Report of the overseas training program on
(Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems)
03-08 October 2010 Venue – Nagorkot, Nepal
Training Conducted by ENPHO Environment and Public Health Organization
Submitted to Department of Local Government Eastern Province Sri Lanka
Prepared By- Eng.A.J.A.H.Jowsi , Municipal Engineer –Kalmunai Municipal Council
Acknowledgement My Heartfelt Gratitude Goes to the UN-Habitat for sponsoring my training program .I wish to express my special thanks to Dr. Fahmy Islmail ,National Technical Advisor of UN-Habitat Sri Lanka for motivating me to participate in the Training Secondly I am very much thankful to Hon. Governor, The Chief Secretary and the Commissioner of Local Government of Eastern Province for granting official duty leave and to Hon.Mayor and Commissioner of Kalmunai Municipal council for releasing me for the Training. My Sincere thanks go to the Trainers, Mr. Rajesh Pai and Ms.Susmita Sinha , from CDD , Mr. Bipin Dangol from ENPHO and my colleagues who supported and contributed to successfully complete this valuable Training .
1.0 Background 2.0 Key Learning 3.0 Application of DEWATS in Local Sri Lankan Context 4.0 Recommendations 5.0 Annexes
The training program was organized by ENPHO and Supported by various organizations such as UN-HABITAT , CDD and BORDA . The title of the training was “International Engineers’ Training on DEWATS” Participants from countries from Nepal , India, Pakistan ,Bhutan , Malaysia and Mongolia attended the training . The training started on 03-10-2010 (Sunday) with the Introduction to Wastewater Characteristics and Presentations by the participants on experience on Sanitation Projects. On the second day onwards until the third day afternoon it continued to cover design of the conveyance system and comparison in between centralized systems and the de-centralized systems, subsequent to that design calculations for different DEWATS modules were explained. On the third and fourth days a concept designs was prepared for three cases. Participants were divided in to three groups and three cases were considered to develop DEWATS. (Community project, a Hotel and the training center) Field visits were performed and presentations were made on the each group work. On the fifth day excursion was made to sites, which are in operation and under construction . On the sixth day; construction, commissioning, maintenance and monitoring aspects were covered. Brief Introduction about DEWATS DEWATS stands for “Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems”. DEWATS is a technical approach rather than merely a technology package. DEWATS applications are based on the principle of low-maintenance since most important parts of the system work without technical energy inputs and cannot be switched off intentionally.
Main DEWATS modules for physical and biological wastewater treatment: 1. Settler 2. Anaerobic Baffled Reactor 3. Anaerobic Filter 4. Planted Gravel Filter Advantages of DEWATS Providing treatment for domestic and industrial wastewater Low primary investment costs as no imports are needed Efficient treatment for daily wastewater flows up to 1000m3 Modular design of all components Tolerant towards inflow fluctuations Reliable and long-lasting construction design Expensive and sophisticated maintenance not required Low maintenance costs
2.0 Key learning
Design of the Modules of the DEWATS
Design calculations were made individually then the results were discussed and compared. Indian standards were used to calculate the water demand, and other design parameters.
Construction and Maintenance aspects. Techniques adopted for the construction of Bio-Gas reactors and Planted Gravel Filters (PGF) were greatly discussed. Maintenance aspects such as de-sludging , replacing the filter media at Anerobic Filters and PGF were understood .
Concept design for community, hotel and Government Institutions A concept design was prepared for the Hotel called “Hotel –Country Villa “ as per my Group exercise. We made site inspection to collect data and to Identify the issues . We collected the relevant data such as Water usage , existing disposal practices , future expansions of the hotel , the availability of the land and the re-use options . Group design exercise was done , a concept design for the Hotel was prepared . There has been power point presentations made on each concept design.
Field Visit to DEWATS under construction ENPHO has designed a DEWATS for an orphanage in the vicinity of Kathmandu. Practical aspects of construction of DEWATS was explained at the site .
Field Visit to the Existing Systems a. Site-1 . Community wastewater treatment This project was funded by UN-Habitat and implemented by the community based organization in Collaboration with the Municipality of the area concerned . It is designed to cover 200 units , and at present 135 units have already been connected . The facility has been running for one year . Bio-gas produced at the treatment facility is supplied to 6 houses and the income generated from that is used for the payment of the caretaker of the treatment facility. Treated effluent is discharged to the nearby stream , the samples at the outlet were collected to ensure the BOD is within the limit.
b. Site-2 Community wastewater treatment In this site , wastewater is flowing through a Settling tank and through two PGFs , horizontal and vertical . A bio gas system is to be augmented to the existing system and it was already constructed. This treatment plant is working for four years ..the treated effluent is allowed to flow through the drainage canal.
c. Site –c Eco-House . One house belongs to one of the executive officer of ENPHO was visited It has rainwater harvesting, Bio-gas using organic waste and Wormcomposting . The house portrays and ideal model of ECO-house .
Interaction with counterpart engineers and sharing of the experience. This training program enabled a sharing platform amongst the participants . Group works , games in the training , Entertaining programs in the evenings and visit to the sun-rise scene . Experiences of various country situations were discussed . For example about the Extreme cold weather conditions in Mongolia and the techniques adopted .
3.0 Application of DEWATS in Srilanka context
Suitability of the DEWATS in Eastern Province
• DEWATS applications provide treatment for both, domestic and industrial sources • DEWATS applications provide treatment for organic wastewater flows from 1-1000 m3 per day • DEWATS applications are reliable, long lasting and tolerant towards inflow fluctuation • DEWATS applications do not need sophisticated maintenance Without considering facilities for necessary chemical pre-treatment of wastewater from industries, DEWATS applications are based on four basic technical treatment Modules which are combined according to demand: • Primary treatment: sedimentation and floatation • Secondary anaerobic treatment in fixed-bed reactors: baffled upstream reactors or anaerobic filters • Tertiary aerobic treatment in sub-surface flow filters • Tertiary aerobic treatment in polishing ponds DEWATS applications are designed and dimensioned in such a way that treated water meets requirements stipulated in environmental laws and regulations.
Some Benefits Bio-gas can be generated and it can be utilized to cover some portion of operations cost . Treated water can be re-used , the systems can be designed to get the Quality of the treated for the different applications such as irrigation , toilet flushing ect. Apart from it there some other benefits , Ecologically Balanced – It helps in bringing tourists more and hence helps more earnings Environment improved Social Encouragement Water sources are protecte
Potential areas to Implement DEWATS in Kalmunai 1.0 Tsunami Housing schemes – There are three major housing schemes in Sainthamaruthu, Kalmunai Kudy and Maruthamunai which were constructed on the reclaimed land. In these area there is a need to construct the wastewater collection system as the infiltration of the soil is very low. During the rainy seasons ground water rises to the surface level and making a greater discomfort. 2.0 Hospitals - AMH hospital already has the wastewater treatment facility in place. In future Sainthamaruthu and Maruthamunai Hospitals are to be provided with proper wastewater disposal . 3.0 Commercial institutions. Hotels , factories discharge wastewater to ground or water resources this must be stopped . 4.0 City Residential area – In the long term run .the entire city of Kalmunai need sewer system .specially the Sainthamaruthu and Kalmunaikudy area need within 2-5 years . Constraints ( as specific to Kalmunai MC in applying DEWATS) • Need significantly large area for the Planted Gravel filters . • Flat land feature – need to pump the water , which may need additional Operational cost . A service charge is to be collected from the community.
Community Consultation Programs It is important build consensus on Wastewater treatment based on decentralized options , support of the community is vital in the following aspects . a. Cost of Operation and Maintenance of the system is to be covered from the community . House hold fee for service is to be introduced . The cost will be high if it is difficult to maintain the gravity flow so pumping is most the significant part of the operation . b. At certain location pipes and the necessary structures such as manholes to be constructed in the properties as per the design. Planning and Implementing wastewater management schemes Employing professionals to study and propose DEWATS OPTIONS for the city (As the apprentice for my professional review under the IESL ( Institute Of Engineers Sri Lanka ) , I wish to work on the design of the DEWATS System under the ISESL recommended mentor. ) Preparing the proposal and seeking financial assistance. City Development plan It is important to know the population characteristics of the city , Population density , Zones of development or Land use plan , to be prepared in collaboration with the UDA.
5.0 Annexes .
1.0 Certificate of Training