You are on page 1of 47

SET 1

PAPER 2: STRUCTURE QUESTION


1. (a) bromine and phenol 1
(b) liquid 1
(c) Nickel 1
(d)

(e) ion 1
(f) (i) T1 1
(ii) Heat absorbed by the particles/molecules is used to overcome the attraction forces
between the particles/molecules in solid naphthalene. 1

(iii) Become faster 1

……8
o
2 (a) T C 1
(b) t2 1
(c) Heat energy released to the surroundings is balanced by the heat release as the particles
attract one another to form a solid 1
(d) (i) molecules 1
(ii)
P R

1+1
(e) (i) liquid and solid 1
(ii) Solid 1
(f) Sublimation 1

…….9

3 (a) Functional apparatus 1


Label 1

(b)

1
(c) 1. Label and unit of axes X and Y 1
2. Scale and size of graph 1
3. Transfer point 1
4. Correct and smooth curve 1
O
(d) (i) Melting point is shown on the graph at 80 C 1
(ii) Melting point is the temperature at which solid change to liquid 1

(e) Heat absorbed by the particles/molecules is used to overcome the attraction forces
between the particles/molecules in solid naphthalene. 1

……

10
4 (a) A representation of a chemical substance using letters for atoms and subscripts for each
type of atoms present in the substance. 1

(b) (i) Hydrochloric acid // nitric acid // sulphuric acid 1


Magnesium // zinc

(ii) Correct formula of reactant and product 1


Balance equation 1

Example:
Mg + HCl → MgCl2 + H2

(c) Flow the hydrogen gas into the combustion tube for a few minutes to remove air 1
before heating metal oxide

(d) (i) Number of mole of copper = 1.62 // 0.025 mol


64 1

(ii) Number of mole of oxygen = 0.40 // 0.025 mol 1


16

(iii) Number of mole of copper : Number of mole of oxygen


0.025 : 0.025 // 1
1 : 1

CuO 1

(e) Iron oxide // Tin oxide // Lead(II) oxide // Silver oxide 1

(f) Burn metal M in oxygen 1

...11

5 (a) (i) Magnesium // zinc 1


Hydrochloric acid // nitric acid // sulphuric acid 1

(ii) Correct formula of reactant and product 1


Balance equation 1

Example:
Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

2
(b) (i)

1
Empirical formula is MO2 1
(ii) Correct formula of reactant and product 1
Balance equation 1

Example:
MO2 + 2H2  M + 2H2O

(c) Flow the hydrogen gas into the combustion tube for a few minutes to remove air 1
before heating metal oxide //
Allow flow of hydrogen gas into the combustion tube during cooling

(d) No. 1
Magnesium is more reactive than hydrogen. 1

…13

6 (a) The chemical formula that shows the simplest ratio of the number of atoms
of each type of elements in the compound 1

(b) (i) Mass of magnesium = (26.4-24.0)g =2.4 g


Mass of oxygen = (28.0 – 26.4) g = 1.6 g 1

(ii) moles of magnesium atoms : moles of oxygen atoms


1.6 : 2.4 //
24 16
0.1 : 0.1 1

(iii) MgO. 1

(iv) Correct formula of reactant and product 1


Balance equation 1

Example:
2Mg + O2  2MgO

(c) To allow oxygen to enter the crucible for complete combustion to occur. 1
(d) Functional apparatus 1
Label 1
X oxide
Dry
hydrogen
gas

(e) Collect the gas in a test tube.Place a burning wooden splinter at the mouth of the test tube.
No pop sound. 1
Heat
…..10

3
7 (a) (i) 2.6 1
(ii) Period : 2 1
Group : 16 1
(b) (i) 9 1
(ii) 10 1
(iii) 19
P 1
9
(iv) 1. Element Q is more reactive than element R. 1
2. The size of atom Q is smaller tha atom R 1
3. The attraction forces between nucleus and valence electron of atom Q is stronger 1
than atom R
4. it is easier for atom Q to receive valence electron compare to atom R. 1

(c) (i) Ionic bond 1


(i) Has high melting and boiling point // Conduct electricity in aqueous solution and
molten state // Soluble in water // insoluble in organic solvent 1

(d)
1+1
P C P
….14

8 (a) 2.8.2 1
(b) (i) Ionic bond 1
2+
(ii) 1. Atom X releases 2 electrons to form X ion 1
2. achieve octet electron arrangement 1
(iii) Each ion drawn correctly
2+ 2-

X Y
R

Number of electrons for ion X and ion Y are correct 1


Charge of ions are correct 1

(iv) Has high melting and boiling point// Conduct electricity in aqueous solution and 1
molten state // Soluble in water // insoluble in organic solvent
(c) (i) ZY2 1
(ii) 12 + 2(16) // 44 1

……9

9 (a) Metal : P/Q/R/S/T 1


Non-metal : V/U/W/X 1
(b) 2.8.5 1
(c) R 1
(d) Electronegativity increases from Q to U 1
1. The atomic size decreases from Q to U 1
2. The nuclei attraction forces between electrons and nucleus increases
from Q to U 1
+
(e) Q 1

4
(f) X 1
Atom X has achieved octet electron arrangement 1

(g) Correct formula of reactant and product 1


Balance equation 1

Example:
2R + U2 → 2RU
(h) 1. form coloured ions 1
2. has more than one oxidation number
3. as catalyst
4. form complex ions
[ any one] …..13

10 (a) (i) seven / 7 1


(ii) 2.8.7 1
+
(b) (i) P 1
(ii) Q 1
(iii) PQ2 1
(c) Element U is not reactive // do not cause explosion 1

 
 
(d)  
   
Q
  
     
     
     
       
Q T Q
     
     
     
 
   
Q
  
 
 
1 st mark: - showing the sharing of electrons and correct number of 1
electrons in each shell
2 nd mark – correct label and correct number of electron pairs being 1
shared
(e) low melting point & boiling point // does not conduct electricity 1
TOTAL 9

5
11 (a) (i) 2.8.1 1
(ii) Period : 2 1
Group : 16 1
(b) (i) Ionic 1
(ii)
+ 2- +

P Q P
R

Number of electrons for ion X and ion Y are correct 1


Charge of ions and ratio of ion X to ion Y are correct 1

 
 
 
   
S
(c)   
     
     
     
       
S R S
     
     
     
 
   
S
  
 
 

Correct number of atom R and S 1


Correct number electrons and shells 1

(d) 1. Compound in (b) can conduct electricity at molten or aqueous state. 1


2. Compound in (c) cannot conduct electricity at any state 1
3. Compound in (b) consist of freely moving ions 1
1
4. Compound in (c) consist of neutral molecules / no freely moving ion

OR
1. The melting point of compound (b) is high
2. The melting point of compound (c) is low
3. Ions in compound (b) are attracted by strong electrostatic forces
4. molecules in compound (c) are attracted by weak van der Waals forces

….12

6
12 (a) Q 1
(b)(i) Ion 1
(b)(ii) solid state : Ions are not freely moving// ions are in a fixed position. 1
molten state : Ion can move freely 1
(c)(i) R : Gas 1
T : Liquid 1
(c)(ii)
1

(c)(iii) - Van der waal/intermolecular forces between molecules are weak 1


- Small amount of heat is required to overcome it 1
.......9

PAPER 2 :ESSAY QUESTION:

13 (a) (i) The number of neutrons : 18 and 20 respectively 2

(ii)
Similarities Differences
1. having the same proton number// 1. different in the number of neutrons //
Same number of electrons different in the nucleon number
2. having the same valence electron// 2. different in physical properties
having the same chemical properties

4
(b) (i) 1. Nucleus contains 6 proton and 6 neutron 1
2. Electrons move around the nucleus 1
3. Two shells are filled with electrons 1
4. There are 6 valence electron// electron arrangement is 2.6 1

…….4
(ii)
Comparison Diagram P Q
Proton number 6 6
Number of valence electron 4 4
Chemical properties similar similar
Number of neutron//nucleon number 6//12 7//13
Physical properties different different
Standard representation of element different different
Any four 4

(c) - Correct curve 1


- Mark 71 on the y axes which is at the same level with the 1
- X and Y axis with correct title and unit 1……3

Temperature/ ◦ C
100

71

60

Time/s
7
(ii) 1 Substance X in both solid and liquid state 1
2. heat energy is released 1
3. kinetic energy of particles decreases 1
4. They are closer to each other // Attraction force between the particles
become stronger 1……4

20
14 (a) 1. Number of mole in 16 g of oxygen = 16/32 // 0.05 mole 1
-3 -3
2. Volume occupied by 16 g of oxygen = 0.05 mole x 24 dm // 12 dm 1
3. Number of mole in 22 g of CO2 = 22/44 // 0.05 mole 1
-3 -3
4. Volume occupied by 22g of CO2 = 0.05 moles x 24 dm // 12 dm 1…..4

(b) Element C H N O
Mass /g 0.48 0.05 0.28 0.16
1
Number of 0.48/12 0.05/1 0.28/14 0.16/16
mole //0.04 //0.05 //0.02 //0.01 1

The simplest 0.04/0.01 0.05/0.01 0.02/0.01 0.01/0.01 1


ratio // 4 // 5 // 2 // 1

Empirical formula = C4H5N2O 1


[C4H5N2O ]n = 194 1
[ 97 ]n = 194 1
n = 194/97 // 2 1
Molecular formula = C8H10N4O2 1…..8

(c) 1 molar mass of ammonium sulphate = 132g/mol 1


2 percentage of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate = 28/132 x 100% // 21.2% 1
3 molar mass of urea = 60 g/mol 1
4 percentage of nitrogen in urea = 28/ 60 x 100% // 46.7% 1
5 molar mass of hydrazine = 32g/mol 1
6 percentage of nitrogen in hydrazine = 28/132 x 100% // 87.5% 1
7 Hydrazine has the richest source of nitrogen compares with other fertilizers. 1
8 The farmer should choose hydrazine 1…8

20

15 (a) 1. The proton number is 11 // Number of proton is 11 1


2. Nucleon number is 23 // Atomic mass is 23 1
3. Number of neutron = 23-11 = 12 1
4. Nucleus contains 11p and 12n 1
5. Position of electron circulating the nucleus 1
6. Correct number shell consists of electron 1.....6
7. Symbol of sodium is Na any 6

(b) (i) Formula that show simplest ratio number of atoms of each element in
compound 1

8
(ii) 1. Relative molecular mass for n(CH2O) = 180 // 1
12n + 2n + 16n = 180
2. n = 6 1
3. C6H12O6 1 ....4
(c) (i)
Element Fe Cl
1. Mass/g 2.80 5.32 1
2. No. of moles 2.80/56 = 0.05 5.32/35.5 = 0.15 1
3. Ratio of moles/ 0.05/0.05 = 1 0.15/0.05 = 3 1
Simplest ratio

4. Empirical formula = FeCl3 1...4

(ii) 1. Formula of the reactants


2. Formula of products 1
3. Balance equation 1
1

2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3

4. No. of moles Fe = 2.80/56 = 0.05 mol


5. No. of moles Cl2 = (0.05 x 3)/2 = 0.075 mol 1
3 3 1
6. Volume of Cl2 = 0.075 x 24 = 1.8 dm / 1,800 cm
1 ...6

20

16 (a) Formula that shows the simplest ratio of the number of atoms for each element in
the compound. 1…1

(b)
Element C H
Mass (%) 92.3 7.7 1
Number of 92.3 7 .7
= 7.7 = 7.7 1
moles 12 1
Ratio of moles 1 1 1

Empirical formula : CH
RMM of (CH)n = 78
[ 12 + 1]n = 78
1
13 n = 78
n = 6
1…5
Molecular formula : C6H6
(c) Procedure:
1. Clean magnesium ribbon with sand paper 1
2. Weigh crucible and its lid 1
3. Put magnesium ribbon into the crucible and weigh the crucible with its lid 1
4. Heat strongly the crucible without its lid 1
5. Cover the crucible when the magnesium starts to burn and lift/raise the lid a 1
little at intervals
6. Remove the lid when the magnesium burnt completely 1
7. Heat strongly the crucible for a few minutes 1
8. Cool and weigh the crucible with its lid and the content 1
9. Repeat the processes of heating, cooling and weighing until a constant mass 1
is obtained
Record all the mass

9
10. Results:
Mass/g 1
Crucible + lid x
Crucible + lid + magnesium y 1
Crucible + lid + magnesium oxide z 1
Calculations:
1
Empirical formula: MgaOb / MgO
1
Element Mg O
Mass (g) y-x z-y Max
yx zy 12
Number of moles
24 16
Simplest ratio of moles a b

(d) - Cannot separate copper from magnesium oxide 1


- Cannot weigh copper 1
20

17 (a) (i) 1.The electron arrangement of atom Q : 2.7 1+1


2. The electron arrangement of atom R : 2.4 2
(ii) 1.The number of neutrons in atom Q is 10 1+1
2. Number of electron in atom Q is 9
2
(b) 1.Q and R form covalent bond. 1
2.Atom Q has an electron arrangement of 2.7 1
3.Atom R has an electron arrangement of 2.4 1
4.To achieve the stable electron arrangement, atom R 1
shares electrons with atom Q.
5.One atom R contributes 4 electrons.
6. Each atom R contributes one electron. 1
7. Atom R shares four of its valence electrons each with 4 1
atoms of Q 1
8. molecule with the formula RQ4.

1
Q

Q Q
R

Notes : points 4, 7 and 8 can be obtained from the diagram


8

10
(c) For group 1 elements,
1. Going down the group ,atomic size increases
2. the valence electron becomes further away from the nucleus
3. Forces of attraction between nucleus and the valence electron 1
becomes weaker.
1
4. It is easier for the atom to donate / release the valence electrons.
5. The reactivity increases down the group
1
For Group 17 elements ,
6. Atomic size increases when descending the group 1
7. the valence electrons become further away from nucleus.
8. Forces of attraction between the protons / nucleus and the
valence electrons become weaker 1
9. It is more difficult for the atom to accept /gain/receive electrons.
1
8.The reactivity decreases down the Group 1

1
max 8
Total 20
18 (a) (i) Atom Y : 2.8.7 1
Atom Z : 2.8.8.1 1

Group 17 1
Because atom Y has 7 valence electron 1
Period 3 1
Because atom Y has three shells occupied with electrons 1….6

(ii) 2Na + Y2 → 2NaY


Correct formula of reactants and product correct 1
Balance equation 1

Y2 + 2NaOH → NaY + NaOY + H2O


Correct formula of reactants and products correct 1
Balance equation 1…4

(b) Ionic compound/bond


1- The electron arrangement of atom P = 2, 8, 1 / 2. 8. 1
The electron arrangement of atom Q = 2, 8, 7 / 2. 8. 7 1

2- to achieve the stable electron arrangement 1


+
3- atom of P donates / gives one electron to form P
// half equation 1
-
4 - atom of Q receives / accepts one electron to form Q
// half equation 1
+ -
5 -the P ion and Q ions are attracted by a strong electrostatic force to form
ionic bond . 1

6- formula PQ / correct diagram 1

Covalent compound / bond

7-The electron arrangement of atom R = 2, 6 / 2. 6 1


8-to achieve the stable electron arrangement

11
9-atom R and atom Q share electrons 1
10 - atom R contributes 4 electrons and atom Q contributes one
electron 1
11- one atom R and 4 atom Q share 4 pairs of electrons
12- to form covalent compound with the formula RQ4 / diagram
1Max 10

PAPER 3
STRUCTURE

Explanation Score

19 (a) Suggested Answer 3


(a) 0 s = 95.0 ° C, 30 s = 85.0 ° C, 60 s = 82.0 ° C,
90 s = 80.0 ° C, 120 s = 80.0 ° C,150 s = 80.0 ° C,
180 s = 78.0 ° C, 210 s = 70.0 ° C.
(b) Suggested Answer
3

Time (second) Temperature (° C)


0.0 95.0
30.0 85.0
60.0 82.0
90.0 80.0
120.0 80.0
150.0 80.0
180.0 78.0
210.0 70.0

(c) (i) & (ii) [ Score 3 & 3 ]

Temperature / ° C

95 x
x
90
x
80.0
x x x
Freezing
x
point
70 x

60

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 Time / second

12
d(i) Suggested Answer
The constant temperature at which liquid becomes a solid 3

d(ii) Suggested Answer


The heat released when the particles in the liquid arrange 3
to form solid balanced by the heat loss to the surroundings.
e Suggested Answer
The air trapped in the conical flask is a poor conductor
3
of heat. The air helped to minimize heat loss to the
surroundings. / to ensure uniform cooling.
f Suggested Answer 3
Element Compound
P, R Q, S

20 (a)
Observation Inference
(i) White fume is released (i) Magnesium oxide is formed
(ii) White solid is formed/The mass of crucible (ii) Magnesium reacts with oxygen
and its content increases.
(b) The mass of crucible and lid = 25.35 g.
The mass of crucible, lid and magnesium ribbon =27.75 g.
The mass of crucible, lid and magnesium oxide when cooled = 29.35g
(c) (i) The mass of Mg= (27.75 -25.35)g =2.40g
(ii) The mass of O2=(29.35-27.75)=1.60 g
(iii) The number of moles Mg=0.1 mole
The number of moles O = 0.1 mole
The ratio of Mg : O = 1 : 1
The empirical formula is MgO.
(d) 0.1 mole of Mg reacts with 0.1 mole of O/1 mole of Mg reacts with 1 mole of O

21 (a) Able to predict the manipulated variable, the Able to state how to control the manipulated
responding variable and the constant variable variables correctly
completely.
Manipulated variable :
metals of Group 1 elements // sodium, lithium, Repeat the experiment by using the metals of
potassium. sodium, lithium and potassium

Responding variable: Able to state correctly the way to control the


the reactivity of the reaction with water // the manipulated variable
speed of movement on the water surface To observe how fast the metals move on the
surface of water.
Constant variable:
size/mass of metals. Volume of water
Able to use the metal granules with the same size
Use the metal granules with the same size.
21 (b)
Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable
correctly..

Suggested answer: The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases going down the group.
21(c) Able to arrange correctly the reactivity series of the metals according to descending order.
Answer: potassium, sodium, lithium
21 (d) Able to classify the ions correctly.
[to name or write all the formula of the ions correctly at the cations and anions group.]
Answer: positive ion/ cation : sodium ion/ Na+, hydrogen ion/ H+
Negative ion/anion : hydroxide ion/ OH-

Paper 3: Essay

13
22(a) [Able to state the aim of experiment accurately] 3
To compare the reactivity of lithium, sodium and potassium based on the
reaction with water and describing the effect of the solution towards the red
litmus paper.
22(b) Hypothesis 3
Metals of lithium, sodium and potassium show different rate of reactivity with
water and the solution formed turns red litmus paper to blue.
22(c) Variables
a) Manipulated variable :type of metals 3
b) Responding variable : reactivity of reaction
c) Constant variable : water and temperature

22(d) [Able to list the correct and complete substances and apparatus.] 3
Substances and Apparatus
Lithium, sodium and potassium metals with water, basin, knife, forceps, blue
litmus paper and white tile.
22(e) [Able to give all the procedures correctly, steps 1 - 7] 3
1. Lithium metal is cut into a small piece
2. The paraffin oil on the surface of the metal is wiped with the filter.
3. A basin is filled with water.
4. Lithium metal is put on the surface of the water with a pair of forceps.
5. Reactivity of the reaction is observed and recorded.
6. The experiment is repeated with sodium and potassium metals.

22(f) [Able to show the accurate tabulation of data with correct title.] 2

Metals Observations
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium

14
SET 2
1 (a) Electrolysis is a process whereby an electrolyte is decomposed to its
constituent elements when electric current passes through it. 1
2+ -
(b) Pb / lead(II) ions , Br / bromide ions 1

(c ) electrical to chemical 1

(d) In solid : no free moving ions 1


In molten : Ions free to move 1

(e) (i) brown gas are released 1


-
(ii) 2Br → Br2 + 2e 1

(f) (i) Lead 1


(ii) reduction 1
9

2 (a) (i) Copper ion and hydrogen ion 1


2+ +
r: Cu and H
(ii) [Able to mark the positive and the negative electrode correctly] 1

(b) (i) The blue colour turns colourless/becomes paler 1


2+
(ii) The concentration/ number of Cu decreases 1

2+
(c) (i) Mg / magnesium ion 1
2+
(ii) Mg → Mg + 2e 1

(d) (i) Reduction 1


(ii) The voltmeter reading increases 1
The distances between Mg and Cu is greater than the distance between
Mg and Zn in electrochemical series 1
9

3 (a) To allow the movement of ions. 1

(b)
e G e
e e
Electrode P Electrode Q

Potassium iodide
Chlorine water
solution

Dilute sulphuric acid 1

(c) (i) Colourless change to brown 1


(ii) Put a few drops of starch solution. 1
15
A blue precipitate is formed. 1

(d) Iodide ion // potassium iodide 1


Loss electron//increase in oxidation number 1

Cl2 + 2e  2Cl
-
(e) 1

(f) Bromine water // acidified KMnO4 solution // acidified K2Cr2O7 solution 1

(g) 0 to -1 1
10

4 (a) (i) Iron(III) nitrate // Iron (III) ions 1


(ii) Oxidising agent 1
(iii) Add / pour NaOH /NH3 solution 1
Brown precipitate is formed 1
2+ 2+
(b ) (i) Zn + Cu → Zn + Cu 1
(ii) 0 to +2 1
(iii) Oxidation 1

(c) (i) Magnesium // Aluminium 1


Metal M higher than zinc in the reactivity series//
Metal M reactive than zinc 1

(ii) M , Zn , N 1
10
5 (a) (i) Mg /Zn / [ any suitable metal ] 1
MgSO4 / ZnSO4 / [ any suitable solution ] 1

(ii) Positive terminal : Cu 1


Negative terminal : X/Mg/Zn 1
2+
(iii) Positive terminal : Cu + 2e → Cu 1
2+
Negative terminal : X → X + 2e //
2+
Mg → Mg + 2e
1…. 6

(b) (i) Z Y X W 1

(ii) X 1
X below Z in the electrochemical series//
X less electropositive than Z 1
0.6 V 1….
4
(c ) Observation on the electrolyte

Experiment I
2+
The concentration of Cu ions decrease 1
Copper ions discharge to form copper atom at cathode 1
2+
Cu + 2e → Cu 1

Experiment II
2+
The concentration of Cu ions unchanged 1
2+
The rate of Cu ions discharge at cathode is the same the rate
of copper ions formed at anode. 1

16
Observation at anode

Experiment I
-
OH ions discharge to form oxygen gas 1
- 2-
OH ion lower than SO 4 ion in electrochemical series. 1
-
4OH → 2H2O + O2 + 4e 1

Experiment II
2+
Copper ionise to form Cu ions 1
2+
Cu→ Cu + 2e
1…10
20

6 (a) Reaction II 1
Oxidation number of magnesium changes from 0 to +2,
Oxidation number of zinc changes from +2 to 0 1
No change in oxidation number for each elements in 1
reaction I
1…4

(b) Test tube P:


The solution changes colour from pale green to yellow 1
2+ 3+ -
2Fe + Cl2  2Fe +2Cl
Correct formulae of reactants and products 1
Balance equation 1

Test tube Q:
The solution changes colour from colourless to yellow/brown. 1
- -
2I + Cl2  I2 + 2Cl
Correct formulae of reactants and products
Balance equation 1
1…6

(c ) Experiment I
Reaction between carbon and oxide of metal P occurs 1

Carbon is more reactive than metal P 1

Experiment II
Reaction between carbon and oxide of metal Q does not occur 1

Metal Q is more reactive than carbon 1

Experiment III
Reaction between carbon and oxide of metal R occurs. 1
Carbon is more reactive than metal R 1

Reaction between carbon and oxide of metal P produces flame


whereas reaction between carbon and oxide of metal R
produces glow. 1
Metal P is less reactive than metal R. 1
Reactivity of metals in descending order is Q, carbon, R, P 1

Q is Aluminium // Magnesium 1..10

Total marks [20]

17
+
7 (a) 2H + 2e  H2
Correct formulae of reactants and product 1 2
Balanced 1
(b) Properties Cell A Cell B
1. Type of cell Voltaic cell Electrolytic cell
2. Energy change Chemical  electrical Electrical  chemical 1
3. Electrodes Positive terminal: Anode: Copper 1
Copper Cathode: Copper
Negative terminal: 1
Magnesium
2+ 2- + - 2+ 2- + -
4. Ions in electrolyte Cu , SO4 , H and OH Cu , SO4 , H and OH
ions ions
5. Half equation Positive terminal: Anode: 1
2+ 2+
Cu + 2e  Cu Cu  Cu + 2e
Negative terminal Cathode: 1
2+ 2+
Mg  Mg + 2e Cu + 2e  Cu
6. Observation Positive terminal: Anode: 1
Copper plate becomes Copper
thicker dissolves//become 1
thinner
Magnesium becomes Cathode:
thinner/dissolve Copper becomes thicker 1 8

(c) Chemicals
silver plate , Silver nitrate solution
1
Procedure:
1. Iron ring is connected to the negative plate on the battery while the silver
plate is connected to the positive terminal of the battery//Iron ring is made as 1
cathode while silver plate is made as anode 1
2. Both plates are immersed into the silver nitrate solution. 1
3. The circuit is completed
Diagram

Functional apparatus set-up


Label correctly:
1
Chemical Equation 1
+
Cathode: Ag + e  Ag
+
Anode : Ag  Ag + e 1
1
Observation:
Cathode :Grey /silvery solid is deposited
Anode/silver become thinner//dissolve 1
1 10
Total 20

18
8 (a) (i) Sampel answer.
2+
Mg → Mg + 2e // any suitable equation 1
Metal / magnesium atom lose electron // metal / magnesium is oxidized
1…2

(ii) Experiment I
2+
Iron nail is oxidized to form Fe ions 1
Metal P speeds up the process of rusting 1
Because iron is more electropositive than P 1
2+
Dark blue precipitate indicates the presence of Fe ions 1

Experiment II
Metal Q is oxidized to form Q ions 1
Because metal Q is more electropositive than iron 1
-
Water and oxygen accept electron to become OH ions //
- -
4OH → 2H2O + OH + 4e 1
-
Pink colour of solution indicate the presence of OH ions 1
Arrangement : metal Q , iron , metal P. 1
Any 8….8

(b) Sample answer


Zinc as a reducing agent 1
Add zinc to iron(III) chloride solution 1
Heat the solution 1

Filter the solution / mixture 1


2+
Add sodium hydroxide solution to the solution produced/ Fe 1
Green precipitate is formed 1

Chlorine as an oxidising agent 1


Add chlorine water to iron(II) nitrate solution 1
Stir/ shake the solution 1
Add sodium hydroxide solution 1
Brown precipitate 1
Max …10

20

Questio Rubric Score


n
[Able to state the relationship correctly between the manipulated variable
9 (a)
and the responding variable ]
Example: 3
When a more/less electropositive metal in contact with iron, the metal
inhibits/speeds up rusting.
[Able to state three variables correctly]
9 (b)
Example:
Manipulated variable: metals in contact with
3
iron//magnesium,copper,zinc
Responding variable: The intensity of blue colouration // rusting of ion
Constant variable: Iron nails//temperature of solution.

19
[Able to state the inference based on the observation correctly]
9(c)
Example:
Test tube W X Y Z
Inferences The iron The iron The iron The iron 3
nail does nail does nail rust nail rust a
not rust not rust quickly little

9(d)
[Able to write the balanced half equations correctly ]
Example:
Oxidation: Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e 3
-
Reduction: O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4OH

[Able to state the operational definition for rusting correctly ]

9(e) Example: 3
Rusting of iron is the formation of blue colouration when iron is in contact
with less electropositive metals or without contact with other metals.
9(f) [Able to classify all the three metals correctly]

Metals that can provide Metals that cannot provide 3


sacrificial protection sacrificial protection
Magnesium Copper
Zinc

Question Rubric Score


Able to state the relationship between the manipulated variable
10(a) and the responding variable correctly and with direction

Sample answer:
The higher the metal in reactivity series, the brighter the flame /
glow produced // 3
The higher the metal in reactivity series, the reactivity of the metal
increases.

Able to state three variables and the way to control them correctly:
10(b) Sample answer:
(i) Manipulated variable
Type of metals

(ii) Responding variable


Reactivity of metals / Brightness of flame or glow 3

(iii) Controlled variable


Mass of metal powder / quantity of potassium manganate(VII)

10(c) Able to give the operational definition accurately

Sample answer:
Metal that burns brightly when reacts with oxygen is the most
reactive metal //
3
Metal that glows faintly when reacts with oxygen is the least
reactive metal

20
10(d) Able to state one observation accurately

Sample answer:
3
Brown solid when hot, yellow solid when cold

10(e) Able to state an accurate inference for this experiment:

Sample answer:
Magnesium is the most reactive metal
3

10(f) Able to arrange the metals in ascending order of reactivity series


of metals towards oxygen accurately

Sample answer:
Copper, lead, zinc, magnesium 3

Question
Rubric Score
number
10(g) Able to predict the position of iron in the reactivity series of metals
accurately
Answer: 3
Between zinc and lead

10(h) Able to explain the relationship between the time to light up and
the reactivity of metal accurately
Sample answer:
3
Magnesium is more reactive than zinc //
Zinc is less reactive than magnesium

10(i) Able to make the classification of more reactive metals and less
reactive metals when reacts with oxygen accurately
Sample answer:
3
More reactive metals : Magnesium, zinc
Less reactive metals : Lead, copper

10(j)(i) Able to record the masses accurately in two decimal places with
unit
Answer:
14.63g 3
17.03g
18.63g

10(j) (ii) Able to construct a table that contains:


1. Crucible + lid, crucible + lid + magnesium, crucible + lid +
magnesium oxide and mass with correct unit. 3
2. Transfer all the readings from (j)(i) correctly.

Answer:
Description Mass (g)
Crucible + lid 14.63
Crucible + lid + magnesium 17.03
Crucible + lid + magnesium oxide 18.63

21
11. (a) - Statement of the problem
Score Rubric
[ Able to give the statement of problem correctly ]
3 Example :
How is the effect on rusting of iron when iron is in contact with another metals?
(b) - variables
Score Rubric
[ Able to state All variables correctly ]
Suggested answer :
3 Manipulated variable : Different types of metals// Different metals
Responding variable : Rate of rusting // Rusting of iron
Constant variable : Iron nails/temperature
(c) - hypothesis
Score Rubric
3 [Able to give the hypothesis accurately]
Suggested answer :
When a more electropositive metal is in contact with iron, the metal inhibits rusting //
When a less electropositive metal is in contact with iron, the metal speed up rusting //
Iron rusts faster when in contact with metal less electropositive
(d) - Apparatus and materials
Score Rubric
[ Able to give the list of the apparatus and substances correctly and completely]
Suggested answer :
Apparatus : Five test tubes, test tube rack
3 Materials : sand paper, five iron nails, magnesium strip, zinc strip, tin strip, copper
strip, hot agar-agar/jelly solution mixed with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution
and phenolphthalein indicator

(e) - Procedure of the experiment


Score Rubric
[ Able to state all procedures correctly ]
Suggested answer :
1. Clean all the metal strips with sand paper
2. Coil the metal strip around the iron nails and then put in the each test tube
3. Pour the same volume of hot agar-agar/jelly solution has been mixed with
3
potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and phenolphthalein indicator
4. Leave the test tubes aside for one day
5. Compare the intensity of the blue and pink colour in each test tube and
recorded

3 (f) - Tabulation of data


Score Rubric
[ Able to exhibit the tabulation of data correctly ]

Tabulation of data has 6 columns and 3 rows

Example :
2 Test tube A B C D E
Intensity of
blue colour
Intensity of
pink colour

22
Question Rubric Skor
No.
12(a) [Able to write the statement of the problem accurately.]
Sample answer:
3
Does the difference in the position of two metals in the
Electrochemical Series causes the difference in the voltage?

12(b) [Able to state the three variables correctly.]


Sample answer: 3

Manipulated variable : Type of metal


Responding variable : The voltage of the cell.
Constant variable : The type and concentration of electrolyte,
copper electrod/ positive terminal.

12(c) Able to give the hypothesis accurately.


Sample answer:

If the distance between two metals is further away in the 3


electrochemical series, the voltage produced will be
higher/bigger.

[Able to state complete materials and apparatus.]


12(d) Sample answer: 3

Materials: Zinc, Magnesium, Copper, Iron and Copper(II)


sulphate solution/ any other electrolytes.

Apparatus: Voltmeter, connecting wires, beaker.

Able to state a complete procedure.


Sample answer:
1. Fill a beaker with copper(II) sulphate solution until it is
two-thirds full. 3
2. Dip the zinc strip and copper strip into copper(II)
sulphate solution.
3. Connect the two metals to a voltmeter(by using
connecting wires)
12(e) 4. Record the potential difference produced between the
metals.
Repeat steps 1 to 4 using iron strip, magnesium strip to
replace zinc strip.
Able to construct a labelled tabulation of data with suitable unit.
Sample answer:
12(f) Experiment Pairs of metal. Reading of voltmeter
/V
3

I
II
III

23
Set 3

1 a. Certain volume of acid completely neutralises a given volume of alkali//


Certain volume of acid at which change of colour of indicator when
a drop of acid is added to alkali 1
b. Pink solution to colourless solution 1
c. Experiment 1 = 22.40 2=22.20, 3=22.00 1
d. H2SO4 + 2NaOH  Na2SO4 + 2H2O 1
3
e. (i) Average volume = (22.40 + 22.30 + 22.00)÷3 = 22.30 cm 1
(ii) Mol of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 = (22.30 X 1 )/1000 = 0.0223 mol 1
f. (i) Functional set-up: Conical flask, Burette 1
(ii) Label: (H2SO4, KOH and Phenolphthalein) 1
g. (i) Add drops of acid a little at a time - towards the end point 1
(ii) Conical flask with content - shaken during experiment 1
10

2 a. (i) Red 1
(ii) Yellow 1
(iii) Orange 1
3
b. 15.00 cm 1
c (i) H2SO4 + 2KOH  K2SO4 + 2H2O 1
+ -
(ii) H + OH  H2O 1
-3
d. 0.1 x 20 = 2  Ma = 0.067 mol dm
Ma x 15.00 1 1
e. (i) Yellow 1
(ii) Red 1
3
f. 30 cm 1
10

3
a. Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4  2H2O + BaSO4
reactants & product correct – 1, balanced -1 2
b. Neutralisation / double decomposition 1
c. - Methyl orange indicator changes from yellow to orange 1
- White precipitate formed 1
d. (i) The titration has achieved the end-point /
there is no more free moving ions present in the beaker 1
(ii) Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4  2H2O + BaSO4
Mb= 0.2M Ma=1.0M
3 3
Vb= 50 cm Va= x cm
MaVa = 1  1.0M(x) = 1 1
MbVb 1 0.2M(50) 1

x = 10 cm3 1
Ammeter
e. (i) reading/ A

0
5 Volume of sulphuric acid added/
Correct shape - 1 cm3
Correct volume indicated and ammeter reading not reaching zero 1 2

(ii) - Ammeter does not show a zero reading 1


+ 2-
because at end-point there are free moving Na and SO4 ions 1
OR
24
- The volume of sulphuric acid required is halved 1
because sodium hydroxide is monobasic alkali whereas
-
barium hydroxide is dibasic alkali / the concentration of OH ions
in NaOH is half of Ba(OH)2 1 2

4 (a) Neutralisation 1
(b) To ensure all nitric acid is completely reacted 1
(c) ZnO + 2HNO3  Zn(NO3)2 + H2O 1
(d)

zinc oxide

[functional apparatus] 1
[label] 1
(e) Number mole of nitric acid = 2(50) = 0.1 mol 1
1000
Mass of salt = 0.1 x 189 = 9.45 g 1
1
(f) Zinc carbonate, 1
Zinc 1
10

5 (a) Silver chloride 1


(b) White 1
3
(c) 3.0 cm 1
(d) (i) 0.5(6.0) = 0.003 mol 1
1000
(ii) Number of mole of sodium chloride = 3.0(1) = 0.003 mol 1
1000
0.003 mol of sodium chloride reacts with 0.003 mol of silver nitrate 1
Therefore 1 mol of sodium chloride reacts with 1 mol of silver nitrate. 1
+ -
(e) Ag + Cl  AgCl 1
(f) 1.5 cm 1

Height of precipitate (cm)

1.5__________
Ι
Ι
Ι
Ι
3
1.5 Volume of sodium chloride (cm )

[labeled axis + correct shape of graph -1] 1


[height of precipitate and volume of NaCl required – correct & indicated – 1] 1
10

6 (a) (i) Copper(II) sulphate 1


(ii) Heat the solution until saturated then cool 1
Filter and then rinse the salt with distilled water 1
Dry the salt using filter paper 1
(b) (i) Blue precipitate 1
Cannot dissolve in excess NaOH 1
(ii) Cu(OH)2 1
25
(c) Ammonia 1
(d) (i) White 1
2+ 2-
(ii) Pb + SO4  PbSO4 1
(iii) Filter the mixture 1
10

7(a) 1. x-axis and y-axis labelled with units 1


2. plots transferred correctly 1
3. smooth curve 1……3
(b) 1. Rate of reaction of Experiment 4 is higher than Experiment 2 1
2. Temperature in Experiment 4 is higher. 1
3. The kinetic energy of thiosulphate ions is higher 1
+ 2-
4. The frequency of collisions between the H ions and the S2O3 ions 1
increases
5. The frequency of effective collisions increases. 1…..5

(c) Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + S + H2O + SO2 1


(d) Sulphur 1
(e) Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution 1
13

8(a) 1. Functional apparatus set-up 1


2. Complete labels 1…..2
(b) 25 = 3 -1 1
0.78 cm s
32
+ 2+
(c) Zn + 2H → Zn + H2 1
(d) 1. Rate of reaction in Experiment II is higher than in Experiment I 1
2. In Experiment II copper(II) sulphate is a catalyst. 1
3. Catalyst will lower the activation energy. 1
+
4. The frequency of effective collisions between zinc atoms and the H
ions increases. 1……4

(e) 1. Rate of reaction of Experiment III is higher than in Experiment I 1


2. Sulphuric acid in Experiment III is a diprotic acid (hydrchloric acid is a
monoprotic acid) 1
+
3. Concentration of H ions per unit volume in Experiment III is 2 times
higher than in Experiment I. 1
+
4. The frequency of effective collisions between zinc atoms and the H
ions increases 1…..4

(f) (i) Hydrogen 1


(ii) Bring a lighted wooden splinter to the mouth of the test tube 1
Pop sound 1….3
13

9 (a) Heat released when 1 mole of silver is displaced from its salt solution by
copper metal. 1
(b) Silvery solid formed// Colourless solution of silver nitrate becomes
blue// Amount of copper powder decreases 1
+
(c) (i) No. of moles of Ag reacted = No. of moles of AgNO3 used
= mv/1000 = 0.5(50)/1000 = 0.025 mol 1
(ii) Heat released = No. of moles of Ag x ΔH = 0.025 x 105 kJ
= 2.625 kJ = 2625 J 1
(iii) Heat change = mc   2625 J = 50 (4.2)    = 12.5 C
o
1
(d) Assumptions
- no heat loss to surrounding 1
- specific heat capacity of solution = specific heat capacity of water 1
- density of solution = density of water ( any two) 1

26
(e)
Energy
2 Ag+ + Cu

ΔH = -105kJ
-1
mol
2 Ag + Cu2+
1. The position and name/formulae for the reactants
and products are correct 1
2 Label for the energy axis and arrow for the two levels are shown. 1

(f) Lower/smaller 1
The total surface area exposed to the air is larger 1
Heat is lost to the environment 1
(g) To ensure all the silver nitrate solution reacted completely 1
(h) Bigger / Higher because magnesium is more electropositive than copper. 1
15
10 (a) Strong acid – nitric acid/ hydrochloric acid / sulphuric acid 1
Strong alkali – sodium hydroxide / potassium hydroxide 1
(b) Heat released when 1 mole of water is formed from the reaction
between an acid and an alkali 1
(c) - It is an exothermic reaction // heat energy is released to the surrounding 1
- The total energy of reactants is higher than the products 1
- 57 kJ of heat energy is released when 1 mole of water is formed ( any 2) 1
(d) (i) No. of moles alkali used = mv/1000 = 1(50)/1000 = 0.05 mol 1
(ii) Heat change = mc  = (50+50)x4.2x 6.5 = 2730 J 1
Heat of neutralization = - 2730/0.05 = - 54600 J/ mol = - 54.6kJ / mol 1
(e) (i) The heat of neutralization for Experiment I is higher than Experiment II 1
(ii) Ethanoic acid – weak acid, dissociates partially in water 1
Part of heat released in Experiment t II during neutralization is
absorbed to dissociate further the molecules of ethanoic acid 1
(f) The number of moles of water produced doubled, hence amount of
heat energy released is doubled but the total volume of solution
used also doubled, therefore the temperature increase remain the same 1
13
ESSAY SECTION B

Question Explanation Marks


Number
10(a) Acid that ionises completely in water 1
to produce high concentration of hydrogen ions 1..2

(b) Number of sulphuric acid = 0.5(50)/1000 = 0.025 mol 1


Number of hydrochloric acid = 1.0(50)/1000 = 0.05 mol 1
Both are strong acids ionizes completely in water 1
+
To produce the same concentration of H 1…..4

(c)
(i) Test Aqueous HCl solution Solution of HCl in
methylbenzene
Universal Green to red No changes 1+1
indicator
Add zinc Bubbles of colourless No changes 1+1
powder gas formed 1+1….6
Add Blue solution formed No changes
copper(II)
oxide powder

27
Question Explanation Marks
Number

(ii) Aqueous hydrogen chloride solution 1


In presence of water 1
hydrogen chloride ionizes 1
+
to produce hydrogen ions/H which gives rise to acidic properties 1…..4
(iii) Aqueous HCl HCl in methylbenzene 1
Observation Ammeter needle Ammeter needle does 1
deflected not deflect 1
Explanation Consists of free Consists of molecules // 1…..4
moving ions no free moving ions 20

Question Explanation Marks


Number
3 -3
11 (a) - 25 cm of 1.0 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution is measured 1
and poured into a conical flask.
- Two drops of phenolphthalein are added to the solution. 1
- A burette is filled with nitric acid and the nitric acid is added
slowly dropwise into the potassium hydroxide solution and
shaken until the pink solution turned coloruless. 1
- The volume of acid added is calculated. 1
- The experiment is repeatedby using the same volume of
sodium hydroxide and nitric acid but without the 1
phenolphthalein.
- The salt solution formed is heated until saturated. 1
- The saturated solution is allowed to cool. 1
- The salt crystals are filtered and rinsed with distilled water. 1
- The salt crystals are dried by pressing them between sheets of 1
filter papers.
- NaOH + HNO3  NaNO3 + H2O 1…..10
3
11(b) - 50 cm of 1.0M copper(II) sulphate solution is measured and
3
added into 50 cm of 1.0M sodium carbonate solution in a 1
beaker.
- The mixture is stirred and filtered to obtain green precipitate, 1
copper(II) carbonate.
- The copper(II) carbonate is rinsed with water. 1
- The copper(II) carbonate is added a little at a time into heated
3
50 cm of 1.0M dilute hydrochloric acid until some copper(II) 1
carbonate solid no longer dissolved anymore.
- The mixture is filtered to remove excess copper(II) carbonate. 1
- The filtrate is copper(II) chloride solution. 1…..6
11(c)(i) Lead(II) oxide 1
Brown when hot, yellow when cold 1

Carbon dioxide 1
Bubble the gas through lime water and lime water turns chalky 1….4
20

28
ESSAY SECTION C

+
12 (a) (i) Acid that will produce two moles of hydrogen ion, H from one mole of the
acid in water. 1
H2SO4 1....2
(a)(ii) Acid that dissociates completely in water to produce high concentration of
+
hydrogen ion, H 1
HCl 1....2
(b) sodium hydroxide is a strong akali that undergoes complete dissociation in
aqueous solution 1
Ammonia is weak alkali that undergoes partial dissociation only
The concentration of hydroxide ion in sodium hydroxide is higher than in 1
ammonia
Hence, the pH of sodium hydroxide is higher than that of ammonia. 1

1....4
(c) [calculation]
1. Molar mass of KOH = 39+16+1 = 56 1
2. Mol KOH = 250 x 1.0/1000 = 0.25
3. Mass = mol x molar mass = 0.25 x 56 = 14.0 gram 1
-3
[ preparation of 1.0 mol dm KOH ]
4. Weigh exactly 14.0 g of KOH accurately in a weighing bottle. 1
5. Dissolve 14.0 g of KOH in a little water in a beaker 1
3
6. transfer the contents into a 250 cm volumetric flask 1
7. Rinse the beaker with distilled water and transfer all the contents into
the volumetric flask 1
8. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the calibration mark. 1
-3
[ preparation of 0.1 mol dm KOH ]
[calculation]
Volume of KOH is added
9. M1 x V1 = M2 x V2 1
V1 = M2 x V2 / M1 1
3
10. = 0.1 x 250 / 1 = 25 cm
1
3 -3 3
11. 25.0 cm of 1.0 mol dm KOH is transfer to 250 cm
3
using 25.0 cm pipette. 1
12. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask until the
calibration mark. 1....12
20

13 (a) [Name any insoluble salt] 1


[Name any two suitable solution] 1+1
[Write correct ionic equation] 1…. 4

Example:
Lead(II) sulphate
Lead(II) nitrate solution and sodium sulphate solution
2+ 2
Pb + SO4  PbSO4
2+
(b) Test for Fe ion
Procedure I:
 A few drops of sodium hydroxide solution are added into 2 cm of salt
3

solution of X in a test tube until in excess. 1


Observation :
 Dirty green precipitate cannot dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide
solution 1
Procedure II:
 A few drops of ammonia solution are added into 2 cm of salt solution
3

of X in a test tube until in excess.


29
 Observation :
 Dirty green precipitate cannot dissolve in excess ammonia solution. 1

Inference: 1
2+
Fe ion is present
2+
Test for SO4 ion
 5 cm of 1 mole dm hydrochloric acid is added into the salt solution of
3 -3
3 -3
X follow by 2 cm of 1 mole dm barium chloride solution.
Observation:
 White precipitate is formed.
Inference:
2-
SO4 ion is present.

1….6
(c)  Chemicals :
sulphuric acid and magnesium oxide / magnesium carbonate /
magnesium 1

3 -3
50 cm of 1.0 mol dm sulphuric acid is poured into a beaker and heated
gently carefully 1
 Magnesium oxide powder is added a little at a time into the acid using
spatula. 1
 The mixture is stirred well with a glass rod. 1
 Magnesium oxide powder is added continuously until some of it no
longer dissolves. 1
 The mixture is filtered to remove the excess magnesium oxide. 1
 The filtrate is poured into an evaporating dish and heated gently to
produce a saturated solution / heated until the filtrate is evaporated to
about 1/3 of its original volume. 1
 The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature for
1
crystalisation to occur.
 The magnesium sulphate crystals are filtered and dried by pressing them
between a few pieces of filter paper.
1
 H2SO4 + MgO  MgSO4 + H2O 1….10

14 a. Minimum energy that the particles must have in order to collide to produce a chemical reaction.
1
b. i. For a given chemical reaction to occur,
the particles must collide 1
with energy same or greater than the activation energy 1
and with correct orientation. 1

ii. A positive catalyst will provide an alternative reaction pathway 1


with a lower activation energy. 1
Hence the frequency of effective collisions between the particles increases 1
and subsequently the rate of reaction increases. 1
7

c. Diagram – labeled and functional 1+1 2

Procedure:
1. A burette is filled with water and inverted over a basin containing water. The burette is
clamped to the retort stand. The water level in the burette is adjusted and the initial 1
burette reading is recorded.
3 -3
2. 50cm of 0.2 mol dm hydrochloric acid is poured into a small conical flask. 1
3. 5.0g of marble granules are added into the conical flask and start the stopwatch simultaneously.1
4. Close the conical flask immediately with a stopper which is joined to the delivery tube
and shake the conical flask steadily throughout the activity 1
30
5. The burette readings are recorded at 30 second intervals for 5 minutes 1
6. Step 1 to 6 are repeated using 5.0g of marble chips 1
Max 5
Results :
Marble granules / marble chips
Time(s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 ……. 300
Burette reading/cm3
Total volume of
gas/cm3

1
Volume of gas released / cm
3

Marble chips

Marble granules

Time taken / s

The gradient of graph involving marble chips is steeper than that of marble granules. This shows that
the smaller the size of solid reactant, the higher the rate of reaction 1

d. When the concentration of solution increases,


- the number of particles per unit volume increases 1
- the frequency of collision between particles increases
- the frequency of effective collision between particles increases 1
- hence rate of reaction increases 1

15 (a)
(i) energy

Zn + CuSO4

∆H = -152 kJmol-1

ZnSO4 + Cu

 Y-axes : energy and two different level of energy


 The position of reactants and products correct
1
1….2
(ii) - reactants have more energy // products have less energy 1
- energy is released during the experiment // this is exothermic reaction 1.…2
(b) - HCl is strong acid // CH3COOH is weak acid 1
(i) - strong acid / HCl ionized completely // the degree of
ionization of HCl / strong acid is 100% in water to produce
+
higher concentration of H // 1
- CH3COOH / weak acid ionized partially // the degree of
ionization of CH3COOH / weak acid is less than 100% in
+
water to produce low concentration H 1
- when neutralization occurs, some of the heat released are
absorbed by ethanoic acid / CH3COOH to break the O-H
bonds in the molecules/ ionizes the31 ethanoic molecules 1
Max 3
(ii) - H2SO4 is diprotic acid // HCl is monoprotic acid 1
+
- H2SO4 / diprotic acid produced two moles of hydrogen ion / H when
one mole of the acid ionized in water // 1
+
- HCl / monoprotic acid produced one hydrogen ion / H
when one mole of the acid ionized in water 1
- In expt I, one mole of water is formed whereas in expt III, 2 moles of water is
formed, hence the heat released in expt III is twice the value of expt I 1
Max 3
(c) - apparatus & materials :2m
- procedures :5m
- table :1m
- calculations : 2 m
Sample answer :
Apparatus : thermometer, measuring cylinder
Materials : calcium nitrate soln, sodium carbonate soln, plastic/ polystyrene cup 1
1…2
Procedures :
3 3
- measure 50 cm of 1.0 mol/ dm Ca(NO3)2 solution and poured into a plastic 1
cup
3 3
- measure 50 cm of 1.0 mol/ dm Na2CO3 solution and poured into another 1
plastic cup
- measure and record the initial temperature of both solutions after 5 minutes 1
- pour quickly and carefully Ca(NO3)2 solution into the plastic cup that contains
Na2CO3 solution and stir continuously 1
- measure and record the lowest temperature reached 1…5

Tabulation of data :
o
Initial temperature of Ca(NO3)2 ( C) Ө1
o
Initial temperature of Na2CO3 ( C) Ө2
o
Average initial temperature ( C) (Ө1 + Ө2)/2 = Ө3
o
Lowest temperature of the mixture ( C) Ө4
o
Change in temperature ( C) Ө3- Ө4
1

Calculation :

No. of moles of CaCO3 = No. of moles of Ca(NO3)2


= mv/1000 = 1.0(50)/1000 = 0.05

heat change = mc(Ө4 - Ө3)


= x kJ
1
-1
heat of reaction = + x kJmol
0.05
1….3
= + y kJmol
-1 20

16 (a) The heat of combustion of propanol is the heat energy released


when 1 mole of propanol is burnt completely in the excess oxygen 1

(b) (i) 1. Functional set-up of apparatus 1


2. Labelled propanol, copper can, water 1
3
3. Measure (100 – 250) cm of water and pour into the copper can
and initial temperature is recorded 1
4. Weigh the spirit lamp and its content 1
5. Light the spirit lamp to heat the water in the can and stir 1
6. Extinguish the spirit lamp when the temperature increase reaches
30˚C, record the maximum temperature of water reached 1
7. Weigh the spirit lamp with its remain. 1

32
Result :
8. The initial mass of the spirit lamp + propanol = a g
The final mass of the spirit lamp + propanol = b g 1
9. The mass of propanol burnt = (a-b) g 1
10. The initial temperature of water = t1˚C
The maximum temperature of water = t2˚C 1
11. Increase in temperature of the water = (t2 – t1) = t˚C 1

Calculation :
RMM of propanol C3H7OH = 60 1

12. The no. of mol of propanol burnt = ab


= y mol 1
60
13. The released heat = mc 
= 100 x 4.2 x t
= xJ 1
x -1
14. The heat of combustion of propanol = - J mol or
y
-1 1….14
- Z kJ mol

(b) (ii) - use wind shields


- Spirit lamp and its content is weighed immediately after the
lamp is extinguished
- Ensure the flame touches the bottom of the copper can
- Stir continuously
(either two of the answers) 1+1
(c) The heat of combustion of propanol is higher than the methanol
because propanol contain more no. of carbon and hidrogen atoms per 1
molecule. 1

16(a) Burette reading


24.10, 18.00, 13.00 3

(b) Experiment I
32.00, 37.00, 40.50, 42.00, 42.00 3
Experiment II
28.00, 36.50, 41.00, 42.00, 42.00, 42.00
(c) The graph consist of:
1. Both axis are labeled and with unit 3
3
- y axis, volume of gas / cm
- x axis, time/ s
2. All points are transferred correctly
3. Uniform scale
4. Best fit curve

(d) Experiment II
Because the curve in Experiment II is steepest//the gradient is 3
higher

(e)(i) Manipulated variable


Size of calcium carbonate /Total surface area of calcium carbonate 3
Responding variable
Rate of reaction
Controlled variable
Concentration and volume of hydrochloric acid

(e)(ii) Hypothesis 3
When the total surface area of calcium carbonate increases, the
rate of reaction increases
3
(f) 0.00 cm 3
33
(g)

Fast reaction Slow reaction 3

Combustion Photosynthesis
Neutralization Rusting
Precipitation Fermentation

17 a. - Brown solid formed


- Blue solution of coper(II) sulphate becomes colourless
- Amount of zinc powder decreases
o
b. Initial temperature : 30.0 C
o
Highest temperature : 38.0 C
o
Temperature change : 8.0 C

c. Heat change = mc Ө
= 50 (4.2) 8.0 = 1680 J

d. It is an exothermic reaction // heat energy is released to the surrounding


Zinc is more electropositive than copper // zinc is higher than copper in
Electrochemical Series
The total energy of reactants is higher than that of product
o
e. The temperature increase will be 16.0 C
2+ 2+
f. Zn + Cu  Cu + Zn

18 (a) Aim : To compare the heat of combustion of octane and heptane

(b) Hypothesis : Heat of combustion of octane is higher than heptane

(c) All variables :


Manipulated : Type of fuel / alkane
Responding : Heat of combustion
Controlled : volume of water, size of copper can
(d) Material : Octane, heptane, water
Apparatus : spirit lamp, thermometer, copper can (any suitable container), measuring
cylinder, weighing balance, wind shield

(e) Procedure :
3
1. Measure [100-200 cm ] of water and pour into the copper can and record the
temperature
2. A spirit lamp is filled with heptanes and its mass is recorded
3. Adjust the height of the lamp so that the flame touches the bottom of the can. Light
up the lamp
o
4. Extinguish the lamp when the temperature increase reaches 30 C. Record highest
temperature reached.
5. Weigh the spirit lamp with heptanes and record its mass
6. Repeat the experiment by using octane to replace heptanes.
(f) Tabulation of data

Type of fuel / alkane Heptane Octane


o
Initial temperature of water/ C
o
Highest temperature of water / C
o
Increase in temperature/ C
Initial mass of spirit lamp and content / g
Final mass of spirit lamp and content/ g
Mass of fuel( /alkane) used/ g

34
Set 4
No. Explanation Mark
1(a) Ethanoic acid 1

o
1(b) 180 C 1
Nickle / platinum 1

1(c) C2H5OH  C2H4 + H2O 1

1(d)

1+1
[Any two correct structure]

1(e)(i) 1
Gas Q:. Brown solution turns colourless / decolourise 1
Gas R: No change/ Brown solution remains unchanged

1(e)(ii) Ethene has carbon-carbon double bond/ is an unsaturated hydrocarbon but


1+1
ethane has carbon-carbon single bonds/ is a saturated hydrocarbon.
or

Ethene can undergoes addition reaction but ethane cannot.

2 (a) Hydrogenation// addition (of hydrogen) 1


(b) (i) Phosphoric acid // H3PO4 1

35
(ii) C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH 1
(iii)Fermentation 1
(c) (i) Ethanoic acid 1
(ii) Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution // Acidified potassium 1
manganate(VII) solution
(d) C2H5OH  C2H4 + H2O 1
(e) (i) Esterification 1
(ii) - has a sweet smell// fruity smell 1
- a neutral compound
- colourless liquid
- slightly soluble in water
- readily soluble in organic compounds
[ Choose any one ]
(iii) 1
H O H H

H–C–C–O –C–C–H

H H H

Total 10

.
3 (a) (i) ester 1
(ii) –COO- // -OOC- 1

H ― C ― OH

H ― C ― OH
1

H ― C ― OH

HOOC(CH2)7CHCH(CH2)7CH3
1
(b) unsaturated;
the molecule of olive oil contains C=C double bonds.
1
o 1
(c) (i) Hydrogen, nickel, 180 C
(ii) hydrogenation (addition reaction)
1+1 + 1
1
4 a A compound that contain element of carbon 1

b (i) C2H4 1
(ii) ethene 1
(iii) double bond between carbon atoms 1
(a: C=C )

36
c (i) Bromine water 1
(ii) Halogenation// Addition of bromine 1
(iii) Brown bromine water decolourised 1

d (i) C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH 1


(ii) Alcohol
o
(iii) Temperature 300 C // Pressure 60 atmosphere // concentrated 1
phosphoric acid 1
Total 10

5(a) Composite material 1

5(b)(i) A mixture of two or more metals with a fixed composition 1


//a mixture of metal and non-metal with a fixed composition
1
5(b)(ii) Tin

5(c)
1

5(d) High melting point // Resistant to thermal shock // Resistant to chemical


attack // Low thermal expansion coefficient 1

Haber process 1
5(e)(i)

5(e)(ii) N2 + 3H2  2NH3 [correct reactants and product, balance] 1+1

5(e)(iii) Iron 1

5(e)(iv) Ammonium sulphate //ammonium nitrate // ammonium phosphate 1

37
66

6 (a) Saponification 1
(b) (i) Ester 1

(ii) COO 1
(c) Concentrated potassium hydroxide 1
(d) (i) Hydrophobic 1
(ii) • Hydrophilic 'head' dissolves in water. 1
• Hydrophobic 'tail' dissolves in grease.
• Detergent ions reduce the surface tension of water.
1
(iii) 1

2 (a) Hydrogenation// addition (of hydrogen) 1


(b) (i) Phosphoric acid // H3PO4 1
(ii) C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH 1
(iii)Fermentation 1
(c) (i) Ethanoic acid 1
(ii) Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution // Acidified potassium 1
manganate(VII) solution
(d) C2H5OH  C2H4 + H2O 1
(e) (i) Esterification 1
(ii) - has a sweet smell// fruity smell 1
- a neutral compound
- colourless liquid
- slightly soluble in water
- readily soluble in organic compounds
[ Choose any one ]
(iii) 1
H O H H

H–C–C–O –C–C–H

H H H

Total 10
7(a) (i) Saponification
(ii) To precipitate the soap.
(iii) To remove the glycerol and excess sodium hydroxide solution.
(iv) Concentrated potassium hydroxide solution

38
(v)

(vi) It helps to suspend the grease particles.


(b) (i) Hydrophobic part:
CH3(CH2)nCH2 
Hydrophilic part:

(ii) The formula mass of


CH3(CH2)nCH2OSO3Na = 330
12 + 3 + (12 + 2)n + 12 + 2 + 16 + 32 + 3(16) + 23 = 330
15 + 14n + 133 = 330
14n = 182
n = 13
(iii) The cleansing action of detergents is more effective than soaps in hard water.

No Marking scheme Mark


8 (a) i) Stimulant 1
ii) Antidepressant 1
iii) Steroid 1

(b) To stimulate positive emotion from the patience like self-confidence, more 1
active and energetic

(c) Usage of psychotherapeutic drugs can cause many side effects like 1
addiction, fear, aggressiveness or death in a person.

(d) Arthritis 1
Asthma 1

Essay Section B

No Marking scheme Mark


9 (a) A group of organic compound that has certain characteristics:
Members of a homologous series can be represented by the same 1
general formula.
Members of a homologous series can be prepared by the same method. 1
Members of a homologous series have similar chemical properties 1
Successive members differ from each other by –CH2 unit. 1
Members show a gradual change in their physical properties. 1
1

Max: 5
(b) Percentage of carbon in pentane, C5H12 = 5(12)
5(12) + 12(1) x 100% 1
1
= 83.33%

Percentage of carbon in pentene, C5H10 = 5(12) 1


5(12) + 10(1) x 100%

= 85.71% 1
39
Percentage of carbon by mass in pentene is higher than that in pentane, 1
hence pentene burns with a more sooty flame than pentane 1
Max 5

(c)
(i) W: propanoic acid; Z: ethyl methanoate 1+1
W and Z have the same molecular formulae but different structural 1
formulae.
W has the carboxyl group as the functional group while Z has the 1
carboxylate group as the functional group.

(ii) W dissolves readily in water whereas Z does not. 1


W has a sour smell. Z has a fragrant fruity smell. 1
(iii) 1

H O H
1
H―C― C―O ― C―H 1
1
H H
Used as food
flavouring / perfume /
fragrance
(iv)

CH3 COOH + CH3OH  CH3 COOCH3 + H2O


Catalyst: Concentrated sulphuric acid
TOTAL 10

10 (a) . Element C H O
% 52.2 13.0 34.8
No. of moles 52.2/12 13/1 34.8/16 1
Ratio of moles 4.35 13 2.175
Simplest ratio 2 6 1 1

Assume that the molecular formula is C2H6O. 1


Given that the relative molecular mass is 46,
n[ C2H6O] = 46
46n = 46 1
n=1
Therefore the molecular formula of compound X is C2H5OH. 1..5


3 3
(b) 50 cm ethanol and 25 cm of ethanoic acid are added into a 1
round-bottomed flask.

3
5 cm of concentrated sulphuric acid is added. 1
 A Liebig condenser is fixed to the round-bottomed flask. 1
 The mixture is heated under reflux for 30 minutes. 1
 The ester, ethyl ethanoate is distilled out from the mixture at its 1
boiling point.

CH3 COOH + C2H5OH  CH3 COOC2H5 + H2O 1..6

(c) Dehydration 1
Alumina / unglazed porcelain chips, heat
1+1
..3
40

+
(d) When ethanoic acid is added to latex, the H ions in the acid will 1
 neutralize the negative charges on the protein membrane of the
rubber particles. 1
 As a result the rubber particles will collide with each other and 1
 break the protein membrane setting free the rubber polymer 1
molecules which then coagulate.
 Coagulation can be prevented by adding an alkali. 1

Max: 4
(e) A long chain molecule that is formed by the joining together of smaller 1
molecules called monomers.

H H H H

n C == C --- C ― C ----
H H H H n 1..2
20

Question Explanation Mark 


Number
11 (a)(i) SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 1
(a)(ii)  Corrodes buildings
 Corrodes metal structures
 pH of the soil decreases
 Lakes and rivers become acidic
[Able to state any three items correctly] 3 4
(b)(i)  Oleum 1
(b)(ii) 1
 2SO2 + O2  2SO3
(b)(iii) 1
 Moles of sulphur = 48 / 32 =1.5
 Moles of SO2 = moles of sulphur 1
= 1.5 1
 Volume of SO2 = 1.5  24 dm3 1 6
3
= 36 dm

(c)(i)  Pure metal are made up of same type of atoms and are of the same 1
size.
1
 The atoms are arranged in an orderly manner.
1
 The layer of atoms can slide over each other.
 Thus, pure copper are ductile.
1
 There are empty spaces in between the atoms. 1
 When a pure copper is knocked, atoms slide. 1
1
 Thus, pure copper are malleable. Max:5
(c)(ii)  Zinc. 1
1
 Zinc atoms are of different size,
1
 The presence of zinc atoms disturbs the orderly arrangement of
copper atoms. 1
 This reduce the layer of atoms from sliding.
Zinc atom

Copper atom
41
Question Explanation Mark 
Number
1
Arrangement of atoms – 1; Label - 1
1
Max: 5
Total 20

No. Marking Criteria Mark Total


12 (a) Part X – hydrophobic/hydrocarbon 1
Part Y – hydrophilic/ionic 1
Parx X – dissolves in grease 1
Part Y – dissolves in water 1 4

(b) 1.The cloth in experiment II is clean whereas the cloth 1


in Experiment I is still dirty.
2.In hard water,soap react with magnesium ion 1
3.to form scum 1
4.Detergent are more effective in hard water 1
5.Detergent does not form scum 1
6.Detergent are better cleansing agen then soap to 1
remove oily stain. 6
(c ) Patient X : Analgeis/anpirin 1
Patient Y: Antibiotic/penicillin/streptomycin 1
Patient Z ; Psychotherapeutic / antidepressant 1 3
(d) Precaution:
(i) 1.Take after food.
2. Swallowed with plenty of water 1
Explain:
1. Acidic and can cause irritation of the stomach. 1 2
2. To avoid internal bleeding/ulceratiion
[precaution – 1m]
[explain – 1m ]
1.To make sure all the bacteria are killed /
(ii) becomes ill again – 1m
2. bacteria become more resistant. – 1m
3.Need stronger antibiotic to fight the same infection – 1m 3
1.Drowsiness – 1m
(iii) 2. poor coordination/light-headedness – 1m 2 7
TOTAL 20

13 (a) Sources of sulphur dioxide:


Volcanic eruptions 1
Burning of fossil fuels 1
From industries manufacturing sulphur based products 1
[any two]

Health hazards:
Irritates the nose and eyes 1
Causes bronchitis and asthma 1
Formation of acid rain:
Sulphur dioxide reacts with oxygen to form sulphur trioxide 1
2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3 1
Both oxides of sulphur dissolve in rain water to form sulphurous and
sulphuric 1
acids respectively 1
SO2 + H2O → H2SO3 1
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 1

42
Effects of acid rain:
Corrodes buildings and bridges 1
Damages vegetation 1..max
10
(b)

Tape a steel ball bearing to the brass block 1


Hang a weight of 1 kg at a specified height of 50 cm above the ball bearing 1
Drop the weight and allow it to hit the steel ball bearing 1
Use a caliper or ruler to measure the diameter of the dent made on the
brass block 1
Repeat the experiment to obtain another two readings so that an average
value can be calculated 1
The whole experiment is repeated using copper block to replace brass
block 1
Observation:

Diameter of dents (cm) 1


Type of block
1 2 Average
Brass
Copper
Results and explanation:
Diameter made by copper is larger than brass 1
Brass is harder than copper 1
The foreign atoms (zinc atoms) in brass prevent the layers of copper
atoms from 1
sliding past each other . 1..10
20
No. Explanation Mark Σ Mark
14(a)(i) C2H4 + 3O2  2CO2 + 2H2O 1+1
[Correct reactants and products, balance]

(a)(ii) Number of moles of ethene = 5.6/28 = 0.2 mol 1


Number of moles of O2 = 3 x 0.2 = 0.6 mol 1
3 3
Volume of O2 = 0.6 x 24 dm = 14.4 dm 4

(b)(i) P: Ethanol 1
Q: 2-methylbut-1-ene 1

(b)(ii) Compound Colour of flame Solubility in water


A Blue flame Soluble
B Yellow Insoluble 1+1
1+1 6
Material:
(c) Ethanol,
propanoic acid,
concentrated sulphuric acid
1
1
1
Water out

Liebig condenser

43
Water in

Water bath
1+1

Procedure:
3 3
1. 50 cm of ethanol and 25 cm of propaoic acid is put into a 1
round-bottomed flask.
3
2. 5 cm of concentrated sulphuric acid is added. 1
3. Liebig condenser is fixed to the round-bottomed flask. 1
4. The mixture is heated under reflux for 30 minutes. 1

Equation :
C2H5OH + C2H5COOH  C2H5COOC2H5 + H2O 1 10

Question Rubric
15 (a) [Able to record all the six readings correctly.]
Vulcanised rubber: 2, 4, 6
Unvulcanised rubber: 4, 8, 12

15(b) [Able to relate between the manipulated variable and the responding variable.]
Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than the unvulcanised rubber// Unvulcanised rubber
is less elastic than the vulcanised rubber

15(c)
Variable Action to be taken
(i) Manupilated variable (i) The way to manupilate variable
Vulcanized and unvulcanized Repeat by replacing vulcanized rubber with
rubber// Mass of weight unvulcanized rubber//Use weights with
different masses
(ii) Responding variable (ii) What to observe in the responding variable
Increase in length of rubber To measure length of rubber strip
strip//elasticity
(iii) Fixed variable (iii) The way to maintain the controlled
Initial length of rubber strip variable
Use the same length of vulcanized and
unvulcanized rubber strips

15(d) [Able to make the correct inference]


(i) Vulcanized rubber
(ii) Presence of the sulphur cross links between the chain of rubber polymers in
vulcanized rubber makes the small increase in length and can return to its
original length after stretching.

15(e) [Able to make an operational definition correctly:]


Rubber that can stretch a bit and returns to its original length when not stretched.

No Marking scheme Mark


44
16 (a) How does the elasticity of vulcanized rubber differ from that of
unvulcanized rubber? 3
(b) (a) Variable:
Manipulated Variable: Types of rubber 1
Responding variable: Length of rubber strip 1
Fixed variable: Size of rubber strip, Mass of weight 1

(c) Hypothesis: Vulcanized rubber is more elastic than unvulcanized rubber. 3

(d) The elasticity of the rubber strip is shown by its ability to return to its 3
original length after it is stretched.
(e) (b) Unvulcanized rubber: the minimum weight is 40g 3
Vulcanized rubber could return to its original length even after the
50g weight was removed

No Marking scheme Mark


17 (a) To compare the cleansing power of soap and detergent in hard water. 3
(b) The cleansing power of soap is weaker in sea water than the cleansing power of
detergent. 3
(c) (i) Soap and detergent 1
(ii) Cleanliness of the clothes or amount of the greasy spots removed. 1
(iii)Mass of soap and detergent dissolved in sea water. 1

(d) Beaker A B
Only some greasy Most of the greasy 3
Observation
spots are removed spots are removed.

(e)
The cleansing power of soap is weaker in sea water compare to detergent The
3
cleansing power of soap is weaker in sea water compare to detergent

(f) Sea water contains magnesium and calcium ions.


Soap particles form insoluble calcium and magnesium salt (called scum) with
these ions.
2+ 2+ 3
Detergent particles are not precipitated out by Ca and Mg ions present in sea
water and will remain in the solution to do the cleansing job.

No Marking scheme Mark


18 (i) Problem statement:
Iron rusts more easily than steel. 3

(ii) Hypothesis: 3
Iron rusts faster than steel.

(iii) Material:
Iron nail, steel nail, agar-agar solution, potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) 3
solution.

Apparatus:
Test tubes.

(iv) Procedure:
1. Iron nail and steel nail are cleaned using sandpaper.
2. Iron nail is placed into test tube A and steel nail is placed into
test tube B.
3. Prepare 5 % of agar-agar solution and add several drops of
45
potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution to the agar-agar 3
solution.
4. Pour the agar-agar solution into test tubes A and B until it covers
the nails.
5. Leave for 1 day.
6. Both test tubes are observed to determine whether there is any
blue spots formed or if there are any changes on the nails.

Tabulation of data:
(v) Test tube The intensity of blue spots
A 3
B

OR

Based on the hardness of iron and steel.

Problem statement:
Iron is softer than steel.

Hypothesis:
The diameter of the dent of the steel is smaller than the diameter of the
dent of iron.

Material:
Steel block, iron block.
Apparatus:
Ruler, 1 kg weight, retort stand and clamp, thread, steel ball, cellophane
tape.

Procedure:
1. A steel ball is attached on the surface of the iron block using a
cellophane tape.
2. The 1 kg weight is held 1 metre from the surface of the iron
block.
3. The weight is then released.
4. The diameter of dent formed on the iron block is measured
using a ruler.
5. Steps 2 to 4 are repeated on different surfaces of the iron block
and the average diameter of dents is obtained.
6. The experiment is repeated by replacing the iron block with steel
block.
Tabulation of data:
Diameter of the dent (cm)
Material Average (cm)
Reading 1 Reading 2
Iron block
Steel block

No Marking scheme Mark


19 (i) Aim: To differentiate and identify hexan-1-ol, hex-1-ene and hexane
through chemical tests.
3

(ii) Variables
Manipulated Variable: Types of reagents 3
Responding variable: Change in colour
Fixed variable: hexan-1-ol, hex-1-ene and hexane

(iii) Apparatus: Test tubes, test tube holder, dropper


3
46
-3
Materials: bromine water, 0.5 mol dm potassium dichromate(VI)
-3
solution, 1 mol dm sulphuric acid, Liquids X, Y and Z

(iv) Procedure:
3
1. About 2 cm of each liquid X, Y and Z are poured into three
separate test tubes. 3
3
2. 1 cm of potassium dichromate(VI) solution is added into each
3 -3
test tube followed by 1 cm of 1 mol dm sulphuric acid and heat.
3. The mixture in each test tube is then shaken well.
4. The changes in each test tube are observed and recorded.
3
5. Steps 1 to 4 are repeated using 2 cm of bromine water to replace
the acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution.

(v) Tabulation of Data:


Reagent Acidified Bromine water Inference
potassium
Liqiud dichromate(VI)
solution.
X

Y
3
Z

47