0 Up votes0 Down votes

0 views8 pagesRrr

Sep 11, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Rrr

© All Rights Reserved

0 views

Rrr

© All Rights Reserved

- Winter Magic
- Into the Raging Sea: Thirty-Three Mariners, One Megastorm, and the Sinking of the El Faro
- Boundary Waters
- Island of the Lost: An Extraordinary Story of Survival at the Edge of the World
- The Coldest Winter Ever
- Chill Factor: A Novel
- Same Beach, Next Year
- Into the Raging Sea: Thirty-Three Mariners, One Megastorm, and the Sinking of El Faro
- The Summer Guests
- The Summer Wind
- The Wind Through the Keyhole: The Dark Tower IV-1/2
- Lord Dashwood Missed Out: A Spindle Cove Novella
- Lord Dashwood Missed Out: A Spindle Cove Novella
- Mine
- The Sea Glass Sisters: Prelude to The Prayer Box
- Northwest Angle: A Novel
- Strange Weather: Four Novellas
- Strange Weather: Four Short Novels

You are on page 1of 8

www.ksu.edu.sa

www.sciencedirect.com

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

rainfall intensity in Riyadh region

Saleh A. AlHassoun

Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Available online 3 April 2011

KEYWORDS Abstract The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirical formula to estimate design rainfall

Extreme rainfall; intensity based on intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves. These curves have been generated

Intensity–duration– from a 32-year recorded rainfall data for Riyadh region. Rainfall intensity–duration–frequency

frequency; curves describe rainfall intensity as a function of duration for a given return period which are

Design storm; important for the design of storm water drainage systems and hydraulic structures. The formula

Return period; is derived using the analysis of results of three different frequency methods, namely: Gumbel,

Statistical methods Log Pearson III, and Log normal. These methods are used to obtain the IDF curves for six different

durations (10, 20, 30 min, and 1, 2, 24 h) and six frequency periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 years) where

the best method of IDF estimation is recommended for future analysis. The equation can predict

rainfall intensity in Riyadh region for any return period with a given storm duration and calibrated

parameters obtained from IDF curves. Good match was achieved between its results and other ana-

lytical methods results such as Gumbel method. Moreover, it allows incorporating data from non-

recording stations, thus remedying the problem of establishing IDF curves in places with a sparse

network of rain-recording stations.

ª 2011 King Saud University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

E-mail address: shassoun@ksu.edu.sa in water resources planning and management for design pur-

poses in construction of sewerage and storm systems, determina-

1018-3639 ª 2011 King Saud University. Production and hosting by

tion of the required discharge capacity of channels, and capacity

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

of pumping stations. So they are important in order to prevent

Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University. ﬂooding, thereby reducing the loss of life and property, insur-

doi:10.1016/j.jksues.2011.03.003 ance of water damage, and evaluation of hazardous weather.

Studies on the rainfall IDF relationship have received much

attention in past few decades. See for example, Stewart et al.

Production and hosting by Elsevier

(1999) for more on this subject. Miller et al. (1973) developed

various rainfall contour maps to provide the design rainfall

82 S.A. AlHassoun

depths for various return periods and durations. Buishand probability of intense bursts of precipitation based upon data

(1993) studied the inﬂuence of correlation on the determination from many unrelated storms. Some variables are needed to be

of IDF curves for Debit (the Netherlands) using the annual max- determined in order to obtain IDF relationship.

imum amounts for durations between 1 and 10 days. The typical estimation procedure for IDF curves as pre-

A Gumbel distribution was ﬁtted to these annual maxima. sented by Chow et al. (1988) and Singh (1992) consists of three

It was demonstrated that ignorance of the correlation between steps. The ﬁrst step consists of ﬁtting a probability distribution

the estimated Gumbel parameters results in an underestima- function to each group comprised of the data values for a spe-

tion of the standard deviation of the estimated quintiles from ciﬁc duration. In the second step, the rainfall intensities for

the IDF curves. each duration and a set of selected return periods (e.g. 2, 5,

Endreny and Imbeah (2009) used two separate rainfall 10, 25, 50, 100 years, etc.) are calculated. This is done by using

datasets in the country of Ghana with two different probability the probability distribution functions of the ﬁrst step. In the

distribution frequency analysis methods to estimate intensity– third step, the ﬁnal IDF relationship can be obtained in two

duration–frequency (IDF) parameters. General extreme value different ways: either (a) for each selected return period the

type II (GEV-II) probability distributions were ﬁt containing rainfall intensities are computed and a graphical relationship

N-min to 24 h durations at 5–24 years record lengths, and from of intensity and duration for different return periods is estab-

381 TRMM satellite precipitation bins covering the country, lished, or (b) the rainfall intensity is related in functional rela-

containing 3–24 h duration at 9 years record length in 2007. It tionship to the rainfall duration and the return period using

was shown that it is essential to combine meteorological and mathematical and regression analysis to derive such equation.

TRMM satellite data for IDF generation in Ghana. Madsen

et al. (2009) used a regional model for estimation of extreme 2.2. Design storms

rainfall characteristics in Denmark and updated it with data

from the augmented rain database for the period (1997–2005). Design storm for a catchment can be derived on the basis of

They showed that for the durations (30 min to 3 h), and return the IDF-relationships. For any project and for a given return

periods (10 years) typical for most urban drainage designs, the period and speciﬁed rainfall duration, the required design

increase in rainfall intensity is in the order of 10%. storm intensity can be obtained either from IDF-curves plots,

Many researchers have developed various formulae for de- or from derived IDF formula. An example of design storms is

sign storm based on the construction of IDF curves. For exam- the so-called ‘composite storm’ of Keifer and Chu (1957). In

ple, Chen (1983) derived a generalized IDF formula for any that storm, the average precipitation intensity over each cen-

location in the United States using three basic rainfall depths, tered duration equals the IDF-value for the given return peri-

that is, R110 (1 h, 10-year rainfall depth), R2410 (24 h, 10-year od of the storm. Such a storm thus contains the most

rainfall depth), and R1100 (1 h, 100-year rainfall depth). Bag- important statistical precipitation information for hydrologi-

hirathan and Shaw (1978) and Gert et al. (1987) developed var- cal applications: precipitation intensities and storm volumes

ious types of regional IDF formulae for ungauged areas as for different return periods. They may be useful for the simple

many water resource projects are commonly located at an design of sewer and storm conduits, dikes, dams, and irrigation

ungauged area in the early planning stage. Koutsoyiannis et systems.

al. (1998) proposed new approach to formulate and construct Nguyen et al. (1998) proposed a generalized extreme value

the IDF curves, which constitutes an efﬁcient parameteriza- (GEV) distribution model for regional estimation of short

tion, facilitating the description of the geographical variability duration design storms based on the scaling theory. The sug-

and rationalization of IDF curves and allows incorporating gested methodology has been applied to extreme rainfall data

data from non-recording stations for construction the IDF from a network of 14 recording raingauges in Quebec (Can-

curves at ungauged sites. Pao-Shan (2004) developed regional ada). Results of the numerical application have indicated that

Intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) formulas for non-record- for partially-gagged sites the proposed scaling method is able

ing sites based on the scaling theory. Forty-six recording to provide design storm estimates which are comparable with

raingauges over northern Taiwan provide the data set for anal- those based on available at-site rainfall data.

ysis. Three scaling homogeneous regions were classiﬁed by dif- Application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to

ferent scaling regimes and regional IDF scaling formulas were automate the evaluation, the design storm prediction and the

developed in each region. The analyzed results reveal that the ﬂood discharge associated with a selected risk level has been

regional IDF scaling formulas proposed resulted in reasonable done by Castrogiovanni et al. (2005). Some of the best-known

simulations and veriﬁcations. probability distributions have been implemented within the

GIS in order to estimate the point and/or areal rain values

2. Rainfall data analysis once duration and return period have been deﬁned. They

aim to allow remote users to access a centralized database

2.1. General and processing-power to serve the needs of knowledge and

to get prediction of design storm without complex hardware/

One tool for relating storm frequency to precipitation is the software infrastructures.

well-known Intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) relationship.

It is mainly used to obtain ‘‘design storm’’ for different water 2.3. Determination of statistical variables

system projects of certain reoccurrence interval. It is important

to note that IDF relationships are not derived from a particu- The annual extreme values of precipitation for six different re-

lar storm and therefore do not depict the likelihood of the corded durations, namely: 10, 20, 30 min and 1, 2, 24 h have

occurrence of a particular storm. The relationships depict the been extracted from historical precipitation records of Riyadh

Developing an empirical formulae to estimaterainfall intensity in Riyadh region 83

region for the period (1963–1994). These records are available Pave: average of annual precipitation data,

from the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MoWE) in Saudi standard deviation of precipitation data,

Arabia from rainfall station No. (R-001) in Wadi Hanifa sub- P*: logarithm of precipitation,

basin at Lat. 24 340 and Long. 46 430 and at altitude of P ave : average of P* values,

564 m. It should be noted that there is no records in few years S*: standard deviation of P* values, and

but it does not affect the analysis. The extreme values of an- G: skewness coeff. for Pearson III method.

nual precipitation of different durations are tabulated for each

duration in order to obtain different statistical variables such

as: mean, standard deviation, and skewness for Gumbel and 3. Frequency distribution methods

Log Pearson III methods. These variables are required in com-

puting rainfall intensity for speciﬁc frequency (return) period The ﬁrst step in the construction of IDF curves is ﬁtting some

using frequency distribution methods. theoretical frequency distribution to the extreme rainfall

Annual historical extreme precipitation P (in mm) values amounts for a number of ﬁxed durations. A logical step to

for the above six durations were extracted from records and proceed then is to describe the change of the parameters of

tabulated, but they are not presented herein to save space. the distribution with duration by a functional relation. From

To show an example of them, Table 1 presents annual histor- the ﬁtted relationships the rainfall intensity for any duration

ical extreme precipitation, P, for duration 30 min. P in the ta- and return period can be derived. In this study, annual maxi-

ble presents the largest (maximum) value of annual mum values for all the available durations have been statisti-

precipitation depth for certain duration (in Table 1, the dura- cally analyzed using three different distributions, namely:

tion is 30 min). Tables also present the computed statistical Gumbel, Log Pearson III, and Log normal. Even that the ﬁrst

variables which include: two methods were demonstrated to be well ﬁtted to measured

Table 1 Annual extreme precipitation (P) and calculated statistical variables for Riyadh (duration = 30 min).

Gumbel method Log Pearson Type III method

Year P (mm) 2

(P Pave) (mm) 2

P* = Log P ðP Pave Þ2 ðP Pave Þ3

1963 10 7.19 1 0.06 0.01

1964 8 0.46 0.9 0.02 0

1965 10 7.19 1 0.06 0.01

1966 1 39.93 0 0.59 0.45

1967 4 11.02 0.6 0.03 0

1968 11 13.55 1.04 0.08 0.02

1969 5 5.38 0.7 0 0

1970 – – – – –

1971 18.5 125.01 1.27 0.25 0.13

1972 22.2 221.44 1.35 0.34 0.2

1973 2.2 26.2 0.34 0.18 0.08

1974 2 28.29 0.3 0.22 0.1

1975 6 1.74 0.78 0 0

1976 8.2 0.78 0.91 0.02 0

1977 11.8 20.08 1.07 0.09 0.03

1978 10.4 9.49 1.02 0.06 0.02

1979 5.2 4.49 0.72 0 0

1980 6 1.74 0.78 0 0

1981 1.8 30.46 0.26 0.26 0.13

1982 3.4 15.36 0.53 0.05 0.01

1983 8 0.46 0.9 0.02 0

1984 6.6 0.52 0.82 0 0

1985 5.4 3.68 0.73 0 0

1986 4.4 8.52 0.64 0.01 0

1987 – – – – –

1988 2.4 24.2 0.38 0.15 0.06

1989 9.4 4.33 0.97 0.04 0.01

1990 – – – – –

1991 – – – – –

1992 – – – – –

1993 7.4 0.01 0.87 0.01 0

1994

P – – – – –

190.3 611.52 19.88 2.54 0.4

Pave = 7.32 mm Pave ¼ 0:76

S = 4.95 m S* = 0.32

G* = 0.53

84 S.A. AlHassoun

Table 3 Computed statistical variables (Log Pearson III).

(Nguyen et al., 1998) but Log normal is used for the sack of

comparison. td parameter 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 24 h

Log P = P* 0.65 0.71 0.76 0.89 0.95 1.18

3.1. Gumbel method Log S = S* 0.35 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.32 0.26

G 0.95 0.86 0.53 0.43 0.49 0.51

K2 0.16 0.14 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.10

The type I distribution of maxima, also termed as the Gumbel

K10 1.14 1.16 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.20

distribution function, Gumbel (1958) is the most widely used K100 1.62 1.71 1.90 1.98 2.02 1.89

distribution for IDF analysis owing to its suitability for mod-

eling maxima. In this method, the frequency precipitation

depth PT (in mm) for any rainfall duration td (in hour) with

speciﬁed return period Tr (in years) is computed using the fol-

Table 4 presents the computed frequency precipitation and

lowing relation (Wilson, 1990):

intensity values for only two durations (as an example) and six

PT ¼ Pave þ KT S ð1Þ return periods using Log Pearson III method. [Note that rain-

fall intensity, IT ¼ PtdT , where PT is the antilogarithm of PT that

where KT is Gumbel frequency factor given by:

pﬃﬃﬃ obtained by Eq. (4).]

6 Tr

KT ¼ 0:5772 þ ln ln ð2Þ

p Tr 1 3.3. Log normal method

obtained from This method uses the same procedure of Log Pearson III (i.e.

logarithm values of the statistical variables) but with normal

PT KT (i.e. KT used by Gumbel method). Results of precipitation

IT ¼ ð3Þ

td and intensity values for only two durations and six return peri-

where td is duration in hour (1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2, 24 h). ods are presented in Table 5.

The frequency precipitation depths and intensities of differ-

ent durations and return periods were determined using Eqs. 4. Intensity–duration–frequency curves

()(1)–(3). Table 2 displays the computed precipitation and

intensity values for three different durations (30 min, 1 h, 4.1. General

24 h as example of td) and six return periods using Gumbel

method. The intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves are plotted for

each method using the computed data obtained in previous

3.2. Log Pearson Type III sections. Figs. 1–3 show these curves on logarithmic scale for

Gumbel, Log Pearson III, and Log normal methods,

The frequency precipitation for Log Pearson III method can respectively.

be obtained in same manner as Gumbel method, Wilson These curves are also plotted on normal scale for Gumbel

(1990), but using the logarithm of variables as in the relation and Log Pearson III methods (for Tr = 2, 10, 100 years) as

shown on Fig. 4.

PT ¼ Pave þ KT S ð4Þ

It is noticed that there is no much difference in Gumbel and

*

where PT , Pave

and S as deﬁned before, and parameter KT is Pearson III results which might be because rainfall variations

Pearson frequency factor which depends on return period in Riyadh region is very small (i.e. small variance). However,

(Tr) and skewness coefﬁcient (G). Values of KT factor can be Log Pearson III method is supposed more accurate since it ac-

obtained from tables in many Hydrology references (e.g. Wil- counts for the skewness in distribution of data. It is recom-

son, 1990; Maidment, 1993). Table 3 shows the computed sta- mended to use results of this method in any storm design

tistical variables and corresponding values of KT (for Tr = 2, studies when accuracy is needed. Results also show poor

10, 100 years) used in Log Pearson III method. IDF distribution of Log normal method where the values of

Table 2 Computed precipitation (PT) in (mm) and intensity (IT) in (mm/h) (Gumbel method).

Tr (years) td = 30 min td = 1 h td = 24 h

Pave = 7.32 mm Pave = 9.3 mm, Pave = 17.67 mm,

S = 4.95 mm S = 5.71 mm S = 10 mm

KT PT IT KT PT IT KT PT IT

2 0.17 6.48 12.96 0.17 8.33 8.33 0.17 15.97 0.67

5 0.75 11.03 22.06 0.75 13.58 13.58 0.75 25.17 1.05

10 1.35 14.00 28.00 1.35 17.01 17.01 1.35 31.17 1.30

25 2.12 17.81 35.62 2.12 21.41 21.41 2.12 38.87 1.62

50 2.69 20.64 41.28 2.69 24.66 24.66 2.69 44.57 1.86

100 3.22 23.26 46.52 3.22 27.69 27.69 3.22 49.87 2.08

Developing an empirical formulae to estimaterainfall intensity in Riyadh region 85

Table 4 Computed precipitation (PT) in (mm) and intensity (IT) in (mm/h) (Log Pearson III method).

td Tr (years) 30 min 24 h

Pave ¼ 0:76, Pave = 1.18,

S* = 0.32 S* = 0.26

KT PT PT IT KT PT KT IT

2 0.09 0.79 6.17 12.34 0.10 1.21 16.22 0.68

5 0.86 1.04 10.96 21.92 0.86 1.40 25.12 1.05

10 1.21 1.15 14.13 28.26 1.20 1.49 30.90 1.29

25 1.54 1.25 17.78 35.56 1.53 1.58 38.02 1.58

50 1.74 1.32 20.89 41.78 1.73 1.63 42.66 1.78

100 1.90 1.37 23.44 46.88 1.89 1.67 46.77 1.95

Table 5 Computed precipitation (PT) in (mm) and intensity (IT) in (mm/h) (Log normal method).

td Tr (years) 30 min 4h

*

Pave ¼ 0:76, S = 0.32 Pave ¼ 1:18, S* = 0.26

KT PT PT IT KT PT PT IT

2 0.17 0.71 5.13 10.26 0.17 1.14 13.8 0.58

5 0.75 1.00 10.01 20.0 0.75 1.38 23.99 1.00

10 1.35 1.19 15.49 30.98 1.35 1.53 33.88 1.41

25 2.12 1.44 27.54 55.08 2.12 1.73 53.70 2.24

50 2.69 1.62 41.69 83.38 2.69 1.88 75.86 3.16

100 3.22 1.79 61.66 123.32 3.22 2.02 104.71 4.36

rainfall intensity are much higher than the annual ones in fnðTr Þ

IT ¼ ð5Þ

Riyadh region. fnðtd Þ

4.2. Empirical IDF formula which has the advantage of a separable functional dependence

of IT on td and Tr. The function fn(Tr) is given in the bibliog-

In literature (Koutsoyiannis et al., 1998), it is stated that it can raphy such as Shaw (1983), Chow et al. (1988), and Singh

formulate a generalized IDF relationship between rainfall (1992) by the following relation:

intensity, IT, rainfall duration, td, and return period, Tr, in

the form of power-law relation as: fnðTr Þ ¼ aðTr Þm ð6Þ

86 S.A. AlHassoun

where, a is shape parameter to be estimated. The function one as Eq. (5) was found to provide the best correlated and

fn(td) is given as consistent relationships for design storm predictions.

Therefore, an empirical formula for intensity–duration–fre-

fnðtd Þ ¼ ðtd Þb ð7Þ

quency relationship in Riyadh region can be related using a de-

where k and b are parameters to be estimated (0 < b < 1). rived equation in power-law form as:

These relations are rather empirical and their use has been dic-

tated by their simplicity and computational convenience rather aTm r

IT ðmm=hÞ ¼ ð8Þ

than their theoretical consistency with the probability distribu- tbd

tion functions which are appropriate for the maximum rainfall

intensity. Chen (1983) applied a more theoretical analysis to where, IT is the rainfall intensity for return period Tr (in years)

obtain similar relationships. A number of similar regression and duration td (in min). Constants a, b, and m are empirical

equation types, between rainfall intensities and durations for parameters depend on location, shape, and scale of the area

given recurrence intervals, were examined by many researchers which are obtained from area characteristics and precipitation

in many cases (e.g. Koutsoyiannis et al., 1998; DeMichele and data using logarithmic relationships (see Wang, 1996; Madsen

Salvadori, 2005; Masimin and Harun, 2006). The power-law et al., 2002; Aronica and Freni, 2005).

Developing an empirical formulae to estimaterainfall intensity in Riyadh region 87

Table 6 Empirical parameters for derived equation. the values of empirical parameters (a, b, and m) as displayed in

Parameter method a b m Table 6.

So, the IDF formula that can be used to obtain rainfall

Gumbel 0.38 0.80 131.8

intensity IT for any design storm of speciﬁed duration td

Pearson III 0.33 0.84 174.2

Average 0.35 0.82 153 (min) and return period Tr (years) for Riyadh region will be

in the form:

153T0:35

r

The analysis of precipitation data for Riyadh region, using IT ðmm=hÞ ¼ ð9Þ

t0:82

d

Gumbel and Log Pearson III methods and using logarithmic

plotting relationships of dependent variables (Tr and td) Fig. 5 displays an example of the comparison of results that

against independent variable (IT) with many ﬁtting trials, gives obtained from IDF curves (for Tr = 2, 10, 100 years, Log

88 S.A. AlHassoun

Pearson III method) and that obtained using the derived Eq. Baghirathan, V.R., Shaw, E.M., 1978. Rainfall depth–duration–

(9). It is noted that the correlation between the two rainfall frequency studies for Sri Lanka. J. Hydrol. 37, 223–239.

intensity values is perfect especially for low rainfall durations Buishand, T.A. (1993). Rainfall depth–duration–frequency curves a

and high return periods. Even for high td and low Tr, matching problem of dependent extremes. Statistics for the Environment,

Wiley, Chichester, pp. 183–197.

of curves is acceptable. This concludes that the derived for-

Castrogiovanni, E.M., La Loggia, G., Noto, L.V., 2005. Design storm

mula can be used to estimate any frequency rainfall data and prediction and hydrologic modeling using a web-GIS approach on

to get design storm in Riyadh region instead of constructing a free-software platform. Atmos. Res. 77 (1–4), 367–377.

IDF curves with reasonable and acceptable values. Chen, C.L., 1983. Rainfall intensity–duration–frequency formulas.

ASCE J. Hydraul. Eng. 109, 1603–1621.

5. Conclusions Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R., Mays, L.W., 1988. Applied Hydrology.

McGraw-Hill, New York.

DeMichele, C., Salvadori, G., 2005. Some hydrological applications of

An objective procedure to derive a power-law relationship be- small sample estimators of generalized Pareto and extreme value

tween intensities and durations is achieved for a number of distributions. J. Hydrol. 301, 37–53.

recurrence intervals through regression of generated IDF Endreny, T.A., Imbeah, N., 2009. Generating robust rainfall intensity–

curves for Riyadh region. Based on the results of analysis of duration–frequency estimates with short-record satellite data. J.

rainfall data in Riyadh region to an equation describing design Hydrol. 371 (1–5), 182–191.

storm based on IDF curves, some conclusions have been Gert, A., Wall, D.J., White, E.L., Dunn, C.N., 1987. Regional rainfall

drawn. It has been shown that there is no much difference in re- intensity–duration–frequency curves for Pennsylvania. Water

sults of rainfall analysis of IDF curves in Riyadh area between Resour. Bull. 23, 479–486.

Gumbel, E.J., 1958. Statistics of Extremes. Columbia University Press,

Gumbel and Log Pearson III methods. This might be because

New York.

that Riyadh region has semi-arid climate and ﬂat topography

Keifer, C.J. and Chu, H.H. (1957). Synthetic storm pattern for

where variations of precipitation from mean is not big. Also, drainage design. J. Hydraul. Div. ASCE, 83 (HY4).

in storm design analysis, most of hydrologists select the 24-h Koutsoyiannis, D., Kozonis, D., Manetas, A., 1998. A mathematical

event to form the most logical basis for engineering design be- framework for studying rainfall intensity–duration–frequency rela-

cause the accurate precipitation data is available for 24-h peri- tionships. J. Hydrol. 206 (1/2), 118–135.

od. Therefore, the 24-h event is recommended to be the design Madsen, H., Mikkelsen, P.S., Rosbjerg, D., Harremoes, P., 2002.

duration for planning storm water structures in Riyadh area. Regional estimation of rainfall intensity–duration–frequency

A derived equation to predict design storm by estimating curves using generalized least squares regressions of partial

rainfall rate for various durations and different return periods duration series. Water Resour. Res. 38 (11).

Madsen, H., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Mikkelsen, P.S., 2009. Update of

can be used instead of constructing IDF curves for the area.

regional intensity–duration–frequency curves in Denmark: ten-

The power-law one, such as Eq. (9), was found to provide the

dency towards increased storm intensities. Atmos. Res. 92 (3), 343–

best correlated and consistent relationships of analytical and de- 349.

rived curves for Riyadh area, especially for low durations and Maidment, D.R., 1993. Handbook of Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New

high return periods. It is recommended to use the results of York.

Log Pearson III when accuracy is required to ﬁnd design storm. Masimin and Harun, S. (2006). An overview of design storm

On the other hand, Log normal method showed less accuracy in development. National Conf. Water for Sustainable Development

generating IDF relationships, therefore it is recommended to Towards a Developed Nation by 2020, Guoman Resort Port

exclude the results of this method from any future storm design Dickson, Malaysia.

studies. In general, it is recommended that rainfall frequency Miller, J.F., Frederick, R.H., Tracey, R.J., 1973. Precipitation-

frequency Atlas of the Conterminous Western United State,

studies be updated on a regular basis for maximum reliability.

NOAA Atlas 2. National Weather Service, Silver Spring,

Maryland.

6. Recommendation Nguyen, V.T.V., Nguyen, T.D., Wang, H., 1998. Regional estimation

of short duration rainfall extremes. Water Sci. Technol. 37 (11), 15–

Although many references and literatures indicate that the de- 19.

sign return period varies between 2–5 years for storm sewer de- Yu, Pao-Shan, Yang, Tao-Chang, Lin, Chin-Sheng, 2004. Regional

rainfall intensity formulas based on scaling property of rainfall. J.

sign and 50–100 years for ﬂood protection design, but based

Hydrol. 295 (1–4,10), 108–123.

on results of the study, it is recommended to use 2–5 years re-

Shaw, E.M., 1983. Hydrology in Practice. Van Nostrand Reinhold,

turn period for urban and sewer system design, and 25– Berkshire, UK.

50 years return period for rural and ﬂood control design in Singh, V.P., 1992. Elementary Hydrology. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Riyadh region. However, where potential damage or func- Stewart, E.J., Reed, D.W., Faulkner, D.S., Reynard, N.S., 1999. The

tional operational requirements warrant more severe criterion FORGEX method of rainfall growth estimation I: review of

a greater return period should be used. requirement. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 3 (2), 187–195.

Wang, Q.J., 1996. Direct sample estimators of L-moments. Water

Resour. Res. 32, 3617–3619.

References

Wilson, E.M., 1990. Engineering Hydrology, fourth ed. Macmillan,

London.

Aronica, G.T., Freni, G., 2005. Estimation of sub-hourly DDF curves

using scaling properties of hourly and sub-hourly data at partially

gauged site. Atmos. Res. 77 (1–4), 114–123.

- Additional Mathematics Project Work 1/2013 SelangorUploaded byRichard Yii
- Assignment 1 -Unit 1Uploaded bySaad Imran δδ
- Blitzkrieg 2 - Editor Manual.pdfUploaded byJuanAndresNavarroSoto
- Historical Pipeline Construction Cost AnalysisUploaded byB Girish
- FinalUploaded byHowardASmith
- 14Sol https://www.scribd.com/doc/54423809/Strength-of-Materials-9781440090523Uploaded by13sandip
- SS3 mathsUploaded bysunlias
- LogarithmsUploaded byChantel Swaby
- RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF NUCLEAR MEASUREMENTS THROUGH DECONVOLUTIONUploaded byari_si
- FX115esUploaded byjpatr
- module-fx-115esplus.pdfUploaded byGilbert Theman
- Indices and LogarithmsUploaded byJiajia Lau
- ehiaUploaded byOngeri Therephilus
- Maths NotationUploaded byRavindra Desai
- MMSB Exercise SolutionsUploaded byYolanda Winarny Eviphanie Hutabarat
- Bifurc AnalysisUploaded bycalvk79
- Logs&RegressionUploaded bycarloscorderolobo
- Quant Shortcuts and TricksUploaded bytusharkhatri18
- Manual Lab Flow Over WeirsUploaded byterlojitan
- HP48S_SX_Brochure_5952-0869_0391Uploaded byCarlos Algalord
- Solution Assignment Ch8Uploaded bymharitsajee
- HFSS GuideUploaded byMohd Zubair Khan
- TnkUploaded byResearcher Brian
- 17 June MathsUploaded byapi-26674800
- ANSYS Workbench Tutorial Release 14Uploaded byEseosa Musa
- Free Functons Block FH2_0112_engUploaded byTạ Văn Phượng
- wrcr22118Uploaded byBalaji Angamuthu
- Sensor Ca730Uploaded byrhidalgo27
- Rug ArchUploaded byrifkiboyz
- BUSADMIN 763 Quantitative Analysis (15 Points)Uploaded bytmhoangvna

- Design of Septic TankUploaded bySubrata Hait
- Aktualizacja_1.05-Sponsor2Uploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Nicotra Roof Ext Fan Optg InstrUploaded bylsaishankar
- 155097816-Plumbing-Calculation.xlsUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Isolation roomUploaded byPlatsy
- AsssfghUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Flyer WaterDeptUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- sizingworksheet_v12Uploaded bylhyte
- Bylaw Applied MathUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- CT10Construct Septic Tank Volume Calculations 2Uploaded byMary Antonette Taytayon
- Rfi ProspectUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- DuctSox Full Line Brochure.pdfUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- 66Uploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Slope Conversion TablesUploaded byharold_bhie
- 333Uploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- FrgUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Pipe Flow Friction Factor CalculationsUploaded byAshok Kumar
- Septic Tank.xlsUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- CPD Review 2015 Chapter6 ErrataUploaded byMadhankumar
- Peak_Water_Demand_Study_Draft_for _Peer_Review.pdfUploaded byGian Luigi Canepa Sprovera
- Full page photo.pdfUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- 1. Gf Floor Hvac Plan-gf HvacUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Water Fire Protection SystemsUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI
- Kitchen equipment boq.pdfUploaded byAnonymous qOBFvI

- What is PseudoscienceUploaded byJohny_GR
- Hal VarianUploaded byWisdom Note
- Minimization of Hybrid Steel Production in Tundish Grade TransitionsUploaded bylarryjh
- Unit 2 Concept MapUploaded byStingray
- 2752-2760Uploaded byAkindolu Dada
- program of learning weebly versionUploaded byapi-399537981
- List Danh Muhthanh CopyUploaded byhlinh
- IMDB Data AnalysesUploaded byphanindra varma
- Mergers, Migration, And Signaling and Game TheoryUploaded byIssam2204
- Building Neural Network and Logistic Regression ModelsUploaded byXuanthu Saigon
- Applying Sonamine Social Network Analysis To Telecommunications MarketingUploaded byNick Lim
- A Survey on Motion Prediction and Risk Assessment for Intelligent VehiclesUploaded bynamcozengin
- Grade 2 Balls and Ramps CompleterUploaded byjungdjudf
- Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network (MOON) - In Support of Sustainable Development and Marine State Assessment Science and Strategy Plan Scienceplan_afterbarcellona3Uploaded byCésar Mösso Aranda
- Aircraft Structure Analysis GuideUploaded byKaradias
- Full Placement TestUploaded byJuan Turrago
- In-Situ Measurement of Pipe-Soil Interaction in Deep Water.pdfUploaded byrivasandr
- The Ethical Mirage a Temporal Explanation as to Why We Are Not as Ethical as We Think We Are 2010 Research in Organizational BehaviorUploaded byiportobello
- A general theory of ecology.pdfUploaded byRaúl Altamirano
- Explainable AIUploaded byShaibal Barua
- Prediction Using NAVCADUploaded byspeedydog
- 1997 Leplin - A novel defense of scientific realism.pdfUploaded byEsteban Leiva Troncoso
- Love & Time Lp (Tlr)Uploaded byJonahEsporas
- operationsUploaded byKAUSHIK TIMOTHY
- Cloud-Based Facial Emotion Recognition for Real-Time EmotionsUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- 17 Planning and ForecastingUploaded byfranciscoamorestorres
- analisis de negociosUploaded byspiplatium
- ATT_1460679004584_full-paper_433Uploaded byPawan Chaturvedi
- [Madeleine Flint, Jack Baker (Auth.), Vasco Pei(B-ok.org)Uploaded byGozie
- Ba Predictive Analytics1 PDFUploaded byhaffa

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.