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Mr. Mahendra M.

Dixit
Assistant Professor, Dept. of E&CE
SDMCET, Dharwad
Presentation Outline
• Introduction to Multimedia Data Types
• Multimedia Information Representation
• Data Compression Principle
• Text Compression
• Image Compression
• Audio Compression
• Video Compression
• References

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Introduction to Multimedia Communication

• Four Prime Multimedia Types


1. Text:
• Unformatted Text – Strings of Characters from limited
character set

• Formatted Text – Strings with structuring, access and


presentation of electronic documents

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Introduction to Multimedia Communication Contd…
2. Images:
• Computer Generated Images = Lines + Curves + Circles
and digitized images of documents and pictures

3. Audio:
• Low Fidelity Speech (No or Less Quality) – Telephony
• High Fidelity Speech – Stereophonic Music - CDs

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Introduction to Multimedia Communication Contd…

4. Video: Short Sequence of Moving Image (Video Clips, Movies,


Films, etc..)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Multimedia Information Representation
• Multimedia Applications involving text and Images
– Blocks of Digital Data
– Text – Block of Characters, represented by a fixed number
of bits, known as Codeword
– Digitized Image – 2D Block – Picture Elements (Pixels) –
represented with fixed number of bits
– File – It is a typical application involving text and/or images
comprises request for some information (Less time
required for accessing / Short time period)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Multimedia Information Representation
• In applications involving Audio and Video

– Signals vary with respect to time (Amplitude of Speech,


Audio or Video) – Properties of Analog Signal

– Typically, applications involving Audio-Video run hours


together (Movies, etc)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Multimedia Information Representation Contd…

• Preference of Representation for Multimedia Data

– Single type of media

• Particular basic form of representation is often useful

– Either Text and Images or Audio and Video

• Corresponding basic form is preferred, since two media types in these

applications have same form of representation

– If different media types are integrated together in some way,

• All data must be represented in Digital Form (Only for Audio and

Video Signals) except Text and Image


Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Multimedia Information Representation Contd…

• Bit Rate – Bits per Second (bps)

• Speech Signal – Typical bit-rate is 64 kbps, since Audio can be of long

duration, this rate must be sustained over an equally long time period

• Video Signal – Much Higher bit-rates and longer time durations

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle

• Why Compression? To reduce volume of information or to reduce bandwidth


• To overcome channel constraints in communication networks such as
bit-rates and bandwidth, Compression is applied first to the digitized signals
• Compression is also applied to Text and Images to reduce time delay
(response time)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

• Different Headings of Compression

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

3. Entropy Encoding

4. Source Encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

• Different Headings of Compression

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

3. Entropy Encoding

4. Source Encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data
– Analog Signals

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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Analog Signals

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Encoder Design

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Encoder Design (Contd…)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Encoder Design (Contd…) Effect of Aliasing because of
Under Sampling

For Limited Bit Representation, one should prefer


Finite Quantization Intervals, given by
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Decoder Design
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
• Digitization Principle for all forms of Data (Contd…)
– Decoder Design (Contd…)
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

 Source Encoder – Transmitter

 Destination Decoder – Receiver

[Software Only]
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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders (Contd…)

 Source Encoder – Transmitter

 Destination Decoder – Receiver

[Special Purpose Processors / Hardware ]


Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

• Different Headings of Compression

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

3. Entropy Encoding

4. Source Encoding

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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)
OGG Format: Ogging is term
for a tactic developed for the
online multiplayer game Netrek.
This game was among the very
first multiplayer Internet based
games, and was most popular in
the 1990s on university Unix
systems used for internet access,
and is still played today, having
been later adapted to Windows
and Macintosh computers.

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)

FLAC Format:
Free Lossless Audio Codec

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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)

ALAC Format:
Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)
Portable Network Graphics
(PNG / PING) is a raster
graphics file format that
supports lossless data
compression. PNG was created
as an improved, non-patented
replacement for Graphics
Interchange Format (GIF), and
is the most used lossless image
compression format on the
Internet

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
2. Lossless and Lossy Compression (Contd…)

Huffyuv (or HuffYUV) is


a lossless video codec
created by Ben Rudiak-
Gould which is meant to
replace uncompressed
YCbCr as a video
capture format.
Despite the "YUV" in the
name, it does not
compress the YUV color
space, but YCbCr. The
codec can also compress
in the RGB color space.

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

• Different Headings of Compression

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

3. Entropy Encoding

4. Source Encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

3. Entropy Encoding
- Entropy Encoding is Lossless and Independent of the
type information that is being compressed
- It deals with only how information is represented
- Types
- RLE – Found in one of the JPEG Standard
- Statistical Encoding – Used in Huffmann
Encoding Scheme

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…)
- RLE – Found in one of the JPEG Standard
- What is RLE?
- Run Length Encoding
- Why and When RLE?
- When Source Information comprise long substrings of same
character or binary digit
- Instead of transmitting the source string in the form of codewords
or bits, it is transmitted in the form of different set of codewords,
which indicate not only the particular character or bit being
transmitted but also an indication of the number of characters /
bits in the substring
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…) RLE (Contd…)
- More Usage: Facsimile Transmission
- Scanner produces long substrings of either 0s and 1s. Instead of
transmitting these directly, they are sent in codewords form, each
indicating both bit – 0 or 1 – and the number of bits in the
substring
- Example (1): 000000011111111110000011…..
7, 10, 5, 2,……
- Example (2): WWWWWWWWWWWWBWWWWWWWWWWWWBBBWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWB
12W1B12W3B24W1B
Note: Run-length encoding performs lossless data compression and is
well suited to palette-based bitmapped images such as computer
icons.
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Variants on Run-Length Encoding

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Bit-, byte-, and pixel-level RLE schemes

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Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…)
- Statistical Encoding (SE)
- Normally, all the codewords in the set comprise a fixed number of
binary bits, for example 7 bits for ASCII Character
- In many practical applications, symbols / codewords present in
Source Information, occur with unequal probability.
- For example, A may occur many a times compared to P and Z may
occur less frequently in comparison with P
- SE utilizes and exploits this property by using set of variable length
codewords with the shortest codewords used to represent the most
frequently appearing symbols

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…)
- Statistical Encoding (SE) (Contd…)
- Practical Challenges:
- Variable Length codewords is not straight forward as it appears
- Concisely, as with RLE, the destination must know the set of
codewords being used by the source
- For proper decoding operation – At starts, there should not be
shorter length codewords, otherwise decoder will misinterpret
the string on codeword boundaries
- Avoidance of this happening is usually called as Prefix Property
- This property is well found in Huffman Encoding Algorithm

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…)
- What is Entropy?
- The theoretical minimum average number of bits that are required
to transmit a particular source stream is known as the Entropy of
the source and can be computed using the formula attributed to
Shannon

- Average number of bits per codeword is given by

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
3. Entropy Encoding (Contd…)
- Why Entropy is Negative (Negentropy)? Messed up?
Contradictory?

1. Ice melts
2. Liquid ammonia vaporizes
3. Solid sugar dissolves in water
4. Dew forms on grass

Only measure of disorderness….

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

• Different Headings of Compression

1. Source Encoders and Destination Decoders

2. Lossless and Lossy Compression

3. Entropy Encoding

4. Source Encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding
- What is Source Encoding?

- This exploits a particular property of the Source Information in

order to produce an alternative form of representation that is either a

compressed version or is more amenable (agreeable or open) to the

compression application

- Classification:

- Differential Encoding

- Transform Encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Differential Encoding: What is Differential Encoding?
- Extensively used in applications, where amplitude of the signal
covers a large range, but the difference in amplitude between
successive values / signals is relatively small
- To exploit this property of the source information, one can select
smaller codewords for the representation of difference values
between successive amplitudes
- Example: If digitization of analog signal requires 12-bits to get the
required dynamic range, but the maximum difference in amplitude
between successive samples / signals requires only 3-bits, then by
using only the difference values, 75% of transmission bandwidth can
be saved.
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Differential Encoding (Contd…)

- In practice, Differential Encoding can be either lossless or lossy, and

depends on the number of bits used to encode the difference values

- How Lossless? If number of bits used is sufficient to cater for

maximum difference value then it is lossless

- How Lossy? When difference value exceeds the maximum number of

bits being used, then it is resulting in information loss

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Transform Encoding: Now what is this?

- It involves transforming the source information from one form into

another, the other form lending itself more readily to the

compression application

- This is lossless, since there is no loss of information, and useful in

both image and video applications

- To understand this let us see an example of image representation

using transform encoding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Transform Encoding (Contd…)
- What is Spatial Frequency?
- The rate of change in magnitude as one traverses the matrix
(image) gives rise to Spatial Frequency
-

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Transform Encoding (Contd…)
- Spatial Frequency in Transform Domain Encoding are of two types
- Scanning in Horizontal Direction – Horizontal Frequency Components
- Scanning in Vertical Direction – Vertical Frequency Components
- Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT): A Mathematical Technique - Lossless
- It converts 2D Matrix of Pixels to 2D Matrix of Frequency Components
- It is lossless, apart from some small rounding errors in the mathematics,
but once coefficients (Spatial Frequency Components) are derived, and
left below the threshold value, it once again becomes lossy
- The Basic Principle of DCT is demonstrated in the next tile.

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Data Compression Principle (Contd…)
4. Source Encoding (Contd..)
- Transform Encoding (Contd…) : DCT

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Text Compression
Text Fundamentals :
 Types of Texts
 Unformatted Text – Plaintext – Strings of Fixed Characters

from a limited data set

 Formatted Text – Rich Text – Strings of Characters of

different style, size, and shape with tables, graphics, and

images inserted at appropriate points

 Hypertext: Formatted form with Integrated Set of Documents,

present with defined linkages between


Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Text Compression (Contd…)
 Unformatted Text
Format Control Characters
BS – Back Space
LF – Line Feed
CR – Carriage Return
SP – Space
DEL – Delete
ESC – Escape
FF – Form Feed
Information Separators
FS – File Separator
RS – Record Separator
Transmission Control Characters
SOH – Start of Heading
STX – Start of Text
ETX – End of Text
ACK – Acknowledgement
NAK –Negative Acknowledgement
SYN – Synchronous Idle
DLE – Data Link Escape

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Text Compression (Contd…)
 Formatted Text

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Text Compression (Contd…)
 Hypertext

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Text Compression (Contd…)
 Text Compression
• Any Compression Algorithm with Text Data must be Lossless, since
the loss of just single character could modify the meaning of a
complete string
• For this reason, in general we use only Entropy Encoding,
particularly, Statistical Encoding
• Classification of Coding Schemes for Text are
• Arithmetic Encoding (Class Work by Professor)
• Huffman Encoding (Seminar Work by Students)
• Static Huffman Coding
• Dynamic Huffman Coding
• Lempe - Ziv Coding
• Lempe – Ziv - Welsh Coding

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Text Compression (Contd…)
1. Arithmetic Encoding:

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Image Compression
Image Fundamentals :
“One picture is worth more than
ten thousand words”
 Image is Computer Generated Graphics or simply Graphics

 Digitized Images - both Documents and Pictures

 Contains PIXELS or only PELS or PICTURE ELEMENTS

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Graphics:
 Visual Objects – Lines, Arcs, Squares, Circles, Rectangles,
Ovals, Diamonds, Stars, etc….as well as any form, hand drawn
objects. This is known as Free Form
 Requirements for Graphics – Cursors, Palette, brushes, Screen
Display, Clip-arts, packages containing gallery of images,
textual contents, etc
 Colors are displayed through Video Graphic Arrays using
Video Graphic Accelerator
 VG Array –Matrix size of 640 (Horizontal) X 480 (Vertical)
more details… next tile
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Graphics: (Contd..)
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Documents:
 Unique Example – Facsimile Transmission

In FAX,
0 – White PEL
1 – Black PEL
Convention is
Bitonality Scanning
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)

Binary Image

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Pictures:
 Black & White or Gray Scale Images
 In case of Scanners:
 Used for Digitizing Continuous-tone monochromatic images – such
as printed picture or scene
 In this case, more than a single bit is used to digitize each picture
element
 So, hence to improve the Quality of Image, 8-bits width of data
representation for a PIXEL is preferred – forms fundamentals of Images
 Color Image Principle:
 First & foremost thing is to understand the principles of how Color
is produced & how the picture tubes operate
 Color Spectrum is known as Color Gamut
 Ingredients of Color Image – Red, Green, Blue
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)

Additive
Color Mixing Subtractive
Color Mixing
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Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)
 Picture Tube Principles in Television / Monitors
 Why Refreshing in Screens? – The persistence of light / color
produced by Phosphor, therefore it is designed to decay quickly &
hence it is required

PAL: Phase Alternating Line


NTSC: National TV Standards Committee
SECAM: Sequential Color with Memory
Television Encoding systems by Nation; countries using the PAL system are shown in blue
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit
Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)
 Digital Camera and Scanner Principles

Color Image Capturing Schematic


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Image Compression
Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)
 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)
 Digital Camera and Scanner Principles (Contd…)

RGB Signal Generation Alternatives


Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit

Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)


 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)
Pixel Depth / Color Depth / Bit Depth:

Any coding system that uses numeric values to represent


something. The depth or number of bits determines how many
discrete items can be represented.

The number of bits used to hold a pixel. Also called Color Depth /
Pixel Depth. The Bit Depth is the maximum number of colors that
can be displayed.

The number of bits used to define a pixel in an image, as


determined by the hardware and software. For instance, a 24-bit
video adapter allows for over 16.7 million colors to be displayed.
Also called bit depth, or color depth.
Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit

Image Fundamentals : (Contd…)


 Digitized Pictures: (Contd…)
Pixel Depth / Color Depth / Bit Depth

Alpha Chnnel: 32-bit graphics systems contain four channels -- three


8-bit channels for red, green, and blue (RGB) and one 8-bit alpha
channel. The alpha channel is really a mask-- it specifies how the
pixel's colors should be merged with another pixel when the two are
overlaid, one on top of the other.
Audio Signal: PCM Speech

Mr. Mahendra M. Dixit


JPEG Image Compression Standard – Encoder Schematic
Zig Zag Scanning
Coding DC Coefficients
Coding AC Coefficients
JPEG Decoder Schematic
Audio Video Compression
• Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM)
– Derivative of standard PCM
– Principle: Difference in amplitudes between
successive samples is less than the range of actual
amplitudes
– Digitized difference signal
– Typical saving is 1 bit
– Problem of cumulative quantization error
– Solution: Predictive DPCM to overcome –
Predictor coefficients – saves 1 more bit
Adaptive Differential PCM (ADPCM)
• Varying the number of bits depending on the
amplitude of the differences
• Additional savings or improved quality
• ITU-T Recommendation G.721 - Eight order
predictor and varying number of bits
• ITU-T Recommendation G.722 – derivative of 721
– better sound quality but with added complexity
– uses sub-band coding
• Input speech bandwidth 50 Hz through 7kHz
(extended) – higher fidelity speech in conferencing
applications to discriminate voices
Sub-band coding Principle:
• Two filters prior to sampling – divided into two
equal bandwidth signals
• Lower sub-band and Upper sub-band signals
• Each sampled and encoded using ADPCM – uses
two sampling frequencies producing separate
bitrates
• Two streams are multiplexed and transmitted
( 48 + 16 = 64kbps)
Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)
• Perceptual features are extracted in the source after
digitizing – sound synthesis at the destination using
synthesizer
• Speech sounds synthetic but high level of compression
can be achieved
• Three perceptual features
1. Pitch: closely related to the frequency of the signal
2. Period: Duration of the signal
3. Loudness: amount of energy

Additionally, Vocal tract excitation parameters


1. Voiced sounds : generated through vocal chord, Ex: m,
v, l
2. Unvoiced sounds: vocal chords are open Ex, f, s
Basics of Video
• Video features in a range of Multimedia
Applications

• Interlaced Scanning Principles


Basics of Video (Contd…)
• The three main properties of Colour Signals
– Brightness
• Amount of energy that stimulates eye and varies on a
grey scale from black (lowest) to white (highest)
• It is independent of colour of the source
– Hue
• Represents the actual colour of the source, each
colour has different frequency / wavelength and eye
determines colour from Hue
– Saturation
• Represents the strength or vividness of the colour
• Luminance – Brightness of the source
• Chrominance – Hue and Saturation
Basics of Video (Contd…)
• RGB Signals – Primary Colours

– To produce White Colour = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B

– To produce Luminance = Y = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B


where Y is the Amplitude of the Luminance Signal

• The Colour Signals / Chrominance is available as Blue


Chrominance (Cb) and Red Chrominance (Cr)

• Hence Cb = B – Y and Cr = R - Y
Basics of Video (Contd…)
• For PAL and NTSC Video Standard (System)

U and V are Cb and Cr for PAL System

I and Q are two colour difference signals for NTSC System


Basics of Video (Contd…)
• Few differences between PAL and NTSC Video Standard
Digital Video
• The basic requirement of Multimedia communication is digitization of
all data because of storing, editing and integrate them with other media
types

• Digitizing all the three RGB component signals separately prior to the
transmission

• Since, the RGBs are treated separately in digital TV, in principle it is


possible to digitize the three RGBs that make up the picture

– Disadvantage – The same resolution in terms of sampling rate and


bits per sample must be used for the three RGBs

– Solution – Visual perception (HVS) of the eye is less sensitive for


Colour than it is for Luminance
Digital Video (Contd…)
– This means that the two Chrominance signals can tolerate a
reduced resolution relative to that used for the Luminance signal

– By doing so, significant saving in terms of the resulting bit-rate and


hence transmission bandwidth can be achieved by using one
Luminance and the two Colour difference signals instead of the
RGBs directly

• Standardized by ITU-R (Radio Communications Branch)

• 4:2:2 Original Digitization Format of ITU-R (Used in TV


Studios)
Digital Video (Contd…)
• 4:2:2 Digitization Format
• Analog RGB Video Signal
– Such video signals from a source can have bandwidths of up to 6MHz
for the Luminance signal and half of this for the two Chrominance
signals
– Band limiting filters of 6MHz and 3MHz must be used respectively for
Luma and Chroma components, with a minimum sampling rate of
13.5MHz (Rounded to 12MHz) and 6.75MHz (Rounded to 6MHz)
respectively
• In a 525-Line System, the total line sweep time is 63.56µs, but during this
time, the beam is (RGB) turned off – set to the Black level – for retrace for
11.56µs, which yields an active line sweep time of 52µs
– How??? (It is for Horizontal Scan Rate)
• (525 Lines x 60Hz)/2 = 15,750KHz,
• Time = 1/15,750KHz = 63.56µs
Digital Video (Contd…)
• 4:2:2 Digitization Format (Contd…)
• In a 625-Line System, the total line sweep time is 64µs, but during this
time, the beam is (RGB) turned off – set to the Black level – for retrace
for 12µs, which also yields an active line sweep time of 52µs
• Hence in both cases, a sampling rate of 13.5MHz yields

• In practice, the number of samples per line is increased to 720 by


taking a slightly longer active line time, which results in a smaller
number of Black samples at the beginning and end of the each line for
reference purposes
• The corresponding number of samples for each of the two
Chrominance signals is then set at half this value; that is, 360 samples
per active line. This results in 4Y samples for every 2Cb and 2Cr
samples which is the origin of the term 4:2:2
Example for 4:2:2 in 4X4 Matrix
More Information…..
Digital Video (Contd…)
• 4:2:0 Digitization Format
Digital Video (Contd…)
• High Definition TV Formats
• There are number of alternative digitization formats associated with
HDTV

• The resolution of older 4/3 aspect ratio tubes can be up to


1440 x 1152 pixels

• The resolution of 16/9 wide-screen tubes can be up to 1920 x 1152


pixels

• In both cases, the number of visible lines per frame is 1080, which
produces a square-pixel lattice structure with both tube types.

• Both use either 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 digitization formats for studio


applications or broadcast applications correspondingly
Digital Video (Contd…)
• High Definition TV Formats (Contd…)

• Source Intermediate Format (SIF)


• Found to give a picture quality comparable with Video
Cassette Recorders (VCRs)
• It uses half the spatial resolution in both Horizontal and
Vertical directions as that used in 4:2:0 format, which is
referred to as Subsampling
– Uses half the refresh rate – Temporal Resolution
– 30Hz for a 525 line system
– 25Hz for a 625 line system
• Since SIF is intended for storage applications, non-interlaced
(Progressive) scanning is used
• Hence, it is known as 4:1:1 format
Digital Video (Contd…)
• High Definition TV Formats (Contd…)

• Common Intermediate Format (CIF)

• Used in Video Conferencing Applications for Desktop PCs

• It is derived from SIF and uses combination of the Spatial


Resolution used for the SIF in the 625 Line System and the
Temporal Resolution used in 525 Line System

• This yields Spatial Resolution of the following and with a


Temporal Resolution of 30Hz using Progressive Scanning

• It has same format as that of SIF and digitization format is 4:1:1


Digital Video (Contd…)
• High Definition TV Formats (Contd…)

• Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF)

• Used in Video Telephony Applications

• It is derived from CIF and uses half the Spatial Resolution of CIF
in both Horizontal and Vertical directions and the Temporal
Resolution is divided by either 2 or 4. This yields a Spatial
Resolution of the following and with a Temporal Resolution of
either 15 or 7.5Hz. The worst case bit-rate for this format is
PC Video Digitization Formats
Video Compression Principles
• Video is always referred to as Moving Pictures

• A word Frame and Picture interchangeable

• Video Compression may be well understood as

– Applying JPEG Compression to each frame / picture

– This is known as Moving JPEG or MJPEG

– Typical Compression Ratio obtainable is 10:1 or 20:1

• Video Compression is achieved by sending the difference


frame, which saves lot of Bandwidth
Video Compression Principles (Contd…)
• To exploit high correlation between successive frames is to predict
the content of many frames
– Based on combination of preceding and in some instances of
succeeding frames
– Accuracy of prediction is operation is determined by how well
any movement between successive frames is estimated
– This is Motion Estimation
– Since prediction is not exact, additional information may also
be sent to indicate any small differences between predicted and
actual positions of moving segments involved
– This is Motion Compensation
Video Compression Principles (Contd…)
• Frame Types:
– Basic types of Frames
• Frames encoded independently – Intracoded Frame
• Predicted Frames
– Types of Predicted Frames
• Predictive or P – Frame
• Bi-directional or B – Frame – also known as Intercoded
or Interpolation Frame
• Refer figure….
• Other related frames
– PB – Frame
– D – Frame (Used in Movie on Demand Applications)
M = Prediction Span N = Group of Pictures (GOP) Span
P – Frame Encoding

Macroblock Structure
P – Frame Encoding (Contd…)

Encoding Procedure
B – Frame Encoding