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II.

Introduction
Background of the Study
Holmborn (2015) found that liquid fuels have over the past 100 years evolved as the fuels
of choice for transport because of their high energy density and the ease of transport, storage and
handling. Conventional fuels are complex mixtures that typically contain more than hundred
chemical components whose composition has changed and evolved over time and in connection
to engine development. The development has been done in correlation with and in order to meet
the engine development demand on power, efficiency and drivability. Over the last decades ever
more stringent emissions legislations has been added to the demands on the fuel and engine
combination. When discussing alternatives to current fossil based fuels for propulsion and power
generation fuel properties are important criteria from a combustion point of view to take into
consideration, since the combustion behavior relates to the main purpose of the heat machine, i.e.,
to convert chemical power to mechanical power. However, the fuel in an internal combustion
engine undergoes other processes and passes many systems before it is burned, as exemplified in
Figure 2.1, and these also have to be considered. All the systems will influence the fuel and the
fuel’s different properties will influence the systems.

Courtesy of Martin Tunér
Figure 2.1: Fuel path through an internal combustion engine (Spark Ignition)

When discussing alternatives to present fossil fuels on a large scale the long and often hard
learned lessons on the various aspects of the fuel properties inherent in these standards are of vital
importance in order not to face problems which are not intuitively found. Present report aims at
presenting an overview of commonly discussed current and future proposed alternative fuels in
reflection to the parameters and properties described by the current fuel standards. Since the main
source of energy in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen
bound the variations in theoretically possible hydrocarbon fuels is close to endless. This study will
consequently not be able to directly present and comment on all emerging fuels but will rather
focus on present and compare most of the type of fuels proposed from a “functional group” or
hydrocarbon type perspective.
Statement of the Problem

The principal purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model which describes
the fuel system in an internal combustion engine. The two fuel systems to be investigated in this
paper are Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoline.
The student sought answers to the following specific questions;
1) Which is more efficient? Gasoline or LPG?
2) Which one is cheaper?
3) What are the advantages and disadvantages of converting Gasoline to LPG?

Significance of the Study

The advantages of the gasoline engine system is generally well known. The gasoline flows
because of a partial vacuum created in the fuel supply line by the fuel pump. The fuel is filtered
enroute to the pump. There is no fuel lock in this system because when the engine stops, the pump
stops and the fuel stops flowing. The fuel then enters the carburetor float chamber and is routed
through an intricate series of passages, valves and chambers. The fuel enters the incoming air
stream via one of several venturis. It is then vaporized by passing through a heated manifold
enroute to the combustion chamber.

The greatest continuing problem with this system is carburetion and intake manifolding.
These must be viewed as one problem. A rough surfaced or poorly heated manifold will alter the
air-fuel ratio as established by the carburettor. A short riser also has a deleterious effect on the air-
fuel mixture.

Aside from carburetion, there are some disadvantages of gasoline listed below;

 High price
 Deteriorates in storage
 Unsafe to handle in large quantities
 Evaporates readily
 Subject to pilferage
 Not good for large engine use
 Not clean burning

It is for the reason that, the student thought of exploring the study between gasoline and
LPG as fuels for internal combustion engine. LPG have many advantages than gasoline. It is most
likely a modified gasoline engine.

Although LPG could be good options as alternatives to the gasoline fuels, this paper is
focused in the investigation of changing the fuel from gasoline to LPG as primary fuel in an engine
based on Otto cycle.
III. Review of Related Literature

The student viewed literature related to the present study that serves as the background of
the research. And since some readers may not be completely familiar with LPG in general and its
use as a fuel in particular, the remainder of this chapter will focus on defining the two fuels based
on the related study.

LPG

In a study written by Thomas Benton McDonald dated May 23, 1967, he stated that when
LPG is first used as a motor vehicle fuel, it was composed of many of the lighter hydrocarbons.
There was no specification standard for the composition of motor vehicle grade LPG. As a matter
of fact, the National Fire Protection Association in its manual Number 58 states, “The terms
“Liquefied Petroleum Gases”, “LPG”, and “LP-Gas” as used in this standard shall mean and
include any material which is composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or
mixtures of them; propane, propylene, butanes (normal butane or iso-butane), and butylenes”, The
earliest LPG many times contained ethane and pentane in varying amounts. In 1962, the National
Gas Processors Association (NGPA) at the request of the LPG-fueled engine manufacturers drew
up a set of specifications for a high grade LPG for use as a motor vehicle fuel.

Biernat (2016), in his article entitled “Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a Fuel for Internal
Combustion Engines” stated that LPG is a particular energy carrier, counted among the group of
alternative fuels. LPG has more than 1000 different uses, including applications in industry,
engineering, communal economy, agriculture, households, and transport. Because of simplified
logistics of transport ensuring supply diversification, availability of sources, and most of all
environmental aspects, LPG exhibits high dynamics of production and consumption; the global
production of this fuel comes close to 280 million tonnes. Only a small part of global LPG
production, about 10%, is used to fuel internal combustion engines.

Gasoline
According to Jenő Hancsók (2016) article, Gasoline is a mixture of volatile petroleum
components, used as the energy source in internal combustion spark-ignition engines. It is
composed of volatile mixture of 20–200°C distillating paraffinic, naphtenic, and aromatic
hydrocarbons, oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), and quality-improving additives. In addition to being
suitable for use in the spark-ignition (Otto) engine, gasoline must meet regulatory requirements
and standards.
McDonald T. (1967) stated that there is no precise technical definition exists for gasoline.
This is primarily because up to 6000 of the heavier paraffins and iso-paraffins are present in
gasoline. Gasoline possesses average properties similar to say, heptane (C7H16). Because gasoline
is obtained by catalytic cracking or fractionating, there are more olefins in gasoline (10-30%) than
in LPG.
IV. Assessment between Gasoline and LPG
A. Gasoline
Problem 1: Cylinder conditions at the start of compression in an SI engine operating at WOT on
an air-standard Otto cycle are 60 oC and 98 kPa. The engine has a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and
uses gasoline with AF = 15.5. Combustion efficiency is 96%, and it can be assumed that there is
no exhaust residual.
Calculate:
a. Temperature at all states in the cycle.
b. Pressure at all states in the cycle.
c. Specific work done during power stroke.
d. Heat added during combustion.
e. Net specific work done.
f. Indicated thermal efficiency.

Given:
Fuel = Gasoline Rc = 9.5
T1 = 60 oC + 273 = 333 K AF = 15.5
P1 = 98 kPa nc = 96%

Required:
a) T2, T3, T4
b) P2, P3, P4
c) W3-4
d) Q2-3
e) Wnet
f) nt

Solution:

Source: https://www.nuclear-power.net/nuclear-engineering/thermodynamics/thermodynamic-cycles/otto-cycle-otto-engine
Figure 4.1: Otto Cycle P-V Diagram
𝑘𝐽 k = 1.35
Cp = 1.108 𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑘𝐽
𝑘𝐽 𝑄𝐻𝑉 = 43000 𝑘𝑔
Cv = 0.821 𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑘𝐽
R = 0.287 𝑘𝑔.𝐾

Process 1-2: isentropic compression (s=c)
𝑇𝟐 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(9.5)0.35 = 𝟕𝟑𝟐. 𝟐𝟑 𝑲

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (98 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(9.5)1.35 = 𝟐𝟎𝟒𝟕. 𝟏𝟔𝟓 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑅(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) (0.287)(732.23 − 333) 𝒌𝑱
𝑊1−2 = = = −𝟑𝟐𝟕. 𝟑𝟔𝟖𝟔
1−𝑘 1 − 1.35 𝒌𝒈

Process 2-3: isometric combustion (v=c)
𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 )
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
(43,000 ) (0.96) = (15.5 + 1) (0.821 ) (𝑇3 − 732.23)𝐾
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
𝑇3 = 𝟑𝟕𝟕𝟗. 𝟓𝟏 𝑲 = 𝑻𝒎𝒂𝒙

𝑇 3779.51 𝐾
𝑃3 = 𝑃2 (𝑇3 ) = (2047.165 𝑘𝑃𝑎) ( 732.23 𝐾 ) = 𝟏𝟎𝟓𝟔𝟔. 𝟕𝟑𝟓 𝒌𝑷𝒂 = 𝑷𝒎𝒂𝒙
2

𝒌𝑱
𝑞2−3 = 𝑞𝑖𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) = 0.821(3779.51 – 732.23) = 2501.82 𝒌𝒈

Process 3-4: isentropic expansion (s=c)
1 𝑘−1 1 0.35
𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (3779.51 𝐾) ( ) = 𝟏𝟕𝟏𝟖. 𝟖𝟑 𝑲
𝑟𝑐 9.5
1 𝑘 1 1.35
𝑃4 = 𝑃3 (𝑟 ) = (10566.735 𝑘𝑃𝑎) (9.5) = 𝟓𝟎𝟓. 𝟖𝟒 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝑐
𝑅(𝑇4 − 𝑇3 ) (0.287)(1718.83 − 3779.51) 𝒌𝑱
𝑊3−4 = = = 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟗. 𝟕𝟓𝟖
1−𝑘 1 − 1.35 𝒌𝒈

For Wnet;
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽 𝒌𝑱
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊1−2 + 𝑊3−4 = −327.3686 + 1689.758 = 𝟏𝟑𝟔𝟐. 𝟑𝟗
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝒌𝒈

For thermal efficiency;
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 1362.39
𝜂𝑡 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟓𝟒. 𝟒𝟓𝟔%
𝑞𝑖𝑛 2501.82

Problem 2: The engine in Problem 1 is a three-liter V6 engine operating at 2400 rpm. At this
speed the mechanical efficiency is 84%.
Calculate:
a) Brake power.
b) Torque
c) Brake mean effective pressure
d) Friction power lost
e) Brake specific fuel consumption
f) Volumetric efficiency
g) Output per displacement
Given:

V = 3L
N = 2400rpm
ηm = 84%

Required:
a) Pb e) BSP
b) T f) nv
c) bmep g) OPD
d) Pf
Solution:
For displacement volume, Vd

3𝐿
𝑉𝑑 = = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝑳 = 𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
6

For clearance volume, Vc

𝑉 𝑉𝑐 +𝑉𝑑 𝑉𝑐 +0.0005 𝑚3
𝑟𝑐 = 𝑉1 = ; 9.5 = ; 𝑉𝑐 = 𝟓. 𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
2 𝑉𝑐 𝑉𝑐

State 1

𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 5𝑥10−4 𝑚3 + 5.88𝑥10−5 𝑚3 = 𝟓. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑

Mass of gas mixture in cylinder can be calculated at state 1. The mass within the cylinder

will then remain the same for the entire cycle.

𝑃1 𝑉1 (98 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(0.0005588𝑚3 )
𝑚𝑚 = = = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈
𝑅𝑇1 𝑘𝐽
(0.287 ) (333𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝐽;

𝒌𝑱
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈 (𝟏𝟑𝟔𝟐. 𝟑𝟗 ) = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖 𝒌𝑱
𝒌𝒈

Indicated Power at 2400 rpm

1
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑁 (0.78)(2400) (60)
𝑃𝑖 = = (6) = 93.6 𝑘𝑊
𝑛 2

𝑃𝑏 = η𝑃𝑖 = (0.84)(93.6) = 𝟕𝟖. 𝟔 𝒌𝑾
2𝛑𝑁𝑇
𝑃𝑏 =
60
2𝛑(2400)𝑇
78.6 =
60

𝑻 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟏𝟑 𝒌𝑵. 𝒎 = 𝟑𝟏𝟑 𝑵. 𝒎

Solving for V2

𝑉1 𝟓. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
𝑉2 = = = 𝟓. 𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
𝑟𝑐 9.5

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 0.78
𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑝 = = = 1560 𝑘𝑃𝑎
𝑉1 − 𝑉2 5.588𝑥10 − 5.88𝑥10−5
−4

𝑏𝑚𝑒𝑝 = η(𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑝) = (0.84)(1560) = 𝟏𝟑𝟏𝟎. 𝟒 𝒌𝑷𝒂

Solving for friction Power loss:

𝑃𝑓 = 𝑃𝑖 − 𝑃𝑏 = 93.6 − 78.6 = 𝟏𝟓 𝒌𝑾

Solving for brake fuel specific consumption:
mm = ma(1+FA)
1
5.73𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎 (1 + )
15.5
𝑚𝑎 = 5.38𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔

mm = ma + m f
5.73𝑥10 𝑘𝑔 = 5.38𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔 + 𝑚𝑓
−4

𝑚𝑓 = 3.5𝑥10−5 𝑘𝑔

−5 2400 1
𝑚𝑓 (3.5𝑥10 )(6)( 60 )(2)(1000)(3600) 𝒈
𝐵𝑆𝑃 = = = 𝟏𝟗𝟐. 𝟑𝟕
𝑃𝑏 78.6 𝒌𝑾 − 𝒉𝒓

Solving for volumetric efficiency:
𝑚𝑎 5.38𝑥10−4
𝜂𝑣 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟏𝟏%
𝜌𝑎 𝑉𝑑 (1.181)(5𝑥10−4 )
For Output per displacement:

𝑃𝑏 78.6 𝒌𝑾
𝑂𝑃𝐷 = = = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟐
𝑉 3 𝑳

B. LPG
Problem 1: Cylinder conditions at the start of compression in an SI engine operating at WOT on
an air-standard Otto cycle are 60 oC and 98 kPa. The engine has a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and
uses LPG. Combustion efficiency is 96%, and it can be assumed that there is no exhaust residual.
Calculate:
a. Temperature at all states in the cycle.
b. Pressure at all states in the cycle.
c. Specific work done during power stroke.
d. Heat added during combustion.
e. Net specific work done.
f. Indicated thermal efficiency.
Given:
Fuel = LPG Rc = 9.5
T1 = 60 oC + 273 = 333 K nc = 96%
P1 = 98 kPa

Required
a. T2, T3, T4
b. P2, P3, P4
c. W3-4
d. Q2-3
e. Wnet
f. nt

Solution:
𝑘𝐽 k = 1.35
Cp = 1.108 𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑘𝐽
𝑘𝐽 𝑄𝐻𝑉 = 46607 𝑘𝑔
Cv = 0.821
𝑘𝑔.𝐾
𝑘𝐽
R = 0.287 𝑘𝑔.𝐾

Lower heating value of LPG is based on
Table 4.1.
For actual air-fuel ratio, assume that lambda of gasoline is equal to the lambda of LPG.
λ=λ
𝐴𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝐴𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡
(𝑔𝑎𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒) = (𝐿𝑃𝐺)
𝐴𝐹𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝐴𝐹𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑖𝑐ℎ

15.5 𝐴𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡(𝑙𝑝𝑔)
=
14.6 15.5

𝐴𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡(𝑙𝑝𝑔) = 16.455

Table 4.1: Heating Values of Gases and Liquids

Source: Argonne National Laboratory

Process 1-2: isentropic compression (s=c)
𝑇𝟐 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(9.5)0.35 = 𝟕𝟑𝟐. 𝟐𝟑 𝑲

𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (98 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(9.5)1.35 = 𝟐𝟎𝟒𝟕. 𝟏𝟔𝟓 𝒌𝑷𝒂

𝑅(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 ) (0.287)(732.23 − 333) 𝒌𝑱
𝑊1−2 = = = −𝟑𝟐𝟕. 𝟑𝟔𝟖𝟔
1−𝑘 1 − 1.35 𝒌𝒈
Process 2-3: isometric combustion (v=c)
𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝜂𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 )
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
(46,607 ) (0.96) = (16.455 + 1) (0.821 ) (𝑇3 − 732.23)𝐾
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔. 𝐾
𝑇3 = 𝟑𝟖𝟓𝟒. 𝟒𝟐 𝑲 = 𝑻𝒎𝒂𝒙

𝑇 3854.42 𝐾
𝑃3 = 𝑃2 ( 3 ) = (2047.165 𝑘𝑃𝑎) ( ) = 𝟏𝟎𝟕𝟕𝟔. 𝟏𝟕 𝒌𝑷𝒂 = 𝑷𝒎𝒂𝒙
𝑇2 732.23 𝐾

𝒌𝑱
𝑞2−3 = 𝑞𝑖𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) = 0.821(3854.42– 732.23) = 2563.32 𝒌𝒈

Process 3-4: isentropic expansion (s=c)
1 𝑘−1 1 0.35
𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (3854.42 𝐾) ( ) = 𝟏𝟕𝟓𝟐. 𝟖𝟗 𝑲
𝑟𝑐 9.5
1 𝑘 1 1.35
𝑃4 = 𝑃3 (𝑟 ) = (10776.17 𝑘𝑃𝑎) (9.5) = 𝟓𝟏𝟓. 𝟖𝟕 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝑐

𝑅(𝑇4 − 𝑇3 ) (0.287)(1752.89 − 3854.42) 𝒌𝑱
𝑊3−4 = = = 𝟏𝟕𝟐𝟑. 𝟐𝟓
1−𝑘 1 − 1.35 𝒌𝒈

For Wnet;
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽 𝒌𝑱
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊1−2 + 𝑊3−4 = −327.3686 + 1723.25 = 𝟏𝟑𝟗𝟓. 𝟖𝟗
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝒌𝒈

For thermal efficiency;
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 1395.89
𝜂𝑡 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟓𝟒. 𝟒𝟓𝟔%
𝑞𝑖𝑛 2563.32
Problem 2: The engine in Problem 1 is a three-liter V6 engine operating at 2400 rpm. At this
speed the mechanical efficiency is 84%.
Calculate:
h) Brake power.
i) Torque
j) Brake mean effective pressure
k) Friction power lost
l) Brake specific fuel consumption
m) Volumetric efficiency
n) Output per displacement
Given:

V = 3L
N = 2400rpm
ηm = 84%

Required:
h) Pb l) BSP
i) T m) nv
j) bmep n) OPD
k) Pf

Solution:
For displacement volume, Vd

3𝐿
𝑉𝑑 = = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝑳 = 𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
6

For clearance volume, Vc

𝑉 𝑉𝑐 +𝑉𝑑 𝑉𝑐 +0.0005 𝑚3
𝑟𝑐 = 𝑉1 = ; 9.5 = ; 𝑉𝑐 = 𝟓. 𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
2 𝑉𝑐 𝑉𝑐

State 1

𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 5𝑥10−4 𝑚3 + 5.88𝑥10−5 𝑚3 = 𝟓. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
Mass of gas mixture in cylinder can be calculated at state 1. The mass within the cylinder

will then remain the same for the entire cycle.

𝑃1 𝑉1 (98 𝑘𝑃𝑎)(0.0005588𝑚3 )
𝑚𝑚 = = = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈
𝑅𝑇1 𝑘𝐽
(0.287 ) (333𝐾)
𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝐽;

𝒌𝑱
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒌𝒈 (𝟏𝟑𝟗𝟓. 𝟖𝟗 ) = 𝟎. 𝟖 𝒌𝑱
𝒌𝒈

Indicated Power at 2400 rpm

1
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑁 (0.8)(2400) (60)
𝑃𝑖 = = (6) = 96 𝑘𝑊
𝑛 2

𝑃𝑏 = η𝑃𝑖 = (0.84)(96) = 𝟖𝟎. 𝟔𝟒 𝒌𝑾

2𝛑𝑁𝑇
𝑃𝑏 =
60
2𝛑(2400)𝑇
80.64 =
60

𝑻 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟐 𝒌𝑵. 𝒎 = 𝟑𝟐𝟎 𝑵. 𝒎

Solving for V2

𝑉1 𝟓. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒎𝟑
𝑉2 = = = 𝟓. 𝟖𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 𝒎𝟑
𝑟𝑐 9.5

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 0.8
𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑝 = = = 1600 𝑘𝑃𝑎
𝑉1 − 𝑉2 5.588𝑥10−4 − 5.88𝑥10−5

𝑏𝑚𝑒𝑝 = η(𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑝) = (0.84)(1600) = 𝟏𝟑𝟒𝟒 𝒌𝑷𝒂
Solving for friction Power loss:

𝑃𝑓 = 𝑃𝑖 − 𝑃𝑏 = 96 − 80.64 = 𝟏𝟓. 𝟑𝟔 𝒌𝑾

Solving for brake fuel specific consumption:
mm = ma(1+FA)
1
5.73𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔 = 𝑚𝑎 (1 + )
16.455
𝑚𝑎 = 5.4𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔

mm = ma + m f
5.73𝑥10 𝑘𝑔 = 5.4𝑥10−4 𝑘𝑔 + 𝑚𝑓
−4

𝑚𝑓 = 3.28𝑥10−5 𝑘𝑔

−5 2400 1
𝑚𝑓 (3.28𝑥10 )(6)( 60 )(2)(1000)(3600) 𝒈
𝐵𝑆𝑃 = = = 𝟏𝟕𝟓. 𝟖𝟔
𝑃𝑏 80.64 𝒌𝑾 − 𝒉𝒓

Solving for volumetric efficiency:
𝑚𝑎 5.4𝑥10−4
𝜂𝑣 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟒𝟓%
𝜌𝑎 𝑉𝑑 (1.181)(5𝑥10−4 )

For Output per displacement:

𝑃𝑏 80.64 𝒌𝑾
𝑂𝑃𝐷 = = = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟖𝟖
𝑉 3 𝑳
V. Analysis and Discussion

All parameters from gasoline to LPG were carried out at the same engine with a constant
speed of 2400 rpm, wide open throttle (WOT), and a compression ratio of 9.5:1. The stoichiometric
air-fuel ratio of LPG was calculated based on its content (60% butane and 40% propane).
Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio is the perfect ratio for a well-mixed air and fuel vapour. In an engine,
the mixing takes place very quickly and a perfect mix is impossible. Introductions like Swirl flaps
or Disturbed Air Admittance valves agitate the air going in to mix the air and fuel better, but still,
a perfect mix can't be attained. In this case, the student assumed that the lambda or the equivalence
ratio is equal when converting the fuel from gasoline to LPG. Lambda is simply the ratio of actual
air-fuel ratio to stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and is denoted by the Greek symbol λ. The actual air-
fuel ratio of LPG was computed based on equal lambdas of both fuel. Figures lower than λ=1 are
rich, and higher lambdas are lean. Below are the data computed between the two fuels.

Table 5.1: Comparison between Gasoline and LPG

Parameters Gasoline LPG

Temperature 2 732.23 𝐾 732.23 𝐾

Temperature 3 3779.51 𝐾 3854.42 𝐾

Temperature 4 1718.83 𝐾 1752.89 𝐾

Pressure 2 2047.165 𝑘𝑃𝑎 2047.165 𝑘𝑃𝑎

Pressure 3 10566.735 𝑘𝑃𝑎 10776.17 𝑘𝑃𝑎

Pressure 4 505.84 𝑘𝑃𝑎 515.87 𝑘𝑃𝑎

W3-4 𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
1689.758 1723.25
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
Heat added during
𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
combustion 2501.82 𝑘𝑔 2563.32 𝑘𝑔

Net specific work done 𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
1362.39 1395.89
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔

Thermal Efficiency 54.456% 54.456%

Brake Power 78.6 𝑘𝑊 80.64 𝑘𝑊

Torque 313 𝑁. 𝑚 320 𝑁. 𝑚

Brake Mean Effective 1310.4 𝑘𝑃𝑎 1344 𝑘𝑃𝑎
Pressure
Friction power lost 15 𝑘𝑊 15.36 𝑘𝑊
Brake specific fuel
consumption 𝑔 𝑔
192.37 175.86
𝑘𝑊 − ℎ𝑟 𝑘𝑊 − ℎ𝑟
Volumetric Efficiency 91.11% 91.45%

Output per Displacement 𝑘𝑊 𝑘𝑊
26.2 26.88
𝐿 𝐿
Table 5.1 shows the comparison between gasoline and LPG. As you observed, there is only
slight difference between the parameters. In order to distinguish the difference, some topics were
discussed below.

Efficiency of the Fuel

The efficiency of both fuel is almost the same. The thermal efficiency for gasoline is
54.456%, same also with LPG. For the volumetric efficiency, LPG is a bit bigger than gasoline.
So you can assume that the efficiency of LPG is similar to that of petrol depending on the measure
used. However, if you consider other factors, there should only be one fuel that is more convenient,
low-cost, and at the same time the efficiency of the engine.

Cost and Savings

In the Philippines, the price of gasoline per liter is 51 PHP, while for LPG, 29.64 PHP per
liter. LPG fuel consumption is lower than gasoline as you observe the data above. So if you convert
your gasoline engine into LPG, you can save money. Even the conversion cost a lot, it would be
worth it.

Availability of the Fuel

Gasoline fuel is universally available for fleet use. LPG is conveniently available in most
areas of the country, for fleet use and is improving steadily. The distribution pipelines exist to all
parts of the country and as demand increases, LPG can be as available as reasonably required.
Some fleets with a local-radius operation purchase or lease fixed storage tanks and/or mobile
tankers when necessary to overcome a fuel availability problem. Long-haul truckers can install
oversize truck LPG tanks to carry them the requisite distance between LPG refueling points.
It means that LPG is only available based on what country you will used it. However,
gasoline is available for all country and easy to find.

Environmental Impact

The advantage of LPG in terms of environmental impact over other fuels is getting smaller
as a result of technological progress. The introduction of three-way catalytic convertors results in
much lower levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon compounds (HC) and nitrogen oxides
(NOx) emissions from petrol-driven vehicles. The introduction of reformulated petrol and
reformulated diesel also reduce the impact of the two fuels on the environment.

Maintenance

A. Lubrication oil

The cleaner the lubricating oil, the longer is the life of the engine. Oil becomes
contaminated by combustion products and diluted by liquid fuel. Carbon is the principal
contaminant and the degree of contamination is based upon the hydrogen-carbon atom ratio of the
particular fuel molecule as well as the state of adjustment of the fuel-feed system. LPG is cleaner
burning fuel than gasoline.

B. Overhaul/Tune-ups

The maintenance or repair costs are directly related to the clean burning properties of the
fuel. The dirtier burning, the dirtier the oil becomes and the more often are services required due
to wear or coating with carbon.

C. Manhours

The manhour cost is in direct proportion to the frequency of maintenance services required
but is included because it is a contributory system cost and a substantial one. As might be
suspected, the gasoline system requires the greatest expenditure in parts and labor, the LPG system
requires the least.

Safety

a. Fire

From the standpoint of a fuel’s use in the fleet context. Gasoline is the most dangerous of
the two fuels for fire. Gasoline, being volatile gives off fumes which are flammable. Spilled
gasoline is highly flammable. LPG is less susceptible to conditions favoring fire. It is a pressurized
system and what minute quantities of fuel do "escape” during refueling are gases with high ignition
temperatures.

b. Explosion

If fire enters a diesel or gasoline tank there can be an explosion. Sparks can cause an
explosion of the vapours in a gasoline tank. LPG can explode from a ruptured tank but would not
catch fire unless a flame or hot spark were present. Because LPG is a pressurized system, it
represents a latent threat of explosion. Rigid safety standards for tanks, valves, pumps and hoses
probably have made LPG a safer fuel system than the vented systems of gasoline or diesel.

c. Toxicity

None of the fuels are toxic though prolonged exposure to the fumes of any of them can bring
nausea dizziness and in LPG’s case mild anaesthesia.

VI. Conclusion

LPG has many properties that make it a suitable alternative to gasoline as a fuel for spark
ignition engines. The simpler chemical composition of the major constituents leads to a better
overall burn, and thus lower HC and CO emissions. Other advantages include minimal need for
cold start enrichment, and almost immediate availability of full power to the engine because the
fuel readily converts to its gaseous form so there is no need to wait for the inlet manifold to be hot
to aid evaporation. There are also benefits to the mechanical performance of the engine, with
dramatic reductions in combustion chamber and spark plug deposits, as well as up to 50% longer
engine life courtesy of reduced cylinder bore wear since LPG does not wash oil from the cylinder
walls.
Bibliography