fatigue crack propagation

© All Rights Reserved

7 views

fatigue crack propagation

© All Rights Reserved

- MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY
- Cumulative Fatigue Damage and Life Prediction Theories
- Fatigue of Aircraft Structures
- Stress Concentration Roark-ch06
- Failure Types
- Fatigue Corrosion
- PAPERs on Thermal Fatigue
- 3D Fracture Analysis of Cold Lap Weld.pdf
- ASTM G129-00
- Fatigue Analysis in Ansys 14.5
- Fatigue Analysis of Welding Seams in Automotive
- Failre Analysis of an Idler Gear of Diesel Engine Gearbox
- Fatiga flexion rotativa de aisi 1045 acero.pdf
- Simplified Model for Damage in Squat RC Shear Walls
- Topic 2C
- An overview of the fatigue behaviour of plain and fibre.pdf
- 718 Laves Phase - Superalloys_1991_375_388
- Choudhary Thesis
- the Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity Factorc
- Lajtai

You are on page 1of 19

10

Fatigue Crack

Propagation

Assistant Professor

Mechanics - Fundamentals and

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Applications HITEC University, Taxila – Pakistan

Website: https://sites.google.com/view/atta85

1

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

The concept of similitude, when it applies, provides the

theoretical basis for fracture mechanics.

configurations will fail at the same critical K value, provided an

elastic singularity zone exists at the crack tip

characterized by the stress-intensity factor, as discussed next.

2

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

Consider a growing crack

in the presence of a

constant amplitude cyclic

stress intensity.

functional relationship for crack

growth in the following form:

∆K = (Kmax − Kmin)

f1 K , R

da

R = Kmin/Kmax

dN

da/dN = crack growth per cycle

The influence of the plastic zone and plastic wake on crack

growth is implicit in the above Equation, since the size of the

plastic zone depends only on Kmin and Kmax.

3

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

If Kmin and Kmax varies during cyclic loading, the crack growth in a

given cycle may depend on the loading history as well as the

current values of Kmin and Kmax :

f 2 K , R, H

da

dN

prior plastic deformation.

configurations cyclically loaded at the same ∆K and R will not

exhibit the same crack growth rate unless both configurations are

subject to the same prior history.

4

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

Fatigue crack growth analyses become considerably more

complicated when prior loading history is taken into account,

hence the dependence on H is neglected whenever possible.

no longer characterizes the crack-tip conditions in such cases, J

can replace K as:

f 3 J , R

da

dN

small-scale yielding because of the relationship between J and K

under linear elastic conditions. The validity of the above Equation

in the presence of significant plasticity is less clear, however.

5

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

figure, which illustrates typical fatigue crack growth behavior in metals.

The curve contains three region, the intermediate region is linear, but

the crack growth rate deviates from the linear trend at high and low ∆K

levels.

At the low end, da/dN

approaches zero at a

threshold ∆K, below which

the crack will not grow.

observed growth rate

increases rapidly at high ∆K

values; either due to Kmax

approaching Kc or due to the

influence of crack tip

plasticity.

6

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

law:

da where C and m are material constants

CK m that are determined experimentally.

dN

depends only on ∆K; da/dN is insensitive to the R ratio in Region II.

The power law was apparently discovered by Paris and Erdogan, hence

it is known as Paris law. They proposed an exponent of 4, which was in

line with their experimental data. Subsequent studies over the past

three decades, however, have shown that m can range from 2 to 4 for

most metals in the absence of a corrosive environment.

7

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

part of the sigmoidal da/dN and ∆K relationship.

Forman proposed the following relationship for Region II and Region III:

da CK m da CK m 1

OR Kc

dN 1 R K c K dN K max 1

assumes a superposition of fracture and fatigue rather than plastic

zone effects in Region III .

Klesnil and Lukas modified Paris law to account for the threshold:

da

dN

C K m K thm

8

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

curve, taking account of both the threshold and Stage III behavior.

three regions was developed at NASA and was first published by

Forman and Mettu, which is:

da

CK m 1 K th p

K where C, m, p, and q are

dN 1 Kmax

Kc

q

material constants.

equation reduces to the Paris law; therefore, C and m in this equation

are equivalent to that of Paris law.

9

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

In all the empirical fatigue crack growth equations discussed above, the

fatigue crack growth rate depends only on the loading parameters ∆K

and R.

the growing crack; none of these equations incorporate a history

dependence, and, thus, are strictly valid only for constant (stress

intensity) amplitude loading.

Dowling and Begley applied the J integral to fatigue crack growth under

large-scale yielding conditions where K is no longer valid.

da

CJ m

dN

10

EXAMPLE 10.1

Derive an expression for the number of stress cycles required to grow a

semicircular surface crack from an initial radius ao to a final size af,

assuming the Paris-Erdogan equation describes the growth rate.

Assume that af is small compared to plate dimensions, the crack

maintains its semicircular shape, and that the stress amplitude ∆σ is

constant.

Solution:

For a semicircular surface crack;

λs is surface correction

Q is flaw shape parameter

φ is the angle of a point along the crack

2c is the diameter of the major axis of

full crack

11

EXAMPLE 10.1

Neglecting the φ dependence of the surface correction factor λs.The

stress-intensity amplitude can be approximated by

1.04

K a

2.464

C 0.663 a

da m m2

dN

Which can be integrated to determine fatigue life:

1 af

N

C 0.663

m a0

a m 2 da

a01 m 2 a1f m 2

N for m 2

C m2 1 0.663 m

12

Problem 10.2

A structural component made from a high-strength steel is subject to

cyclic loading, with σmax = 210 MPa and σmin = 70 MPa. This

component experiences 100 stress cycles per day. Prior to going into

service, the component was inspected by nondestructive evaluation

(NDE), and no flaws were found. The material has the following

properties: σYS = 1000 MPa, KIc = 25 MPa . The fatigue crack growth

rate in this material is the same as in Problem 10.1 (m = 3 & C = 6.87 ×

10 −12) .

(a) The NDE technique can find flaws ≥ 2 mm deep. Estimate the

maximum safe design life of this component, assuming that

subsequent in-service inspections will not be performed. Assume that

any flaws that may be present are semicircular surface cracks and that

they are small relative to the cross section of the component.

(b) Repeat part (a), assuming an NDE detectability limit of 10 mm.

13

CRACK CLOSURE

An accidental discovery by Elber in 1970 resulted in several decades of

research into a phenomenon known as crack closure.

standard formulas for fracture mechanics specimens.

But at low loads, the compliance was close to that of an uncracked

specimen.

Elber believed that this change in compliance was due to the contact between

crack surfaces (i.e., crack closure) at loads that were low but greater than zero.

14

CRACK CLOSURE

When a specimen is cyclically loaded at Kmax and Kmin, the crack faces

are in contact below Kop, the stress intensity at which the crack opens.

Elber assumed that the portion of the cycle that is below Kop does not

contribute to fatigue crack growth because there is no change in crack-

tip strain during cyclic loading of a closed crack.

K eff K max K op

K eff

U

K

K max K op

K max K min

da

CK effm

dN 15

CRACK CLOSURE

Numerous researchers have later confirmed that crack closure does in

fact occur during fatigue crack propagation, Suresh and Ritchie

identified five mechanisms for fatigue crack closure, which are

illustrated in Figure.

plasticity-induced closure (b) roughness-induced

closure, (c) oxide-induced closure, (d) closure

induced by a viscous fluid, and (e) transformation-

induced closure.

Taken from Suresh, S. and Ritchie, R.O.,

“Propagation of Short Fatigue Cracks.” International

Metallurgical

16

CRACK CLOSURE

Plasticity-induced closure results from residual stresses in the plastic

wake. A number of researchers have studied it experimentally and

numerically.

global scale, crack deflections due to microstructural heterogeneity can

lead to mixed mode conditions on the microscopic level. The mismatch

between upper and lower crack faces results in contact of crack faces

at a positive load.

roughness in fatigue, and correspondingly higher closure loads.

17

CRACK CLOSURE

The effect of grain size on fatigue crack

propagation in 1018 steel is shown in Figure

where closure effects

are most

pronounced, the

coarse-grained

material has a higher

∆Kth, due to a higher

closure load that is

caused by greater

surface roughness .

disappear when the

data are characterized

by ∆Keff Effect of grain size on fatigue crack growth in mild steel. Taken from Gray, G.T.,

Williams, J.C., and Thompson, A.W., “Roughness Induced Crack Closure: An

Explanation for Microstructurally Sensitive Fatigue Crack Growth.” Metallurgical

Transactions, Vol. 14A, 1983, pp. 421–433. 18

CRACK CLOSURE

Oxide-induced closure is usually associated with an aggressive

environment. Oxide debris or other corrosion products become

wedged between crack faces.

Crack closure can also be introduced by a viscous fluid. The fluid acts as

a wedge between crack faces, somewhat like the oxide mechanism.

crack can result in a process zone wake, which is called transformation-

induced closure.

microstructure, yield strength, and environment.

19

- MATERIAL TECHNOLOGYUploaded byVarun
- Cumulative Fatigue Damage and Life Prediction TheoriesUploaded byrafaguera
- Fatigue of Aircraft StructuresUploaded byBharosh Yadav
- Stress Concentration Roark-ch06Uploaded bymaris
- Failure TypesUploaded byJamal Ali
- Fatigue CorrosionUploaded byaop10468
- PAPERs on Thermal FatigueUploaded byPon Kannan
- 3D Fracture Analysis of Cold Lap Weld.pdfUploaded byJames Phillips
- ASTM G129-00Uploaded byRodrigo Nogueira
- Fatigue Analysis in Ansys 14.5Uploaded byPhúc Phan Tử
- Fatigue Analysis of Welding Seams in AutomotiveUploaded byFernandoi
- Failre Analysis of an Idler Gear of Diesel Engine GearboxUploaded byArvian Yudhi Ariestyan
- Fatiga flexion rotativa de aisi 1045 acero.pdfUploaded byAnthony Gómez
- Simplified Model for Damage in Squat RC Shear WallsUploaded byFadhila Fadi
- Topic 2CUploaded bykritharana
- An overview of the fatigue behaviour of plain and fibre.pdfUploaded bySahir Saghar
- 718 Laves Phase - Superalloys_1991_375_388Uploaded byPierreDolonymous
- Choudhary ThesisUploaded byMohammed Abu Sufian
- the Stress Concentration Factor and Stress Intensity FactorcUploaded byKing1971
- LajtaiUploaded byChong Wanling
- 19690025326Uploaded byLeo Lonardelli
- Full TextUploaded bylando_alegre
- 2 Investigation of FatigueUploaded byimran_chaudhry
- 06004_02dUploaded byanon_558118723
- Sun 2012Uploaded bypushparajpingulkar
- CTOA - Applications and Developments in PIPELINE INDUSTRYUploaded bymarkus_naslund
- ipi468690Uploaded byMega
- web5150.pdfUploaded byrukesh104
- Size Effect of Plain Concrete Beams–an ExperimentalUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- 3-The Impact of Dents on Spin-On FiltersUploaded byAnonymous LfeGI2hM

- 2005 Us Army Wheeled Vehicle Clutches, Transmissions & Transfers Ch4 30pUploaded byLo Shun Fat
- 520l0463Uploaded byVijaya Sarathi Uppala
- Lab 4Uploaded byBrandon Sookdeo
- Thermofluids 2.pdfUploaded byJon Lee
- OilUploaded bySheikh Zakir
- Transport Phenomena...Steady State Diffusion ProblemsUploaded bySarah Barnett
- IntroductionUploaded byalleppey
- stress-analysis-of-steam-piping-system.pdfUploaded byJose Prado
- The Effect of Basin Edge Slope on the Dynamic Response of Soil Deposits [Havza Kenar Eğiminin Zemin Tabakalarının Dinamik Tepkisine Etkisi]Uploaded byÇağrı KARABİLLİOĞLU
- Volvo a25d Articulated Dump Truck Service Repair ManualUploaded byKARIM MOUELHI
- VBL-AWTF-81SCUploaded byPeps Ren
- Beam DeflectionUploaded bycarlo manabat
- BAGIAN1_PTI Kerangka Dasar Disiplin TIUploaded byAndiiWijaya
- electron beam machiningUploaded byMushfique Naaz
- Residual Stress SMATUploaded byShahazad Shaik
- Zadaca IptfUploaded byNermin Redzović
- Catalogo PC4000.pdfUploaded byErick Parra
- Ansys Constraints and LoadsUploaded byRupali Patil
- ECCE 1202 013 Wind Induced Vibration Tall Steel ChimneyUploaded byCleopatra Cristina Doibani
- V2I11-IJERTV2IS110212Uploaded byHarshit Saxena
- Energy and Economic Analysis of Geothermal–Solar TrigenerationUploaded byEmre Kcngl
- Low Pressure Governing SystemUploaded byBalgopal Raju
- Piping Tie-Rod Design Made SimpleUploaded bySeungmin Paek
- Enerpac CLSG Series CatalogUploaded byTitanply
- Lenz law...Uploaded byMuhammadAsyraf
- Tutorial 4 - Carnot and Introduction to EntropyUploaded byasdfsdjh
- Motor Datasheet 1500 HP 2300V.pdfUploaded byGilberto Mejia
- S TENUploaded bychusnuh
- Induced EMFUploaded byJaica Mangurali Tumulak
- Beam ConnectionUploaded byeduardox1