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Point straight line when they are connected (only three or more points

a. Point - A point suggests an exact location in space. can be noncollinear).

It has no dimension. Example:

A point is a location in space; it indicates position. It

occupies no space of its own, and it has no dimension of

its own.

We use a capital letter to name a point.

Example:

1. Point A name

A Figure c. Coplanar points/lines are points/lines lie on the same

Asymbol plane.

b. Line - A line is a set of points arranged in a row. Are points that occupy the same plane.

It is extended endlessly in both directions.

It is a one-dimensional figure. d. Noncoplanar points are points that do not occupy the

same plane.

Two points determine a line.

That is, two distinct points are contained by Example:

exactly one line.

A line is a set of continuous points inﬁnitely

extending in opposite directions.

It has inﬁnite length, but no depth or width

We use a lower-case letter or any two points on

the line to name the line

Example:

line m or AB

A B

c. Plane - A plane is a set of points in an endless flat surface. a common point.

The following determine a plane: (a) three non-collinear Example:

points; (b) two intersecting lines; (c) two parallel lines; or Lines DH and DC intersect

(d) a line and a point not on the line. at point D. They are intersecting

A plane is a ﬂat expanse of points expanding in every lines.

direction. Planes have two dimensions: length and width.

They do not have depth. Lines CG and GF intersect

at point G. They are also

We use a lower-case letter or three points on the plane to

intersecting lines.

name the plane.

Example: d. Parallel Lines- a lines that are parallel.

Plane PQR or PQR

Example:.

a. Collinear points are points on the same line.

It is a points that form a single straight line when they are

connected (two points are always collinear).

e. Concurrent Lines- a lines that has a common point of name it as ray BA or ray CA. In notation, we write

intersection.

AB or AC .

are concurrent at point A.

are concurrent at point G.

d. Skew Lines- a lines that are not intersecting and not 3. Opposite rays are rays that share an endpoint and

parallel. inﬁnitely extend in opposite directions. Opposite rays form

Ex. straight angles.

Lines DH and EF are two lines which

are neither intersecting nor parallel.

These two lines do not lie on a plane

and are called skew lines. Lines AE

and GF are also skew lines. The lines

DH, CG, HE and GF are skew to AB.

ANGLES

Subsets of Lines

Angles are rays that share an endpoint but inﬁnitely extend

1. line segment is part of a line that has two endpoints. We in different directions.

define a line segment ̅̅̅̅

𝐴𝐵 as a subset of line ⃡𝐴𝐵 consisting of Remember:

the points A and B and all the points between them.

-Two lines are intersecting if they have a common

If the line to which a line segment belongs is given a point.

scale so that it turns into the real line, then the length Three or more lines are concurrent if they all

of the segment can be determined by getting the intersect at only one point.

distance between its endpoints. Parallel lines are coplanar lines that do not meet.

A part of a line with two endpoints. Although not Skew lines are lines that do not lie on the same

inﬁnitely extending in either direction, the line plane.

segment has an inﬁnite set of points between its Remember:

endpoints

Ray 𝐴𝐵 is a subset of the line AB. The points of 𝐴𝐵

are the points on segment AB and all the points X such that

B is between A and X.

SET OPERATIONS INVOLVING LINE AND ITS SUBSETS

Use the figure below to determine the part of the line being

described by the union or intersection of two segments, rays

2. ray is beginning at a point (called an starting and end or segment and ray:

point because it marks the end of a ray), and inﬁnitely

extends in one direction

endpoint, and extends endlessly in one direction.

We name a ray by its endpoint and one of its points. 1. UNION

We always start on the endpoint. The figure is ray AB

or we can also name it as ray AC. It is not correct to

Ex.

EXAMPLE:

angle A or angle BAC, or angle CAB.

= ray BF The mathematical notation is

∠A, or ∠BAC or CAB.

= ray EB

An angle divides the

= ray BE

plane containing it into

two regions: the interior

= line AD

and the exterior of the

angle

2. Intersections

MEASURING AN ANGLE

1) ∠EH1= 140 ° 4) ∠𝐺𝐻𝐼 = 180° 11) ∠𝐶𝐻𝐼 = 60°

segment BD

KINDS OF ANGLES

segment DE

1. Acute Angles – an angle measure less than 90° but more

than 0°

If ∠𝑀 is an acute angle, what are the possible

point C

values of n?

The possible value of n is the following:

point C

0 °< m∠𝑀 < 90°

0 °< m∠ (3n -60) °< 90°

ANGLES Answer: 20 < n < 50

An angle is a union of two non-collinear rays with

common endpoint. The two non-collinear rays are the sides

of the angle while the common endpoint is the vertex.

Example: 3. Adjacent angle of ∠ZVW is ∠ 𝑌𝑉𝑍

1. 2 3. 4. Adjacent angle of ∠YVZ is ∠YVX

2. Complementary – it is two angles that has a sum

of their measure exactly 90 °.

2. Example:

Right angles – an angle measure exactly 90° m ∠1 + m ∠2= 90°

Example: 75 °+ 15 °= 90°

RIGHT measure of an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 20°.

greater than 90° but less than 180° m ∠1 + m ∠2= 90°

EXAMPLE: m ∠1 + 20 °= 90°

90° < m ∠ABC < 180°, m ∠1 = 90°- 20 °

OBTUSE m ∠1 =70 °

exactly 180°

EXAMPLE: 3. Supplementary – it is two angles that has a sum of their

m ∠ABC = 180°, STRAIGHT measure exactly 180 °.

Example

5. Reflex Angles – an angle 1.

measures greater than 180° but less than 360°. m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°

EXAMPLE: 115 °+ 65 °= 180°

180° < m ∠ABC < 360° 2. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. Find the measure of

REFLEX an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 55°.

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°

perpendicular -If two lines or segments intersect so that they m ∠1 + 55 °= 180°

form a right angle. m ∠1 = 180°- 55°

, two perpendicular lines meet to form four right angles. m ∠1 =125 °

Example: 4. Linear pair – it is two angles that both adjacent and

supplementary.

EX. 1

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°

ON ANGLE PAIRS 135 °+ 45 °= 180°

1. Adjacent – two angles that are coplanar, have common vertex

and a common side but have no common interior points. 2. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. Find the measure of

REFERS TO THIS FIGURE an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 35°.

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°

m ∠1 + 35 °= 180°

m ∠1 = 180°- 35 °

m ∠1 =145°

2. Adjacent angle of ∠WVY is ∠ 𝑋𝑉𝑌

5. Vertical angles are the opposite angles formed when two lines Example 2.

intersect.

Vertical angles are congruent

Example:1.

Vertical angles of ∠𝐿𝑀𝐾 𝑖𝑠 ∠𝑂𝑀𝑁

2. Exterior angles – a two angles outside the transversal

∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 35°.

The exterior angles are the four angles formed that lie

outside the transversal.

Answer: m ∠ 2 = 35°.

Because vertical angle is congruent.

Example:

TRANSVERSAL

each at a different point. Because a transversal line crosses

at least two other lines, eight or more angles are created.

Example of exterior:

∠𝐴, ∠𝐵, ∠𝐺, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∠𝐻

Example:

3. The alternate interior angles are two interior angles that

lie on opposite sides of a transversal.

Example:

Example of interior angles:

The interior angles are the four angles formed

Angle Alternate interior angles

between the lines x and y

∠𝐶 → ∠𝐹

∠𝐷 → ∠𝐸

∠𝐹 → ∠𝐶

∠𝐸 → ∠𝐷

4. The alternate exterior angles are two exterior angles that

lie on opposite sides of the transversal.

Example:

(refer to figure above).

Example of interior angle: Example of exterior:

∠𝐶, ∠𝐷, ∠𝐸, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∠𝐹 Angle alternate exterior angles

∠𝐴 → ∠𝐻

∠𝐵 → ∠𝐺

∠𝐻 → ∠𝐴

∠𝐵 → ∠𝐺

5. The corresponding angles are two angles, one interior

and the other exterior, on the same side of the transversal.

Example:

Example of corresponding

angles:

1. ∠𝐴 → ∠𝐸

2. ∠𝐵 → ∠𝐹

3. ∠𝐶 → ∠𝐺

4. ∠𝐷 → ∠𝐻

5. ∠𝐸 → ∠𝐴

6. ∠𝐺 → ∠𝐶

7. ∠𝐻 → ∠𝐷

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