter outlet pressure.

❑ 2. On a schematic used in a quiz, identify the location, functions, and


relationships of test ports for pump supply pressure, clutch pressures,
torque converter inlet pressure, torque converter outlet pressure, and
lube pressure.

❑ 3. Locate the following power train hydraulic oil system components


and service points on the machine: fill tube, filter, suction screen,
torque converter housing, transmission directional control selector
lever, transmission control valve, torque converter inlet relief valve,
cold start relief valve ( if equipped), AWD solenoid valve (if
equipped) and transmission oil cooler and bypass valve.

❑ 4. Using the appropriate service materials, identify and record on the


provided test sheet the specifications for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressures: lube pressure, FORWARD clutch
pressure, REVERSE clutch pressure, pump supply pressure, AWD
clutch pressure, and torque converter outlet pressure.

❑ 5. Using the appropriate service manual module, locate the test location
and perform checks on the machine for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressures: lube pressure, FORWARD clutch
pressure, REVERSE clutch pressure, pump supply pressure, AWD
clutch pressure, and torque converter outlet pressure.
BCP BHL - 43 - Student Materials
8/02/02

❑ 6. On a quiz identify the function of the following transmission control


valve components.

❑ 7. Using provided reference materials and handouts identify potential


system problems caused by malfunctioning components during a
classroom lab exercise. Record your results.
BCP BHL - 44 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Power Train Hydraulic Component Identification


BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the machine and locate
INFORMATION components and service points.
NOTE: Before operating the machine, a 10 hour or daily inspection should
have been completed which includes checking fluid levels as
specified in the Operation and Maintenance Guide.

Classroom Lab ❑ • View a slide presentation on power train components

❑ • On the provided checklist, identify the following power train hydraulic


oil system components: filter, suction screen, torque converter,
transmission pump, main relief valve, AWD solenoid valve (if
equipped), cold start relief valve, torque converter inlet relief valve,
transmission control valve, and transmission oil cooler and bypass
valve.
Shop Lab
❑ • Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

❑ • Locate power train oil system components listed on Power Train


Components Checklist Record a check after locating each component.
With Component Checklist I record the correct letter.

❑ • Identify the pressure test locations: lube pressure, FORWARD clutch


pressure, REVERSE clutch pressure, AWD clutch pressure, pump
supply pressure, and torque converter outlet pressure. Record a check
after locating each test location

Materials Needed
❑ Operation and Maintenance Guide
Service Manual
Parts Book
Standard Power Train Component Checklists
D Series Power Train Component Checklists I & II
Mechanic's Tool Box and hand tools
BCP BHL - 45 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Standard Power Train Component Checklist


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions). During a lab,
use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components and pressure test locations.

D Model

Fill tube

Filter

Suction screen

Torque converter housing

Transmission directional control selector lever

Speed selector

Relief valve

Cold start relief valve

Torque converter inlet relief valve

Transmission control valve (if equipped)

Clutch solenoids for autoshift (if equipped)

AWD solenoid valve (if equipped)

Transmission oil cooler bypass valve

Transmission oil cooler

Test Locations:
Lube pressure

FORWARD clutch pressure

REVERSE clutch pressure

Pump supply pressure

Torque converter outlet pressure

Torque converter inlet pressure

AWD clutch pressure (if equipped)


BCP BHL - 46 - Student Materials
8/02/02

D Series Power Train Component Checklist I


Directions: During a lab, use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components and pressure test
locations.
B

E C

F
D
J

H
G

Identify Components and Test Ports

Filter
Main Relief Valve
Cold Start Relief Valve (C-Series Only)
Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve
Transmission Control Valve
AWD Solenoid

Pump Supply Pressure Port


Forward Clutch Pressure Port
Reverse Clutch Pressure Port
Torque Converter Inlet Pressure Port
Torque Converter Outlet Pressure Port
Power Train Component Checklist II
8/02/02

Directions: Fill in the blanks next to the numbers and


BCP BHL

letters with the correct term.

Identify Components
A R
B
C 5
D
E C 6
F E
F
G F
H D
- 47 -

I
7
AWD
2
1
Identify Test Ports G H
1 A TRANSMISSION
B LUBE
3
2
4 I
3
4
5
6
Student Materials

7
BCP BHL - 48 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Power Train System Tests


This lesson will allow you gain familiarity performing system checks,
BACKGROUND
using the Service Manual, and determining if the machine is operating to
INFORMATION
specifications.
NOTE: Before operating the machine, a 10 hour or daily inspection should
have been completed which includes checking fluid levels as
specified in the Operation and Maintenance Guide.

Shop Lab
❑ • Record pressure specifications from the service manual before going to
the shop.

❑ • Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

❑ • Perform a torque converter stall test with the transmission in THIRD


gear and at high idle. (See the Torque Converter Stall Test Sheet.)

- Test should also be done for REVERSE.

❑ • Perform pressure checks for both directional clutches.

- Test at high and low idle, brakes on, directional shift lever in
NEUTRAL.

❑ • Check torque outlet pressure and lube pressure. Optional: Check AWD
clutch pressure

Materials Needed
❑ Power Train Testing and Adjusting Service Manual Module
Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheets
Torque Converter Stall Test Handout
1-1U5481 Pressure Test Gauge Group or 1 - 198-4240 Digital
Pressure Indicator Group
1-1U5482 Hose and Fitting Group
5-6V3965 Nipples
5-3J1907 O-rings
1-6V3121 Multi-tach Group or 9U7400 Multitach Group
2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 49 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheet


Machine Model _______________________ Dealer __________________________________
Name/Code ________________________ Customer _______________________________
Mach. S/N (PIN) _____________________ Job ____________________________________
Trans. S/N _________________________ Application ______________________________
Engine S/N _________________________ Date ___________________________________
S.M.U. ______________________________ Serviceman ______________________________

VISUAL CHECKS

Oil Level _______ Suction Screen _______


Oil Type _______ Oil Filter _______
Oil Leaks _______ Abrasives in Oil _______
Air/H2O in Oil _______ Debris in Pan _______

PRESSURE TESTS

PARKING BRAKE - ON

SHIFT PRESSURES
PRESSURE TEST LEVER LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Supply N XXXX
Forward Clutch F
Reverse Clutch R
Lube N
T. C. Inlet N XXXX
T. C. Outlet (T.C. Stall) 4th/Fwd XXXX XXXX
AWD Clutch Pressure N

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

NOTE: Depending on which service publication is used, specifications may not always be provided
for both speed ranges.

When testing the transmission pressures, use the stabilizers to raise the rear wheels off the ground. As
the machine attempts to drive through the brakes, the machine will not move.
BCP BHL - 50 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheet


Machine Model _______________________ Dealer __________________________________
Name/Code ________________________ Customer _______________________________
Mach. S/N (PIN) _____________________ Job ____________________________________
Trans. S/N _________________________ Application ______________________________
Engine S/N _________________________ Date ___________________________________
S.M.U. ______________________________ Serviceman ______________________________

VISUAL CHECKS

Oil Level _______ Suction Screen _______


Oil Type _______ Oil Filter _______
Oil Leaks _______ Abrasives in Oil _______
Air/H2O in Oil _______ Debris in Pan _______

PRESSURE TESTS

PARKING BRAKE - ON

SHIFT PRESSURES
PRESSURE TEST LEVER LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Supply N XXXX
Forward Clutch F
Reverse Clutch R
Lube N
T. C. Inlet N XXXX
T. C. Outlet (T.C. Stall) 4th/Fwd XXXX XXXX
AWD Clutch Pressure N

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

NOTE: Depending on which service publication is used, specifications may not always be provided
for both speed ranges.

When testing the transmission pressures, use the stabilizers to raise the rear wheels off the ground. As
the machine attempts to drive through the brakes, the machine will not move.
BCP BHL - 51 - Student Materials
8/02/02

TORQUE CONVERTER STALL CHECK HANDOUT


The following information describes the steps in performing a Torque
Converter Stall Speed check and provides additional troubleshooting
information. Torque Converter Stall Speed is a check to help determine
poor engine, torque converter, or transmission performance.
NOTE: Before performing a Torque Converter Stall test move the
machine to an open area and make sure the brakes are operating properly.
Torque Converter Stall Check
• Connect a multi-tach to the engine.
• Warm up machine to normal operating temperatures.
• Run at high idle.
Note the high idle rpm. If the high idle rpm differs significantly from
the high idle specification, then an engine problem may exist.
• Apply the brakes.
• Shift the transmission into FORWARD and a high speed range. The
multitach will show the converter stall speed.
If full load rpm is within specification and the torque converter stall
speed is high, the torque converter is probably slipping.
Stall in the other direction and a different speed range before
assuming the torque converter is at fault.
If all the engine checks are within specifications and the converter
stall speed is low when compared to full load rpm, overheating will
probably occur and the components of the torque converter are
rubbing. The temperature of the torque converter oil must be
observed and not allowed to overheat.
• Shift the transmission to FORWARD and a speed starting with the
higher speed ranges and moving to the lower speed ranges.
• Run the engine at full throttle.
• Apply the brakes to stop the power train shaft and gear rotation. Note
the engine speed for each speed range. Do the same for REVERSE.
The torque converter stall speed should be within specifications for
each speed and direction combination selected.
BCP BHL - 52 - Student Materials
8/02/02

If the converter stall speed is within specification for some speed and
direction combinations and not for others, the transmission clutch is
slipping. For the combinations out of specification, the torque
converter stall speeds will be high. On some machines, clutch
slippage can be easily identified by noting if the drive wheels or tracks
are stationary and the universal joint or coupling is rotating while in
torque converter stall.
If all the torque converter stall readings are out of specification, then
the torque converter or engine is probably at fault.
Engine Check
• Check full load rpm.
NOTE: On some engines, set point cannot be checked. As a "rule of
thumb," finding engine rpm where maximum boost occurs can also
determine full load rpm and if the governor is working correctly. The
rule may not be applicable for all engines.
If the full load rpm is not correct, adjusting high idle may bring the
full load rpm back within specifications. Adjustments to the high idle
must be within the high idle specification tolerance range.
If, after adjusting high idle, full load rpm is not within specifications
the engine rack or fuel setting may be misadjusted.
If the high idle is too high and the rack or fuel setting is correct, a
torque converter problem might exist or the governor spring is suspect
causing an increase in the percentage of speed droop.
If high idle is low, poor engine performance may be indicated.
Also, check the governor control linkage for correct adjustment.

Knowing what set point is or where maximum boost occurs along


with high idle rpm will indicate if the engine is performing within
specifications. If any of these checks are below specification, the
problem may be insufficient power from the engine.

NOTE: Factory fuel or fuel used in colder climates is diluted with


kerosene. These fuels will not produce as many BTU's, so stall
readings will be lower.
On some engines, specifications for set point or boost may not be
available. The only easy checks of engine performance then are high
and low idle.
BCP BHL - 53 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power Train Case Study

DIRECTIONS Students should use the service manual and class notes to complete the
exercise. Have the students answer the questions on the Power Train
Troubleshooting Worksheets. Discuss the exercise with the students after
they have had time to answer the exercise questions.

SITUATION The following exercise is based on a possible field complaint.

The operator of a 426D backhoe loader reported to his supervisor that the
machine performance was poor when using the loader. He told the
supervisor that the machine wasn't able to push loads while filling as well
as it was a couple of weeks ago.
BCP BHL - 54 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power Train System Troubleshooting Worksheet


ISOLATE PROBLEM
The first step in in a troubleshooting process is to gather information
Gather Information before starting any work on the machine. If possible talk to the operator.
Also, check the repair history of the machine and the Caterpillar Service
Information Retrieval System (SIRS). List at least three questions you
would ask an operator to help in determining a problem exists? Possible
answers:

Verify Verify the problem exists. Operate the machine to duplicate the problem,
preferably under similar operating conditions. Compare the operation to
a known good machine. Perform sensory checks such as looking,
listening, touching, smelling to verify a problem exists.
Perform Visual When troubleshooting always perform a visual inspection first. Look for
Inspection the obvious. List at least three typical items that should be inspected
during a visual inspection for. Possible answers:

State Problem After verifying a problem exists, state in your own words what the
problem is. Caution: Do not identify the solution. Possible answer:
BCP BHL - 55 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power Train System Troubleshooting Worksheet (cont'd)


LIST POSSIBLE
FAULTS The next step in the process is to list all of the possible causes of the
problem. Identify all systems and components that could be causing the
problem, including the least obvious. List at least four things that could
be checked. Possible answers:

Devise tests and


Now, create a list of tests should be performed and describe what the
determine root cause tests would determine. Prioritize the tests as to which sequence they
should be performed in. As a general rule, always do the easiest tests
first. Also, list diagnostic tooling required. Identify at least four tests to
perform. (NOTE: the rankings are only suggested.)

Tooling needed:
BCP BHL - 56 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power Train System Troubleshooting Worksheet (cont'd)

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

REPAIR FAULT After isolating the component, which you suspect from your test results is
causing the problem, either adjust or replace the component.
BCP BHL - 57 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power Train System Troubleshooting Worksheet (cont'd)

Circle the best response:


If during your tests you discovered that the both the Reverse clutch
pressure and the Forward clutch pressure were 1450 kPA (210 psi),
which component would you change?
1. Main relief valve
2. Cold start relief valve
3. Implement pump
4. Both clutches
5. None of the above

If during your tests you discovered that the torque converter stall rpm
was high in both directions and engine high idle was set correctly.
Which of the following would you least likely expect to be the cause of
the problem?
1. Type of fuel
2. Transmission pump
3. The main relief valve
4. The Forward directional clutch
5. The power train oil level

VERIFY REPAIR After completing the repair, always verify the machine is operating
correctly. List at least three things you would do to make sure the repair
was done correctly.
1.

2.

3.

4.

Fill in the service report after completing the job.


BCP BHL - 58 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSIONS


The purpose of this module is to have you locate and identify power train
system components. You will also learn how the power shift
transmission control valve and the power shift control module work and
explain the function of their components. The autoshift feature will also
be covered. System tests for the power train will also be performed by
you. The module is composed of two lessons, a case study and a quiz.
One of the lessons is optional.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. On a schematic, identify the following power train hydraulic oil


system components: transmission control valve, filter, oil cooler,
pump suction screen, torque converter, torque convertor inlet relief
valve, lubrication circuit, cooler bypass valve and flow control valve.

❑ 2. On a schematic used in a quiz, identify the location, functions, and


relationships of test ports for pump supply pressure, clutch pressures,
torque convertor inlet pressure, torque converter outlet pressure, and
lube pressure.

❑ 3. Locate the following power train hydraulic oil system components


and service points on the machine: fill tube, filter, suction screen,
torque converter housing, transmission directional control selector
lever, relief valve, cold start relief valve, torque converter inlet relief
valve, AWD solenoid valve (if equipped), transmission oil cooler and
bypass, solenoid no. 1 - Forward High, solenoid no. 2 - Reverse,
solenoid no. 3 - Forward Low, solenoid no. 4 - speed clutch no. 1,
solenoid no. 5 - speed clutch no. 2, and solenoid no. 6 - speed clutch
no. 3.

❑ 4. Using the appropriate service materials, identify and record on the


provided test sheet the specifications for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressures: pump supply pressure, torque
converter outlet pressure, torque converter inlet pressure, lube
pressure, FORWARD HIGH clutch , REVERSE clutch, FORWARD
LOW clutch, speed clutch no. 1, speed clutch no. 2 , speed clutch no.
3, and AWD clutch pressure (if equipped). Record a check after
locating each test location.
BCP BHL - 59 - Student Materials
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❑ 5. Using the appropriate service manual module, locate the test location
and perform checks on the machine for the following power train
hydraulic oil system pressure: pump supply pressure, torque
converter outlet pressure, torque converter inlet pressure, lube
pressure, FORWARD HIGH clutch, REVERSE clutch, FORWARD
LOW clutch, speed clutch no. 1, speed clutch no. 2, speed clutch no.
3, and AWD clutch pressure (if equipped).

❑ 6. On a quiz identify the function of the following power shift


transmission components: (Underdevelopment).

❑ 7. Using provided reference materials and handouts, identify potential


system problems caused by malfunctioning components during a lab
exercise.

❑ 8. Locate the electronic autoshift components and test points on the


machine.

❑ 9. Using the provided handout, operate a machine equipped with a


power shift transmission and determine the correct machine status
for the conditions given.

❑ 10. Using the appropriate service manual module, perform checks on the
machine for the autoshift transmission control system using a PC
equipped with ET.
BCP BHL - 60 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Autoshift Transmission Hydraulic Component


Identification
BACKGROUND
INFORMATION This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the machine and locate
components and service points.
NOTE: Before operating the machine, a 10 hour or daily inspection should
have been completed which includes checking fluid levels as
specified in the Operation and Maintenance Guide.

Classroom Lab
❑ • View a slide presentation on power train components

Shop Lab
❑ • Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

❑ • On the machine use Autoshift Transmission Checklist and identify the


following power train hydraulic oil system components: fill tube, filter,
suction screen, torque converter housing, transmission directional
control selector lever, relief valve, cold start relief valve, torque
converter inlet relief valve, AWD solenoid valve (if equipped),
transmission oil cooler any bypass valve, solenoid no. 1 - Forward
High, solenoid no. 2 - Reverse, solenoid no. 3 - Forward Low, solenoid
no. 4 - speed clutch no. 1, solenoid no. 5 - speed clutch no. 2, and
solenoid no. 6 - speed clutch no. 3. Record a check after locating each
test location.

❑ • Identify the pressure test locations: pump supply pressure, torque


converter outlet pressure, torque converter inlet pressure, lube pressure,
FORWARD HIGH clutch, REVERSE clutch, FORWARD LOW clutch,
speed clutch no. 1, speed clutch no. 2, speed clutch no. 3, and AWD
clutch pressure (if equipped). Record a check after locating each test
location.

Materials Needed
❑ Operation and Maintenance Guide
Service Manual
Parts Book
Power Shift/Autoshift Component Checklist
Autoshift Operations
Autoshift Power Train Components worksheet
Autoshift Electronic Control Component Checklist
Mechanic's Tool Box and hand tools
BCP BHL - 61 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Autoshift Transmission Component Checklist


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions). During a lab,
use this sheet as a checklist when identifying components and pressure test locations.

D Model
Solenoid No. 1 - FORWARD HIGH
Solenoid No. 2 - REVERSE
Solenoid No. 3 - FORWARD LOW
Solenoid No. 4 - speed clutch No. 1
Solenoid No. 5 - speed clutch No. 2
Solenoid No. 6 - speed clutch N.o. 3
All wheel drive solenoid (if available)
Pressure regulator valve
Torque converter inlet relief valve
Transmission speed sensor
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Electronic Technician (ET) connector
Diagnostic indicator lamp

Test Locations:
Pump supply pressure
FORWARD HIGH clutch pressure
FORWARD LOW clutch pressure
Speed clutch No. 1
Speed clutch No. 2
Speed clutch No. 3
REVERSE pressure tap
Lube pressure tap
All-Wheel Drive clutch pressure tap (if available)
BCP BHL - 62 - Student Materials
5/1/00

AUTOSHIFT OPERATION

Locate and identify the following components before operating the machine:

Key start switch


Shift lever
Throttle
Brake pedal
Steering wheel
Horn

NOTE: Connect the ET tool to the service connector to determine the gear the machine shifts to.

Before starting the machine: FASTEN SEAT BELT

1. Place the auto/manual switch in the MANUAL position and the neutralizer switch in the OFF
position. Place the shift lever in FIRST SPEED FORWARD. Start the machine.
Did the machine start? Yes No

2. Move the shift lever to the NEUTRAL position. Start the machine.
Did the machine start? Yes No

Drive machine along test range:


3. Shift the transmission through all FORWARD and REVERSE gears.
Did the transmission shift through all gears? Yes No

4. When driving forward in FIRST SPEED, shift to REVERSE.


Did the transmission shift to FIRST SPEED REVERSE? Yes No

Stop the machine


5. When in FIRST SPEED FORWARD, keep the brake pedal depressed and depress the
accelerator pedal.
Did the engine pull against the brake? Yes No
BCP BHL - 63 - Student Materials
5/1/00

6. When in FIRST SPEED FORWARD, keep the accelerator pedal depressed and depress and
hold the neutralizer switch momentarily.
Did the engine pull against the brake? Yes No
Did the transmission go to NEUTRAL? Yes No

Drive the machine along test range:


7. Drive forward in THIRD SPEED, press the DOWNSHIFT switch momentarily.
Did the transmission shift down? Yes No

8. Drive forward in SECOND SPEED, press the DOWNSHIFT switch momentarily.


Did the transmission shift down? Yes No

Stop the machine. Place the auto/manual switch in the AUTO position.
9. Shift the transmission through all FORWARD and REVERSE gears.
Did the transmission shift through all gears? Yes No

Drive machine along test range:


10. When driving forward in FIRST SPEED, shift to REVERSE.
Did the transmission shift to FIRST REVERSE? Yes No
To what speed did the transmission shift? .

11. When driving FORWARD in SECOND SPEED, remove foot from accelerator.
Did the transmission shift to FIRST FORWARD? Yes No
To what speed did the transmission shift? .

12. When driving forward in FOURTH SPEED, remove foot from accelerator.
Did the transmission shift down? Yes No
To what speed did the transmission shift? .

13. Drive FORWARD in THIRD SPEED, press the downshift switch momentarily.
Did the transmission shift down? Yes No

Return machine to starting point for next student.


Autoshift Power Train Components
8/02/02
BCP BHL

Directions: Fill in the blanks next to


the letters with the correct term.

Identify Components: DATA LINK


SERVICE PORT

A
J PARKING BRAKE SWITCH

B RIDE CONTROL SWITCH DOWNSHIFT/NEUTRALIZER SWITCH

AUTO/MANUAL SWITCH A D
NEUTRAL LOCK SWITCH RIDE CONTROL DISABLE
C

D
REGULATED
PRESSURE
E
ORIFICE

5 6 2 1 3 4
F
- 64 -

3 HI SOLENOID
G R VALVE 1
2 LO
F FORWARD
TORQUE G
CONVERTER
H INLET

I PUMP SUPPLY TRANSMISSION H C


LUBE
B TORQUE
J I LUBE CONVERTER
OUTLET
SUCTION
K SCREEN

E
Student Materials
Autoshift Electronic Control Component Checklist
8/02/02

Directions: Record a check next to each component after locating it on the machine. Or if using multiple machines, record the model
BCP BHL

number. All components may not be on every machine. NOTE: Power shift transmissions are the same except for the software.

AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM

CAT DATA LINK FORWARD HIGH


KEY START No. 1 SOLENOID
SWITCH
SHIFT REVERSE
No. 2 SOLENOID
RIDE CONTROL
LOADER LOCK LEVER SWITCH
RELAY FORWARD LOW
CONTROL No. 3 SOLENOID
PARKING BRAKE
SWITCH AUTOSHIFT
SPEED CLUTCH 1
No. 4 SOLENOID
NEUTRAL LOCK
- 65 -

ELECTRONIC
SWITCH
SPEED CLUTCH 2
TRANSMISSION No. 5 SOLENOID
TRANSMISSION OUTPUT
BACKUP START SPEED SENSOR
ALARM RELAY CONTROL SPEED CLUTCH 3
No. 6 SOLENOID
AUTO/MANUAL
SWITCH (AETC)
PARK BRAKE
ALARM RELAY
RIDE CONTROL
DISABLE SWITCH
RIDE CONTROL
RELAY
DOWNSHIFT/
NEUTRALIZER SWITCH DIAGNOSTIC
INDICATOR and
DATA LINK
SERVICE PORT
Student Materials
BCP BHL - 66 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Autoshift Transmission System Pressure Tests

BACKGROUND This lab measures your ability to perform the Autoshift transmission tests
INFORMATION on Backhoe Loaders.

Shop Lab
❑ • Enter the correct specifications from the service manual module on the
lab worksheets.

❑ • Using the procedures in the correct service manual module, test each
pressure on the machine and record the results using Dataview. Use ET
to verify which gear the machine shifts to and to verify other
parameters.

❑ NOTE: There is no specification or recommended test procedure for


Torque Converter Outlet Pressure. Assume that if T/C Stall rpm tests
are correct and lube pressure is in specification T/C Outlet Pressure is
good.

• Review results with the instructor.

MATERIALS
NEEDED ❑ Transmission test sheets
Service manual module
Pen or pencil
PC with Dataview, Electronic Technician, and SIS software
5-4C6819 or 1434065 Pressure Sensors
1-9U5140 Photo Tach
Assorted Dataview cables
Electronic Technician
Dataview
Communication adapter and cables
5-6V3965 Nipples
5-3J1907 O-rings
Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
1-1U5481 Pressure Test Gauge Group (If not using Dataview)or
1 - 198-4240 Digital Pressure Indicator Group
1-1U5482 Hose and Fitting Group (If not using Dataview)
1-9U7400 Multitach Group (If not using Dataview)
BCP BHL - 67 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Power Shift/Autoshift Transmission System Pressure Tests

Machine Model ________________________ Dealer ____________________________


Name/Code ____________________________ Customer__________________________
Machine PIN (S/N) ______________________ Job ______________________________
Transmission S/N ______________________ Application ________________________
Engine S/N ____________________________ Date______________________________
S.M.H. ________________________________ Serviceman ________________________

ENGINE SPEED
PRESSURE TEST LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Pressure

Lube Pressure

All Wheel Drive Pressure

Torque Converter Inlet (optional)

FORWARD HIGH

Torque Converter Outlet (not applicable) XXX XXX XXX XXX

REVERSE

FORWARD LOW

Speed Clutch 1

Speed Clutch 2

Speed Clutch 3

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

Comments:
BCP BHL - 68 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Power Shift / Autoshift Transmission System Pressure Tests


(continued)

ENGINE SPEED
PRESSURE TEST LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pressure difference between Pump and
FORWARD LOW
Pressure difference between Pump and
FORWARD HIGH
Pressure difference between Pump and
REVERSE
Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 1

Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 2

Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 3


Pressure difference between Pump and
All Wheel Drive Clutch

Comments:
BCP BHL - 69 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Technical Information Bulletin


Adjusting The Parameters Of The Autoshift Transmission
Media Number - TIBU3313-00
Publication Date - 2001/04/25 Date Updated - 2001/10/13
CONFIDENTIAL

Adjusting The Parameters Of The Autoshift Transmission

SMCS - 3030; 3150; 3400

BACKHOE LOADERS

420D (FDP1-2214, BLN1-1485, BKC, BMC, BLA, BGD),


424D (BGP, BKR) 428D (BLL, BMT, BNB, BNS),
430D (BNK1-847, BML1-1024, BKW, BNJ, BLX, BGY),
432D (BLD),
438D (BPE, BPN),
442D (BRY, BRG) BACKHOE LOADERS

Problem: D series backhoe loaders equipped with the autoshift


transmission may experience quick and or jerky shifting. The skip shift
timer may not be properly configured in the transmission ECM. Some of
the first D-series machines were not properly set.
Solution: Using Caterpillar ET (Electronic Technician with 3.2 or higher
software, the skip ship timer can be changed using the configuration
feature. The range for this parameter is 0 to 1 second. The optimum
setting is 0.5 seconds.
Additionally, other parameters maybe changed under the configuration.
The parameters should be the following:
Fifth Gear is ENABLED
First Gear is DISABLED in AUTOSHIFT MODE.
If the machine is equipped with RIDE Control, the Ride Control
should be ENABLED.
BCP BHL - 70 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Autoshift Transmission Case Study

DIRECTIONS You may use the service manual and class notes to complete the case
study. Answer the questions on the Case Study Worksheets. Discuss the
case study with the instructor after you have answered the case study
questions.

The following exercise is based on a possible field complaint.

SITUATION The operator of a backhoe loader equipped with an Autoshift


Transmission reported to his supervisor that the machine had a
transmission problem. He told the supervisor that the Autoshift feature
was not working. The only gears available were FIRST FORWARD and
THIRD FORWARD. The machine would not move in REVERSE.
BCP BHL - 71 - Student Materials
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Autoshift Power Train System Troubleshooting Worksheet

ISOLATE PROBLEM The first step in in a troubleshooting process is to gather information


before starting any work on the machine. If possible talk to the operator.
Gather Information
Also, check the repair history of the machine and the Caterpillar Service
Information Retrieval System (SIRS). List at list three questions you
would ask an operator to help in identifying a problem exists? Possible
answers:

Verify Verify the problem exists. Operate the machine to duplicate the problem,
preferably under similar operating conditions. Compare the operation to
a known good machine. Perform sensory checks such as looking,
listening, touching, smelling to verify a problem exists.

Perform Visual When troubleshooting always perform a visual inspection first. Look for
Inspection the obvious. List at least three typical items that should be inspected
during a visual inspection for. Possible answers:

State Problem After verifying a problem exists, state in your own words what the
problem is. Caution: Do not identify the solution. Possible answer.
BCP BHL - 72 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Autoshift Power Train Troubleshooting Worksheet (cont'd)

LIST POSSIBLE The next step in the process is to list all of the possible causes of the
FAULTS problem. Identify all systems and components that could be causing the
problem, including the least obvious. List at least four things that could
be checked. Possible answers:

Devise tests and Now, create a list of tests should be performed and describe what the
determine root cause tests would determine. Prioritize the tests as to which sequence they
should be performed in. As a general rule, always do the easiest tests
first. Also, list diagnostic tooling required. Identify at least three tests to
perform. (Note: The rankings are only suggested.)

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:
BCP BHL - 73 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Autoshift Power Train Troubleshooting Worksheet (cont'd)

Tooling needed:

REPAIR FAULT
Answer the following questions:
If during your tests you discovered that the FORWARD LOW clutch was
shorted to the battery, could that be the cause of the problem? If so, how
and what would the next step be?

After completing the repair, always verify the machine is operating


VERIFY REPAIR
correctly. List at least three things you would do to make sure the repair
was done correctly.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Fill in the service report after completing the job.


BCP BHL - 74 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: AXLES AND BRAKE


The purpose of this module is to have you locate and identify axle and
brake components. You will also learn how the brake control valves
work and axles components work. System tests and/or adjustments for
the brakes will also be performed. The module is composed of two
lessons.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. On the machine, locate the components listed on the Axle and Brake
System Component Checklist for a backhoe loader.

❑ 2. Perform power shift brake system checks as per the service manual
if an AWD machine is available.

❑ 3. (Optional) Perform differential lock system checks as per the


provided handout.
BCP BHL - 75 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Axle and Brake Component Identification


BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the machine and locate
INFORMATION components and service points.

Shop Lab ❑ • View slide presentation on the axle and brake system

❑ • Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

❑ • Locate components listed on the Axle and Brake Component Checklist.


Record a check after locating each component.

Materials Needed
❑ Operation & Maintenance Guide
Service Manual
Parts Book
Axle and Brake Component Checklist
Brake Schematic
1-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 76 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Axle and Brake System Component Checklist


Directions: During a lab exercise, use this as a checklist when identifying components.

D Model

Brake pedals

Parking brake control

Parking brake disc and pads

Differential lock pedal

Brake disc inspection plugs (no longer on D Series)

Brake bleed screws

Reservoir

Brake lamp

Differential fill plug

Differential drain plug

Front AWD Differential fill plug

Front AWD Differential drain plug

AWD solenoid

AWD control switch


BCP BHL - 77 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Brake Master Cylinders

BRAKE MASTER CYLINDERS


LEFT BRAKE RIGHT BRAKE FROM
ENGAGED RELEASED RESERVOIR

TO BRAKE TO BRAKE
PISTON PISTON
SUPPLY PORT

VALVE STEM

PLUNGER
COMPENSATION PLUNGER
VALVE

BRIDGE PIPE
PUSH ROD
BCP BHL - 78 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Axle and Brake System Tests


BACKGROUND This lesson will allow you gain familiarity performing system checks,
INFORMATION using the Service Manual, and determining if the machine is operating to
specifications.

Shop Lab ❑ • Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

❑ • Differential Lock (rear wheels off of ground), First Forward at low idle.
Drag the left brake so the left wheel turns slower than the right wheel,
but is not fully stopped. Depress the differential pedal. Both wheels
should now turn at same speed.
Release the differential lock pedal. The Differential lock will remain
engaged until the left brake pedal is released.

Optional:

❑ • On, perform proper brake bleed procedures as per the service manual.

❑ • Misadjust parking brakes to reduce brake performance. Perform proper


parking brake adjustment procedures as per the service manual.

Materials Needed
❑ Axle, brake and steering service manual modules
1-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 79 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Technical Information Bulletin The Brakes Of The D-Series Backhoe Loader


Media Number - TIBU3283-00 Publication Date - 2001/03/28 Date Updated - 2001/10/13
The Brakes Of The D-Series Backhoe Loader SMCS - 4250; 4265; 4269
BACKHOE LOADERS
416D (BFP, BGJ),
420D (FDP, BLN, BKC, BMC, BLA, BDG),
424D (BGP, BKR),
428D (BLL, BMT, BNB, BNS),
430D (BNK, BML, BKW, BNJ, BLX, BGY),
432D (BLD),
438D (BPE, BPN, 442D (BRY, BRG) BACKHOE LOADERS

Problem: Caterpillar has received a number of communications from dealers showing concern about
the amount of brake pedal travel on the D-Series Backhoe Loaders.
Solution: The mechanical advantage of the brake pedal system was changed on the D- Series Backhoe
Loader in order to reduce the brake effort required to stop the machine. The D-Series pedals have a
mechanical advantage of 11.8 to 1 verses the C-Series, which had a mechanical advantage of 7 to 1.
Due to the increases mechanical advantage of the D-series, the force necessary to achieve the same
braking is less.
One of the side affects of this change is that the brake pedal must travel farther on the D-Series than on
the C-Series in order to achieve the same braking. For example, on the C-Series the brake pedal may
go hard after an inch or so of pedal movement, the D-series pedal must travel much farther in order to
achieve the same braking. In some cases, the brake pedal of a D-series backhoe loader will only be an
inch or so from the firewall of the cab.
Reference: RENR3576 Axles, Differentials & Brakes Specifications for the D-series Backhoe Loader
and
RENR3577 Axles, Differentials & Brakes System Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the D-series
Backhoe Loader
Checking the Brake System of the D-series Backhoe Loader
1. Raise the tractor off of the ground using the stabilizers and front loader bucket.
2. Perform a torque converter stall test in 2nd gear and at high idle.
3. Check the brakes (both pedals applied) should be able to stop or prevent the wheels from turning
without the brake pedal touching the firewall. If the wheels turn during this test or if it is necessary
to touch the firewall to stop the wheels from turning, please perform the following checks or
procedures:
Check the "free play" in the pedals
Brake "free play" must be between 5 to 10 mm (approximately 1/4 inch) measured at the pedal.
Measure "free play" of each brake pedal individually. Depress each pedal by hand until resistance is
encountered. Because of the large mechanical advantage of the pedal system, this dimensions is
critical. Too much free play may allow the pedals to touch the firewall.
BCP BHL - 80 - Student Materials
5/1/00

If the "free play" is found to be out of specification, and adjustments have been made, the pedals must
be stroked individually approximately 6 times, and "free play" rechecked to assure some clearance
does exist.
Make sure there is some distance between the push rod and the master cylinder piston.
Bleed brake system to remove any trapped air.
If the "free play" is correct and the pedals still contact the firewall during the 2nd gear stall test, the
brakes will have tobe bled (purged) in order to remove any air that may remain in the brake system.
COPYRIGHT 2001 CATERPILLAR ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
BCP BHL - 81 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: ENGINE, ELECTRICAL, AND


POWER TRAIN TROUBLESHOOTING
The purpose of this module is to have you identify system problems
within the engine, electrical and power train systems, perform tests and
then make repairs and adjustments to return the machine to normal
operation. This module consists of one lesson.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. Using information from previous modules, perform the appropriate


engine, electrical and power train tests to determine system
problems.

❑ 2. Using information from previous modules and repair or adjust the


system.

❑ 3. Record results of your findings and provide a spoken classroom


report.
BCP BHL - 82 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Engine, Electrical, and Power Train


Troubleshooting
BACKGROUND This lesson will allow you gain familiarity performing system checks,
INFORMATION using the Service Manual to determining if the machine is operating to
specifications. If the machine is not performing to specification, make
the appropriate adjustments or repairs.

Shop Lab ❑ • Split into Two Groups with One Machine per Group. • "Bug" systems
already discussed. Allow the following:
1 problem in engine/fuel system
1 problem in transmission
2 electrical problems
Note: Bug transmission, then the engine, and then the electrical
system. Make sure "bugs" do create a problem.

❑ • Exchange Machines and Do the Following:


- Verify the problems exists.
- Devise the necessary diagnostic and performance tests to isolate
the problem.
- Perform the tests.
- Analyze the results.
- Repair the problem.
- Verify that the problem is solved.

Materials Needed
❑ Related service manual modules
3054 Engine In Chassis Test Sheet
Electrical System Tests Worksheet
Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheets
Student Troubleshooting Analysis worksheets
12-V and 24-V Electrical Systems - Student Reference Materials
2-6V3121 Multitach Group or 9U7400 Multitach II Group
2-1U5481 Pressure Test Gauge Group or 2 - 198-4240 Digital
Pressure Indicator Groups
2-1U5482 Hose and Fitting Group
10-6V3965 Nipples
5-3J1907 O-rings
2-6V7800 Multimeters or 9U7330 Fluke 87
2-8T0900 AC/DC Clamp- on Ammeter
2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
Optional
1-6V3000 Sure-seal Connector Kit
1-9U7246 Deutsch Connector Kit
1-1U5804 Crimp Tool (Deutsch connectors)
BCP BHL - 83 - Student Materials
8/02/02

3054 Engine In Chassis Test Sheet


Machine Model Dealer
Name/Code Customer
Machine PIN (S/N) Job
Transmission S/N Application
Engine S/N Date
S.M.H. Serviceman

VISUAL CHECKS: Fuel Level Engine Oil level


Coolant level Power Train Oil level
Oil/Coolant/Fuel Leaks Air Filters and Precleaner Inspection

TEST SPECS ACTUAL COMMENTS


Engine rpm: High Idle
Low Idle

Torque Converter Stall Check - Full throttle with brakes


applied, and transmission engaged in:
Fourth Speed - Forward
Fourth Speed - Reverse
Inlet Manifold Pressure @ TC Stall RPM (reference only)
Fuel Transfer Pressure (High Idle)
Engine RPM at Torque Converter Stall [with temperature
regulator (thermostat) fully opened]
Radiator Top Tank Temperature ºC (ºF)
[Should be less than 43 ºC (110°F) over ambient]

Water Pump Inlet Temperature - ºC (ºF)


[Should be 4.5ºC to 11ºC (8°F to 20°F) less than Top Tank Temperature]

Engine Oil Pressure at: max rpm


Idle

ADD. CHECKS: Fuel Type Engine Oil Type


Antifreeze Protection Temp Coolant Conditioner %
Battery Voltage Alternator Output Voltage
Starter Cold Cranking Amps

Note: Remove the engine oil pressure switch and install a pipe thread 8C7575 or 8C7576 adapter and
6V4142 test nipple to check engine oil pressure.
Use 4C8054 fitting to check fuel transfer pressure on the B & C backhoes
BCP BHL - 84 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Electrical System Tests Worksheet

I. Battery Test: Reference - Batteries - SM 6/20/88

Voltage

II. Starter Tests: Reference - Starter - SM 5/28/90

Test A. Check battery voltage at the battery posts while cranking, or attempting to crank.
NOTE: Use the posts representing 12 or 24 Volts. Do not
check voltage on the cable post clamps. Chart A-Typical System Voltage During
Cranking Versus Ambient Temperature
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than what is shown in
-23°C To-7°C -7°C To 10°C 10°C To 27°C
Chart A?
Temp. (-10°F To 20°F) (20°F to 50°F) (50°F To 80°F)
Record Voltage ___________ 24 Volt 12V to 16V 14V to 18V 16V to 20V
System
. . . Yes - Go to Test B.
12 Volt 6V to 8V 7V to 9V 8V to 10V
System

Test B. Measure starter motor voltage from TP4 to TP5 while cranking, or attempting to crank.
1. Is voltage equal to or greater than that shown in Chart A?
Record Voltage ___________ Chart B-Maximum Allowable System
Voltage Drops During Cranking
. . . Yes - Batteries and starter cables down to motor are
Absolute Maximum
electrically within specifications. Go to Test C.
Voltage Reading
. . . No - Voltage drop (loss) between batteries and starter Circuit 24V 12V
is too great. Go to next step. Batt. Pos. Post to Starter 0.5V 0.3V
Pos. Post (TP10 to TP6)
NOTE: For this exercise, assume your answer is "NO"
and then perform the next step. Enter results in CHART Batt. Neg. Post to Starter 1.4V 0.7V
B. Neg. Post (TP7 to TP5)
Drop Across Only 1.0V .5V
2. Measure voltage drops in cranking circuit per Chart B. Disconnect Switch
Are all voltages within specifications? (TP8 to TP9)
Start Relay Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
. . . Yes - Check engine. Go to Test C. (TP3 to TP6)
. . . No - Repair and/or replace faulty electrical Solenoid Contacts 0.8V 0.4V
component . (TP6 to TP4)

III. Alternator Tests: Reference - Alternator - SM 5/4/87

Initial Amperage (step 4.)

Voltage (step 5)

Amperage (step 6)
BCP BHL - 85 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheet


Machine Model _______________________ Dealer __________________________________
Name/Code ________________________ Customer _______________________________
Mach. S/N (PIN) _____________________ Job ____________________________________
Trans. S/N _________________________ Application ______________________________
Engine S/N _________________________ Date ___________________________________
S.M.U. ______________________________ Serviceman ______________________________

VISUAL CHECKS

Oil Level _______ Suction Screen _______


Oil Type _______ Oil Filter _______
Oil Leaks _______ Abrasives in Oil _______
Air/H2O in Oil _______ Debris in Pan _______

PRESSURE TESTS

PARKING BRAKE - ON

SHIFT PRESSURES
PRESSURE TEST LEVER LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Supply N XXXX
Forward Clutch F
Reverse Clutch R
Lube N
T. C. Inlet N XXXX
T. C. Outlet (T.C. Stall) 4th/Fwd XXXX XXXX
AWD Clutch Pressure N

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

NOTE: Depending on which service publication is used, specifications may not always be provided
for both speed ranges.

Hint: Raise the rear wheels off of the ground using the stabilizers to check transmission pressures to
reduce the chance of driving through the brakes during a test.
BCP BHL - 86 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Transmission Test Sheet


Machine Model _______________________ Dealer __________________________________
Name/Code ________________________ Customer _______________________________
Mach. S/N (PIN) _____________________ Job ____________________________________
Trans. S/N _________________________ Application ______________________________
Engine S/N _________________________ Date ___________________________________
S.M.U. ______________________________ Serviceman ______________________________

VISUAL CHECKS

Oil Level _______ Suction Screen _______


Oil Type _______ Oil Filter _______
Oil Leaks _______ Abrasives in Oil _______
Air/H2O in Oil _______ Debris in Pan _______

PRESSURE TESTS

PARKING BRAKE - ON

SHIFT PRESSURES
PRESSURE TEST LEVER LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Supply N XXXX
Forward Clutch F
Reverse Clutch R
Lube N
T. C. Inlet N XXXX
T. C. Outlet (T.C. Stall) 4th/Fwd XXXX XXXX
AWD Clutch Pressure N

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

NOTE: Depending on which service publication is used, specifications may not always be provided
for both speed ranges.

Hint: Raise the rear wheels off of the ground using the stabilizers to check transmission pressures to
reduce the chance of driving through the brakes during a test.
BCP BHL - 87 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Power shift/Autoshift Transmission System Pressure Tests

Machine Model ________________________ Dealer ____________________________


Name/Code ____________________________ Customer__________________________
Machine PIN (S/N) ______________________ Job ______________________________
Transmission S/N ______________________ Application ________________________
Engine S/N ____________________________ Date______________________________
S.M.H. ________________________________ Serviceman ________________________

ENGINE SPEED
PRESSURE TEST LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pump Pressure

Lube Pressure

All Wheel Drive Pressure

Torque Converter Inlet (optional)

FORWARD HIGH

Torque Converter Outlet (not applicable) XXX XXX XXX XXX

REVERSE

FORWARD LOW

Speed Clutch 1

Speed Clutch 2

Speed Clutch 3

PRESSURE TEST SHIFT ENGINE SPEED


LEVER SPEC ACTUAL

T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/FWD


T. C. Outlet (T. C. stall) 4th/REV

Comments:
BCP BHL - 88 - Student Materials
5/1/00

Power Shift / Autoshift Transmission System Pressure Tests


(continued)

ENGINE SPEED
PRESSURE TEST LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE
SPEC ACTUAL SPEC ACTUAL
Pressure difference between Pump and
FORWARD LOW
Pressure difference between Pump and
FORWARD HIGH
Pressure difference between Pump and
REVERSE
Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 1

Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 2

Pressure difference between Pump and Clutch 3


Pressure difference between Pump and
All Wheel Drive Clutch

Comments:
BCP BHL - 89 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Student Troubleshooting Analysis


STEP 1 - MAKE SURE PROBLEM EXISTS:
STEP 2 - STATE THE PROBLEM:

STEP 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION:


STEP 4 - LIST ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
STEP 5 - DEVISE AND RUN CHECKS/RECORD DATA:
1.

RESULT
2.

RESULT
3.

RESULT
4.

RESULT
5.

RESULT
STEP 6 - ISOLATE AND ELIMINATE:
STEP 7 - REPAIR MACHINE:
STEP 8 - VERIFY FIX:
BCP BHL - 90 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Student Troubleshooting Analysis


STEP 1 - MAKE SURE PROBLEM EXISTS:
STEP 2 - STATE THE PROBLEM:

STEP 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION:


STEP 4 - LIST ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
STEP 5 - DEVISE AND RUN CHECKS/RECORD DATA:
1.

RESULT
2.

RESULT
3.

RESULT
4.

RESULT
5.

RESULT
STEP 6 - ISOLATE AND ELIMINATE:
STEP 7 - REPAIR MACHINE:
STEP 8 - VERIFY FIX:
BCP BHL - 91 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Student Troubleshooting Analysis


STEP 1 - MAKE SURE PROBLEM EXISTS:
STEP 2 - STATE THE PROBLEM:

STEP 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION:


STEP 4 - LIST ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
STEP 5 - DEVISE AND RUN CHECKS/RECORD DATA:
1.

RESULT
2.

RESULT
3.

RESULT
4.

RESULT
5.

RESULT
STEP 6 - ISOLATE AND ELIMINATE:
STEP 7 - REPAIR MACHINE:
STEP 8 - VERIFY FIX:
BCP BHL - 92 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC


SYSTEMS
The purpose of this module is to have you locate and identify hydraulic
system components. You will also learn how the implement control
valves work and explain the function of their components. You will also
perform system tests for the hydraulic system. The first part of the
module is a review of basic "load sensing/pressure compensated"
hydraulics. The module is composed of five lessons, a case study and
two quizzes. Two of the lessons are optional.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. On a quiz, identify system characteristics of Load Sensing and


Pressure Compensation. Also determine system pressures and
pressure differences at various locations on provided quiz
schematics.

❑ 2. Locate on the schematic the following: hydraulic tank, hydraulic


filter, pump, pump control valve, cooler, steering priority valve,
HMU, tilt control valve, lift control valve, auxiliary control valves,
stabilizer control, swing control valve, boom control valve, bucket
control valve and boom control valve.

❑ 3. On the machine, locate the following: hydraulic tank, hydraulic oil


filter, pump, pump control valve, loader valve group, backhoe valve
group, implement controls, pump supply pressure test port, signal
pressure test port, torque limiter.

❑ 4. (Optional) D&A a hydraulic pump and pump control valve and


demonstrate verbally to the instructor that the student understands
the functions of all components (if components are available). These
components may include line reliefs, makeup valves, check valves,
and main control spools, resolvers, and flow compensators.

❑ 5. (Optional) D&A an implement control valve and demonstrate


verbally to the instructor that the student understands the functions
of all components (if components are available). These components
may include line reliefs, makeup valves, check valves, and main
control spools, resolvers, and flow compensators.
BCP BHL - 93 - Student Materials
8/02/02

❑ 6. Perform performance checks and/or adjust: max system pressure,


low pressure standby, and margin pressure and the torque limiter
instructor directions.

❑ 7. Perform cycle time checks and signal system checks to identify


resolver or pump control problems per the provided handout.

❑ 8. Using provided reference materials and handouts, identify potential


system problems caused by a improperly operating hydraulic system
during a case study.

❑ 9. (Optional) Perform performance checks and/or adjust the torque


limiter per instructor directions.

❑ 10. On a quiz, match state of pump (i.e. upstroke, destroke, low pressure
standby, stall) to operational condition.

❑ 11. On a quiz, match the purpose or feature of the following


components: the steering priority flow control valve, the restrictor
valve, primary resolver, secondary resolver, make up valve, line
relief, advance signal passage, pressure reducing valve, swash plate,
lock valve, orifice check valve, pressure compensator, bias piston
and flow compensator.
BCP BHL - 94 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Load Sensing/Pressure Compensated Hydraulics


BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with Load Sensing/Pressure
INFORMATION
Compensated Hydraulics. LS/PC systems typically used closed center
implement control valves.

Quiz
❑ • Complete the quiz at the back of the LS/PC Student Handout after
participating in the classroom review
NOTE: Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

Materials Needed
❑ LS/PC Student Handout with Quiz
BCP BHL - 95 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Implement Hydraulic System Component


Identification
BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the machine and locate
INFORMATION components and service points.

Classroom Lab ❑ • While watching the slide presentation on the implement hydraulic
system, locate on the schematic the following: hydraulic tank,
hydraulic filter, pump, pump control valve, cooler, steering priority
valve, HMU, tilt control valve, lift control valve, auxiliary control
valves, stabilizer control, swing control valve, boom control valve,
bucket control valve and boom control valve using.Implement
Hydraulic System Component Checklist II, and III

Shop Lab
❑ • On the machine, locate the following: hydraulic tank, hydraulic oil
filter, pump, pump control valve, loader valve group, backhoe valve
group, implement controls, pump supply pressure test port, signal
pressure test port, torque limiter using.Implement Hydraulic System
Component Checklist I,II, and III. Record a check after locating each
component.

NOTE: Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

Materials Needed
❑ Hydraulic System Testing and Adjusting Service Manual Module
Hydraulic System Component Checklists I, II, and III
Hydraulic System Component Checklist
BCP BHL - 96 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Component Checklist I


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions) . During a lab
exercise, use this as a checklist when identifying components.

D D Model

Hydraulic tank

Hydraulic oil filter(s)

Pump

Pump control valve

Loader valve group

Backhoe valve group

Stabilizer valve group

Implement controls

Pump supply pressure test port

Signal pressure test port

Torque Limiter

Pilot accumulator (if equipped)

Ride control accumulator (if equipped)

Pilot shutoff selector valve/solenoid (if equipped)

Return check valve

Steering metering unit


420D/430D Hydraulic System Component Checklist
5/1/00

Directions: Label all valves (including shutoff valve and backflow check valve), tank, pump, filter, cooler,, pilot accumulator and HMU.
BCP BHL

END
COVER
- 97 -

INLET
MANIFOLD

MANIFOLD
Student Materials
D Series Signal Network
5/1/00

Directions: Use for troubleshooting resolver problems.


BCP BHL

PILOT CONTROLLED LOADER VALVES

PUMP BACKHOE SECTION


CONTROL
VALVE PRIMARY AUX BOOM SWING BUCKET STICK E-STICK
RESOLVER

ORIFICE

TORQUE
LIMITER
- 98 -

SECONDARY
RESOLVER LEFT RIGHT
CONNECTED TO
SWASHPLATE STABILIZER STABILIZER

LOADER LOADER LOADER SMU


AUX. TILT LIFT

LIFT PILOT
LOADER SECTION
VALVE
PILOT OIL
Student Materials
BCP BHL - 99 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Hydraulic Pump and Pump Control Valve


Component Identification (Optional)

BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to gain hands on experience with the hydraulic
INFORMATION pump and pump control valve and their components.

Shop Lab
❑ • Disassemble the hydraulic pump and pump control valve. Lay out all
components.

❑ • Identify and state the purpose of the components using the Backhoe
Hydraulic Component Checklist and either the Series II Hydraulic
Pump Component Checklist or the B Series Hydraulic Pump
Component Checklist. (Circle the component letter after identifying
each component.).

❑ • Assemble the hydraulic pump and pump control valve.

Materials Needed ❑ Backhoe Hydraulic Component Checklist


Hydraulic Pump Component Checklist
Torque Limiters - Student Reference Materials
Related service manual modules
Parts Book
Hydraulic pump and pump control valve - for BCP backhoe
loaders or similar
Mechanic's Tool Box with hand tools
Class notes
BCP BHL - 100 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Hydraulic Components Checklist


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions). During the
lab, use this as a checklist when identifying components.

D Pump Control Valve

Margin spool

Pressure cut-off

Torque Limiter

Hydraulic Pump

Large actuator

Small actuator and bias spring

Swash plate

Piston and barrel assembly

Drive shaft

Implement Control Valve

Main control spool

Advance signal passage

Primary resolver

Secondary resolver

Flow control valve

Load check valve

Main control spool

Line relief valve

Makeup valve
BCP BHL - 101 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic Pump Components Checklist


Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct response. Use this sheet to take notes during the
presentation.

SIGNAL PUMP B
OUTPUT
C

H
G

E
F

I
BCP BHL - 102 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Implement Control Valve Component


Identification (Optional)

BACKGROUND This lesson allows you to gain hands on experience with the implement
INFORMATION control valve and its components.

Shop Lab
❑ • Disassemble the implement control valve. Lay out all components.

❑ • Identify and state the purpose of the components using the Backhoe
Hydraulic Component Checklist and the Implement Control Valve
Component Checklist. (Circle the component letter after identifying
each component.).

❑ • Assemble the implement control valve.

❑ • (Optional) Disassemble and assemble any additional hydraulic system


components. Use Backhoe Hydraulic Components Reference I, II and
III. Lay out all components. List additional components D&A below:

Materials Needed
❑ Backhoe Hydraulic Component Checklist
Implement Control Valve Component Checklist
Service Manual
Parts Book
Implement control valve - for BCP backhoe loaders or similar
Additional hydraulic components (optional)
Mechanic's Tool Box with hand tools
Class notes
BCP BHL - 103 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Implement Control Valve Components Checklist


Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct response. Use this sheet to take notes during the
presentation.
FROM CLOSED CENTER CONTROL VALVE
PREVIOUS HOLD
VALVE

HEAD ROD
B END END
E

TO TANK
TO TANK

D
FROM
C PUMP

TO NEXT
VALVE

F
BCP BHL - 104 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Implement Hydraulic System Tests

BACKGROUND This lesson will allow you gain familiarity performing system checks,
INFORMATION using the Service Manual, and determining if the machine is operating to
specifications.

NOTE: Before operating the machine, perform a 10 hour or daily


inspection.

Shop Lab ❑ • Record pressure specifications from the service manual before going to
the shop.on the Hydraulic System Test Sheet

❑ • Check implement cycle times. Refer to service manual or latest service


literature.

❑ • Perform Margin Pressure, Low Pressure Standby, and Maximum


System pressure checks as per classroom discussion and service
manual.

❑ • Mis-adjust Margin Pressure/Low Pressure Standby per instructor


recommendations and then recheck cycle times before adjusting back
to correct specifications.

❑ • Check torque limiter setting


• Demonstrate how a malfunctioning secondary resolver can be identified
❑ using handout provided. Demonstrate on chalkboard and on machine.

❑ • Demonstrate how a malfunctioning primary resolver can be identified


using handout provided. Demonstrate on chalkboard and on machine.

Optional

❑ • Check line reliefs as per service manual. Adjust bucket positioner cam
and switch as per service manual.

Materials Needed ❑ Backhoe Hydraulic System Tests sheets


Backhoe Loader Hydraulic System Lab Sheet
Backhoe System Testing
Troubleshooting the Resolver Network on Series II, B & C Series
Backhoe Loaders
Related service manual modules
2-8T0856 Pressure Gauge (0 to 870 psi)
2-8T0859 Pressure Gauge (0 to 3600 psi) or 1-1U5796
Differential Gauge Group
1-1U5482 Hose and Fitting Group
1-Stop Watch
1-Tape Measure
2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 105 - Student Materials
8/02/02

SYSTEM TESTING

System Tests

The performance of the 416-446 hydraulic systems can be easily tested. Two pressure gauge fittings
are installed on the hydraulic oil pump.

Before performing any pump tests or making adjustments to the pump control valve, measure and
record the machine cycle times. If the cycle times are within specification, checking low pressure
standby or margin pressure may not be required unless the system is overheating. Cycle time checks
will also indicate if all or some of the implements in the system are operating within specification.
This information can be helpful in determining if the pump or the implement is at fault. If all cycle
times are too slow, margin pressure may be set too low. If the machine is too responsive, the margin
pressure may be set too high.

Connect an 8T0859 gauge to each pressure fitting. The oil lines for the gauges should be long enough
so the gauges can be observed from the operator's station.With the gauges installed, follow the testing
and adjusting procedures in the Service Manual for maximum system pressure and low pressure
standby. When performing the margin pressure test, follow the Service Manual Procedures with the
following exceptions:

1. Using a 6V8731 Union in the tilt circuit is not required (Has been removed from more current
publications)

2. Stall the steering circuit on backhoes. This circuit has a signal limiter set below the pump
cutoff. Do the test at high idle. Disregard doing test at 1450 rpm. Values are basically the
same at either engine speed.

If margin pressure needs to be adjusted, the following method is quicker and safer for the mechanic:

1. Compare margin pressure to low pressure standby.

2. Mentally add to or subtract from low pressure standby about the same amount required to set
margin pressure to specification. Since both pressures are adjusted by the same screw, an
adjustment to one also affects the other. This relationship, however, is not linear.

3. Make this adjustment to the flow compensator (margin spool) while the machine is in low
pressure standby.

4. Recheck margin pressure after adjusting low pressure standby.

NOTE: In most cases, just adjusting standby pressure to the median ± 15 psi will be sufficient.
Checking margin pressure with two high pressure gages is not as accurate as checking and adjusting
standby pressure with a single lower pressure gage.
BCP BHL - 106 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Backhoe Loader Hydraulic System Lab Sheet


Perform the Following Tasks:
• Warm up hydraulic system.
• Record initial system pressures below:
Spec Actual
Low pressure standby
Maximum system pressure
Margin pressure

Steering system pressure


Pilot circuit Pressure (D-Series)

• Invert front bucket fully and lower to the ground. Record cycle times for loader lift below:
Loader lift cycle time specification
Test One Test Two Test Three
Average Cycle time

• Adjust Low Pressure Standby by 150 psi or more. Record cycle times for loader lift below:
Test One Test Two Test Three
Average Cycle time

• Adjust Low Pressure Standby to 300 psi above previous setting. Record cycle times for loader lift
below:
Test One Test Two Test Three
Average Cycle time

• Reset Low Pressure Standby to 320 psi. for the B series, 350 psi for the C series, and 460 psi for the
D series. Recheck cycle times and margin pressure.
Test One Test Two Test Three
Average Cycle time
Margin Pressure

Describe your conclusions:


STMG 746 - 107 - Serviceman's Handout No. 18
6/01
BACKHOE LOADER HYDRAULIC TESTS

PRESSURE TEST SPEC ACTUAL ADJUSTED

Low Pressure Standby


RUN ALL TESTS AT
Margin Pressure MAXIMUM RPM
Maximum System Pressure
MACHINE AT NORMAL
Pilot Pressure
OPERATING
Steering Circuit Pressure TEMPERATURES

CYCLE TIMES
TEST
1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH AVG. SPEC
Bucket Dump
L
O Tilt Back

A Regenerative Dump
(for parallel lift)
D
E Float
R Raise

Bucket Dump

Bucket Load (Curl)

Stick In

Stick Out

Swing
(Stop to Stop)

Swing
(Stop to Snubber)

E-Stick Extend
B
A E-Stick Retract
C
K Left Stabilizer Up
H
O Left Stabilizer Down
E
Right Stabilizer Up

Right Stabilizer Down

Boom Lower

Boom Pause

Boom Raise
(to snubber)

Boom Raise
(to stop)

Auxiliary 1

Auxiliary 2
BCP BHL - 108 - Student Materials
8/02/02
BACKHOE LOADER HYDRAULIC TESTS

PRESSURE TEST SPEC ACTUAL ADJUSTED

Low Pressure Standby


RUN ALL TESTS AT
Margin Pressure MAXIMUM RPM
Maximum System Pressure
MACHINE AT NORMAL
Pilot Pressure OPERATING
Steering Circuit Pressure TEMPERATURES

CYCLE TIMES
TEST
1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH AVG. SPEC
Bucket Dump
L
O Tilt Back

A Regenerative Dump
(for parallel lift)
D
E Float
R Raise

Bucket Dump

Bucket Load (Curl)

Stick In

Stick Out

Swing
(Stop to Stop)

Swing
(Stop to Snubber)

E-Stick Extend
B
A E-Stick Retract
C
K Left Stabilizer Up
H
O Left Stabilizer Down
E
Right Stabilizer Up

Right Stabilizer Down

Boom Lower

Boom Pause

Boom Raise
(to snubber)

Boom Raise
(to stop)

Auxiliary 1

Auxiliary 2
BCP BHL - 109 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Troubleshooting the Resolver Network on C and D Series Backhoe Loaders


The signal network can be easily checked. Start the engine and warm up the hydraulic oil. Run the engine at
LOW idle for this check. Connect at least a 3500 psi gauge to the signal line pressure tap. Operate each control
lever in the following order:
416C/426C/436C backhoes built before July of 2000
1. Auxiliary - 8th valve (if equipped).
2. Boom
3. Swing
4. Left Stabilizer (as when positioned to operate the backhoe).
5. Right Stabilizer
6. Backhoe bucket
7. Stick
8. Extendable stick (if equipped)
9. Multi-purpose bucket (if equipped)
10. Loader bucket tilt.
11. Loader lift
12. Steering

416C/426C/436C backhoes built after July of 2000


Due to the changes in the signal line routings and the additional resolver, the valve groups need to be
treated as being independent of each other, much like what is done with motor graders.
1. Auxiliary - 8th valve (if equipped).
2. Boom
3. Swing
4. Left Stabilizer (as when positioned to operate the backhoe).
5. Right Stabilizer
6. Backhoe bucket
7. Stick
8. Extendible stick (if equipped)
9. Resolver between valve stacks

1. Multi-purpose bucket (if equipped)


2. Loader bucket tilt.
3. Loader lift
4. Steering
5. Resolver between valve stacks

NOTE: The above valve order is different on B and Series II machines. Also be cautious of the controls on
non-standard configured machines. These controls may be confusing if you are use to the standard control
pattern
Work each implement against a load. Watch the gauge. Maximum system pressure should be seen for all
circuits except for boom down and for steering. By using the gauge, small leakage problems such as cut or
missing seals can be detected.


BCP BHL - 110 - Student Materials
8/02/02

428C/438C backhoes built before July of 2000


1. Extendible stick (if equipped)
2. Stick
3. Backhoe bucket
4. Right Stabilizer
5. Left Stabilizer (as when positioned to operate the backhoe).
6. Swing
7. Boom
8. Auxiliary - 8th valve (if equipped).
9. Multi-purpose bucket (if equipped)
10. Loader bucket tilt.
11. Loader lift
12. Steering

428C/438C backhoes built after July of 2000


1. Extendible stick (if equipped)
2. Stick
3. Backhoe bucket
4. Right Stabilizer
5. Left Stabilizer (as when positioned to operate the backhoe).
6. Swing
7. Boom
8. Auxiliary - 8th valve (if equipped).
9. Resolver between valve stacks

1. Multi-purpose bucket (if equipped)


2. Loader bucket tilt.
3. Loader lift
4. Steering
5. Resolver between valve stacks

D Series Backhoes
1. Multi-purpose bucket (if equipped)
2. Loader bucket tilt.
3. Loader lift
4. Steering
5. Right Stabilizer
6. Left Stabilizer (as when positioned to operate the backhoe).
7. Extendible stick (if equipped)
8. Stick
9. Backhoe bucket
10. Swing
11. Boom
12. Auxiliary - 8th valve (if equipped).


BCP BHL - 111 - Student Materials
8/02/02

SECONDARY RESOLVERS - TWO OR MORE VALVE SECTIONS


If two or more control valves in series next to each other fail to work normally, the problem may be in the
secondary resolver of the first implement that is closer to pump supply that works properly. This control valve's
secondary resolver is allowing signal pressure from any implement further from pump supply to leak through it
to either the rod or head end signal passage of that control valve to tank. This leakage may be caused by a the
ball not seating properly due to debris or a damaged seat. When this control valve is operated the ball will seat
against the drain side of its resolver and function normally.
This holds true unless the ball is missing; there is debris preventing the ball from seating properly on either side
of the resolver; or the seal is missing or leaking. In this case operate the first control valve that functions
normally and the next valve further from pump supply to it at the same time. If the second valve still doesn't
function properly, then the second valve probably has the bad secondary resolver.
A simpler method, when multiple valves malfunction, is to operate the malfunctioning valve farthest from the
pump and at the same time start going through the previously mentioned valve order. The first valve that makes
both implements work is the one with bad secondary resolver. What is happening is the farthest valve is sending
a signal and the valve with a bad seal or missing ball is sending a signal. When both signals meet at the valve
with the bad secondary resolver the seal has no impact on the signal that now goes to the pump and it also has
no effect on the flow control spool in the stick flow control spool (pressure reducing valve).

PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY RESOLVER


NOTE: The following discussion pertains only to those valves with flow control or pressure reducing valves in
them.
If only one valve section function either fails to work in one or both directions; or works slowly in one or both
directions, the primary or secondary resolver in that control valve may be bad. To determine which one is bad
do the following check. Stall an implement further away from the pump than the valve in question. This will
force the ball in the secondary resolver to seat away from the drain side of the resolver. This eliminates the
possibility of a leak on the drain side of the secondary resolver. Now operate the suspect valve while holding
the other implement in stall. If it is still operating slow in one or both directions, then the primary resolver
maybe bad.
If the primary resolver is bad then the pressure bleed off caused by the bad resolver is effecting the operation of
the flow control (pressure reducing valve) in the valve body. The effective force (signal pressure + spring)
trying to open up the valve to allow flow to the cylinder is insufficient to meet the cylinder load requirement so
the implement has slow response.
Normally, if an implement is slow in both directions, the problem is probably in the secondary resolver. If an
implement is slow in one direction it is typically caused by a bad primary resolver (caused by debris or bad
seals).

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
Other causes of malfunctioning valve sections might be misadjusted linkage, a broken flow control (pressure
reducing valve) spring, the flow control spool in wrong or bad line relief and/or make-up valves.
If there is debris in the system. It is recommended that you flush the system by removing all of the balls in the
secondary resolvers of the backhoe section and operate the implements. Enough flow will be supplied to flush
the debris to tank.
Also when troubleshooting, consider how the force of gravity might effect the operation of the implement in
question when troubleshooting the hydraulic system. You may jump to the wrong conclusion.
BCP BHL - 112 - Student Materials
8/02/02

416C/426C/436C SIGNAL NETWORK FOR MACHINES BUILT AFTER 7/2000


BACKHOE SECTION

BOOM SWING LEFT RIGHT BUCKET STICK


STABILIZER STABILIZER
PRIMARY
RESOLVER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER

PUMP
LOADER LOADER LOADER CONTROL
AUX. TILT LIFT HMU VALVE
ORIFICE
RESOLVER

TORQUE
LOADER SECTION STEERING LIMITER
RESOLVER
CONNECTED TO
SWASHPLATE

428C/438C SIGNAL NETWORK FOR MACHINES BUILT AFTER 7/2000


BACKHOE SECTION

BOOM SWING LEFT RIGHT BUCKET STICK


STABILIZER STABILIZER
PRIMARY
RESOLVER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER

PUMP
LOADER LOADER LOADER CONTROL
AUX. TILT LIFT HMU VALVE
ORIFICE
RESOLVER

TORQUE
LOADER SECTION STEERING LIMITER
RESOLVER
CONNECTED TO
SWASHPLATE
BCP BHL - 113 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Case Study

DIRECTIONS Students should use the service manual and class notes to complete the
exercise. Have the students answer the questions on the Troubleshooting
Exercise Worksheet. Discuss the exercise with the students after they
have had time to answer the exercise questions.

SITUATION The following exercise is based on a possible field complaint.

The customer's 416D Backhoe Loader with 627 service hours has poor
implement response.

After checking fluid levels, the mechanic checks implement cycle times.
All implements in the backhoe section were very slow. The boom raise
was the slowest at 60 seconds.
BCP BHL - 114 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Worksheet

ISOLATE PROBLEM The first step in in a troubleshooting process is to gather information


before starting any work on the machine. If possible talk to the operator.
Gather Information Also, check the repair history of the machine and the Caterpillar Service
Information Retrieval System (SIRS). List at least three questions you
would ask an operator to help in determining a problem exists? Possible
answers:

Verify Verify the problem exists. Operate the machine to duplicate the problem,
preferably under similar operating conditions. Compare the operation to
a known good machine. Perform sensory checks such as looking,
listening, touching, smelling to verify a problem exists.
Perform Visual When troubleshooting always perform a visual inspection first. Look for
Inspection the obvious. List at least three typical items that should be inspected
during a visual inspection for. Possible answers:

State Problem After verifying a problem exists, state in your own words what the
problem is. Caution: Do not identify the solution. Possible answer:
BCP BHL - 115 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Worksheet (continued)

LIST POSSIBLE The next step in the process is to list all of the possible causes of the
FAULTS problem. Identify all systems and components that could be causing the
problem, including the least obvious. List at least four things that could
be checked. Possible answers:

Devise tests and Now, create a list of tests should be performed and describe what the
determine root cause tests would determine. Prioritize the tests as to which sequence they
should be performed in. As a general rule, always do the easiest tests
first. Also, list diagnostic tooling required. Identify at least four tests to
perform. (NOTE: the rankings are only suggested.)

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:
BCP BHL - 116 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Worksheet (continued)

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

Tooling needed:

REPAIR FAULT After isolating the component, which you suspect from your test results is
causing the problem, either adjust or replace the component.

Circle the best response:


If during your tests you discovered that the maximum system pressure
was only 6900 kPa (1000 psi). Which one of the following components
would you adjust or replace?
1. Margin spring setting
2. Pressure cut-off
3. Steering signal pressure limiter
4. Torque limiter

If during your tests you discovered that standby pressure was correct and
engine high idle was also set correctly. Which of the following would
you least likely expect to be the cause of the problem?
1. The torque limiter
2. The secondary resolver closest to the pump control
3. The margin spring setting
4. The pressure cutoff spring setting
BCP BHL - 117 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Worksheet (continued)

VERIFY REPAIR After completing the repair, always verify the machine is operating
correctly. List at least three things you would do to make sure the repair
was done correctly.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Fill in the service report after completing the job.


BCP BHL - 118 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: STEERING AND IMPLEMENT


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
The purpose of this module is to have you identify system problems
within the steering and implement hydraulic system, perform tests and
then make repairs and adjustments to return the machine to normal
operation. This module consists of one lesson.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. Using information from previous modules, perform the appropriate


engine, electrical and power train tests to determine system
problems.

❑ 2. Using information from previous modules and repair or adjust the


system.

❑ 3. Record results of your findings and provide a spoken classroom


report.
BCP BHL - 119 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: Steering and Implement Hydraulic System


Troubleshooting
BACKGROUND This lesson will allow you gain familiarity performing system checks,
INFORMATION using the Service Manual to determining if the machine is operating to
specifications. If the machine is not performing to specification, make
the appropriate adjustments or repairs.

Shop Lab
❑ • Split into Two Groups with One Machine per Group.

❑ • "Bug" systems already discussed. Allow two "bugs" to be installed in


the system.

❑ • Exchange Machines and Do the Following:


- Verify the problems exists.
- Devise the necessary diagnostic and performance tests to isolate
the problem.
- Perform the tests.
- Analyze the results.
- Repair the problem.
- Verify that the problem is solved.

Materials Needed
❑ Related service manual modules and reference materials
Backhoe Hydraulic System Tests sheets
2-8T0856 Pressure Gauge (0 to 870 psi)
2-8T0859 Pressure Gauge (0 to 3600 psi) or 1-1U5796
Differential Gauge Group
1-1U5482 Hose and Fitting Group
1-Stop Watch
1-Tape Measure
2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 120 - Student Materials

BACKHOE LOADER HYDRAULIC TESTS

PRESSURE TEST SPEC ACTUAL ADJUSTED

Low Pressure Standby


RUN ALL TESTS AT
Margin Pressure MAXIMUM RPM
Maximum System Pressure
MACHINE AT NORMAL
Pilot Pressure OPERATING
Steering Circuit Pressure TEMPERATURES

CYCLE TIMES
TEST
1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH AVG. SPEC
Bucket Dump
L
O Tilt Back

A Regenerative Dump
(for parallel lift)
D
E Float
R Raise

Bucket Dump

Bucket Load (Curl)

Stick In

Stick Out

Swing
(Stop to Stop)

Swing
(Stop to Snubber)

E-Stick Extend
B
A E-Stick Retract
C
K Left Stabilizer Up
H
O Left Stabilizer Down
E
Right Stabilizer Up

Right Stabilizer Down

Boom Lower

Boom Pause

Boom Raise
(to snubber)

Boom Raise
(to stop)

Auxiliary 1

Auxiliary 2
BCP BHL - 121 - Student Materials

BACKHOE LOADER HYDRAULIC TESTS

PRESSURE TEST SPEC ACTUAL ADJUSTED

Low Pressure Standby


RUN ALL TESTS AT
Margin Pressure MAXIMUM RPM
Maximum System Pressure
MACHINE AT NORMAL
Pilot Pressure OPERATING
Steering Circuit Pressure TEMPERATURES

Swing Circuit Pressure

CYCLE TIMES
TEST
1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH AVG. SPEC
Bucket Dump
L
O Tilt Back

A Regenerative Dump
(for parallel lift)
D
E Float
R Raise

Bucket Dump

Bucket Load (Curl)

Stick In

Stick Out

Swing
(Stop to Stop)

Swing
(Stop to Snubber)

E-Stick Extend
B
A E-Stick Retract
C
K Left Stabilizer Up
H
O Left Stabilizer Down
E
Right Stabilizer Up

Right Stabilizer Down

Boom Lower

Boom Pause

Boom Raise
(to snubber)

Boom Raise
(to stop)

Auxiliary 1

Auxiliary 2
BCP BHL - 122 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Student Troubleshooting Analysis

STEP 1 - MAKE SURE PROBLEM EXISTS:

STEP 2 - STATE THE PROBLEM:

STEP 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION:

STEP 4 - LIST ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

STEP 5 - DEVISE AND RUN CHECKS/RECORD DATA:

1.

RESULT

2.

RESULT

3.

RESULT

4.

RESULT

5.

RESULT

STEP 6 - ISOLATE AND ELIMINATE:

STEP 7 - REPAIR MACHINE:

STEP 8 - VERIFY FIX:


BCP BHL - 123 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Student Troubleshooting Analysis

STEP 1 - MAKE SURE PROBLEM EXISTS:

STEP 2 - STATE THE PROBLEM:

STEP 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION:

STEP 4 - LIST ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

STEP 5 - DEVISE AND RUN CHECKS/RECORD DATA:

1.

RESULT

2.

RESULT

3.

RESULT

4.

RESULT

5.

RESULT

STEP 6 - ISOLATE AND ELIMINATE:

STEP 7 - REPAIR MACHINE:

STEP 8 - VERIFY FIX:


BCP BHL - 124 - Student Materials
8/02/02

MODULE: ALL WHEEL STEERING


ELECTRICAL & HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
The purpose of this module is to have you identify All Wheel Steer
electrical and hydraulic components This module consists of one lesson.

OBJECTIVES

❑ 1. On the machine, locate the following: All Wheel Steer Control


Valve, Rear Axle Position Gage, Rear Position Micro-switch,
Pressure Switch, Rear Axle Position Sender, and AWS Select Switch
BCP BHL - 125 - Student Materials
8/02/02

Lesson: All Wheel Steer System Component Identification


BACKGROUND This lesson will help you gain familiarity with the machine and locate
INFORMATION components and service points.

Shop Lab
❑ • On the machine, locate the following: All Wheel Steer Control Valve,
Rear Axle Position Gage, Rear Position Micro-switch, Pressure Switch,
Rear Axle Position Sender, and AWS Select Switch using AWS System
Checklist I, plus the Electrical Schematic. Record a check after
locating each component.
NOTE: Remove side panels and/or cab floor plates as needed.

Materials Needed
❑ AWS System Checklist I

D Series Electrical Schematic.

Related service manual module


2-Mechanic's Tool Boxes and hand tools
BCP BHL - 126 - Student Materials
8/02/02

All Wheel Steer System Component Checklist I


Directions: Use this sheet to take notes during the presentation (i.e. location, functions) . During a lab
exercise, use this as a checklist when identifying components.

C D Model

All Wheel Steer Control Valve Group

Rear Axle Position Gage

Rear Position Micro-switch

Pressure Switch

Rear Axle Position Sender

AWS Select Switch


8/02/02

TST 1 TST 2
BCP BHL

THERMAL
ALL WHEEL STEER SYSTEM
IRM RELIEF HOLD
LEFT VALVE
VALVE

ALL WHEEL STEER


CIRCLE
CONTROL VALVE
STEER
IRM GROUP
VALVE
SHUTOFF
VALVE RESOLVER

IRM PILOT
RIGHT POPPET
VALVE VALVES
LOCK
VALVE
PILOT
RESOLVER POPPET
VALVES
REAR
AXLE
- 127 -

FROM STABILIZER FRONT


VALVE GROUP AXLE
CROSSOVER
TO BACKHOE LINE RELIEF
VALVE GROUP VALVES
STEERING METERING UNIT
BACK FLOW
RETURN AUXILIARY CHECK VALVE

LOADER TILT
VALVE
GROUP LIFT

SIGNAL
TO STABILIZER
VALVE GROUP
STEERING
PRIORITY
VALVE

TO BACKHOE VALVE GROUP


TO BRAKE VALVE
Student Materials
Service Training COURSE REFERENCE
Course Materials MATERIALS

D SERIES BACKHOE LOADER DIAGNOSTICS


BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS
Service Training COURSE REFERENCE
Course Materials MATERIALS

TORQUE LIMITERS

BACKHOE LOADERS
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS
BCP BHL -2- Student Materials
8/02/02

416C - 438C HYDRAULIC PUMP


TORQUE LIMITER OPEN

TORQUE
LIMITER

PUMP
SIGNAL OUTPUT

FLOW PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR COMPENSATOR

416B-438B/416C-438C Torque Limiter

Torque limiter were on backhoes were introduced at the introduction of


the B Series. The torque limiter will destroke the pump at certain flow
and pressure demands to prevent the engine from stalling. The hydraulic
pumps on the B and C Series machines were designed to provide as much
flow as possible without having an additional increase in engine
horsepower.

The C Series and D Series machines have gone back to the original
design of torque limiters used on the B Series machines. When the C
Series machines were introduced they were equipped with a differently
designed torque limiter. This torque limiter did not meet expectations
and was replaced.


BCP BHL -3- Student Materials
8/02/02

If the pump is at maximum flow and the signal pressure increases above
the torque limiter setting, the torque limiter opens and directs some of the
signal oil to the tank. A pressure drop occurs across the orifice in the
signal line which results in a slight loss of the actual signal pressure. The
margin spool then moves up and allows supply oil to the large actuator
piston. The pump will then destroke. The torque limiter will maintain
control over the swashplate as long as the signal pressure remains the
same or increases for the high flow demanded. During this condition, the
torque limiter remains open and continues to meter some of the signal oil
to the tank.

The reduced pump flow will be at a sufficient level to maintain the input
torque setting. If the cylinder pressure continues to increase, the torque
limiter will destroke the pump more.

In summary, full pump supply pressure is always available. However,


flow is regulated to maintain a required maximum input torque from the
engine. Full pump flow is available when the signal pressure is below
the torque limiter setting.
BCP BHL -4- Student Materials
8/02/02

IMPLEMENT AND STEERING PUMP


TORQUE LIMITER REDUCES FLOW
PUMP
SIGNAL
OUTPUT
LARGE ACTUATOR

MARGIN TORQUE
SPOOL LIMITER

SMALL ACTUATOR
PASSAGE TO AND BIAS SPRING
TANK

• Torque limiter 416C-438C Torque Limiter - Original Production


operation

- Destrokes pump as The torque limiter monitors the pump swashplate angle and the pump
pressure increases signal pressure. The torque limiter will not allow the pump to go to full
stroke as system pressure increases above the torque limiter setting. The
- Spring force varies allowable pump displacement is inversely proportional to the pump
with swashplate discharge pressure. The higher the pressure, the less pump flow is
angle
available.

The pressure setting of the torque limiter varies with the swashplate
angle. The greater the swashplate angle, the lower the pressure setting.

If the pump is at maximum flow and the signal pressure increases above
the torque limiter setting, the torque limiter opens and directs some of the
signal oil to the tank through a slot in the torque limiter spool. A
pressure drop occurs across the orifice in the signal line which results in
a slight loss of the actual signal pressure. The margin spool then moves
up and allows supply oil to the large actuator piston. The pump will then
destroke.
BCP BHL -5- Student Materials
8/02/02

TORQUE LIMITER

NORMAL

ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

SIGNAL ACTUATOR
SPRING PISTON
SLEEVE SLOT SPOOL

REDUCED
FLOW

PASSAGE TO
TANK

SIGNAL

• Maintains input torque The torque limiter will maintain control over the swashplate as long as
setting the signal pressure remains the same or increases for the high flow
demanded. During this condition, the torque limiter remains open and
continues to meter some of the signal oil to the tank.

The reduced pump flow will be at a sufficient level to maintain the input
torque setting. If the cylinder pressure continues to increase, the torque
limiter will again open and destroke the pump more.

In summary, full pump supply pressure is always available. However,


flow is regulated to maintain a required maximum input torque from the
engine. Full pump flow is available when the signal pressure is below
the torque limiter setting.
BCP BHL -6- Student Materials
8/02/02

ENGINE RPM VS. THE TORQUE


LIMITER SETTING E
N
Engine RPM and the torque limiter setting
are directly proportional to one another. G
I
At points A and B the input torque is the
same; However, at the higher low idle N
engine speed for point B, the torque limiter E
setting can be set higher. B
R A
P
M

TORQUE LIMITER
SETTING

SYSTEM PRESSURE VS. FLOW RATE


The allowable pump displacement is inversely proportional to the pump discharge pressure. For line B
at 43 gpm (maximum flow) as shown here, the system pressure is less than maximum system pressure.
If the system pressure increases the maximum flow rate is reduced by the torque limiter. The pump at
the higher operating pressure is now in the torque limiter control range. As pressure continues to
increase the flow rate is further reduced.

S
Y 3000 PSI A
S
TORQUE LIMITER
T CONTROL RANGE
E
M
B B
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
A
43 GPM

FLOW RATE
BCP BHL -7- Student Materials
8/02/02

416B-438B Torque Limiter Adjustments

Adjustments to the torque limiter can be made, but are not usually
required.

To determine if the torque limiter is at fault or whether the engine is at


fault, try the following.

Check torque converter stall. If the torque stall specification is incorrect


and the implement hydraulics is causing the engine to stop, then probably
the engine is at fault. DO NOT ADJUST THE TORQUE LIMITER.

If torque converter stall specification is correct, but the hydraulic system


causes the engine to die. The torque limiter may to be adjusted. Before
adjusting the torque limiter make sure that pump standby pressure,
maximum system pressure and margin pressure are correct.

1) Check Low Idle and adjust to above 950 rpm. Set at least to 970.
The fuel pump low idle spring tends to droop after a number of hours are
put on the machine.

2) Operate boom down at low idle against the boom stop. If the
hydraulic system does not cause the engine to stall, no further adjustment
is required.

3) If the engine still stalls. Back out the torque limiter to reduce the
spring setting.

4) Operate boom down at low idle against the boom stop. Increase the
torque limiter setting until the engine stalls. Back out the torque limiter
about a quarter of a turn.

5) Restart machine. Operate boom down at low idle against the boom
stop. If the engine does not stall the torque limiter has been adjusted
correctly.

NOTE: If more precise adjustments of the torque limiter are


required refer to the service manual and follow the steps for using a
flow meter.
BCP BHL -8- Student Materials
8/02/02

416C-438C Torque Limiter Adjustments For Machines


Equipped with B Torque Limiter

Adjustments to the torque limiter can be made, but are not usually
required. NOTE: B procedures do not work on the C because of a
lower boom line relief setting.

To determine if the torque limiter is at fault or whether the engine is at


fault, try the following.

Check torque converter stall. If the torque stall specification is incorrect


and the implement hydraulics is causing the engine to stop, then probably
the engine is at fault. DO NOT ADJUST THE TORQUE LIMITER.

If torque converter stall specification is correct, but the hydraulic system


causes the engine to die. The torque limiter may to be adjusted. Before
adjusting the torque limiter make sure that pump standby pressure,
maximum system pressure and margin pressure are correct.

1) Check Low Idle and adjust to above 950 rpm. Set at least to 970.
The fuel pump low idle spring tends to droop after a number of hours are
put on the machine.

2) Run machine at lower idle, turn on AC (if equipped),apply brakes,


place transmission in second gear forward, operate loader raise and stall
bucket dump for IT machines. For single tilt machines, operate raise and
rackback. If the hydraulic system does not cause the engine to stall, no
further adjustment is required.

3) If the engine still stalls. Back out the torque limiter to reduce the
spring setting.

4) Run machine at lower idle, apply brakes, place transmission in second


gear forward, operate loader raise and bucket dump. Increase the torque
limiter setting until the engine stalls. Back out the torque limiter about a
quarter of a turn.

5) Restart machine. Repeat step 2. If the engine does not stall the
torque limiter has been adjusted correctly.

NOTE: If more precise adjustments of the torque limiter are


required refer to the service manual and follow the steps for using a
flow meter.

For early production C machines without the B torque limiter refer


to the service manual.
BCP BHL -9- Student Materials
8/02/02

• Hydraulic system D Series Adjustments


components:
A torque limiter (arrow) is used to control the pump. The torque limiter
- Torque limiter
will reduce maximum pump flow available as pressures increase to
(arrow)
prevent engine stall.

The torque limiter provides improved hydraulic system performance with


less engine horsepower. The torque limiter is adjustable. Before making
adjustment to the torque limiter, make sure low idle is set correctly.

NOTE: A quick check to make sure the torque limiter is operating


correctly on single tilt cylinder machines, is to operate the machine at
low idle. With the machine at normal operating temperatures, apply the
service brakes and select SECOND FORWARD. Turn on air conditioner
(if equipped) and accessories. Raise and rack back the bucket. If the
engine stalls, the torque limiter may need to be adjusted.

For dual tilt cylinder machines, follow the same steps, except stall the
bucket in the dump position, instead of racking back.

For more precise adjustment of the torque limiter follow the procedures
in the service manual. A torque converter stall test should also be done
before adjusting the torque limiter. The engine may not be performing
correctly.