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Lancaster Sound supports a high macro- and megafaunal biomass compared to other areas in the Arctic
(Thompson 1982), except for the north water polynya (Mäkelä et al. 2017).

Benthic community composition in Amundsen Gulf was reported to be similar to that of the Beaufort Shelf
at similar depths (Conlan et. al 2008). Abundance was considerably higher in the inshore region of the
Bathurst polynya (western edge of Amundsen Gulf) than the Beaufort Sea shelf and eastern Amundsen
Gulf (Conlan et. al 2008). Walrus and bearded seals are the major predators in benthic food webs,
although other marine mammals such as gray and bowhead whales will also feed on benthic
invertebrates. Due to the paucity of information on benthic communities in the potential shipping routes,
concentrations of walrus and bearded seals may be an indicator for benthic abundance.

5.3.4 Fishes

From subtidal sculpin (Family Cottidae), gunnels (Pholis spp.) and blennies (Order Blenniformes) to
pelagic Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctogadus glacialis), deep-water Greenland halibut
(Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), and anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), the Arctic supports a
variety of fish species that use a wide range of environments. Pelagic forage fish species such as capelin
(Mallotus villosus) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) are vital components of marine ecosystems in the
Canadian Arctic, providing food for other fish species as well as marine mammals and birds. Pelagic
forage fish species that were previously restricted to lower latitudes are being observed in the Arctic more
frequently as water temperatures increase (e.g. Pacific sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus; Falardeau et
al. 2017). Species that use the feeding environments in the pelagic Arctic Ocean include Arctic char and
at least five species of cod (Arctic, polar, Atlantic, Greenland and saffron).

5.3.4.1 Arctic Char


Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) are salmonids with a circumpolar distribution, ranging east from the
MacKenzie River across the Arctic into Greenland, Europe, and Asia as well as south into Hudson Bay
and the Labrador coast (Sawatsky et al. 2007; Evans et al. 2015). In contrast to most other salmonids,
Arctic char are iteroparous, able to spawn several times throughout their life, usually in September and
October in the gravel substrates of freshwater lakes or rivers (Fleming 1998, Harwood and Babaluk
2014).

For most of the year, Arctic char are found in freshwater lakes and rivers, and some populations are land-
locked. However, for a few weeks or months each summer, many Arctic char migrate to the marine
environment to feed. This migration occurs once individuals have reached four or five years of age and a
size of 150-250 mm and sea-run Arctic char are generally larger in size (2.3-4.5 kg) than their freshwater
counterparts (0.2-2.3 kg; DFO 2018a). The species is considered optionally anadromous because many
individuals choose to remain in freshwater year-round, potentially due to their inability to tolerate prolonged
periods of high salinity (Bystriansky et al. 2007). Those that do migrate to the marine environment do so
after ice-breakup in the spring and remain in coastal and nearshore environments over the summer to feed
on benthic organisms, small fish, and other inter- and sub-tidal organisms (Harwood and Babiuk 2014).
Although they feed closer to shore, Arctic char have been caught up to 5 km offshore (Rikardsen et al.
2007). Unlike most anadromous salmonids that return to freshwater once and only to spawn, Arctic char

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return every winter, even as juveniles or non-spawning adults. This yearly return is presumed to allow
individuals to avoid the subzero water temperatures and high salinity of the marine environment in winter
(Klemetsen et al. 2003).

5.3.4.2 Arctic/Polar Cod


Boreogadus saida and Arctogadus glacialis are fish species found throughout the Canadian Arctic that
are referred to interchangeably as Arctic cod and polar cod. Both are small (<30 cm) fish that form large
schools and comprise important prey items for larger fish and marine mammal predators. These small
cod are a keystone to the Arctic food web transferring energy they consume through zooplankton to sea
birds and marine mammals (Bradstreet et al. 1986). They can be found anywhere from <4 m to 500 m
depth and are often associated with sea ice, feeding on ice-associated fauna and zooplankton (Lønne &
Gulliksen 1989; Søreide et al. 2006). Arctic cod, like many Arctic fish species, have antifreeze
glycoproteins in their blood that prevents freezing at sub-zero temperatures and allows them to reside
inside pack ice (Lønne & Gulliksen 1989). Drifting sea ice serves as important habitat for juvenile Arctic
cod (Lønne & Gulliksen 1989). Despite large schools of adult Arctic cod being found under sea ice,
schools have also been observed in open water from June to September (Crawford & Jorgenson 1990;
Hop et al. 1997).

5.3.4.3 Atlantic Cod


The Arctic population of Atlantic cod are listed under COSEWIC as Data Deficient but all other Atlantic
cod populations are listed as either Special Concern or Endangered (COSEWIC, 2010). In general,
Atlantic cod vary in size, can reach 2 m in total length and can migrate great distances (>1000 km)
through environments with wide temperature ranges (1.5 to 19°C; Ingvaldsen et al. 2017). Atlantic cod
spawn in anywhere from tens to hundreds of metres depth (COSEWIC 2010). Juveniles use eelgrass
beds in nearshore waters for refuge from predators and feeding during their first 1 to 4 years (COSEWIC
2010).

5.3.4.4 Greenland Cod


Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) are piscivorous fish found in inshore and coastal Arctic waters from West
Greenland to Baffin Island and west to the Beaufort Sea (Mikhail and Welch, 1989). Greenland cod are
slow-growing, demersal, non-schooling and can tolerate low salinity and a wide range of temperatures
(Mikhail and Welch, 1989; Nielsen and Morin, 1993). After 2-3 years, Greenland cod begin to spawn in
March and April and remain near the coast or in inlets. (Mikhail and Welch, 1989).

5.3.5 Marine Mammals

5.3.5.1 Regulatory Overview


The potential shipping routes overlap with the home ranges of at least seven marine mammals, including
bowhead (Balaena mysticetus), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), polar
bear (Ursus maritimus), walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), and bearded seal
(Erignathus barbatus) (Table 7). In Canada, management authority for polar bear is shared by provincial,
territorial, and federal governments, who are advised by constitutionally protected wildlife management

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boards. The narwhal fishery is regulated by the Fisheries Act and regulations made pursuant to it,
including the Fishery (General) Regulations and the Marine Mammal Regulations. The narwhal fishery in
the Nunavut area is co-managed by DFO, the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB), Regional
Wildlife Organizations (RWOs), and Hunter and Trapper Organizations (HTOs), in accordance with the
Nunavut Agreement, the Fisheries Act and its regulations and in some communities, local hunting bylaws.
The Canada/Greenland Joint Commission was established in 1991 to coordinate management and
conservation for shared beluga and narwhal stocks/populations. Under the National Framework for
Canada's Network of Marine Protected Areas, a closed area for the Greenland halibut fishery was
established in the southeastern portion of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Division to protect
narwhal over-wintering habitat. These waters have been identified as an important narwhal over-wintering
area. The area is closed to Greenland halibut fishing, as this fish species is a major food source for
narwhal on their over-wintering grounds. Narwhal are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Reporting of all non-hunt related mortality is required
(DFO 2013).

Table 7 Conservation Status of Marine Mammals within the potential NWP shipping
routes

Common Scientific Conservation Status Populations


Name Name
NWT SARA COSEWIC IUCN
Bowhead Balaena Special Endangered Special Least • Eastern Arctic –
mysticetus Concern (Eastern Concern Concern West Greenland
Arctic), population
Special (eastern)
Concern • Bering-Chukchi-
(Bering- Beaufort Sea
Chukchi- (western)
Beaufort)
Narwhal Monodon Undetermined No Status Special Least • Baffin Bay
monoceros Concern Concern • Hudson Bay
Beluga Delphinapterus Undetermined No Status Special Least • Eastern High
leucas Concern Concern Arctic-Baffin Bay
• Eastern Beaufort
Sea
Polar Ursus Special Special Special Vulnerable • Lancaster Sound
Bears maritimus Concern Concern Concern • Baffin Bay
• M’Clintock
Channel
• Northern
Beaufort Sea
• Southern
Beaufort Sea
• Viscount Melville
Sound
Walrus Odobenus Vagrant No Status Special Near • Baffin Bay (BB)
rosmarus Concern threatened • West Jones
Sound (WJS)

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Table 7 Conservation Status of Marine Mammals within the potential NWP shipping
routes

Common Scientific Conservation Status Populations


Name Name
NWT SARA COSEWIC IUCN
• Penny Strait-
Lancaster Sound
(PS-LS)
Ringed Phoca hispida Secure No Status Status Least • Arctic
Seal being Concern
assessed
Bearded Erignathus Undetermined No Status Data Least • Atlantic
Seal barbatus Deficient Concern • Pacific

Relevant legislation and regulations for the management of beluga differs by region. In the Nunavik
region of the Arctic, Canada and the DFO have been engaged in the co-management of beluga whales.
The management of the Beaufort Sea Beluga Population (FJMC 2013) includes:

• Inuvialuit Final Agreement

• Fisheries Act

• Oceans Act

• Environmental Protection Act

• Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act

• Canadian Oil and Gas Operations Act

• Species at Risk Act (SARA)

• Marine Mammal Regulations

• Tarium Niryutait Marine Protected Areas Regulations

DFO is responsible for the protection and conservation of aquatic species at risk listed under SARA, and
for protecting their critical habitat once identified. Under s. 32 of SARA, it is an offence to kill, harm,
harass, capture, or take individuals of a species at risk listed as extirpated, endangered or threatened.

The Marine Mammals Regulations (MMR) under the Fisheries Act prohibit disturbance to marine
mammals (Section 7) except in the following circumstances:

(a) when carrying on a work, undertaking or activity that is authorized, otherwise permitted or
required under the Act;

(b) when fishing for marine mammals under the authority of these Regulations;

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(c) in the manner set out in a license issued under the Fishery (General) Regulations authorizing
them to fish for marine mammals for experimental, scientific, educational or public display
purposes; or

(d) in the manner authorized under the Species at Risk Act.

To disturb “… includes to approach the marine mammal to, or to attempt to, (a) feed it; (b) swim with it or
interact with it; (c) move it or entice or cause it to move from the immediate vicinity in which it is found; (d)
separate it from members of its group or go between it and a calf; (e) trap it or its group between a vessel
and the shore or between a vessel and one or more other vessels; or (f) tag or mark it.“

In the case of a whale, dolphin or porpoise in resting position or with its calf, the definition of disturb also
includes to approach at a distance of less than 200 m in all Canadian fisheries waters.

5.3.5.2 Bowhead Whales


Population Structure
The bowhead whale is a large baleen whale that can occur in open water and in areas of unconsolidated
pack ice. They feed primarily on zooplankton but also on epibenthic invertebrates such as mysids and
gammarid amphipods (DFO 2016). They reach sexual maturity at about 25 years of age and can live over
100 years of age, with an estimated average lifespan of 50-75 years (DFO 2016). Females give birth
during spring migrations. Bowhead whales use an acoustic sense for ice navigation and long-range
communication (COSEWIC 2009).

There are two populations of bowhead whale that are present within the potential shipping routes: the
Eastern Arctic – West Greenland population (eastern) and the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Sea (western)
population (Figure 8).

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Figure 8 Bowhead populations: Eastern (left) and Western population (right)


(DFO 2019b, c)

Population Status
The eastern population has no status under the federal Species at Risk Act but is identified of special
concern under COSEWIC (COSEWIC 2009). Under the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, it is listed as Least Concern (Cooke and Reeves 2018).

The western population of bowhead whale is listed on Schedule 1 under the Species at Risk Act as of
Special Concern. Under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, it is listed as Least Concern (Cooke
and Reeves 2018). This population has no status under the Northwest Territories Species at Risk Act and
has a Northwest Territories general status rank of Secure.

Vocalization and Hearing


Bowhead whales are classified as low-frequency cetaceans (7 Hz to 35 kHz; NMFS 2018). This sensitivity
overlaps with typical vessel-produced in-water noise (50 and 400 Hz; Richardson et al. 1995; NRC 2003).
Bowhead communication consists of calls within 75-500 Hz (Ljungblad et al. 1982; Clark and Johnson
1984 as cited in Richardson et al. 1986). Distribution

The range of the eastern population of Bowhead whale in the potential shipping routes includes Navy
Board Inlet, Lancaster Sound, Barrow Strait, Prince Regent Inlet, Bellot Strait, Peel Sound, and the
eastern portion of Parry Channel (DFO 2016) (Figure 8). They migrate from their winter range in Davis
and Hudson Straits to their summer range during ice break-up (DFO 2016). Modelling of eastern Arctic
bowhead whale distribution and habitat by Wheeler et al. (2012) suggests that areas of upwelling are
selected by bowhead whales as they provide favourable feeding opportunities, particularly from August to

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October. Summer aggregations of bowhead whales have been reported in Navy Board Inlet and Prince
Regent Inlet (DFO 2016). In Prince Regent Sound, bowhead whales consist of mainly young whales or
females with calves (COSEWIC 2009). IQ also identifies the presence of bowhead whales in these two
areas (NIRB 2018).

The western population of bowhead whale tend to spend summers in the Beaufort Sea and Amundsen
Gulf but have also been reported in M’Clure Strait, Viscount Melville Sound, Prince of Wales Strait
(Harwood et al. 2017), and in Coronation Gulf (COSEWIC 2009) (Figure 7). Overwintering occurs in the
Bering Sea. Summer aggregations in August and September mainly occur in shallow, shelf waters when
oceanographic conditions and sunlight promote concentrations of zooplankton (Harwood et al 2017).

5.3.5.3 Narwhal
Population Structure
The narwhal is a medium-sized Odontocete whale. Males are easily recognized by their large “tusk,”
which can reach lengths of up to 3 m. They feed on a variety of fishes and invertebrates. Females are
believed to reach maturity between 5 and 8 years of age, while males mature between 11 and 16 years
(COSEWIC 2004a). It is believed that narwhal may reach 50 years of age, although it is estimated that
their average lifespan is closer to 30 years. Peak breeding season occurs in mid-April. The gestation
period is approximately 14 to 15 months and females typically give birth in July and August. IQ has
indicated that calving occurs in Eclipse Sound, Baffin Bay, Home Bay, Cumberland Sound, and Navy
Board Inlet (QIA 2018). During summer months, this species prefers coastal areas with deep water and
shelter from the wind; in winter they prefer deep fjords and the continental slope where upwelling may
increase biological productivity. Ice quality may also influence habitat selection during the winter months
with the presence of leads in fast ice and the density of broken pack ice appearing to be of particular
importance (COSEWIC 2004a).

Two of three known populations of narwhal are located in Canada: Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay. A third
population, East Greenland, exists outside of Canadian waters. Of the two Canadian populations, the
range of the Baffin Bay population overlaps with potential shipping routes being considered for the
Project.

Population Status
Neither the Baffin Bay nor the Hudson Bay populations have status under the federal Species at Risk Act,
although they have been identified by COSEWIC as Special Concern (Government of Canada 2011a).
Narwhal is considered to be rarely observed in NWT and listed as ‘vagrant” by the NWT General Status
Ranking Program (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species, 2016).

Vocalization and Hearing


Narwhal are known to be sensitive to anthropogenic noise and are easily disturbed by boat traffic,
including disturbance to ships at long distances (Heide-Jørgensen et al. 2013). Displacement reactions to
approaching ships have been observed at received sound levels considered to be low (94 to 105 dB re 1
lPa; 20 to 1,000 Hz). Narwhal used sound for pod communications within the 300 Hz to 24 kHz (Marcoux

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2011; Marcoux et al. 2012), which overlap with typical noise produced by vessels (50 and 400 Hz,
Richardson et al. 1995; NRC 2003).

Distribution
The range of the Baffin Bay population stretches from Baffin Island west to Viscount Melville Sound
(Figure 9). Lancaster Sound is an important migration route in the spring and fall for narwhal migrating
from summer grounds (Barrow Strait, Peel Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, Admiralty Inlet, and the Eclipse
Sound). There is little information regarding narwhal distribution throughout the Queen Elizabeth Islands;
however, they have been observed in Queens Channels and McLean Strait (COSEWIC 2004a).
Individuals from the Baffin Bay population overwinter in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait.

Figure 9 Narwhal Populations (DFO 2019d)

5.3.5.4 Beluga
Population Structure
The beluga whale is a medium-sized Odontocete whale. They reach maturity at approximately 4 to 7
years of age, which is when they become easily recognizable by their mostly white colouring. Peak

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breeding season occurs before mid-April and the gestation period is between 12 and 14 months
(COSEWIC 2004b). In the eastern Arctic, harvesters have noted that the known birthing areas for Beluga
include Jones Sound, Admiralty Inlet, southern Navy Board Inlet, southern Milne Inlet, and Koluktoo Bay
(QIA 2018). In the west, the MacKenzie Estuary is a calving area (Fisheries Joint Management
Committee, 2013). While they may live longer than 40 years, it is estimated that the typical lifespan of a
beluga ranges from 15 to 30 years.

Belugas feed on a wide variety of prey, including salmon, capelin, herring, shrimp, cod, flounder, and
invertebrates. Belugas spend the summer months in coastal and offshore areas, typically associated with
river estuaries. During the winter they migrate to deep water areas with approximately 4/10th to 8/10th
pack ice cover (COSEWIC 2004b). Within Canada, there are seven populations of beluga whale. Two
populations, the Eastern High Arctic-Baffin Bay and the Eastern Beaufort Sea, are believed to reside in
the potential shipping routes under consideration for the Project.

Population Status
The Eastern High Arctic-Baffin Bay population of beluga does not have a status under the federal Species
at Risk Act, although they have been identified by COSEWIC as Special Concern (Government of
Canada 2011b). The Eastern Beaufort Sea population is not considered to be at risk and, therefore, has
no SARA status and no COSEWIC status. Beluga are listed as “secure” by the NWT General Status
Ranking Program (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species, 2016).

Vocalization and Hearing


Beluga whales are classified as mid-frequency cetaceans (150 Hz to 160 kHz, NMFS 2018). Beluga have
been shown to be sensitive to noises in the 400 Hz to 120 kHz range (Schevill and Lawrence 1949, Sjare
and Smith 1986, Awbrey et al. 1988).

Distribution
The range of the Eastern High Arctic-Baffin Bay population includes Baffin Bay, Lancaster Sound, Barrow
Strait, Peel Sound, Franklin Strait, and Prince Regent Inlet (Figure 10). Surveys suggest that they spend
the summer months in the waters surrounding Somerset Island and overwinter along the coast of
Greenland or around the western portion of Baffin Island (COSEWIC 2004b). The range of the Eastern
Beaufort Sea population includes the Beaufort Sea, M’Clure Strait, Prince of Wales Strait, Victoria Strait,
Laresen Sound, Queen Maud Gulf, Coronation Gulf, and Amundsen Gulf (Figure 10). Surveys suggest
that they spend the summer months in the waters surrounding Banks Island and overwinter in the
Beaufort Sea (COSEWIC 2004b).

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Figure 10 Beluga populations; Eastern High Arctic-Baffin Bay (left), Eastern Beaufort Sea
(right) (DFO 2019e, NOAA 2017)

5.3.5.5 Polar Bear


Population Structure
Polar bears occur throughout the Arctic and over continental shelf seas that are covered by sea ice for
much of the year (Durner et al. 2009) and are distributed in several largely discrete subgroups rather than
constituting one homogeneous pan-Arctic population (Pedersen 1945). They feed mostly on sea ice
obligate seals, particularly ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus)
(Derocher et al. 2002; McKinney et al. 2017a; Thiemann et al. 2008).

Polar bears are dependent on sea ice for hunting, resting, mating, and denning. Within a year, polar bear
movements are generally correlated with the annual movements of the sea ice edges, which they stay
near to hunt seals; primarily ringed seal (Amstrup et al. 2000). Studies from 1982 to 2006 have shown
body size and body condition for most sex and age classes of bears to be positively correlated with the
availability of sea ice habitat (Rode et al. 2009). Maximum movement rates for polar bears tend to occur
in winter and early summer (Amstrup et al.2001). Sea ice loss and increased variability in sea ice extent
have the potential to affect polar bear movements and distribution, including the breakdown of historic
subpopulation boundaries (Derocher et al. 2004).

As of August 2015, the total population estimate for the 19 recognized Arctic subpopulations is
approximately 26,000 polar bears with roughly 66% of them residing in the Canadian Arctic (Wiig et al.
2015). The proposed shipping routes (both western and eastern routes), overlap with 6 of the 13 known
subpopulations of Canadian polar bears (Figure 11) (IUCN/SSC PBSG 2015). These subpopulations
include Lancaster Sound, Baffin Bay, M’Clintock Channel, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Beaufort
Sea, and Viscount Melville Sound. In the Northwest Territories, the polar bear is listed as a species of
Special Concern on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, SARA).

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Figure 11 Subpopulations of Polar Bears that overlap with proposed shipping routes

Taylor et al. (2005) generated an abundance estimate of less than 2,074 ± 266 bears within the Baffin
Bay subpopulation based on simulations using vital rates from a capture study and up-to-date pooled
Canadian and Greenland harvest records. The Lancaster Sound subpopulation is estimated to be 2,541 ±
391 based on an analysis of both historical and current mark-recapture data to 1997 (Taylor et al. 2008).
During summer months, polar bears are most likely to be concentrated within known summer retreats.
The Lancaster Sound subpopulation has a number of summer retreats within the subpopulation area,
which suggests polar bears may be more densely concentrated (i.e., > 5 bears/1,000 km 2) in these areas.
Following the completion of a mark-recapture inventory in spring 2000, the subpopulation for the
M’Clintock Channel was estimated to number 284 ± 59 (Taylor et al. 2006). The Viscount Melville Sound
subpopulation estimates of 215 ± 58 (1996) was based on simulations from parameters measured in
1993 (Taylor et al. 2001). Studies suggest that the size of the Northern Beaufort Sea subpopulation has
remained stable at approximately 1,200 bears (Stirling et al.1988). Evidence suggest that polar bears
from the Northern Beaufort Sea subpopulation are concentrated in areas around Banks Island and along
the sea ice edge to the west of the island for the summer and fall, and that bears return south in the late
fall to habitats in the Amundsen Gulf (Stirling 2001). It has been documented that there are areas of
overlap between the Southern Beaufort Sea and adjacent subpopulations (Amstrup et al. 2004f). At
Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, 50% of polar bears are from the Southern Beaufort subpopulation and
50% are from the northern Beaufort Sea subpopulation. Results from a study conducted from 2001-2006

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in both the USA and Canada indicated that the Southern Beaufort subpopulation included 1,526 (95% CI
= 1,211 to 1,841) polar bears in 2006 (Regehr et al. 2006).

Population Status
The polar bear has been classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN since 1982 (Wiig et al. 2015). IUCN lists
Polar bears as Vulnerable with the population trend unknown (IUCN/SSC PBSG 2015). They are
currently listed as Special Concern under the federal Species at Risk Act (Government of Canada 2011c).
Nunavut territory defaults species listing to the federal SARA, while NWT also lists this species as Special
Concern.

Vocalization and Hearing


Nachtigall et al. (2007) studied in-air hearing of three polar bears using evoked auditory potentials. The
results indicated that polar bears have acute and wide-frequency-range hearing capabilities. The study
concluded that bears hear particularly well in the range between 11.2 and 22.5 kHz.

Distribution
In the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation and during the months of April 2014 and 2015, bears spent
most of their time out of water and on the ice; in contrast, about 17% of their time was spent in water
(Pagano et al. 2017). Studies have also shown bears from the same Southern Beaufort Sea
subpopulation to prefer sea ice situated over shallow waters of the continental shelf during spring and
autumn (Durner et al. 2009). Under reduced ice conditions, they may feed on alternative prey, if available,
including sub-Arctic marine mammals (Aars et al. 2015; McKinney et al. 2013) and land-based food
resources such as whale carcasses or community landfills.

The Lancaster Sound subpopulation has a number of summer retreats within the subpopulation area,
which suggests that polar bears may be more densely concentrated in these areas (Rescan 2015).

5.3.5.6 Walrus
The walrus is the largest pinniped in the Arctic, measuring between 2.5 – 4.0 m (Born et al. 1995), with
males weighing up to 1500 kg. Walruses are primarily bottom feeders, foraging in sediments on the
ocean floor for bivalves and other benthic invertebrates (Outridge et al. 2003). Walruses can live up to 40
years, with females reaching sexual maturity at the age of 4 – 10 years, and males at the age of 6 – 10
years. Calves are usually born on land or pack ice, between April – early June.

Population Structure
There are two subspecies of walrus that are widely recognized but only one is found in the Canadian
Arctic waters: the Atlantic walrus O. r. rosmarus. Atlantic walruses inhabit the Arctic and subarctic waters
of Canada, Greenland, Norway, and Russia. COSEWIC (2017b) identifies two genetically distinct
populations of the Atlantic walrus in Canadian Arctic waters: the Central/Low and High-Arctic populations
(Shafer et al., 2014). Focus here will be on the High-Arctic population, which includes stocks found in
Baffin Bay (BB), West Jones Sound (WJS), and the Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound (PS-LS). The habitat
range of the walruses found in PS-LS area overlaps with the NWP shipping routes (sections A, B, D1 and

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D2; NAMMCO 2019a). The habitat of this population ranges from eastern Bylot Island to northern Prince
of Wales Island (Figure 1, Figure 13). Numerous terrestrial haul outs have been identified on the south
side of Devon Island, Cornwallis Island, Bathurst Island, and the entrance of the Navy Board Inlet,
overlapping with shipping sections A and B (DFO 2019a, Figure 2, pg. 4). Stephenson and Hartwig
(2010) also identified an area between Bylot Island and Devon Island where walruses are commonly
found in the winter (see Stephenson and Hartwig 2010, Figure 7, p. 47).

Population Status
COSEWIC (2017b) designated both populations of the Atlantic walrus as Special Concern. Neither of
these two populations is listed under SARA. IUCN lists the Atlantic walrus subpopulation as Near
threatened (Kovacs 2016). More locally, the government of NWT ranked the Atlantic walrus in the
province as Vagrant (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species 2016), implying that the species
occurs infrequently and unpredictably in the area. Abundance estimates of Atlantic walruses are difficult
to obtain, as individuals tend to gather in remote areas, and can simultaneously be found on ice, land and
water (Stewart et al. 2014). It is estimated that approximately 20,000 individuals inhabit the various
designated sections in the Canadian Arctic (Higdon and Stewart 2018), with 727 (95% CI: 623 – 831)
individuals populating the PS-LS area (Stewart et al. 2014). COSEWIC (2017b) mentions that this stock
appears to have been stable over the past three decades.

Vocalization and Hearing


Walruses produce a wide variety of sounds throughout the year and use elaborate vocal displays during
courtship (Stirling et al. 1987, Sjare et al. 2003). The range of best hearing for walruses was 1-12 kHz,
with a high sensitivity for 1.5- and 3-kHz signals, and maximum sensitivity (~67 dB re 1 µPa) at 12 kHz
(Kastelein et al., 2002). This range lies within the estimated auditory bandwidth of 75 Hz – 75 kHz for
walruses in water, and 75 Hz – 30 kHz in air (Southall et al. 2007). With their hearing being relatively
sensitive to low frequency sound, Kastelein et al. (2002) hypothesize that the species is likely to be
susceptible to anthropogenic noise.

Distribution
Walruses associate with pack ice for much of the year, but when suitable sea ice is unavailable, both
sexes and all age classes haul out in herds of several to thousands of animals at terrestrial sites (DFO
2019a). Though widely distributed (Figure 12), they occupy a relatively narrow ecological niche, requiring
areas of shallow water (depth < 80 m) supporting an abundance of benthic bivalves for food and in
proximity to suitable haul out locations (Born et al. 1995, Davis et al. 1980). Walruses tend to show strong
site fidelity to established haul out sites (Born and Knutsen, 1997; Born et al., 2005, Higdon 2016).
Habitat-use and range tends to differ by season (Freitas et al. 2009, Heide-Jorgensen et al. 2013) and
sex (Freitas et al. 2009).

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Figure 12 Summer distribution of various stocks of the Atlantic walrus O. r. rosmarus.


From NAMMCO (2019a)

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Figure 13 Distribution of the Atlantic Walrus, O. r. rosmarus and Pacific Walrus O. r.


divergens. From NAMMCO (2019a))

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Figure 14 Walrus Haulouts in the Vicinity of Shipping Routes. From Higdon (2016).

5.3.5.7 Ringed Seal


Population Structure
The ringed seal is considered abundant and an important component of the Arctic marine ecosystem
(Yurkowski et al. 2019). Similar to other seals found in Arctic waters, ringed seals are closely associated
to pack ice and ice floats, which they use to haul out on for molting, rest, and reproduction. The ringed
seal is the smallest of seals (Phocidae) in the Arctic, averaging about 1.5 m and weighing between 50 –
70 kg. The average lifespan is around 25 - 30 years, with females reaching sexual maturity at 4 - 8 years,
and males at 5 - 7 years. Females give birth to a single pup, often in March or April in snow lairs (DFO
2018b). Ringed seals eat a wide variety of small prey including mysids, shrimp, crustaceans, and small
fish (Kelly et al. 2010; Lowry et al. 1980).

Globally, there are five subspecies of ringed seal, which are considered discrete breeding populations
(Kelly et al. 2010). Only one of these is found in Canadian waters; the Arctic subpopulation Phoca hispida
hispida. This subpopulation might consist of additional discrete subpopulations, but the genetic structuring
has not been fully resolved (Kelly et al. 2010). In Canadian waters, this subpopulation is found from the
Labrador Sea to the Bering Sea and as far north as the North pole (NAMMCO 2019a) (see Figure 15)

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throughout the year (Stephenson and Hartwig, 2010) (Figure 2). The species’ range overlaps with the
proposed NWP shipping routes as Yurkowski et al. (2019) identified hotspots (i.e., areas of increased
density) in Eclipse Sound and Milne Inlet. Ringed seals are also considered abundant in the region of
Navy Board Inlet and Pond Inlet (Baffinland 2012).

Population Status
The Arctic subpopulation of ringed seals is considered the most abundant of the subspecies (Kelly et al.
2010), and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO) estimated at least 1.2 million
ringed seals would be needed to account for a proportion of the seals harvested and killed by polar bears.
Recent population studies in western Hudson Bay estimated the population size in this area to be around
280,000, and a population estimated in the Bering & Chukchi Sea of approximately 1 million individuals
(Kelly et al. 2010). IUCN lists the Arctic ringed seal as species of least concern, and COSEWIC
designated the species to be ‘Not at Risk’ in 1989, but the status is currently being reassessed (Lowry
2016, Government of Canada 2019a). The government of NWT assessed the status of ringed seals in the
province as “secure” (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species 2016).

Vocalizations and Hearing


Ringed seals produce simple barks, yelps and clicks in the frequency range of 0.4 – 16 kHz (DOSITS
2016). Southall et al. (2007) estimated the auditory bandwidth of ringed seals to be 75 Hz – 75 kHz in
water, and 75 Hz – 30 kHz in air. Best sensitivity is approximately 12.8 kHz in water, and 4.5 kHz in air
(Sills 2015). Compared to odontocetes, pinnipeds tend to have lower best frequencies, lower high-
frequency cutoffs, better auditory sensitivity at low frequencies, and poorer sensitivity at the best
frequency (Baffinland 2012, p. 145).

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Figure 15 Distribution of the five subspecies of the ringed seal (In Canadian Arctic
waters only one subspecies occurs, P.h. hispida). From NAMMCO 2019b

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5.3.5.8 Bearded Seal


Bearded seals are a member of the true seals (Phocidae) and are the largest of the seals found in the
Arctic, measuring between 2.1 – 2.7 m (Cameron et al. 2010). Bearded seals have a lifespan of
approximately 25 years, with females reaching sexual maturity between 5 – 6 years of age and males
reaching sexual maturity around the age of 6 – 7. Bearded seals are closely associated with sea ice,
which is important for life history periods such as molting and reproduction. Pups are generally born in
late April to May and weaned after approximately 24 days. Bearded seals feed predominantly on benthic
organisms, squid, and fish (Lowry et al. 1980, Finley and Evans 1983).

Population Structure
Based on genetic evidence (Charrier et al. 2013) and geographical differences in vocalizations (Risch et
al. 2007), two subspecies are recognized in the Canadian Arctic: the Atlantic subspecies E.b. barbatus
and the Pacific subspecies E.b. nauticus. The Pacific population can be further divided into two distinct
population segments (DPS): Okholsk and Beringia populations. The Atlantic subspecies E.b. barbatus is
found in Hudson Bay and much of the eastern CAA towards southern Labrador. The Pacific subspecies
E.b. nauticus occurs from the Laptev Sea in the east, including the Sea of Okhotsk, to the central
Canadian Arctic (Figure 16). Though the subspecies are not separated by clear geographic barriers, the
delineation between the two subspecies is typically defined as the 112° W in the Canadian Arctic
(Cameron et al. 2010). Stephenson and Hartwig (2010) mapped areas in the Canadian Arctic where
bearded seals are considered common (Figure 16). The habitat range of both subspecies overlap with the
proposed NWP shipping routes.

Population Status
Bearded seals are considered abundant and an important component to the Arctic marine ecosystem
(Cobb et al. 2019). Current known areas in the Canadian Arctic with relatively high densities of bearded
seals are the Foxe Basin, Hudson Strait, and the western and northern part of Hudson Bay, all of which
are outside of the proposed NWP shipping routes being considered in this report. The population of E.b.
barbatus has an estimated 188,000 individuals, and the E.b. nauticus population has approximately
250,000 individuals (Beringia DPS – 155,000; Okholsk DPS – 95,000) (Cameron et al. 2010). Population
trends of bearded seals in Canadian waters are listed as unknown. COSEWIC status in Canada is data
deficient (DFO 2018b), whereas the IUCN lists bearded seals as Least Concern (Kovacs 2016). The
Government of the province of Northwest Territories has ranked the status of the bearded seal as
Undetermined in 2017 (Working Group on General Status of NWT Species 2016).

Vocalization and Hearing


There is limited literature available on the hearing range of bearded seals, but it is assumed that the
hearing ability is similar to that of the ringed seal (Baffinland 2012). Southall et al. (2007) mentions an
estimated auditory bandwidth of 75 Hz – 75 kHz for bearded seals in water, and 75 Hz – 30 kHz in air.
Bearded seals have a vast vocal repertoire and produce very distinct trills or frequency-modulated
vocalizations from late March to late June (Cleator et al. 1989), which seems to coincide with their
breeding and pupping season (Van Parijs et al. 2003). Risch et al. (2007) mention that the frequency

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range of trills (long vocalizations that decrease stepwise in frequency) is usually very large (up to 11 kHz).
Underwater, vocalizations can be heard over >30 km, and it is hypothesized that bearded seals can likely
produce sounds of at least 100 dB (Cleator et al. 1989).

Distribution
Bearded seal has a continuous circumpolar distribution and prefer relatively shallow (depth < 150m)
waters with sufficient ice cover (see Hamilton et al. 2018; Kovacs 2018; NAMMCO 2019c; Tynan and
DeMaster 1997), although this species has been observed diving to depths of approximately 400 m
(Hamilton et al. 2018). Annual movements can be northward in summer and southward in winter,
concurrent with changing ice conditions. Changing sea ice conditions potentially also alters species’
behaviour and dietary preferences (Finley and Evans 1983, Smith 1981).

Figure 16 Habitat range of Erignathus barbatus barbatus and Erignathus barbatus


nauticus. From NAMMCO 2019c.

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5.3.6 Marine Birds

For the purpose of this review, marine birds are defined as seabirds plus waterfowl, shorebirds, and
raptors that interact with the marine environment for some portion of the time they are present within the
study area during the open-water season. The study area for this review of marine birds is defined
broadly as the marine waters and coastal areas along the potential shipping routes.

5.3.6.1 Regulatory Overview


Certain marine birds in Canada are afforded federal protection through the Migratory Birds Convention
Act (MBCA) and the Species at Risk Act (SARA). The MBCA applies to migratory bird species that are
identified in the Act and occur on federal, provincial, territorial, and private lands. The MBCA prohibits the
disturbance, destruction, or possession of migratory birds, and their nests or eggs (section 5[9]).
Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) provides guidance to protect migratory birds and
avoid the risk of disturbance or destruction of birds, their nests, or eggs (ECCC 2019a). Specific to marine
birds, the MBCA protects “regularly occurring” seabirds and waterbirds except cormorants and pelicans,
and their colonies. The federal government provides guidance to avoid disturbance to seabird and
waterbird colonies (ECCC 2019b).

SARA applies to species that are listed on Schedule 1 of the Act. Under SARA, it is prohibited to kill,
harm, harass, capture or take an individual designated as extirpated, endangered, or threatened (section
32[1]). SARA requires the Government of Canada to produce recovery strategies for species on Schedule
1 that are listed as threatened, endangered, or extirpated. Federal recovery strategies are required to
identify critical habitat for listed species and SARA prohibits the destruction of critical habitat. The
following federal recovery strategies are applicable to specific marine bird species that occur within the
study area:

• Recovery Strategy for the Ross’s Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) in Canada (Environment Canada 2007)

• Recovery Strategy for the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Canada (Environment Canada 2014)

• Recovery Strategy and Management Plan for the Red Knot (Calidris canutus) in Canada (ECCC
2017)

Additionally, the following are key territorial Acts that apply to wildlife, including marine birds, within the
study area:

• Nunavut Wildlife Act

• Northwest Territories Wildlife Act

• Species at Risk (NWT) Act (non-migratory marine birds only)

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5.3.6.2 Seabirds
Table 8 provides a summary of the conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence,
and relative abundance of the 17 seabird species known to regularly occur within study area during the
open-water season. Black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), northern fulmar
(Fulmarus glacialis), and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) are the most common (Gaston et al.
2012). Dovekie (Alle alle) can also be notably abundant in Lancaster Sound during migration (Wong et al.
2014; Mallory et al. 2019). Of the 14 species known to breed within the study area, the majority nest in
colonies (Table 8) that are primarily in the eastern portion of the study area (i.e., along Barrow Strait and
Lancaster Sound). Many of the important habitat areas for marine birds identified within the study area
are related to seabirds and, in particular, protection of seabird colonies (see Section 5.4).

There are two seabird species at risk identified within the study area: ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) and
Ross’s gull (Rhodostethia rosea) (Table 8). Of the two, only the ivory gull is known to breed within the
study area (i.e., Northwestern Brodeur Peninsula Important Bird Area (see Section 5.4)). There is limited
information available on Ross’s gull but known nest sites are to the north and south of the potential
shipping routes (Environment Canada 2007).

Of the four groups of marine birds addressed in this review, seabirds in general are most likely to interact
with shipping because of their reliance on the marine environment and tendency to occupy open water.

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Table 8 Seabirds Known to Regularly Occur Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation Status, Diet
and Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, and Relative Abundance

Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status Diet and Marine Typically Relative
Habitat Use Breeds within Abundance
NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2
(Non-winter)3 Study Area?4 within Study
Area5
Black guillemot Cepphus grylle SU S5B, S5N, -- -- Piscivore; Yes (colonial) Common
S5M nearshore
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea S5B S4B, S4M -- -- Piscivore; Yes (colonial) Common
nearshore
Dovekie Alle alle -- S3B,S3M -- -- Piscivore; No Common6
offshore
Thick-billed murre Uria lomvia S2S3B S5B, S5N, -- -- Piscivore; Yes (colonial) Common
S5M offshore
Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis -- S5B, S5M -- -- Piscivore; Yes (colonial) Common
offshore
Sabine’s gull Xema sabini S4B S4S5B, -- -- Scavenger, Yes Less common
S4S5M nearshore
Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea -- S1B, S1M T 1-T Scavenger, No Uncommon
nearshore
Ivory gull Pagophila eburnea SHB, S1B, S1N, E 1-E Scavenger; Yes (colonial) Uncommon
S1N S1M offshore
Herring gull Larus argentatus S4S5B S4B, S4M -- -- General predator; No Uncommon
nearshore
Iceland gull Larus glaucoides -- S5B, SUN, -- -- General predator; Yes (colonial) Less common
S5M nearshore
Thayer’s gull Larus glaucoides S3B S4S5B, -- -- General predator; Yes (colonial) Less common
thayeri S4S5M nearshore
Glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus S4B S4B, SUN, -- -- General predator; Yes (colonial) Common
S4M nearshore
Black-legged Rissa tridactyla SU S5B, S5M -- -- General predator, Yes (colonial) Common
kittiwake offshore

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Table 8 Seabirds Known to Regularly Occur Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation Status, Diet
and Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, and Relative Abundance

Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status Diet and Marine Typically Relative
Habitat Use Breeds within Abundance
NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2
(Non-winter)3 Study Area?4 within Study
Area5
Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius SUB S4S5B, -- -- General predator; Yes Common
parasiticus S4S5M offshore
Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius SUB S5B, S5M -- -- General predator; Yes Common
longicaudus offshore
Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus SUB S5B, S5M -- -- General predator; Yes Less common
offshore
Short-tailed Ardenna tenuirostris -- -- -- -- Diving No8 Uncommon
shearwater planktivore;
offshore7
NOTES:
Species list compiled from Lepage et al. 1998; Upun-LGL 2013; Wong et al. 2014; Mallory et al. 2019; IBA Canada Important Bird Areas database
(https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN, Accessed June 2019); and range maps from Birds of North America (BNA) Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home,
Accessed June 2019)
1
NatureServe 2019; S = Subnational (i.e., territorial or provincial), X = Presumed Extirpated, H = Possibly Extirpated, 1 = Critically Imperiled, 2 = Imperiled, 3 = Vulnerable, 4 =
Apparently Secure, 5 = Secure, U = Unrankable (e.g., insufficient information), NR = Not Rankable (i.e., not yet assessed), B = breeder, N = non-breeder, M = migrant (CESCC
2016)
2
SRPR 2019; COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada): T = Threatened, E = Endangered; SARA (Species at Risk Act): 1-T = Threatened on
Schedule 1, 1-E = Endangered on Schedule 1
3
Habitat use information from Mallory et al. (2019) unless indicated otherwise
4
Based on information from Environment Canada 2007; Wong et al. 2014; Mallory et al. 2019; and range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home,
Accessed June 2019) unless indicated otherwise
5
Based on information from Gaston et al. 2012; Upun-LGL 2013; Wong et al. 2014; Government of Canada 2019b; and range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-
Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019); Common = thick-billed murre, black-legged kittiwake, black guillemot, northern fulmar, dovekie or range map includes entire study area;
Less common = range map does not include entire study area plus not thick-billed murre, black-legged kittiwake, black guillemot, northern fulmar, dovekie or a SARA Schedule 1
species; Uncommon = SARA Schedule 1 species or typical range map does not include study area but other evidence is suggestive of regular occurrence (i.e., Upun-LGL 2013 [for
short-tailed shearwater]; Wong et al. 2014; eBird range map)
6
During migration
7
Wong et al. 2014
8
https://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/short-tailed-shearwater

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5.3.6.3 Waterfowl
Table 9 provides a summary of the conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence,
and relative abundance of the 25 waterfowl species known to use marine environments within the study
area during the open-water season. The six goose species (Anser sp. and Branta sp.) present within the
study area are very abundant; one of the most important breeding grounds for geese in North America is
within the study area (i.e., Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary). Other notably abundant species
within the study area are long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), king eider (Somateria spectabilis), and
common eider (S. mollissima) (Mallory et al. 2019). Many of the important habitat areas for marine birds
identified within the study area are related to waterfowl (see Section 5.4).

The eastern population of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) is the only waterfowl species at risk
identified within the study area (Table 9). While the closest identified ranges to the study area are along
the coast of Greenland and at the southern end of Baffin Island (COSEWIC 2013), harlequin duck has
been observed within the study area at the Thomsen River Important Bird Area (Government of Canada
2019b), and a few other scattered locations (see eBird range map at Birds of North America Online [The
Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2019]).

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Table 9 Waterfowl known to use marine environments within the study area during the open-water season:
conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence, and relative abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
Piscivore; coastal;
Yellow-billed loon Gavia adamsii SUB S4B, S4M NAR -- Yes Less common
facultative
Piscivore; coastal;
Common loon Gavia immer S5B S5B, S5M NAR -- No Uncommon
facultative
Piscivore; coastal;
Pacific loon Gavia pacifica S5B SUB, SUM -- -- Yes Less common
reliant
Piscivore; coastal;
Red-throated loon Gavia stellata S4B S4B, S4M -- -- Yes Common
reliant
Piscivore; coastal;
Common merganser Mergus merganser S5B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
facultative
Red-breasted Piscivore; coastal;
Mergus serrator S5B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Less common
merganser reliant
Herbivore; coastal;
Canada goose Branta canadensis S5B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
facultative
Herbivore; coastal;
Cackling goose Branta hutchinsii S4B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
facultative6
Greater white- Herbivore; coastal;
Anser albifrons S5B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
fronted goose facultative
Herbivore; coastal;
Snow goose7 Anser caerulescens S4B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes (colonial) Common
facultative
Herbivore; coastal;
Ross’s goose Anser rossii S4B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
facultative
Herbivore; coastal;
Brant Branta bernicla S3B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes (colonial) Common
reliant
Herbivore; coastal;
Tundra swan Cygnus columbianus S5B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
facultative

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Table 9 Waterfowl known to use marine environments within the study area during the open-water season:
conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence, and relative abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
S3B, SUN, Molluscivore;
King eider Somateria spectabilis S3S4B -- -- Yes Common
S3M nearshore; reliant
S3B, S3N, Molluscivore;
Common eider Somateria mollissima S3B -- -- Yes (colonial) Less common
S3M nearshore; reliant
Molluscivore; coastal;
Greater scaup Aythya marila S5B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
facultative
Molluscivore; coastal;
Lesser scaup Aythya affinis S3B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
facultative
Molluscivore; coastal;
Black scoter Melanitta americana S3B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
reliant
Molluscivore; coastal;
Surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata S3B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
reliant
Molluscivore; coastal;
White-winged scoter Melanitta fusca S3B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
reliant
Harlequin duck, Histrionicus Insectivore;
-- SNR SC 1-SC No Uncommon
eastern population histrionicus nearshore; reliant
S4B, SUN, Crustaceavore;
Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis S3B -- -- Yes Common
S4M nearshore; reliant
Omnivore, coastal;
Northern pintail Anas acuta S3B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Less common
facultative8
Omnivore, coastal;
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos S5B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
facultative9
Omnivore, coastal;
Green-winged teal Anas crecca S5B SUB, SUM -- -- No Uncommon
facultative10

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Table 9 Waterfowl known to use marine environments within the study area during the open-water season:
conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence, and relative abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
NOTES:
Species list compiled from Lepage et al. 1998; Mallory et al. 2019; IBA Canada Important Bird Areas database (https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN, Accessed June
2019); and habitat use information and range maps from Birds of North America (BNA) Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019)
1
NatureServe 2019; S = Subnational (e.g., territorial or provincial), X = Presumed Extirpated, H = Possibly Extirpated, 1 = Critically Imperiled, 2 = Imperiled, 3 = Vulnerable, 4 =
Apparently Secure, 5 = Secure, U = Unrankable (e.g., insufficient information), NR = Not Rankable (i.e., not yet assessed), B = breeder, N = non-breeder, M = migrant (CESCC
2016)
2
SRPR 2019; COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada): NAR = Not at Risk, SC = Special Concern; SARA (Species at Risk Act): 1-SC = Special
Concern on Schedule 1
3
Habitat use information from Mallory et al. (2019) unless indicated otherwise; reliant = marine environment is principal foraging and/or migratory habitat, facultative = marine
environment is secondary habitat (i.e., habitat used for brief periods or in response to environmental conditions) (Mallory et al. 2019)
4
Based on range maps and behaviour (spacing) information from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019)
5
Based on information from CWSWC 2017; Government of Canada 2019b; and range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June
2019); Common = Geese (Anser sp. and Branta sp.) or range map includes entire study area; Less common = range map does not include entire study area plus not a goose
species (Anser sp. and Branta sp.) or a SARA Schedule 1 species; Uncommon = SARA Schedule 1 species or typical range map does not include study area but eBird range map
includes observations within study area
6
Mowbray et al. 2002
7
Including lesser snow goose and greater snow goose
8
Clark et al. 2014
9
Drilling et al. 2018
10
Johnson 1995

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Waterfowl species most likely to interact with shipping are those that are reliant on the marine
environment and common within the study area. Based on Table 9, there are seven waterfowl species
that fit this profile: Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica), red-throated loon (G. stellata), red-breasted merganser
(Mergus serrator), brant (Branta bernicla), king eider, common eider, and long-tailed duck.

5.3.6.4 Shorebirds
Table 10 provides a summary of the conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence,
and relative abundance of the 18 shorebirds likely to use marine environments within the study area
during the open-water season. Baird’s sandpiper (Calidris bairdii), white-rumped sandpiper (C. fuscicollis),
and American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica) are common and widespread. Some of the important
habitat areas for marine birds identified within the study area support notable concentrations of shorebirds
(see Section 5.4).

There are four shorebird species at risk identified within the study area: red knot islandica subspecies
(Calidris canutus islandica), red knot rufa subspecies (C. canutus rufa), buff-breasted sandpiper (C.
subruficollis), and red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). Of these four species, red-necked
phalarope is likely to be most abundant within the study area.

Shorebirds most likely to interact with shipping are those that use marine habitats within the study area
during the breeding season. Based on Table 10, there are eight shorebird species that fit this profile:
ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), sanderling (Calidris alba), Baird’s sandpiper, purple sandpiper (C.
maritima), common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), semipalmated plover (C. semipalmatus), red
phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius), and red-necked phalarope (P. lobatus). Among these species, the
potential for an effect is more likely for the more common species (e.g., Baird’s sandpiper), the species
that spend the most time in marine habitats (i.e., semipalmated plover, phalaropes), and phalaropes,
because they spend time on the water and away from the shore. Shorebirds that use marine habitats only
during migration are less likely to interact with shipping within the study area as the duration of that use
would be relatively short, as they are either arriving to their breeding grounds within the study area or
departing the study area for their overwintering grounds.

64
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

Table 10 Shorebirds Likely to Use Marine Environment Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation
Status, Diet and Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, and Relative Abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
Invertebrates;
rocky and sandy
Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres S3B S3B, S3M -- -- Yes Less common
beaches (B
[limited], M)
Invertebrates; wide
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus S4B S4B, S4M -- -- variety of coastal Marginal Uncommon
habitats (M)
Invertebrates;
sandy beaches (B,
Sanderling Calidris alba S2S4B S3B, S3M -- -- Yes Less common
M), tidal mudflats,
rocky coast (M)
Invertebrates;
Dunlin Calidris alpina S3B S4B, S4M -- -- estuaries, tidal Yes Less common
mudflats (M)
Invertebrates;
Calidris canutus marine and
S1S2B SNRB SC 1-SC Yes Uncommon
islandica estuarine habitats
(M)6
Red knot
Invertebrates;
marine and
Calidris canutus rufa S1S2B S1S2B E 1-E Yes Uncommon
estuarine habitats
(M)6
Insects; beaches
Baird’s sandpiper Calidris bairdii S5?B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
(B, M)
White-rumped Invertebrates;
Calidris fuscicollis S4S5B S5B, S5M -- -- Yes Common
sandpiper intertidal (M)
Invertebrates;
Purple sandpiper Calidris maritima SUB S3B, S3M -- -- Yes Less common
intertidal (B, M)

65
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

Table 10 Shorebirds Likely to Use Marine Environment Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation
Status, Diet and Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, and Relative Abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
Invertebrates; salt
Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos S4B S4B, S4M -- -- Yes Less common
marshes (M)
Invertebrates; tidal
Semipalmated
Calidris pusilla S3S5B S3B, S3M -- -- mudflats, beaches Yes Less common
sandpiper
(M)
Invertebrates;
Least sandpiper Calidris minutilla S5B S3B, S3M -- -- mudflats, edges of Yes Less common
tide pools (M)
Invertebrates;
limited to no
Buff-breasted
Calidris subruficollis S2S4B S3B, S3M SC 1-SC marine habitat use, Yes Uncommon
sandpiper
even during
migration
Invertebrates;
Common ringed
Charadrius hiaticula -- S4B, S4M -- -- beaches (B), tidal Yes7 Less common
plover
mudflats (M)7
Invertebrates;
Charadrius
Semipalmated plover S5B S4B, S4M -- -- intertidal, beaches Yes Less common
semipalmatus
(B, M)
Invertebrates;
American golden mudflats,
Pluvialis dominica S3S4B S3B, S3M -- -- Yes Common
plover shorelines,
estuaries (M)
Invertebrates; sand
Black-bellied plover Pluvialis squatarola S3?B S3B, S3M -- -- or mud shores, Yes Less common
intertidal (M)

Red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius S5B S4B,S4M -- -- Invertebrates, Yes Less common
zooplankton;

66
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

Table 10 Shorebirds Likely to Use Marine Environment Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation
Status, Diet and Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, and Relative Abundance

Conservation Status Relative


Diet and Marine Typically
Abundance
Common Name Scientific Name NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2 Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within
within Study
winter)3 Study Area?4
Area5
intertidal,
nearshore (B, M),
offshore (M)
Invertebrates,
zooplankton;
Red-necked
Phalaropus lobatus S3B S3B, S3M SC 1-SC intertidal, Yes Less common
phalarope
nearshore (B, M),
offshore (M)
NOTES:
Species list compiled from Lepage et al. 1998; ECCC 2019c; Government of Canada 2019b; Mallory et al. 2019; IBA Canada Important Bird Areas database
(https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN, Accessed June 2019); and habitat use information and range maps from Birds of North America (BNA) Online
(https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019)
1
NatureServe 2019; S = Subnational (e.g., territorial or provincial), X = Presumed Extirpated, H = Possibly Extirpated, 1 = Critically Imperiled, 2 = Imperiled, 3 = Vulnerable, 4 =
Apparently Secure, 5 = Secure, U = Unrankable (e.g., insufficient information), NR = Not Rankable (i.e., not yet assessed), B = breeder, N = non-breeder, M = migrant (CESCC
2016)
2
SRPR 2019; COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: NAR = Not at Risk, SC = Special Concern, E = Endangered; SARA (Species at Risk Act): 1-
SC = Special Concern on Schedule 1, 1-E = Endangered on Schedule 1
3
Habitat use from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019) unless indicated otherwise; B = during breeding season, M = during migration
4
Based on range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019) unless indicated otherwise
5
Based on information from COSEWIC 2012, 2014; ECCC 2017; and range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019);
Common = range map includes entire study area; Less common = range map does not include entire study area, not a SARA Schedule 1 species, exception being red-necked
phalarope for which abundance is still relatively high (per COSEWIC 2014); Uncommon = SARA Schedule 1 species (other than red-necked phalarope) or typical range map does
not include study area but eBird range map includes observations within study area
6
ECCC 2017
7
BirdLife International 2016

67
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST
PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

5.3.6.5 Raptors
Table 11 provides a summary of the conservation status, diet and marine habitat use, breeding presence,
and relative abundance of the three raptor species that use marine environments within the study area
during the open-water season. Of the three species, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum/tundrius)
is the most closely associated with marine environments, particularly because colonial seabirds,
shorebirds, waterfowl, and other waterbirds are its primary prey but also because coastal cliffs are
sometimes used for nesting (COSEWIC 2017b). Gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus) will prey on seabirds on
occasion but ptarmigan is their preferred prey; this species will also nest on rocky coastal areas in the
Arctic (Booms et al. 2008). Rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) prey on terrestrial mammals, but this
species may use coastal cliffs for nesting (Bechard and Swem 2002). Some of the important habitat areas
for marine birds identified within the study area support one or more of these raptor species (see Section
5.4). Peregrine falcon is a species at risk.

Of the four groups of marine birds addressed in this review, raptors are the least likely to interact with
shipping within the study area. That said, among the three raptors identified in Table 11, peregrine falcon
and gyrfalcon are more likely to interact with shipping than rough-legged hawk.

68
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

Table 11 Raptors Known to Use Marine Environments Within Study Area During Open-Water Season: Conservation Status,
Diet And Marine Habitat Use, Breeding Presence, And Relative Abundance

Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status Diet and Marine Typically Relative
Habitat Use (Non- Breeds within Abundance
NWT1 Nunavut1 COSEWIC2 SARA2
winter)3 Study Area?4 within Study
Area5
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus S3B/SUB SNRB/SNRB NAR 1-SC Mostly birds; Yes Uncommon
anatum/tundrius coastal cliffs,
seabird colonies6
Rough-legged Buteo lagopus S4?B SUB, SUM NAR -- Small mammals; Yes Less common
hawk coastal cliffs
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus S4? S4 NAR -- Mostly birds, Yes Uncommon
primarily
ptarmigan; rocky
coast
NOTES:
Species list compiled from Government of Canada 2019b; IBA Canada Important Bird Areas database (https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN, Accessed June 2019); and
habitat use information and range maps from Birds of North America (BNA) Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019)
1
NatureServe 2019; S = Subnational (e.g., territorial or provincial), X = Presumed Extirpated, H = Possibly Extirpated, 1 = Critically Imperiled, 2 = Imperiled, 3 = Vulnerable, 4 =
Apparently Secure, 5 = Secure, U = Unrankable (e.g., insufficient information), NR = Not Rankable (i.e., not yet assessed), B = breeder, N = non-breeder, M = migrant (CESCC
2016)
2
SRPR 2019; COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada): NAR = Not at Risk; SARA (Species at Risk Act): 1-SC = Special Concern on Schedule 1
3
Habitat use from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019) unless indicated otherwise
4
Based on range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019)
5
Based on information from COSEWIC 2017b; IBA Canada Important Bird Areas database (https://www.ibacanada.ca/explore.jsp?lang=EN, Accessed June 2019); and habitat use
information and range maps from BNA Online (https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/home, Accessed June 2019); Common = non-winter range map includes entire study area;
Less common = non-winter range map does not include entire study area, not a SARA Schedule 1 species; Uncommon = SARA Schedule 1 species or species likely to be more
common within the study area in the winter (i.e., gyrfalcon)
6
COSEWIC 2017b

69
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST
PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

5.4 ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SENSITIVE AREAS (EBSA)


Canada’s Ocean Act promotes the conservation of the marine environment through an ecosystem
approach. Ecological Biological and Sensitive Areas (EBSAs) are used to identify specific areas in the
Canadian Arctic important for conservation efforts (DFO 2011, 2015; Figure 17; Table 12). EBSAs are
created through an effort to consolidate scientific and local and traditional ecological knowledge reports;
identifying significant marine ecosystems in need of management. EBSAs will receive heightened
regulatory and public review, and likely be subject to additional mitigation measures to minimize impacts
to the ecosystem. For example, EBSAs in Lancaster Sound, Peel Sound and Bellot Strait are being used
to help support establishment of MPAs by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Table 12 Ecological and Biological Sensitive Areas Along Routes*

Name Physical Feature Aggregation


Eclipse Sound/ Navy Board • Whale Aggregation • Narwhal rearing/migration
Inlet
Lancaster Sound and • Polynya and associated • Marine mammal migration corridor
Prince Leopold Island sea ice edges • High benthic diversity and production
• Highest density of Polar Bears
• Over 1,000,000 seabirds and seaducks use this
as a nesting and feeding area
• Walrus haul out sites
Prince Regent Inlet • Bowhead nursery area • Bowhead nursery area
• Marine mammal migration • Marine mammal migration pathway
pathway • Narwhal feeding
• Narwhal feeding • Arctic Char migration corridor
• Arctic Char migration • Seaduck molting
corridor
• Seaduck molting
Bellott Strait • Migration Chokepoint • Narwahl migration
• Beluga migration
Peel Sound • Polynya • Largest Canadian Arctic population of Narwhal

King William Island • Tidal mixing zones • Possible enhanced productivity based on mixing
• Ringed Seal and Polar Bear feeding
• High benthic diversity and production
Southern Victoria Island • Estuaries • Arctic Char migration corridor
Coastline
Queen Maud Gulf • Several estuaries • Arctic Char migration corridor
Coastline
Lambert Channel • Polynya • Seabird feeding and staging
• Estuary
Viscount Melville Sound • Deep basin • Beluga feeding
• Polar Bear feeding and rearing habitat
Southern Amundsen Gulf • Polynya and associated • Seaduck staging and feeding
Cape Bathurst Polynya ice-edge • Marine mammal feeding and migration
• Upwelling • Seal feeding and migration
• High benthic diversity and production

70
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST
PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

Table 12 Ecological and Biological Sensitive Areas Along Routes*

Name Physical Feature Aggregation


Western Banks Island • Flaw lead and associated • Seaduck staging and foraging
ice-edge • Bearded Seal feeding
* Source: DFO (2011, 2015)

71
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Potential Shipping Route
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Location A - Navy Board Inlet


Y
YTT 200 - 1000
B - Lancaster Sound
N
NWWT
T N
NUU 1000 - 2000
C - Northern Route (to M’Clure Strait)
2000 - 3000 Project Location Project Number 121414789
B
BCC D1 - Prince Regent Inlet (through Nunavut NW Passage, Prepared by LTRUDELL on 20190531
> 3000 Discipline Review by USERNAME on 20180101
A
ABB Bellot Strait) Canadian North
GIS Review by USERNAME on 20180101
S
SKK M
MBB Q
QCC
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ONN D2 - Peel Sound Client/Project/Report
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1:100,000,000 Baffinland
D1/2 - Franklin Strait
Notes
Mary River Project: Environmental Review of
1. Coordinate System: Canada Lambert Conformal Conic E - M’Clintock Channel Shipping Through the Northwest Passage
2. Data Sources: DataBC, Government of British Columbia;
Natural Resources Canada F - Prince of Wales Strait Figure No.

17
G - Southern Route (Victoria Strait, Title
Laresen Sound, Queen Maud Gulf, Ecologically and Biologically Significant
Coronation Gulf, and Amundsen Areas
Gulf)
Disclaimer: Stantec assumes no responsibility for data supplied in electronic format. The recipient accepts full responsibility for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the data. The recipient releases Stantec, its officers, employees, consultants and agents, from any and all claims arising in any way from the content or provision of the data.
MARY RIVER PROJECT: ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW OF SHIPPING THROUGH THE NORTHWEST
PASSAGE

Existing Environment
July 12, 2019

In addition to these more broadly recognized Ecological Biological and Sensitive Areas, there are
locations of important habitat areas for marine birds relative to the proposed NWP shipping routes
(Figure 18). Four types of important habitat areas are shown: 1) Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, 2) Important
Bird Areas, 3) Key Marine Habitat Sites, and 4) Important Areas for Birds in Nunavut. Migratory Bird
Sanctuaries are established by the federal government under the Migratory Birds Convention Act and are
for the protection and conservation of migratory birds (Government of Canada 2019b). Important Bird
Areas are sites that support specific groups of birds (i.e., threatened birds, large groups of birds, or birds
restricted by range or habitat); they are not legally protected but they may be partly or completely within
areas that are legally protected for birds (i.e., Migratory Bird Sanctuaries) (Bird Studies Canada 2019).
Key Marine Habitat Sites are identified in Mallory et al. (2019); these sites are targeted toward seabirds
and sea ducks and, like Important Bird Areas, are not legally protected but may be afforded protection
through overlap with designated protected areas. Important Areas for Birds in Nunavut are catalogued in
Canadian Wildlife Service (2012) and represent a compilation of Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, National
Wildlife Areas, Key Terrestrial Habitat Sites, Key Marine Habitat Sites, Important Bird Areas, RAMSAR
wetlands, and “newly” identified important areas (Mallory and Fontaine 2004). The Important Areas for
Birds in Nunavut locations shown on Figure 18 have not been filtered to be specific to marine birds, so
some exclusively terrestrial sites are identified.

Table 13 lists the Important Bird Areas, Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, and Key Marine Habitat Sites (from
Figure 18) that overlap or are directly adjacent to the proposed NWP shipping routes and identifies: 1)
key species and other species of interest present, including species that are colonial nesters and species
at risk; and 2) where there are associations between important habitat area types. This latter information
supports the spatial data presented in Figure 18.

73
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Island
Harbour
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Bylot Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

les Baillarge Bay, Bylot


" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Wa
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

f Northwestern Brodeur Baffin Island


eo [
` Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Peninsula, Baffin Island


[
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
c Stefansson Creswell Bay,
" " " " " " " " " " " "

"
)
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

[
A `

in
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Island Somerset
Somerset Arctic Pond
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Pr
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Princ
" " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Island
[
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

"
) Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Bay Inlet Buchan Gulf,


" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Liverpool F
"
)
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

e
Baffin Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

D2
"
)
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Batty Bay,
Bay
[
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

R egent
Hadley Bay
[
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Tuktoyaktuk Somerset
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Prince
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Island Scott Inlet,

Peel Sound
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

[
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Baffin Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Fra of Wales
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Brodeur

M 'Clin
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

nk Minto Inlet

Inl e t
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Bay lin B
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
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Island Peninsula
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Ulukhaktok
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Amundsen "
) Berlinguet
Baffin Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

toc
D1
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
Da " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Inlet, Baffin
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

rn
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

kC
Bay ley
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Gulf
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

nn [
`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

ha
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Paulatuk

±
³
Prince Alber el
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " "

D1/2
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

t Sound
Victoria
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Franklin
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
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Strait Boothia
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Gulf of
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Peninsula
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Do
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
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lph
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Boothia
in
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

" "
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a nd Southwestern
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
Un " " " " " " " " " " " "
Victoria
" " " " "

Igloolik
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

North
Revised: 2019-06-25 By: LTrudell

Island
Taloyoak
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
ion
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Cambridge Committee
Spicer
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
Lambert " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "
Stra
Foxe Basin
[
`

t
[
`
Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

tria
Channel
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

[Bay
` Bay [
` Islands
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Cambridge Bay Area, King


it

S
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

Hall Beach [
Prince`
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

ia
Foxe
Victoria Island
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

"
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

)
" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " "

William

tor