You are on page 1of 11

Subject : PHYSICS

Topics :
-List of command words
-The common mistakes
-Notes: Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics
Chapter 2 : Forces and Motion
Chapter 3 : Forces and Pressure
Chapter 4 : Heat
Questions
-Paper 3 : Section A : Structured Item
Section B : Open Response Item
-Question
LIST OF COMMAND WORDS.

1. Define ( Takrifkan )
This means you are only required to write a concise statement to say what
something is or means.

2. What do you understand by ( Apakah yang difahamkan dengan )


This means a definition plus a comment on the context or significance of the term.

3. State (Nyatakan )
This means a short, concise answer is expected, without explanation.

4. List (Senaraikan )
This means you are to give a number of points in a ‘list’. Each point might only
be a single word or a short phrase or sentence.

5 Explain ( Terangkan/Jelaskan )
This usually means some reference to physics theory

6 Describe ( Huraikan )
This means you are to state the main points in words, together with a diagram, if
appropriate.

7. Discuss (Bincangkan )
This means give a critical account of the points in a topic. This might include giving
positive and negative points.

8. Outline (Rangkakan )
This means give a brief answer, mentioning only the main points.

9. Predict or deduce ( Ramalkan )


This means you are to deduce an answer from information in the question or from
earlier answers. It means you are not expected to produce an answer from
memory.

10. Suggest (Cadangkan )


Very often this type of question looks as if it is not in the syllabus. But ‘suggests’
means you are not expected to know the correct answer. You are supposed to
make a logical deduction from the information given in the question or from your
physics knowledge. Your answer may not be true, but it is correct if what you say is
sensible from what you might reasonably be expected to know.

11. Find ( Kirakan )


This generally means calculate, measure, determine etc.

12. Calculate ( Hitungkan )


This means a numerical answer is expected and the working is expected to be
shown.
13. Determine (Tentukan )
This usually means the answer cannot be measured directly but is obtained by
calculation or perhaps, by taking a reading from a graph. Normally a numerical
answer is expected

14. Estimate ( Anggarkan )


This means obtain an answer as accurately as you can, although it may not be
exact.

15. Sketch (Lakarkan )


This is often applied to graph. It means that only the correct shape and approximate
position of the graph is expected. It might mean you need to add one or two
numbers to make the position clear.
COMMON MISTAKES

1. Answer correct, but no unit given to calculated value. Advice: make sure to write
down the units.
2. Name of scientists. e.g : Archimedes, accept close answers, sound similar when
read.
3. E.c.f , accept wrong calculated value in earlier part .Penalize once only , correct
method used is awarded marks.
4. Key words / don’t need complete sentences.
5. Number of decimal places in final answers. At least 1 d.p., 2, 3, 4, , but not too many.
Don’t round up to whole number.
6. Very often, don’t accept “contra” answers. E.g:..Voltmeter/ammeter
7. Units not consistent. No marks.
8. In essay. Marks are given according to points given. 1 point, 1 mark.
9. Write answers based on observations, cannot include physics that you cannot see.
10. Differences between Section B and Section C.
Section C : Have to analyse datas in table form/ many diagrams of same instruments
but different features. Ask to select one device with supporting information, must
choose one device.
Section B: Definition, Conccptualize question (mengkonsepsikan) usually from 2
diagrams, explanation of an event, describe an instrument, application of knowledge.
Section C: Definition, explanation of an event, graph. Table containing
data/diagrams., make a choice.
PHYSICS PAPER 3

Section A: Structured Item

TABLE

1. In section A, students are usually required to tabulated the data in a table and plot a graph
2. A complete table must consist of:
(i) Column title that contain physical quantity, symbol and unit.
(ii) First column (on the left) of table is normally filled with manipulated variable;
(iii) Last column (on the right) of table is normally filled with responding variable.
(iv) All values must be recorded by using appropriate decimal place and consistent for
each column.

(iii)

(i) (iii)

{ (iv)

All values
must be
recorded by
using
appropriate
decimal place
and consistent
for each
column

(ii)

1. 2 Q’s
2. Identify variables: MV, RV, CV
3. Table – No. of column based on the construct
4. Identify type of graphs – Directly/ Inversely proportional …
5. Extrapolation of graph
6. Calculate gradient
GRAPH

All complete graph must contain the following:


(i) Title of graph – The first variable used in the title must be used for y-axis
Example: Title of graph: Graph of T2 versus l
Variable T2 must be used as label and values on y-axis
(ii) Labels of x-axis and y-axis and units
(iii) The vertical and horizontal scales must be even.
(iv) Size of the graph must be at least ¾ of the graph paper.
(v) The values for the origin of the graph must be written.
(vi) Coordinates of the graph must be plotted with a small cross mark (x)
(vii) In calculating the gradient of the graph, the triangle used for the calculation must be
drawn on the graph with the size of at least 8 X 10 cm.

Graph of T2 versus l
PHYSICS PAPER 3
Section B: Open Response Item

1. In this section students are required plan an experiment based on the scenario given in the
question.
2. To answer this section, students must be able to
• Identify Responding Variable (RV) and Manipulated Variable (MV).
• Relate the Responding Variable (RV)and Manipulated Variable (MV).
3. The table below provides the technique to answer questions in this section.

STEPS REMARK FORMAT SAMPLE ANSWER

RV and MV must be the


1. Identify RV physical quantities that can RV: acceleration of the boat
and MV be measured during the MV: The total mass of the boat
experiment.
(a)
• Acceleration of the boat
An inference is a
decreases when its mass is
conclusion drawn from RV depends on MV OR
2. Inference increased. OR
observation of a MV influences RV
phenomenon studied • Acceleration of the boat
depends on the total mass of
the boat
General statement that
assumed to be true (b)
regarding the relationship For a constant external force
The longer/bigger the MV
3. Hypothesis between MV and RV (Must acting on an object, the bigger
the longer/smaller the RV
have DIRECTION) based the mass of the object, the
on the experiment being smaller is its acceleration.
planned.
(c)(i)
To find the relationship
To find the relationship To find the relationship between
4. Aim between the MV and the
between MV and RV acceleration and the mass of an
RV
object.
•Manipulated Variable
(MV) – Physical Quantity (C)(ii)
which is controlled /
List down the: • Manipulated variable
changed for the purpose
•Manipulated Variable (MV): mass of the object, m
of investigating the results
(MV)
of an experiment..
•Responding Variable • Responding variable
5. Variable •Responding Variable (RV) (RV): acceleration of the
(RV) – Physical Quantitiy
•Constant Variable (CV) object, a
which is the result of the
changes made to MV
that are used in the • Fixed variable (FV):
•Constant Variable (CV) – experiment force acting on the object, F
Physical Quantities which
are kept constant during
the experiment
6. Equipment List all apparatus and List all apparatus and (C)(iii)
or materials used (the materials used Ticker tape, cellophane tape,
Apparatus apparatus that are used three identical elastic
to measure the RV and cords/rubber bands, ticker
MV must be included) timer, three trolleys, two retort
stand with clamps as support,
power supply, runway for

7
trolley.

(C)(iv)

7. Diagram Draw the correct diagram Draw the correct diagram

(C)( v)
(i) The apparatus is
set up as shown in the
figure.
(ii) the ticker timer
which is connected to the
12 V a.c. power supply is
started and the trolley is
• Write in passive form – pulled down the
past tense. runway.The elastic cord is
• The procedures must always maintained at the
include: same length and parallel
o Method of measuring the with the trolley.
Write down the
8. Procedure first value of MV. (iii) The ticker obtained is cut
procedures
o Method of measuring the into 5-tick strips and a tape
RV chart for the motion of the
o Repetition of trolley is made. The
experiments using at acceleration of the trolley,
least another 4 MV a, is calculated and
recorded.
(iv) The steps are repeated
with 2 and then 3 identical
trolleys stacked up. For
each case, the elastic cord
is kept stretched until the
end of the runway.

(C)(vi)

9. Tabulation Draw the basic table to


Draw table to record data
of data record data

10. Analysis of Sketch the graph with (vii)


data suitable quantities. the graph of acceleration, a
against m (or a against 1/m) is
plotted.
(1 point will be given for
Normally must
EITHER have a minimum of
(a) writing: ‘the5graph of a
trials/data
against m (or a against 1/m) is
plotted’ , or
(b) any of these graph
sketches. ALL labels must be
present.)

8
Sample question
(Physics Paper 3- section B)

Figure 1 shows a fisherman starting his fishing journey in the morning. Figure 2 shows the fisherman
returned with a boat loaded with fish. On his return journey, he rowed with the same strength as he
started, but the boat moved much slower.

9
Figure 1 Figure 2

Using the information on the fisherman and his experience,


(a) make one suitable inference; [1 mark]
(b) state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated; [1 mark]
(c) design an experiment to test your hypothesis stated in (b);
Choose suitable apparatus such as trolley, ticker timer and other apparatus.
In your description, state clearly the following;
(i) aim of the experiment,
(ii) variables in the experiment,
(iii) list of apparatus and materials,
(iv) arrangement of the apparatus,
(v) the procedure of the experiment which includes the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the responding variable,
(vi) the way you would tabulate the data,
(vii) the way you would analyse the data.
[10 marks]

Answer

(a) Acceleration of the boat decreases when its mass is increased.


(b) For a constant external force acting on an object, the bigger the mass of the object, the
smaller is its acceleration.
(c) (i) to determine the relationship between acceleration and the mass of an object.
(ii) Manipulated variable: mass of the object, m
Responding variable: acceleration of the object, a
Fixed variable: force acting on the object, F
(iii) Ticker tape, cellophane tape, three identical elastic cords/rubber bands, ticker
timer, three trolleys, two retort stand with clamps as support, power supply, runway
for trolley.
(iv)

(v) - The apparatus is set up as shown in the figure.


- the ticker timer which is connected to the 12 V a.c. power5 supply is
started and the trolley is pulled down the runway.
- The elastic cord is always maintained at the same length and parallel
with the trolley.
- The ticker obtained is cut into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the
motion of the trolley is made. The acceleration of the trolley, a, is calculated
and recorded.
- The steps repeated with 2 and then 3 identical trolleys stacked up. For
each case, the elastic cord is kept stretched until the end of the runway.

10
Mass, m / number of 1/m Acceleration, a / cm
trolley s-2
1
Normally must 2
have a 3
minimum of 5 4
trials/data 5

(vii) the graph of acceleration, a against m (or a against 1/m) is plotted.

1 point will be given for EITHER


(a) writing: ‘the graph of a against m (or a against 1/m) is plotted’ , or
(b) any of these graph sketches. ALL labels must be present.

11