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Course Level A Statistical Process Control concepts Code 1.07a: SPC & Control Charts

& Control Charts Issue No.: 01

Effective Date: 15-04-2014

“Statistical Thinking” philosophy is amongst the most common features for quality monitoring

and improvement. The key elements of statistical thinking are process, variation, and data.

Through using statistical methods, companies aim at identifying and eliminating variation in

their processes by measuring the performance of their processes.

The whole idea behind process control is to move from the traditional approach of detection by

inspections to prevention by applying checks and controls upstream for example in process

setting, in process design. The gradual elimination of wastes as well as reducing the effort of

unnecessary inspection is the essence of process control.

A process transforms inputs into outputs by using resources such as people, equipment,

materials and methods. The Process control system requires actions on process resources and

methods, action on the process information and action on the output.

Action on people resources is by enhancing their knowledge and skills.

Action on equipment means selecting the correct equipment design, range, precision

class, and its maintenance.

Action on materials require ensuring the quality and consistency of the input materials

as well as consumables.

Action on process information is analyzing the process control information as well as

process results data to monitor and improve the process.

Action on process output is taking the decision regarding product conformance and

taking steps in case it is found non conforming. This includes not only correction such as

rework, but also long term corrective actions to reduce the chances of non-

conformance.

Statistical process control is about obtaining numerical data relating to the process, analyzing it

and using it to improve process behavior.

The data that we get is in the form of figures – variable measures of product characteristics for

example dimensions of a machined product, or number of products found good or defective,

or number of defects observed in each product. We need to convert this continuous stream of

data into meaningful information, based on which we can take decisions whether the process is

behaving in the desired manner, or whether there is a need for correction. Eventually we want

to achieve a state of stastical control, where we can make the process behave the way we want

to.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) and its two basic functions, control charts and process

capability analysis (PCA), constitute the central pillar of statistical methods which are utilized in

industry.

Control Charts

Statistical process control uses statistical methods to monitor process output through Control

Charts. Samples are tested at regular intervals and the results are plotted as sample means and

range on a time-control chart. The control chart is a statistical quality control tool that

monitors the variation in the characteristics of a product or service over time.

Control Charts constitute an easy and visual method of monitoring process information by

mapping the process data against what are called process control limits. The process control

limits are determined in turn through analysis of process data variation. Generally each control

chart examines a key product characteristic or a key process parameter.

The Data collected from a control chart may form the basis for process improvement, specially

when it displays assignable causes.

Control charts can be used to study past performance as well as to evaluate present conditions.

Past data stored in QC records or in computers can be plotted to examine how the process has

behaved on a historical basis. But most often the control charts are used for continuous

monitoring of present process performance.

A control chart is both a diagnostic and a control tool applicable to a variety of situations. Some

of the important uses are given below.

Control Chart helps in prevention of defects by highlighting assignable causes It is an

ongoing tool for control of processes and for achieving and maintaining consistency in

quality. It aids improvement of processes.

It is an effective visual aid for production workers and supervors for gaining and maintaining

confidence in the process

It is an aid to quality planning, for example deciding control limits, setting gaging frequency

It sets up the basis for reviewing design tolerances for manufacturability, specially when the

tolerances are unreasonably stringent, or too relaxed

Control charts present good evidence of process control and can be used as evidence of

process quality during quality audits and third party inspections.

Construction

Control charts are plotted as line graphs on a time axis. The individual values are plotted on the

chart in sequence as you can see in the Figures 1 and 2.

A centerline and two Control Limits, are placed on the graph to analyze patterns in the data.

The Centerline is either the process average or a target value. The control chart is completed

with the setting of control limits or process boundaries that define the zone in which the

process should operate.

Fig 1

Fig 2

The X axis indicates occurrence over time, which could be hours, or shifts, or days, or in sub

groups as they are produced in a time sequence again over hours, shifts or days. The Y axis is

the actual process result on each time unit.

The control limits are generally set at three times the standard deviation or plus minus three

sigma (figure 3) . The Upper Control Limit is generally referred in the abbreviated form UCL.

Likewise the lower control limit is referred as LCL. In some cases, such as in one sided

specifications, we may have only one control limit.

Fig 3

In a control chart, we examine the occurrence of process results with respect to the shift from

the centre line and the zone defined by the control limits.

A control chart helps us identify the presence or absence of special or assignable causes of

variation in a process (Fig 4). When assignable causes exist, most often the process will be out

of control. The behaviour of special causes is random and does not follow any pattern, hence

we cannot predict the level of process rejections or ppm levels.

Fig 4

A statistically controlled process will have all points within 3 Sigma limits and will be free from

any adverse pattern.

Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7

A process no in control will display some unusual pattern, that marks the presence of a special

or assignable cause.

Figure 5 on demonstrates all values to be within the control limits. We can safely assume, there

are no special causes influencing this process.

In Figure 6 , 2 points are outside the UCL. This is a strong indication of a special cause and also

very large variation.

In Figure 7, all the points are within the control limits. However there is a continuous downward

trend. This also indicates the presence of special causes.

Figure 8 displays some more patterns that are indicative of a process being out of control or

heading towards it.

Figure 8 also indicates three Zones A, B and C. These are areas between successive sigma limits.

Zone C lies between the centre line and plus minus one standard deviation or plus minus one

sigma. Zone B lies between 1 and 2 sigma limits, while Zone C lies between 2 sigma and 3 sigma

or upper and lower control limits. We use these zones together with trend points to decide

whether or not the process in under control.

Fig 8

Pattern 1 represents 1 point beyond zone A. Pattern 2 has 2 out of 3 successive points in zone

A. Pattern 3 has 4 out of 5 successive points in zone B or beyond. Pattern 4 has eight or more

successive points on one side of the centre line

Patterns are a signal that something has changed. A Process is considred out of control when a

plotted point falls outside the control limits as in Pattern 1.

Pattern 1 therefore requires corrective action. Patterns 2, 3, & 4 indicate warning conditions.

Once these signals appear, we must investigate the possible causes of such behavior.

2 Sigma limits are generally used as warning limits. Many organizations decide to operate the

process within zone B, or plus minus 2 sigma limit. This is because 95 % of the population lies

within these (2 Sigma) limits. Any point outside this zone will prompt investigation and

corrective action.

1 Sigma limits always signify safe area for working.

Relationship with specification limits

We can add specification limits on a control chart to see how the process is positioned with

respect to them.

Fig 9 Fig 10

Out of control values do not necessarily indicate defectives as the specification limits may be

wider than the control limits as we see in Fig 9. It is still advisable to run the process as

consistent as possible as it helps in reducing inspection costs in the long run and also ensures

better ppm performance both in-house as well as at the customer end. Generally an out of

control process produces defectives.

In Figure 10, the process appears to be actually under a state of statistical control because all

values are within the UCL and LCL. However, two values are observed outside the specification

limits, which means they represent non-conforming products. As the Control limits are beyond

specification limits, chances are more failures will occur in future. In such cases, the first and

most important step will be to identify possible special or assignable causes and eliminate them

so that the UCL and LCL can be brought inside the specification limits. If the UCL and LCL still

remain beyond the specification limits, you may have to investigate into each source of natural

causes of variation and attempt to improve them by technology improvements or by improving

operator skills, or by automated process corrections, or by changing the source of raw

material etc.

The process dominance approach

When attempting to investigate the process for eliminating assignable causes, it is important to

understand what are the major influencing factors in the process. Each process is dominated by

one or more influencing factors such as machine set up, time, the operator or the input raw

materials. Understanding dominance pattern helps to decide the source of assignable variation

and the most appropriate control measure.

1. Set-up dominance

In Set-up Dominant processes, the process has been engineered to such a high degree of

reproducibility that it provides an essentially uniform product during initial length of

production. These processes must be set up to ensure precise machine and parameters set-up

and their validation before operations proceed, because no or little control may be possible

during the cycles of operation. Operations involving hydraulic pressing, auto-welding, CNC

machines, are example of set up dominance. We use first off inspections, or pre-control

methods before starting such operations.

In Time Dominant processes, the process, though reproducible, undergoes continuing changes

during production . The setting changes after some time as production goes on due to drifts.

This is typical of many machining processes with wear out of tools over a period of time such as

boring, reaming. The process design must take into consideration the periodic evaluation and

adjustment of the process. Process Control charts are most commonly used for time dominant

processes. Time dominant processes are also known as machine dominant processes. Quality

tools such as control charts, and narrow limit gaging (gages set up narrower than specification

limits) are used to monitor and control such operations.

3. Operator-dominance

In Operator Dominant processes, the operation is not fully engineered, and the skill and

attention of operators become decisive factors. Welding, soldering, painting are example of

such processes. For these processes the candidates employed must be qualified for the

required skill sets. The design for control of these processes must emphasize aptitude testing,

training, certification and quality rating of workers. Besides monitoring such process through

attribute charts, we often have to conduct acceptance inspection of the finished lots to gauge

overall lot quality.

4. Component-dominance

In Component Dominant processes, the quality of the input materials or parts, are the main

factors influencing quality of the finished product. This is typical in many chemical processes as

well as assembly processes such as assembly of electronic equipment. While the normal

approach is to control incoming quality through inspection, in the long run, it is important to

develop reliable supplies of raw materials to provide quality parts. Acceptance sampling for

incoming products are applied. Alternately we can rate vendor performance through rating

systems and select input monitoring methods and frequencies accordingly.

Variable control charts are used when the process data is available in the form of a measured value for

the characteristic under study e.g dimensions, volume, concentration, hardness, tensile strength.

̅ and R chart

The X Bar and R Charts are used for Monitoring behavior of a single measurable characteristic produced

in high volumes. Figures 1 and 2 are typical examples of X bar and R charts.

X bar chart means a control chart plotted for average or mean values of the study characteristic taken

from a pre-decided sample size, generally referred as a subgroup. The Bar over the letter x, (̅ denotes

that the value plotted on the chart is the mean or average of values taken.

R chart means a control chart plotted for the range of values within each subgroup.

X Bar and R charts are generally plotted together, one below the other on 2 separate charts for the same

characteristic.

X double bar (̿ )is the overall average of sample or subgroup averages, and is represented by the

Center line on the X bar chart. It is also the process average.

_

R bar R is the average of ranges of values observed in each sample or subgroup, and is represented by

the Center line on the R chart

The following are the conditions in which variable control charts are constructed:

Symbols used:

Constants used

The following are the constants used, based on the sample size n, in the calculations for UCL , LCL for X

bar and R charts and Standard Deviation for X bar chart

n A2 d2 D3 D4

Constant used for Constant used for Constant used for Constant used for

calculating LCL & UCL calculating SD for X calculating LCL in R calculating UCL in

in X bar chart bar chart and chart R chart

UCL / LCL in the R

chart

2 1.880 1.128 - 3.267

3 1.023 1.693 - 2.574

4 0.729 2.059 - 2.282

5 0.577 2.326 - 2.114

6 0.483 2.534 - 2.004

7 0.419 2.704 0.076 1.924

8 0.373 2.847 0.136 1.864

9 0.337 2.970 0.184 1.816

10 0.308 3.078 0.223 1.777

The following formulae are used for calculating the Control limits and Center line for X bar and

R charts. The chart also indicates the values that are plotted in the fourth column.

The preferred subgroup size is 3 to 5 but we can have more than 5 also.

n

_

3 to 5

UCL = X A 2 R

_ _ x

X X X

_ preferred

X n

_ k

LCL = X A 2 R

_ _ R -do-

R UCLR = D 4 R R R

_ k

LCLR = D 3 R

A typical data sheet for noting the values for X bar and R chart is as given in the Table below

X 1 X 2 .... X n

X

n

2. Compute Range for each subgroup : Range R1 = X (highest) – X (lowest)

3. Plot the ̅ and R values for each subgroup on the control chart .

4. Compute the overall mean X and the average range R for the k samples:

X R

k k

_ _

5. Compute CL’s for R chart as D 3 R and D 4 R using D3 and D4 constants corresponding

to the subgroup size n.

6. Compare ranges against the Control Limits. If any range is outside the upper or lower control

limits, the entire subgroup is excluded . This needs to be done because when we are fixing the

Control limits for the first time, it is important that the control limit themselves do not get

influenced by assignable causes. Hence we eliminate values that are considered outliers. We do

this by estimating the control limits for range chart using all the data in the first instance and

then comparing each sample range with the Range chart control limits. In case any range is

found beyond the control limits in the range chart, the related subgroup is completely

eliminated from the study.

7. Re-compute R bar after omitting the out of control subgroups. Control limits both for the X

bar chart as well as the R chart are re-computed.

8. Repeat Steps 6 & 7 for eliminating another similar subgroup, if any R value is found out of the

revised control limits. The process of elimination is called homogenization of range and

repeated till all ranges are within the latest revised Control Limits.

9. Ensure that the number of samples or subgroups will always be identical for x bar and r charts

after each elimination.

10. The final Control limits for ̅ chart are computed using the final revised R bar and x double bar

calculated from remaining subgroups.

11. Construct the charts by drawing lines for UCLX, LCLX , UCLR and LCLR and central lines at final

revised R bar and X double bar

12. Examine, X bar and R charts, to see if the process is in statistical control.

R

ˆ

ˆ X

d2

14. Draw one sigma and two sigma zones on the X bar Chart:

X 1

X 2

Example:

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 5

Mean Range

Sub _

Group X R

No

Sample

1 1.3 1.49 1.45 1.35 1.42 1.402 0.2

size

n 5

groups

Mean

Average ̅

4 1.38 1.57 1.35 1.5 1.3 1.42 0.3 Range 0.254

_

5 1.42 1.37 1.41 1.27 1.37 1.368 0.2 UCL(Mean) X A 2 R 1.561

_

6 1.41 1.39 1.55 1.32 1.46 1.426 0.2 X A 2 R 1.269

LCL (Mean)

_

7 1.43 1.41 1.45 1.5 1.4 1.438 0.1

UCL(Range)

D4 R 0.536

_

8 1.46 1.4 1.53 1.48 1.25 1.424 0.3

LCL(Range)

D3 R 0.000

Std Dev

10 1.61 1.59 1.53 1.6 1.36 1.538 0.3 Mean +1 σ'

1.464

Mean +2 σ'

Mean -1 σ'

Mean -2 σ' 1.318

14 1.34 1.58 1.36 1.19 1.45 1.384 0.4

15 1.51 1.52 1.24 1.39 1.19 1.37 0.3

16 1.2 1.33 1.44 1.31 1.42 1.34 0.2

17 1.27 1.45 1.53 1.56 1.57 1.476 0.3

18 1.51 1.6 1.43 1.2 1.46 1.44 0.4

19 1.39 1.28 1.48 1.38 1.41 1.388 0.2

20 1.26 1.21 1.32 1.63 1.4 1.364 0.4

. Fig 11

RangeChart

0.600

UCL(Range), 0.536

0.500

Sample mean

0.400

0.300

Mean, 0.254

0.200

0.100

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Sub Group No

Mean

. Fig 12

Interpreting Control Charts

The presence of one or more points beyond either control limit in the X Bar chart, implies that the

average for the subgroup has shifted significantly from the process average. This is primary evidence of

special cause variation at that point.

When points lie outside the control limits in the range chart, it is indicative that the piece-to-piece

variability has worsened in the respective subgroup.

The presence of unusual patterns or trends, even when all ranges are within the control limits, can be

evidence of the influence of a special cause during the period of the pattern or trend. This could give the

first warning of an unfavorable condition which should be corrected.

Following are signs that a process shift or trend comes from a special cause

• 4 out of 5 points > 1 standard deviation from centerline (same side) – Fig 13

• 8 points in a row > 1 standard deviation from centerline (either side) – Fig 14

CV Fig

13

CV

Fig 13

Fig

13

Fig

13

. Fig 13 Fig 14

These signals help us understand the process and also initiate actions.

The goal of the process control charts is not perfection, but a reasonable and economical state of

control. If a chart never went out of control we would seriously question whether that operation should

be charted at all. For practical purposes a controlled process is considered to be one where only a small

percentage of the points go out of control and where out-of-control points are followed by proper

action for process correction.

The Target X bar and R charts are a variant of the normal X bar and R chart.

In the normal X bar charts, our data came from measurements taken on a ‘specific type and size’ of

part. Target X and R charts monitor behavior of a process running different part types or sizes bur from

the same family, where everything else is common except the base or nominal value of the product

characteristic.

Target X bar charts are constructed by coding measured readings as a deviation from a target value.

Target value becomes 0 point on the X bar control chart, and the deviations from the target become the

readings

For example two sizes of bushes with bore sizes of 20 mm and 30 mm in which the bore diameter 20

mm and 30 mm, the target values, will be taken as zero. The values recorded will be the difference from

the target values. See Tables below

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Target 20.0 20,0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 25.0 25.0 20.0 20.0

1 20.13 19.95 25.12 30.0 29.98 29.94 25.04 25.0 20.05 19.95

2 20.03 19.99 25.04 29.99 30.04 29.92 25.0 25.03 19.97 19.99

3 19.98 20.10 25.03 30.02 29.96 29.95 25.06 24.98 19.95 19.93

4 20.01 20.0 25.09 29,96 29.97 29.97 25.02 25.07 20,02 20.03

5 19.94 20.11 25.01 29.98 29.95 29.92 25.09 25.0 20,01 19.99

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Target 20.0 20,0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 25.0 25.0 20.0 20.0

1 0.13 -0.05 0.12 0.00 -0.02 -0.06 0.04 0.00 0.05 -0.05

2 0.03 -0.01 0.04 -0.01 0.04 -0.08 0.00 0.03 -0.03 -0.01

3 -0.02 0.10 0.03 0.02 -0.04 -0.05 0.06 -0.02 -0.05 -0.07

4 0.01 0.00 0.09 -0.04 -0.03 -0.03 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.03

5 -0.06 0.11 0.01 -0.02 -0.05 -0.08 0.09 0.00 0.01 -0.01

Mean 0.018 0.030 0.058 -0.010 -0.020 -0.060 0.042 0.016 0.000 -0.022

Range 0.19 0.16 0.11 0.06 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.10

The formulae for Target X Bar and Range Charts are as given in Table below

n

_

_ Coded X Coded X 3 to 5

_ UCL = Coded X A 2 R _ preferred

X Coded X Σ ( X -Target value)

_

LCL = Coded X A 2 R k /n

_ _ R -do-

R UCLR = D 4 R R R

_ k

LCLR = D 3 R

The value to be plotted on the graph is Coded X bar. The grand mean x double bar is the average of all

coded x bar values. See Fig 15 for the Target Control Chart for the values in the tables.

There is no change in the R chart, because the R values will be the same whether we use actual

dimensions or the deviations from nominal values as range is essentially the difference between the

largest and the smallest value.

All parts on the chart are measured in the same units and have similar average ranges (s).

The sample size is Constant across sub groups

The study should have minimum 20 samples for calculating the control limits

Fig 15

Individual X & Moving Range Chart

These charts are used when opportunities to get data are limited and production volume is low . In

such situations, we are unable to have more than one sample for a subgroup.

In Individual X and MR Charts, each item as a subgroup, hence there is no requirement to calculate X

bar. The Subgroup size is 1

The Range chart is called the moving range chart, as we chart the difference between successive sub

groups or X values. It plots the difference between two consecutive data points as they come from the

process in sequential order. Because of this there will be one less data point in the Moving Range chart

than the Individual chart.

In order for the charts to give useful information, certain conditions must be adhered. For example on

the moving range chart, there should be more than five distinct values plotted, and no single value

should appear more than 25% of the time. If values repeat too often, it results in inadequate resolution

which will adversely affect the control limit calculations. The resolution of measurement is therefore

important

n

_ _

UCL = X (2.66 MR) One

_ X Individual X

_ X

IX LCL =

_ _

X (2.66 MR) k

_ -

MR UCLR = D 4 R MR

_

Moving Range

MR

_ k -1

LCLR = D 3 R

The control limits for the Coded X bar are calculated using a fixed constant of 2.66.

In a moving range chart, there is no lower control limit. The upper control limit is calculated using the

formula D4 MR bar. As the n = 2, the d4 value is always 3.27 in a moving range chart.

Sample IX MR

1 4.25 -

2 4.78 0.53

3 3.95 0.83

4 3.86 0.09

5 3.72 0.14

6 5.17 1.45

7 5.07 0.1

8 4.65 0.42

9 4.7 0.05

10 4.35 0.35

Fig 16

The moving range chart has sufficient discrimination as all the 9 points were distinct values. The moving

range between 5th and 6th sample is beyond the UCL and indicates that the process is out of control,

which should trigger investigation and corrective action.

Attribute Control Charts

Attribute control charts are used when the process data is available in the form of good or bad,

conforming or not conforming. Examples of attributes are visual defects such as surface cracks, cut

marks, blow holes, underfill, or sensory characteristics such as taste, smell, etc for food or cosmetic

products. Defects detected through NDT tests such as MPI, radiography are also attributes. Sometimes

we choose to convert measurable characteristics such as by using go no go gauges, where the result is

recorded as pass or fail. The products non conformances are counted, but not measured.

Often attribute control charts are used for quick process estimation, before setting up the more

elaborate variable charts.

Attribute control charts are essentialy of two types. The first type are the proportion charts (p and c

Charts) where we count the number of defective items in a sample or lot as a proportion or fraction or

percentage. The second type are the count charts (np and u Charts) where we count the number of

defects in each item or a unit.

In the count of defect attribute charts we can take more than one characteristic when counting defects

such as colour and distortion in a ceramic ware product and count them together, or segregate the

defects to set up different control charts.

Examples of defects : a blow hole in a casting, discoloration in garment, surface crack in welding

Examples of defectives : Item that contains one of more of above defects – one casting, one garment,

one length of weld

Defects are counted to get an estimate if the process is stable and predictable, as well as to monitor the

effects of process improvement.

Sometimes specifications permit the presence of minor defects in limited numbers under which the

product item may be acceptable.

A p chart is used for evaluating the process in terms of fraction or percent defectives it is producing.

Control limits are drawn on the same unit, that is fraction or percent defectives

A np chart is used for evaluating the process in terms of discrete defective items a process is producing

per lot or batch. Np chart is easier for operators to understand and relate as the inspection results are

recorded in actual numbers of defectives and are directly marked on the chart – no calculation of

fractions or percent is required. The control limits are drawn on number of defectives (n x p), for a fixed

sample or subgroup size.

The C chart is drawn when we are interested to study the actual number of defects in each item and

then seeing what is the process average and variability. In the C chart we use the count of actual

number defects per item. Control limits are drawn on number of defects for a fixed sample or subgroup

sixe

The U chart is drawn when e use the value of average defects per unit as our base value for drawing the

charts. In this the control limits are drawn on the fraction defects as a process average.

P and np charts

An important condition for p and np charts is, some rejects must be present in each sample

Where a process is having a low defects average say less than 5 %, we have to enlarge the sample size

sufficiently to get one or more defectives in a sample. This is necessary to be able to draw correct

control limits.

Examples :

In p and u charts we can select entire lots or batches as the sample size

For np charts, the subgroup size used should be such that ̅̅̅̅ >= 5

P Charts

A: With constant sample size. When we draw P Chart with constant sample size, the following formulas

apply:

np

n

Where p is the process average in fraction defectives, and n is the sample size

The Control limits are drawn at:

p(1 p) p(1 p)

UCL p 3 LCL p 3

n n

B. With non constant sample size, but the difference between the sample sizes is not very large, i.e the

smallest sample is 75 % or more of the largest sample.

The formulas for these conditions are similar to constant sample size, except we replace the value of n

with ̅, the average sub group size:

̅=

p(1 p) p(1 p)

UCL p 3 LCL p 3

n n

C. With non-constant sample sizes that vary significantly from one another. We get non-constant sizes

when we take for example entire daily production as sample, or when we take fixed percent of sample

from a daily production lot.

When we have this situation, we cannot draw constant control limits for the process and have to draw

individual UCL and LCL for each sub group.

The formulae for non-constant sample sizes are similar to constant sample size, except now we replace

the value of n with ni which is the sample size of individual subgroup

̅=

p(1 p) p(1 p)

UCL p 3 LCL p 3

ni ni

NP Charts

∑

̅̅̅̅ = = number of defectives /No. of subgroups

Example for p chart and np chart (with constant group size)

Sub Group size Defectives mean (k) 22

No n (np) p

Total defects ∑

1 200 12 0.060 304

2 200 12 0.060

∑

Population 4400

3 200 11 0.055

4 200 6 0.030 Population mean ̅

0.069

5 200 18 0.090

UCL (fraction) 0.12

6 200 22 0.110

7 200 14 0.070 LCL (fraction)

0.015

8 200 9 0.045 Population mean ̅ 13.818

9 200 13 0.065

UCL (np) 24.6

10 200 26 0.130

LCL (np) 3.1

11 200 13 0.065

12 200 5 0.025

13 200 17 0.085

14 200 14 0.070

15 200 7 0.035

16 200 12 0.060

17 200 20 0.100

18 200 11 0.055

19 200 14 0.070

20 200 9 0.045

21 200 13 0.065

22 200 26 0.130

Fig 17 Fig 18

In the np chart (Fig 18), the plot points is number of defectives found in each sub group. The Centerline

is average number of defectives per subgroup np bar (13.818, rounded off to 14). In np chart UCL and

LCL are also usually rounded off to integers. The shape of the graph is identical in both cases, as they

depict relative performance for each subgroup, which is similar.

Sub Group Sub Group Defectives mean (k)

15

No size (np) p

1 1126 25 0.022 Total defects ∑ 161

2 1518 18 0.012

3 1114 2 0.002 Population ∑ 19570

4 1114 11 0.010

Population mean ̅ 0.008

5 939 10 0.011

6 1339 6 0.004 Average Group

size

̅ 1305

7 1300 9 0.007

8 1628 10 0.006

9 1613 12 0.007

10 1535 6 0.004

11 1535 17 0.011

12 1749 12 0.007

13 1539 8 0.005

14 245 1 0.004

15 1276 14 0.011

Fig 19

In a P chart, with non-constant sample size, the UCL and LCL vary for each subgroup. Control limits vary

inversely with sample size.

Rules relating to attribute charts

Zones rules applicable to variable charts do not apply to attribute charts. I sigma and 2 sigma limits are

not used.

When points lie below the lower control limit, it indicates that the process has improved.

Rules for trends and shifts with respect to the centerline apply to attribute charts too such as continuous

downward or upward trend and consecutive points on one side of the center line

C Chart

A chart is used when Screening multiple characteristics in a defective piece. The purpose of plotting C

chart is to monitor and gradually reduce the incidence of defects

In the c chart, we count the Number of defects found in a sub group and this value is plotted.

The Sub group size is chosen in a way so that at least 2 defects are found in each unit

A unit is different from subgroup. A unit can be a single part, an assembly of several parts, an area of

material, or any rational grouping. A unit can be a discrete item such as a ceramic glazed product, a

casting or a welded fabricated item, or a specified size of continuous production such as running meter

of pipes, or square meter of textile products.

A c chart can be constructed for counts per subgroup or counts per unit. In the second case, one unit is

equal to one subgroup. We can plot c chart for all the defects counted together or each category of

defect counted by type.

The condition for C chart is some defects must be observed in each unit in the c chart.

CL = ̅ Where c1, c2 are number of counted defects per sub group or unit and k is the

total number of sub groups or units

UCL = ̅ √̅

LCL= ̅ √̅

U Chart

The U chart caters to situations where number of units in a subgroup is not constant

It is also called the c/n chart where c is the count of defects and n is the number of units within each

subgroup.

Instead of counting defects, in the u chart, the average defects per unit within a subgroup are counted

and plotted.

Formulae for U Chart, with constant group size or non-constant group size (with maximum difference <

75 %)

̅ ̅

UCL ̅ √ LCL ̅ √

̅

̅

These control limits can be drawn as long as the minimum sub-group size is not less than 75 % of

maximum sub-group size

Defect 1

Defect 2

Defect 3

Defect 4

Group Group Defects / 'c / n'

No size subgroup

No of Sub

1 200 3 3 4 5 15 0.075 k

groups 15

2 200 2 3 1 5 11 0.055

Total defects 172

3 200 3 0 3 5 11 0.055 ̿̿̿̿̿̿ 3000

Population ∑

Population ̅ 11.4

4 200 2 3 5 5 15 0.075

mean 7

5 200 2 0 2 1 5 0.025 UCL UCL 22

6 200 2 2 3 3 10 0.050

7 200 2 3 4 5 14 0.070

8 200 2 2 3 3 10 0.050

9 200 3 4 5 2 14 0.070

10 200 3 3 9 0 15 0.075

11 200 2 3 2 3 10 0.050

12 200 2 3 5 5 15 0.075

13 200 2 0 2 1 5 0.025

14 200 2 3 4 5 14 0.070

15 200 2 3 0 3 8 0.040

Fig 20

The course material includes excel sheet templates for p, np and c charts. Try them by feeding different

data from your work areas, as well as from the practical exercises provided.

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