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BASICS TERMS OF GEOMETRY b.

Noncollinear points are points that do not form a single


Point straight line when they are connected (only three or more points
a. Point - A point suggests an exact location in space. can be noncollinear).
It has no dimension. Example:
A point is a location in space; it indicates position. It
occupies no space of its own, and it has no dimension of
its own.
We use a capital letter to name a point.
Example:
1. Point A name
 A Figure c. Coplanar points/lines are points/lines lie on the same
 Asymbol plane.
b. Line - A line is a set of points arranged in a row. Are points that occupy the same plane.
It is extended endlessly in both directions.
It is a one-dimensional figure. d. Noncoplanar points are points that do not occupy the
same plane.
Two points determine a line.
That is, two distinct points are contained by Example:
exactly one line.
A line is a set of continuous points infinitely
extending in opposite directions.
It has infinite length, but no depth or width
We use a lower-case letter or any two points on
the line to name the line
Example:
 line m or AB
A B

c. Intersecting Lines – a lines that are intersecting and has


c. Plane - A plane is a set of points in an endless flat surface. a common point.
The following determine a plane: (a) three non-collinear Example:
points; (b) two intersecting lines; (c) two parallel lines; or Lines DH and DC intersect
(d) a line and a point not on the line. at point D. They are intersecting
A plane is a flat expanse of points expanding in every lines.
direction. Planes have two dimensions: length and width.
They do not have depth. Lines CG and GF intersect
at point G. They are also
We use a lower-case letter or three points on the plane to
intersecting lines.
name the plane.
Example: d. Parallel Lines- a lines that are parallel.
Plane PQR or PQR
Example:.

Lines AB and DC are parallel.

Lines DH and CG are parallel.

OTHER BASICS TERMS OF GEOMETRY


a. Collinear points are points on the same line.
It is a points that form a single straight line when they are
connected (two points are always collinear).
e. Concurrent Lines- a lines that has a common point of name it as ray BA or ray CA. In notation, we write
intersection.
AB or AC .

Lines AD, AB, and AE A B C


are concurrent at point A.

Lines GH, GF, and GC


are concurrent at point G.

d. Skew Lines- a lines that are not intersecting and not 3. Opposite rays are rays that share an endpoint and
parallel. infinitely extend in opposite directions. Opposite rays form
Ex. straight angles.
Lines DH and EF are two lines which
are neither intersecting nor parallel.
These two lines do not lie on a plane
and are called skew lines. Lines AE
and GF are also skew lines. The lines
DH, CG, HE and GF are skew to AB.

ANGLES
Subsets of Lines
Angles are rays that share an endpoint but infinitely extend
1. line segment is part of a line that has two endpoints. We in different directions.
define a line segment ̅̅̅̅
𝐴𝐵 as a subset of line ⃡𝐴𝐵 consisting of Remember:
the points A and B and all the points between them.
-Two lines are intersecting if they have a common
If the line to which a line segment belongs is given a point.
scale so that it turns into the real line, then the length Three or more lines are concurrent if they all
of the segment can be determined by getting the intersect at only one point.
distance between its endpoints. Parallel lines are coplanar lines that do not meet.
A part of a line with two endpoints. Although not Skew lines are lines that do not lie on the same
infinitely extending in either direction, the line plane.
segment has an infinite set of points between its Remember:
endpoints
Ray 𝐴𝐵 is a subset of the line AB. The points of 𝐴𝐵
are the points on segment AB and all the points X such that
B is between A and X.
SET OPERATIONS INVOLVING LINE AND ITS SUBSETS

Use the figure below to determine the part of the line being
described by the union or intersection of two segments, rays
2. ray is beginning at a point (called an starting and end or segment and ray:
point because it marks the end of a ray), and infinitely
extends in one direction

A ray is also a part of a line but has only one


endpoint, and extends endlessly in one direction.
We name a ray by its endpoint and one of its points. 1. UNION
We always start on the endpoint. The figure is ray AB
or we can also name it as ray AC. It is not correct to
Ex.

EXAMPLE:

= segment AE The angle on the left can be named


angle A or angle BAC, or angle CAB.
= ray BF The mathematical notation is
∠A, or ∠BAC or CAB.
= ray EB
An angle divides the
= ray BE
plane containing it into
two regions: the interior
= line AD
and the exterior of the
angle
2. Intersections

MEASURING AN ANGLE

EXAMPLE. Refer TO FIGURE ABOVE


1) ∠EH1= 140 ° 4) ∠𝐺𝐻𝐼 = 180° 11) ∠𝐶𝐻𝐼 = 60°

2) ∠𝐷𝐻𝐼 = 40° 5) ∠𝐹𝐻𝐼 = 160° 12) ∠𝐴𝐻𝐷 = 50°

EXAMPLE: 3) ∠𝐵𝐻𝐼 = 110° 6) ∠𝐴𝐻𝐼 =90° 13) ∠𝐹𝐻𝐷=120°


segment BD
KINDS OF ANGLES
segment DE
1. Acute Angles – an angle measure less than 90° but more
than 0°
If ∠𝑀 is an acute angle, what are the possible
point C
values of n?
The possible value of n is the following:
point C
 0 °< m∠𝑀 < 90°
 0 °< m∠ (3n -60) °< 90°
ANGLES Answer: 20 < n < 50
An angle is a union of two non-collinear rays with
common endpoint. The two non-collinear rays are the sides
of the angle while the common endpoint is the vertex.
Example: 3. Adjacent angle of ∠ZVW is ∠ 𝑌𝑉𝑍
1. 2 3. 4. Adjacent angle of ∠YVZ is ∠YVX
2. Complementary – it is two angles that has a sum
of their measure exactly 90 °.

2. Example:
Right angles – an angle measure exactly 90° m ∠1 + m ∠2= 90°
Example: 75 °+ 15 °= 90°

m ∠ABC = 90°, 2. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. Find the


RIGHT measure of an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 20°.

3. Obtuse angles – an angle measure


greater than 90° but less than 180° m ∠1 + m ∠2= 90°
EXAMPLE: m ∠1 + 20 °= 90°
90° < m ∠ABC < 180°, m ∠1 = 90°- 20 °
OBTUSE m ∠1 =70 °

4. Straight Angles – an angle measure


exactly 180°
EXAMPLE: 3. Supplementary – it is two angles that has a sum of their
m ∠ABC = 180°, STRAIGHT measure exactly 180 °.
Example
5. Reflex Angles – an angle 1.
measures greater than 180° but less than 360°. m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°
EXAMPLE: 115 °+ 65 °= 180°
180° < m ∠ABC < 360° 2. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. Find the measure of
REFLEX an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 55°.

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°
perpendicular -If two lines or segments intersect so that they m ∠1 + 55 °= 180°
form a right angle. m ∠1 = 180°- 55°
, two perpendicular lines meet to form four right angles. m ∠1 =125 °
Example: 4. Linear pair – it is two angles that both adjacent and
supplementary.
EX. 1

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°
ON ANGLE PAIRS 135 °+ 45 °= 180°
1. Adjacent – two angles that are coplanar, have common vertex
and a common side but have no common interior points. 2. ∠1 and ∠2 are complementary angles. Find the measure of
REFERS TO THIS FIGURE an angle ∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 35°.

m ∠1 + m ∠2= 180°
m ∠1 + 35 °= 180°
m ∠1 = 180°- 35 °
m ∠1 =145°

EXAMPLE: 1. Adjacent angle of ∠XVZ is ∠ 𝑍𝑉𝑊


2. Adjacent angle of ∠WVY is ∠ 𝑋𝑉𝑌
5. Vertical angles are the opposite angles formed when two lines Example 2.
intersect.
Vertical angles are congruent
Example:1.
Vertical angles of ∠𝐿𝑀𝐾 𝑖𝑠 ∠𝑂𝑀𝑁

2. ∠1 and ∠2 VERTICAL angles. Find the measure of an angle


2. Exterior angles – a two angles outside the transversal
∠1 when the measure of the ∠2 is 35°.
The exterior angles are the four angles formed that lie
outside the transversal.
Answer: m ∠ 2 = 35°.
Because vertical angle is congruent.
Example:

TRANSVERSAL

Transversal- A transversal line intersects two or more lines,


each at a different point. Because a transversal line crosses
at least two other lines, eight or more angles are created.
Example of exterior:
∠𝐴, ∠𝐵, ∠𝐺, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∠𝐻
Example:
3. The alternate interior angles are two interior angles that
lie on opposite sides of a transversal.

Example:

Angles formed when two lines are cut by a transversal.

1. interior angles – a two angles lie inside the transversal.


Example of interior angles:
 The interior angles are the four angles formed
Angle Alternate interior angles
between the lines x and y
∠𝐶 → ∠𝐹
∠𝐷 → ∠𝐸
∠𝐹 → ∠𝐶
∠𝐸 → ∠𝐷
4. The alternate exterior angles are two exterior angles that
lie on opposite sides of the transversal.
Example:
(refer to figure above).
Example of interior angle: Example of exterior:
∠𝐶, ∠𝐷, ∠𝐸, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∠𝐹 Angle alternate exterior angles
∠𝐴 → ∠𝐻
∠𝐵 → ∠𝐺
∠𝐻 → ∠𝐴
∠𝐵 → ∠𝐺
5. The corresponding angles are two angles, one interior
and the other exterior, on the same side of the transversal.
Example:

Example of corresponding
angles:

Angle corresponding angles


1. ∠𝐴 → ∠𝐸
2. ∠𝐵 → ∠𝐹
3. ∠𝐶 → ∠𝐺
4. ∠𝐷 → ∠𝐻
5. ∠𝐸 → ∠𝐴
6. ∠𝐺 → ∠𝐶
7. ∠𝐻 → ∠𝐷