## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**This article was downloaded by: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network]
**

On: 23 June 2010

Access details: Access Details: [subscription number 918588849]

Publisher Taylor & Francis

Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-

41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Vehicle System Dynamics

Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713659010

Practical Frequency and Time Optimal Design of Passive Linear Vibration

Isolation Mounts

G. Nakhaie Jazar; A. Narimani; M. F. Golnaraghi; D. A. Swanson

To cite this Article Jazar, G. Nakhaie , Narimani, A. , Golnaraghi, M. F. and Swanson, D. A.(2003) 'Practical Frequency and

Time Optimal Design of Passive Linear Vibration Isolation Mounts', Vehicle System Dynamics, 39: 6, 437 — 466

To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1076/vesd.39.6.437.14595

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/vesd.39.6.437.14595

Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf

This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or

systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or

distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.

The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents

will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses

should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,

actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly

or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

Vehicle System Dynamics 0042-3114/03/3906-437$16.00

2003, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 437–466

#

Swets & Zeitlinger

Practical Frequency and Time Optimal Design

of Passive Linear Vibration Isolation Mounts

G. NAKHAIE JAZAR

1

, A. NARIMANI

2

, M.F. GOLNARAGHI

2,3

AND D.A. SWANSON

4

SUMMARY

In this paper we examine a linear one-degree of freedom vibration isolator mount. The linearity of the

system allows us to analyze its frequency and time response characteristics analytically. Optimal damping

and stiffness values for the isolator are obtained by minimizing certain cost functions, which are the Root

Mean Square (RMS) of the absolute acceleration and the relative displacement. These RMS cost functions

are used to create a design chart for the isolator parameters. This is very useful particularly in the presence

of physical constraints such as a limit in relative displacement. The time response of the system for a unit

step input is also considered to gain an insight into the transient characteristics of the system. We obtain an

optimal value for the damping ratio of the system in order to minimize the transmitted acceleration.

Combining the frequency and time response analyses leads to an optimal value for the mount natural

frequency and damping ratio satisfying both time and frequency domains. The results are veriﬁed

numerically using measured acceleration as input.

NOMENCLATURE

a ¼j

€

XX/Yj mass absolute acceleration

c linear damping

f cost function

f

n

¼

o

n

2p

natural frequency [Hz]

i ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1

p

imaginary unit

k linear stiffness

m mass of engine

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo,

ND 58105, U.S.A. Tel.: þ1 701 231 8303; Fax: þ1 701 231 8913; E-mail: Reza.N.Jazar@ndsu.nodak.edu

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ont.,

Canada N2L 3G1. Fax: þ1 519 888 6197.

3

Address correspondence to: Professor M.F. Golnaraghi, Canada Research Chair, Intelligent Mechatronics

and Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University

Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel.: (519) 888 4567 (x4753); Fax: (519) 888 6197; E-mail:

mfgolnar@uwaterloo.ca

4

Applications Development, Lord Corporation, Cary, NC, U.S.A.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

r ¼o/o

n

excitation frequency ratio

R absolute acceleration RMS of mount

t time

x mass displacement [m]

x

r

¼x Ày mass-base relative displacement [m]

X displacement amplitude

y base displacement

Y base harmonic displacement excitation amplitude [m]

g ¼jX/Yj mass transmissibility

Z relative displacement RMS of mount

l ¼j(XÀY)/Yj mass relative displacement transmissibility

x ¼

c

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

km

p

damping ratio

o

n

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

k/m

p

natural frequency [rad/s]

1. INTRODUCTION

The function of an isolator is to reduce the magnitude of motion transmitted from a

vibrating foundation to the equipment, or to reduce the magnitude of force transmitted

from the equipment to its foundation, both in time and frequency domain [1]. In this

paper, ﬁrst we show that the optimization based on frequency analysis can result a

good behavior to a white noise and measured acceleration input. Second, we study the

behavior of the system in time domain for a unit step input and optimize its response

by reducing the peak value of the acceleration. To do this, we deﬁne a new method

using the absolute acceleration and the relative displacement, and then we create a

design chart to select the optimum natural frequency o

n

and damping ratio x.

In the simplest approach to the problem, as depicted in Figure 1 the parameters m, k,

and c are considered constant and independent of the excitation frequency or behavior of

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of a base excited vibrating system, with a linear mount.

438 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

the foundation. This assumption is equivalent to consider the foundation inﬁnitely stiff

and massive [2]. Even though, we know that for rubber mounts, the damping coefﬁcient

usually decreases, and the stiffness coefﬁcient increases with frequency [3]. Moreover

engines cannot be assumed a rigid body at high frequencies. Also, foundation structures

are neither inﬁnitely stiff nor massive and a wave effect occurs in the mounts [4].

The governing equation of a linear isolator with harmonic base excitation can be

found in mechanical vibration texts such as Den Hartog’s [5]. The nondimensional-

ized equation of motion for the system is:

€xx

r

þ2xo

n

_ xx

r

þo

2

n

x

r

¼ Yo

2

sin ðotÞ ð1Þ

where the parameters of equationare relatedtothe physical parameters of the systemby:

x ¼

c

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

km

p o

n

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

k

m

¼ 2pf

n

x

r

¼ x Ày ð2Þ

The most important transfer functions for the system are: absolute displacement g,

relative displacement l and absolute acceleration a. These transfer functions are

deﬁned as follow assuming r ¼o/o

n

(see Figs. 2 and 3)

g ¼

X

Y

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 þð2xrÞ

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð1 Àr

2

Þ

2

þð2xrÞ

2

ð3Þ

Fig. 2. The frequency response for the relative displacement of linear one DOF base excited system.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 439

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

l ¼

X ÀY

Y

¼

r

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð1 Àr

2

Þ

2

þð2xrÞ

2

ð4Þ

a ¼

€

XX

Y

¼

o

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 þð2xrÞ

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ð1 Àr

2

Þ

2

þð2xrÞ

2

ð5Þ

2. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

The reduction of the absolute acceleration since it represents the transmitted force is the

most important goal in optimization of suspensions. A vibration isolator reduces

absolute acceleration by permitting deﬂection of the isolator [5]. The relative deﬂection

is a measure of the clearance known as working space in the isolator. The clearance

should be minimized due to the physical constraints in the mechanical design.

There is a tradeoff between the acceleration and relative motion, which we want to

achieve for optimal isolation. Figure 4 illustrates this tradeoff. The ratio of the Root

Mean Square (RMS) of the absolute acceleration to the RMS of the relative

Fig. 3. The frequency response for the absolute acceleration of linear one DOF base excited system.

440 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

displacement is a monotonically increasing function of o

n

and x. Figure 4 shows

keeping the relative displacement RMS constant then the acceleration RMS will

increase by increasing both o

n

and x. However, keeping the acceleration RMS constant

then the relative displacement RMS will decrease by increasing o

n

and x. Hence, the

acceleration RMS and relative displacement RMS have opposite behaviors. This

behavior, along with considering Figures 2 and 3 shows o

n

¼0 and x ¼0 is the trivial

solution which is not practical. To avoid this difﬁculty we need to deﬁne a constraint

objective function, but for most of the introduced constrained objective functions the

optimum design lies on the boundary of the constraint domains [1].

From a procedural point of view, new design methods are required to improve the

trial designs systematically so that the optimum parameters are realized with an

acceptable expenditure of effort [6].

3. OPTIMIZATION COMBINATIONS

For transient response optimization, it is of special interest to see if we can reduce the

peak accelerations and/or displacements. The favorable combinations of elements to

Fig. 4. The tradeoff between the RMS of the absolute acceleration and the RMS of the relative

displacement.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 441

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

produce the minimax responses (although not truly optimum in a mathematical

sense), are near optimum within the range of parameters investigated.

For frequency response, ﬁrst we need to deﬁne the domain of the working

frequencies. Optimum stiffness and damping should work at any excitation frequency

from 0–20 Hz. Hence, the optimum passive damping and stiffness may be found by

using an averaged cost function in the frequency domain.

There are various approaches to optimization depending on the application. Hence

there is not a universally accepted method for every application. Optimization of

vibration isolation systems has been the subject of a vast attention among of

researchers in the past and present century [7, 8]. We summarize and compare

mathematically the more traditional methods in linear mount optimization. Then, we

introduce a new applied method.

Considerable attention has been given in the literature to the minimization of the

absolute displacement, known as the main transmissibility, but the choice of the cost

function is paramount, since it determines which isolation system is optimum. The

choice of constraints on the other hand, restricts the possibilities of candidate cost

function. The choice of both cost function and constraints are dependent on the

practical consideration. They can be expressed in terms of the design parameters of

the system. This will always be the case where the cost function and constraints are

the prescribed functions of the state variables, and related to the design parameters

through the equations of motion.

For our problem, the cost function may include any state variable such as the

absolute acceleration or relative displacement, which is related to the design

parameters x and o

n

, using Equation (1). Other constraints may manipulate design

parameters as prescribed by the upper and lower bounds on x and o

n

. The problem is

even more complex if we include an overall consideration of the system such as

weight, cost, maintainability, and reliability. If we optimize the system, it can always

be optimum from a mathematical point of view. Instead, the designer is obligated to

consider alternative isolation concepts, each optimized with respect to same cost

function or equivalent constrains. Then, on the basis of considerations that may not

explicitly enter the analysis, the designer decides which is best for the required

application.

For the system shown in Figure 1 it is generally desired to select x and o

n

such that

the absolute acceleration (or relative displacement) of the system is minimized and

the relative displacement (or the absolute acceleration) does not exceed a prescribed

level. An obvious solution is to set up a matrix of the admissible values of x and o

n

and solve the equation of motion [Equation (1)] for the isolated mass to determine

both the maximum acceleration and relative displacement. The maximum value of

important states of the system is checked to see if it satisﬁes the constraint. If it does,

the associated pair of (x, o

n

) is admissible. This procedure is repeated for all the

matrix pairs of (x, o

n

). Finally, the candidate pair that is the best is selected.

442 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Hereafter, when we discuss acceleration and displacement, we mean the averaged

value of them over a frequency range. As mentioned, we use the RMS as the average

over the frequency domain of 0–20 Hz. In order to calculate the RMS of the

acceleration and the relative displacement of the isolator, we calculate the RMS of

the functions a and l for any pair of x and o

n

. The integral of the square of a and l are

calculated as follows:

a

2

do ¼ Z

14

o þ

1

3

Z

15

o

3

þ

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

18

p

Z

16

Z

17

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

18

p þ

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

21

p

Z

19

Z

20

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

21

p ð6Þ

l

2

do ¼ Z

7

o À

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

10

p

Z

8

Z

9

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

10

p À

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

13

p

Z

11

Z

12

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

13

p ð7Þ

where the parameters Z

1

through Z

21

are introduced in the Appendix. Therefore, the

RMS of a and l would be:

R ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1

40p

40p

0

a

2

do

ð8Þ

Z ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1

40p

40p

0

l

2

do

ð9Þ

Figures 5 and 6 show the absolute acceleration versus x and o

n

, respectively. Relative

displacement is also shown in Figures 7 and 8. Note that the dashed lines in these

ﬁgures show how the maxima and minima change.

Time or frequency averaged statistics; such as acceleration RMS and deﬂection

RMS are often used in suspension design [9]. Following what we mentioned in

introduction, the most important deﬁned optimization methods applicable to our

system are as follows [10]:

1. Minimax Absolute Acceleration for Speciﬁed Relative Displacement:

Specify the allowable relative displacement, and then ﬁnd the minimax absolute

acceleration:

@R

@o

n

¼ 0

@R

@x

¼ 0 Z ¼ Z

0

ð10Þ

There is no guarantee to exist a unique and global absolute minimum for these

conditions. Speciﬁcally for our system, there is no solution for @R/@x ¼0 if

o

n

>12 Hz, and there is no solution for @R/@o

n

¼0 if o

n

<18 Hz; so there is no

common domain of solution.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 443

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

2. Minimax Relative Displacement for Speciﬁed Absolute Acceleration:

Specify the allowable absolute acceleration, and then ﬁnd the minimax relative

displacement:

@Z

@o

n

¼ 0

@Z

@x

¼ 0 R ¼ R

0

ð11Þ

For the system under consideration, there is no solution for @Z/@x ¼0 at all, and there

is no solution for @x/@o

n

¼0 if o

n

>18 Hz. The required condition R¼R

0

does not

match with @x/@o

n

¼0, and there is no optimal solution using these solutions.

3. Minimum Sum of Maximum Absolute Acceleration: Find the minimum sum

of maximum absolute acceleration, varying both the damping ratio and the natural

frequency:

@f

@o

n

¼ 0

@f

@x

¼ 0 ð12Þ

Fig. 5. The RMS absolute acceleration for a linear vibration isolator versus the damping ratio for various

natural frequencies.

444 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

where

f ¼

R

1

do

n

þ

R

2

dx

and

R

1

¼Extremum of R with respect to o

n

R

2

¼Extremum of R with respect to x

Because of different domain of solution for R

1

and R

2

, application of the Condition

(12) falls in the domain of solution for R

1

, which is related to less values of R. Hence,

there is no advantage in applying the Condition (12) for the linear mount system.

4. Minimum Sum of Maximum Absolute Acceleration and Maximum Relative

Displacement: Find the minimum sum of the maximum absolute acceleration and the

associated relative displacements having equal importance:

@f

@o

n

¼ 0

@f

@x

¼ 0 ð13Þ

Fig. 6. The RMS absolute acceleration for linear vibration isolator versus natural frequencies for various

damping ratios.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 445

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

where

f ¼

R

1

do

n

þ

R

2

dx þ

Z

1

do

n

þ

Z

2

dx

and

R

1

¼Extremum of R with respect to o

n

R

2

¼Maximum of R with respect to x

Z

1

¼Maximum of Z with respect to o

n

Z

2

¼Maximum of Z with respect to x

R

1

is a monotonically increasing curve starting at zero and approaches to one

asymptotically, and R

2

is a monotonically decreasing curve starting at inﬁnity for

x ¼0 and approaches to one asymptotically. There is no Z

1

, and Z

2

to be a

monotonically increasing curve starting at one for o

n

¼0 and approaches to inﬁnity

for x ¼0. It means there is no common domain of solutions for both conditions of

Equation (13).

Fig. 7. The RMS relative displacement for a linear vibration isolator versus damping ratio for various

natural frequencies.

446 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Although these methods were originally introduced for the simple frequency

responses illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 [10] without any special success, they can

also be applied for the RMS frequency responses depicted in Figures 5–8, as well.

Figures 5 and 6 show that there is no common point for the curves @R/@o

n

¼0

and @R/@x ¼0. Figures 7 and 8 also indicate that there is no solution for equation

@Z/@x ¼0, and no common point for the curves @Z/@o

n

¼0 and @Z/@x ¼0 could

be achieved.

If we choose a certain value for Z, the corresponding horizontal line in Figure 8

indicates a value for x on the curve @Z/@o

n

¼0. Now, a vertical line in Figure 5

associated to the value of x, indicates a value for o

n

at the intersection with the curve

@R/@x ¼0. Hence, a modiﬁed ﬁrst method works for RMS frequency response.

Using a modiﬁed second method, we ﬁnd an optimal value for o

n

at the

intersection of the horizontal line in Figure 5, indicating the speciﬁc value of the

acceleration with curve @R/@x ¼0. Then, at the intersection of the associated vertical

line in Figure 8 with curve @Z/@o

n

¼0, we introduce the optimum x. The result of the

third method is close to the results of ﬁrst method. Similarly, the result of the fourth

method is close to the average of ﬁrst and second methods. Although a modiﬁcation in

Fig. 8. The RMS relative displacement for linear vibration isolator versus natural frequencies for various

damping ratios.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 447

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Methods 1–4 reveals an optimal design in some sense, they require a restriction (as a

constraint equation) on the maximum acceleration or relative displacement. If the

constraint value is unknown, then we ﬁnd the optimum design on the boundary of the

physical domain for natural frequency and damping ratio.

4. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE

Our analyses show that we may deﬁne the acceleration R as a function of the relative

displacement Z, using o

n

and x as parameters. A plot of the absolute acceleration

against the relative displacement for the different design parameter pair (o

n

, x) results

in a four dimensional surface. It appears that the function R¼R(Z) has a minimum for

constant o

n

, and has a maximum for constant x. The points of minima introduce an

optimal curve on the R-Z plane that may be used for the optimization of the linear

vibration isolator. The sensitivity of acceleration with respect to relative displacement

is minimum at any point of the optimal curve. Now we deﬁne a new optimization

method.

5. Minimum RMS of Absolute Acceleration with respect to RMS of Relative

Displacement: Find the minimum absolute acceleration with respect to the relative

displacement. The result is an optimal curve on the R-Z plane. Select a desired value

Fig. 9. Illustration of the optimal curve on the surface g

2

, the acceleration RMS, R, for a linear mount, as a

function of relative displacement RMS, Z, and natural frequency o

n

.

448 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

for relative displacement as the traveling space (or the absolute acceleration), and ﬁnd

the associated values for x and o

n

at the intersection of the associated vertical

(horizontal) line with the optimal curve. Mathematically it is equivalent to the

following constrained minimization:

@R

@Z

¼ 0

@

2

R

@Z

2

> 0 ð14Þ

The RMS of the absolute acceleration R and the RMS of the relative displacement Z

are functions of two variables o

n

and x as indicated in Equations (6) through (9):

R ¼ h

1

ðo

n

; xÞ ð15Þ

Z ¼ h

2

ðo

n

; xÞ: ð16Þ

Hence, a pair of (o

n

, x), uniquely determines R and Z. Theoretically, we may change

the variables to deﬁne anyone of these four parameters R, Z, x, and o

n

as a function of

Fig. 10. Contour curves for the function R¼R(Z, x).

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 449

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

the other two parameters. Consequently R, can be considered as a surface in (Z, o

n

)

space and (Z, x) as:

R ¼ g

1

ðZ; xÞ ð17Þ

R ¼ g

2

ðZ; o

n

Þ ð18Þ

The functions h

1

, and h

2

, or g

1

, and g

2

determine the dynamical behavior of the

system. There is no extremum on the functions h

1

, h

2

, g

1

, and g

2

, but we may ﬁnd a

curve on the surface g

2

, passing through the minimum of intersection of g

2

, and the

planes indicated by o

n

. We deﬁne this space curve, the optimal curve. The optimal

curve is shown in Figure 9, which depicts a relationship between o

n

and x that makes

R minimum with respect to Z, when o

n

is given. More speciﬁcally, for any speciﬁc

value of o

n

there is a solution for @g

2

/@Z¼0 that @

2

g

2

/@Z

2

>0.

If in Figure 9, ^ee

Z

; ^ee

o

n

; ^ee

R

are the unit vectors along the axes Z, o

n

, and R,

respectively, and rg

2

is the gradient of the surface g

2

, then the optimal curve is

deﬁned by:

rg

2

Á ^ee

Z

¼ 0 ð19Þ

Fig. 11. Contour curves for the function R¼R(Z, f

n

).

450 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Fig. 12a. Contour curves for the function R¼R(Z).

Fig. 12b. Contour curves x for the function R¼R(Z) when Z approaches zero.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 451

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

and shows that the gradient of g

2

has no component on Z axes. On the optimal curve,

R is just a variable of o

n

, and is not sensitive to small changes in Z. Since Z is a

measure of working space, this property is much important in physical working

conditions. Now, using the optimal curve we make R a one variable function, with this

information that it is the minimum value available for a given relative displacement

RMS, Z.

Figure 10 shows a two-dimensional illustration of contour curves of the surface

R¼R(Z, x) and Figure 11 shows the contour curves of the surface R¼R(Z, f

n

). It is

seen that there is a minimum in Figure 10 for some domains of the natural frequency,

and there is a maximum in Figure 11 for some domains of the damping ratio. Figure

12(a) portrays the overlapping plots of Figures 10 and 11. The limit point (1, 0)

indicates a soft suspension, corresponding to the disconnection case of k ¼0 and

c ¼0. The other limit approaches the point (0, 7000) until Z¼0.1, indicates the other

extreme case, a hard mount. Hard mount refers to the rigid connection k ¼1 and

c ¼1. The behavior of R¼R(Z) when Z approaches zero, is more complicated.

Figure 12(b) shows the behavior of R¼R(Z) when Z approaches zero.

The line of minima is the desired optimum curve that satisﬁes the condition in

Equation (14). It shows that at optimum conditions, increasing the natural

Fig. 13. The line of the optimum design for a base excited linear passive vibration isolator in the R-Z plane.

452 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

frequency should be followed by increasing the damping ratio, and vise versa. The

level of acceleration for the optimum mount always lies below the level of

acceleration for the hard mount, which is desirable. Its level of relative

displacement may be less or greater than a soft mount. Although, the level of R

changes very little for 0 <Z<1, it changes faster for Z>1. In other words, at high

natural frequencies, the optimum RMS acceleration becomes insensitive to the

value of damping. If we know the limit value of the RMS of the relative

displacement (or acceleration), then the intersection of the corresponding vertical

(horizontal) line with the line of optimum indicates the optimum value of x, f

n

, and

the corresponding level of acceleration (relative displacement). Figure 13 illustrates

a better view of the optimal domain of Figure 12. We have re-plotted Figure 12 in

Figure 14 using x and f

n

as Cartesian coordinates, and R and Z as parameters for

the contour curves. The corresponding line of optimum is also illustrated. It may

now be easier to pinpoint the values of R and Z for the parameters of a given

mount. It is obvious that there is no optimum mount out of the region 0 <Z<1.48,

and 0 <R<7000.

Fig. 14. The line of the optimum design for a base excited linear passive vibration isolator in the xÀf

n

,

plane.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 453

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

5. OPTIMIZATION EXAMPLE

Veriﬁcation of the optimization result could be examined by studying the behavior of

the system for the optimal parameters. Let us start with an odd mount, from the

possible optimum domain. The nominal parameter values of the mount are:

m ¼ 340:5 kg c ¼ 10215 Ns=m k ¼ 3:405 MN=m

The dimensionless parameters of the mount, designated by number 1 in Figure 12,

are:

f

n

¼ 10 Hz x ¼ 0:15

Figure 12 shows that it is possible to reduce the RMS of the transmitted acceleration

of the mount by lowering f

n

or increasing x. Figures 7 and 8 indicate that for the

nominal values of x and f

n

, the RMS of relative displacement of the mount is very

high. Figures A1 and A2 in Appendix A show that the RMS of absolute displacement

of the mount is also very high at the nominal values.

Fig. 15. The acceleration frequency response for systems 1, 2 and 3.

454 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Depending on the capability of the system and the physical situation, we ﬁnd

points 2 or 3 by increasing x or decreasing f

n

. The parameter of the optimum mount

at point 2 and 3 are:

f

n

¼ 10 Hz x ¼ 0:4

and

f

n

¼ 4:9 Hz x ¼ 0:15

respectively. The acceleration and relative displacement frequency responses for

point 1 through 3 are plotted in Figures 15 and 16. Figure 15 shows that the system has

better overall acceleration frequency response performance at point 3; Figure 16

shows that the system 2 has better relative displacement frequency response.

In order to compare the system at points 1, 2 and 3, we observe the behavior of the

system for a transient time input, a white noise random input, and a measured

experimental random input.

Fig. 16. The relative displacement frequency response for systems 1, 2 and 3.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 455

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Fig. 17. A base excitation proﬁle for a sine square bump transient displacement input.

Fig. 18. The relative displacement time response to a sine square bump input, for three systems.

456 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

5.1. Transient Input

The analysis of the time response is a good measure for comparing the mount

parameters in order to ﬁnd the effect of the frequency optimized parameters on the

transient response. We apply a sine square bump input as shown in Figure 17. The

time response performance of the system at points 1, 2, and 3 to the sine square bump

input is shown in Figures 18 and 19.

System 3 has a lower relative displacement peak value (see Fig. 18), and a lower

absolute acceleration peak value (see Fig. 19), but it takes more time to settle down.

5.2. White Noise Random Input

The performance of the isolator for a unity white noise base excitation has also been

studied, (see Figs. 20 and 21). Figure 20 shows the power spectral density of the

isolator acceleration for points 1 through 3. According to this ﬁgure, system 3 has

the best response to a white noise. Figure 21 shows the power spectral density of the

isolator relative displacement for the points of concern. In this case, system 2 has a

superior behavior. The performance of systems 2 and 3 are more compatible with the

Fig. 19. The transmitted force for a sine square bump input, for three systems.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 457

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

predicted behavior indicated in the Figure 12. We expect that system 2 to will have a

better relative displacement characteristics, and system 3 have a better acceleration

behavior.

5.3. Experimental Random Input

A measured acceleration input, shown in Figure 22, is used as the input to the model.

This acceleration corresponds to the front cab mount input for a typically heavy truck.

To analyze our measured data we use the SAE Recommended Practice for

measurement and presentation of truck ride vibration [11]. This standard details a

uniform method for measurements of ride vibration of Class 7 and 8 commercial

vehicles, including both combination vehicles and straight trucks. It presents several

utilized methods analyzing the measured accelerations, such as g(rms), weighted

g(rms), 1/3 Octave Peak g(rms), and ISO 1/3 Octave Peak.

According to [9], since the ride vibrations are limited, between 1 to 25 Hz range, all

measured data is analyzed within this pass-band. Hence, the square root of the mean

square value of the ride vibration data is frequency weighted by factors described in

Table 1. This frequency weighted ride vibration data is called the SAE Weighted

g(rms).

Fig. 20. The acceleration PSD for a unity white noise for systems 1, 2, and 3.

458 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Figure 23 represents the SAE weighted acceleration response of the mount for

points 1, 2, and 3. The system at points 2 and 3 have a better response, but the behavior

of the mount for the system 3 appears to be the best.

6. TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS

Time domain analysis is important for studying the transient characteristics of the

system. In the present section the transient response of the system for a unit step input

is considered. Using the analytical solution describing the dynamics to a step input,

the maximum acceleration values are obtained and then minimized.

The response of the mass m to a unit step input has a well-known solution:

xðtÞ ¼ 1 À

1

2

A

ib

expðÀAo

n

tÞ þ

1

2

AA

ib

expðÀ

AAo

n

tÞ ð20Þ

where the traditional notations are used:

a ¼ x b ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

A ¼ a þib

AA ¼ a Àib ð21Þ

Fig. 21. The relative displacement PSD for a unity white noise for systems 1, 2, and 3.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 459

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

The corresponding acceleration obtained from Equation (21) is as follows:

€xxðtÞ ¼ À

1

2

A

3

o

2

n

ib

expðÀAo

n

tÞ þ

1

2

AA

3

o

2

n

ib

expðÀ

AAo

n

tÞ ð22Þ

The peak value of the relative displacement is:

x

p

¼ exp

Àxcos

À1

ð2x

2

À1Þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

ð23Þ

Fig. 22. The measured front cab mount acceleration input.

Table 1. The g(rms) spectrum weighted factors [8].

Frequency Vertical

1.0–4.0 Hz

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

f /4

p

4.0–8.0 Hz 1.0

8.0–25.0 Hz 8/f

460 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

which occurs when _ xxðtÞ ¼ 0 at time:

t

1

¼

cos

À1

ð2x

2

À1Þ

o

n

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

ð24Þ

The peak value of the absolute acceleration is therefore:

a

p

¼ o

2

n

exp

Àx

2cos

À1

ð2x

2

À1Þ Àp

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

ð25Þ

which occurs at beginning of the excitation, t ¼0 or at the time instant when €xxðtÞ ¼ 0

at time:

t

2

¼

2cos

À1

ð2x

2

À1Þ Àp

o

n

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

ð26Þ

Figure 24 is a plot of the peak values of acceleration to a step input versus the peak

values of the relative displacement for different natural frequency and damping ratio

Fig. 23. The SDOF isolator response to the truck input for three different parameters.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 461

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

values (note: o

n

¼2pf

n

). From Equations (23) and (25) it is observed that, these peak

values depend on the natural frequency o

n

and the damping ratio x of the mount.

The optimal damping ratio may next be obtained upon minimization of the

equation resulting from substitution of Equation (26) into (25). This optimal value

x ¼0.4 is obtained by solving the following transcendental equation:

2xcos

À1

ð2x

2

À1Þ Àp À4x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 Àx

2

¼ 0 ð27Þ

From Equation (27) it is interesting to note that the minimum peak value of the

absolute acceleration with respect to relative displacement is independent of the value

of natural frequency o

n

[rad/s] or f

n

[Hz].

This value of damping suggests that the point (x ¼0.4, f

n

¼10) on the optimal

curve in Figure 13, as the time-frequency optimal damping ratio and natural

frequency values for the linear isolator under base excitation.

7. CONCLUSION

Mathematically, the result of an optimal design of a system depends on the deﬁnition

of the cost function and the performance index. There is no universally accepted cost

Fig. 24. The peak value of absolute acceleration with respect to peak value of relative displacement.

462 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

function for isolation of mechanical vibration systems even for a simple linear base

excited one DOF vibration isolator.

In this paper we have found formulas for the RMS of the acceleration and relative

displacement. We further have shown analytically that the tradeoff between the

absolute acceleration and the relative displacement also applies to the RMS values.

The optimal natural frequency and damping ratio values of the mount lie on a curve

connecting the minimum of RMS absolute acceleration with respect to the RMS

relative displacement. This optimum curve demonstrates that the physical parameter

optimal values do not lie on the boundaries of constraints, and depicts that there is a

relation between damping ratio and natural frequency for optimal isolation.

Finally we have shown that the time response analysis of the system to step input

may be used to identify a speciﬁc point of the above mentioned optimal curve, as both

time and frequency optimum. This optimal mount parameter values are examined

numerically and using actual road experimental data.

REFERENCES

1. Hariss, C.H.: Shock and Vibration Handbook. McGraw Hill, New York, 1996.

2. Den Hartog, J.P.: Mechanical Vibrations. 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1956.

3. Sykes, A.O.: Isolation Provided by Vibration Mounts. SAE Transaction 66, 1958, pp. 532–548.

4. Ashraﬁuon, H. and Nataraj, C.: Dynamic Analysis of Engine Mount Systems. J. Vib. Acoustic 114

(1992), pp. 79–83.

5. Snowden, J.C.: Vibration Isolation: Use and Characterization. J. Accos. Soc. Amer. 66(5) (1979),

pp. 1245–1274.

6. Sevin, E. and Pilkey, W.D.: Optimization of Shock Isolation System. SAE Paper No. 680749, 1968.

7. Nelson, F.C.: Vibration Isolation: A Review, I. Sinusoidal and Random Excitations. Shock and

Vibration 1(5) (1994), pp. 485–493.

8. Nakhaie Jazar, G. and Golnaraghi, M.F.: Engine Mounts for Automotive Applications: A Survey. The

Shock and Vibration Digest 34 (2002), pp. 363–379.

9. Chalasani, R.M.: Ride Performance Potential of Active Suspension Systems. Part I: Simpliﬁed

Analysis Based on Quarter-Car Models. ASME Symposium on Simulation of Ground Vehicles and

Transport Systems, ASME, Anaheim, CA, 1986.

10. Kemper, J.D. and Ayre, R.S.: Optimum Damping and Stiffness in a Nonlinear Four-Degree-of-

Freedom System Subject to Shock Load. J. Appl. Mech. 38 (1971), pp. 135–142.

11. Report of the Truck and Bus Cab Occupant and Environment Committee: Measurement and

Presentation of Truck Ride Vibrations. SAE Recommendation Practice 34 J1490 JAN 87, 1987,

pp. 319–330.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 463

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

APPENDIX

Integral of the Transfer Functions

The transfer functions g, l, a, for the vibration isolator are presented in Equations (3)

to (5). In order to use their RMS values in optimization methods, we need to ﬁnd the

integral of their square function. Their integrals are as follows:

g

2

do ¼

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

3

p

Z

1

Z

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

3

p þ

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

6

p

Z

4

Z

5

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

6

p ðA1Þ

l

2

do ¼ Z

7

o À

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

10

p

Z

8

Z

9

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

10

p À

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

13

p

Z

11

Z

12

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

13

p ðA2Þ

a

2

do ¼ Z

14

o þ

1

3

Z

15

o

3

þ

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

18

p

Z

16

Z

17

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

18

p þ

tan

À1

o

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

21

p

Z

19

Z

20

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Z

21

p ðA3Þ

where the parameters Z

1

to Z

21

are denoted in Equations (A4) to (A24).

Z

1

¼ o

2

n

À8x

6

þ8x

4

þð8x

4

À4x

2

À1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA4Þ

Z

2

¼ 4x

2

ðx

2

À1Þ ðA5Þ

Z

3

¼ o

2

n

ð1 À2x

2

Þ þ2o

2

n

x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

x

2

À1

ðA6Þ

Z

4

¼ o

2

n

8x

6

À8x

4

þð8x

4

À4x

2

À1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA7Þ

Z

5

¼ Z

2

¼ 4x

2

ðx

2

À1Þ ðA8Þ

Z

6

¼ Ào

2

n

ð1 À2x

2

Þ þ2o

2

n

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

x

2

ðx

2

À1Þ

ðA9Þ

Z

7

¼ 1 ðA10Þ

Z

8

¼ o

2

n

8x

6

À12x

4

þ4x

2

þðÀ8x

4

þ8x

2

À1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA11Þ

Z

9

¼ 4x

2

ðÀ1 þx

2

Þ ðA12Þ

464 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Z

10

¼ o

2

n

À1 þ2x

2

À2x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA13Þ

Z

11

¼ o

2

n

8x

6

À12x

4

þ4x

2

þð8x

4

À8x

2

þ1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA14Þ

Z

12

¼ 4x

2

ðÀ1 þx

2

ðA15Þ

Z

13

¼ o

2

n

À1 þ2x

2

þ2x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA16Þ

Z

14

¼ o

4

n

ð1 þ8x

2

À16x

4

Þ ðA17Þ

Z

15

¼ 4o

2

n

x

2

ðA18Þ

Z

16

¼ o

6

n

128x

10

À256x

8

þ144x

6

À12x

4

À4x

2

þðÀ128x

8

þ192x

6

À64x

4

À4x

2

þ1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA19Þ

Fig. A1. A two-dimensional illustration of the absolute displacement RMS for linear vibration isolator

versus damping ratio for different natural frequencies.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 465

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Z

17

¼ 4x

2

ðÀ1 þx

2

Þ ðA20Þ

Z

18

¼ o

2

n

À1 þ2x

2

À2x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA21Þ

Z

19

¼ o

6

n

128x

10

À256x

8

þ144x

6

À12x

4

À4x

2

þð128x

8

À192x

6

þ64x

4

þ4x

2

À1Þx

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA22Þ

Z

20

¼ 4x

2

ðÀ1 þx

2

Þ ðA23Þ

Z

21

¼ o

2

n

À1 þ2x

2

þ2x

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

À1 þx

2

ðA24Þ

A graphical representation of the absolute acceleration RMS and relative dis-

placement RMS is shown in Figures 5–8. Here we plot the absolute displacement

RMS in Figures A1 and A2.

Fig. A2. A two-dimensional illustration of the absolute displacement RMS for the linear vibration the

isolator versus natural frequencies for different damping ratios.

466 G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

D

o

w

n

l

o

a

d

e

d

B

y

:

[

C

a

n

a

d

i

a

n

R

e

s

e

a

r

c

h

K

n

o

w

l

e

d

g

e

N

e

t

w

o

r

k

]

A

t

:

1

8

:

4

1

2

3

J

u

n

e

2

0

1

0

Vehicle System Dynamics 2003, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 437–466

0042-3114/03/3906-437$16.00 # Swets & Zeitlinger

**Practical Frequency and Time Optimal Design of Passive Linear Vibration Isolation Mounts
**

G. NAKHAIE JAZAR1, A. NARIMANI2, M.F. GOLNARAGHI2,3 AND D.A. SWANSON4

Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010

SUMMARY

In this paper we examine a linear one-degree of freedom vibration isolator mount. The linearity of the system allows us to analyze its frequency and time response characteristics analytically. Optimal damping and stiffness values for the isolator are obtained by minimizing certain cost functions, which are the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the absolute acceleration and the relative displacement. These RMS cost functions are used to create a design chart for the isolator parameters. This is very useful particularly in the presence of physical constraints such as a limit in relative displacement. The time response of the system for a unit step input is also considered to gain an insight into the transient characteristics of the system. We obtain an optimal value for the damping ratio of the system in order to minimize the transmitted acceleration. Combining the frequency and time response analyses leads to an optimal value for the mount natural frequency and damping ratio satisfying both time and frequency domains. The results are veriﬁed numerically using measured acceleration as input.

NOMENCLATURE € a ¼ jX /Yj c f f n ¼ on 2p pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ i ¼ À1 k m

1

mass absolute acceleration linear damping cost function natural frequency [Hz] imaginary unit linear stiffness mass of engine

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, U.S.A. Tel.: þ1 701 231 8303; Fax: þ1 701 231 8913; E-mail: Reza.N.Jazar@ndsu.nodak.edu 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L 3G1. Fax: þ1 519 888 6197. 3 Address correspondence to: Professor M.F. Golnaraghi, Canada Research Chair, Intelligent Mechatronics and Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel.: (519) 888 4567 (x4753); Fax: (519) 888 6197; E-mail: mfgolnar@uwaterloo.ca 4 Applications Development, Lord Corporation, Cary, NC, U.S.A.

438 r ¼ o/on R t x xr ¼ x À y X y Y g ¼ jX/Yj Z l ¼ j(X À Y)/Yj c x ¼ 2pﬃﬃﬃﬃ km pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ on ¼ k/m

G. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.

Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010

excitation frequency ratio absolute acceleration RMS of mount time mass displacement [m] mass-base relative displacement [m] displacement amplitude base displacement base harmonic displacement excitation amplitude [m] mass transmissibility relative displacement RMS of mount mass relative displacement transmissibility damping ratio natural frequency [rad/s] 1. INTRODUCTION

The function of an isolator is to reduce the magnitude of motion transmitted from a vibrating foundation to the equipment, or to reduce the magnitude of force transmitted from the equipment to its foundation, both in time and frequency domain [1]. In this paper, ﬁrst we show that the optimization based on frequency analysis can result a good behavior to a white noise and measured acceleration input. Second, we study the behavior of the system in time domain for a unit step input and optimize its response by reducing the peak value of the acceleration. To do this, we deﬁne a new method using the absolute acceleration and the relative displacement, and then we create a design chart to select the optimum natural frequency on and damping ratio x. In the simplest approach to the problem, as depicted in Figure 1 the parameters m, k, and c are considered constant and independent of the excitation frequency or behavior of

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of a base excited vibrating system, with a linear mount.

. foundation structures are neither inﬁnitely stiff nor massive and a wave effect occurs in the mounts [4]. Moreover engines cannot be assumed a rigid body at high frequencies. Also.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 439 the foundation. relative displacement l and absolute acceleration a. and the stiffness coefﬁcient increases with frequency [3]. The nondimensionalized equation of motion for the system is: €r þ 2xon xr þ o2 xr ¼ Yo2 sin ðotÞ _ x n Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 ð1Þ where the parameters of equation are related to the physical parameters of the system by: rﬃﬃﬃﬃ c k xr ¼ x À y ð2Þ x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ on ¼ ¼ 2pfn m 2 km The most important transfer functions for the system are: absolute displacement g. This assumption is equivalent to consider the foundation inﬁnitely stiff and massive [2]. we know that for rubber mounts. the damping coefﬁcient usually decreases. 2 and 3) qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 þ ð2xrÞ2 X ﬃ g ¼ ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð3Þ Y ð1 À r 2 Þ2 þ ð2xrÞ2 Fig. The governing equation of a linear isolator with harmonic base excitation can be found in mechanical vibration texts such as Den Hartog’s [5]. Even though. These transfer functions are deﬁned as follow assuming r ¼ o/on (see Figs. 2. The frequency response for the relative displacement of linear one DOF base excited system.

3. A vibration isolator reduces absolute acceleration by permitting deﬂection of the isolator [5]. The relative deﬂection is a measure of the clearance known as working space in the isolator. Figure 4 illustrates this tradeoff.440 G. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM The reduction of the absolute acceleration since it represents the transmitted force is the most important goal in optimization of suspensions. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. which we want to achieve for optimal isolation. There is a tradeoff between the acceleration and relative motion. The clearance should be minimized due to the physical constraints in the mechanical design. X À Y r2 ﬃ l¼ Y ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð1 À r 2 Þ2 þ ð2xrÞ2 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ € o2 1 þ ð2xrÞ2 X ﬃ a ¼ ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Y ð1 À r 2 Þ2 þ ð2xrÞ2 ð4Þ ð5Þ 2. The ratio of the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the absolute acceleration to the RMS of the relative . NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. The frequency response for the absolute acceleration of linear one DOF base excited system.

keeping the acceleration RMS constant then the relative displacement RMS will decrease by increasing on and x. OPTIMIZATION COMBINATIONS For transient response optimization. along with considering Figures 2 and 3 shows on ¼ 0 and x ¼ 0 is the trivial solution which is not practical.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 441 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. it is of special interest to see if we can reduce the peak accelerations and/or displacements. The favorable combinations of elements to . displacement is a monotonically increasing function of on and x. the acceleration RMS and relative displacement RMS have opposite behaviors. 3. new design methods are required to improve the trial designs systematically so that the optimum parameters are realized with an acceptable expenditure of effort [6]. To avoid this difﬁculty we need to deﬁne a constraint objective function. This behavior. but for most of the introduced constrained objective functions the optimum design lies on the boundary of the constraint domains [1]. The tradeoff between the RMS of the absolute acceleration and the RMS of the relative displacement. 4. From a procedural point of view. Figure 4 shows keeping the relative displacement RMS constant then the acceleration RMS will increase by increasing both on and x. Hence. However.

The choice of both cost function and constraints are dependent on the practical consideration. the associated pair of (x. Then. cost. we introduce a new applied method. each optimized with respect to same cost function or equivalent constrains. the designer decides which is best for the required application. using Equation (1). Instead. but the choice of the cost function is paramount. are near optimum within the range of parameters investigated. Other constraints may manipulate design parameters as prescribed by the upper and lower bounds on x and on. They can be expressed in terms of the design parameters of the system. The choice of constraints on the other hand. This procedure is repeated for all the matrix pairs of (x. This will always be the case where the cost function and constraints are the prescribed functions of the state variables. For our problem. it can always be optimum from a mathematical point of view. produce the minimax responses (although not truly optimum in a mathematical sense). on). For the system shown in Figure 1 it is generally desired to select x and on such that the absolute acceleration (or relative displacement) of the system is minimized and the relative displacement (or the absolute acceleration) does not exceed a prescribed level. Hence. If we optimize the system. the optimum passive damping and stiffness may be found by using an averaged cost function in the frequency domain. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 . maintainability. the cost function may include any state variable such as the absolute acceleration or relative displacement. which is related to the design parameters x and on. There are various approaches to optimization depending on the application. Optimum stiffness and damping should work at any excitation frequency from 0–20 Hz. on) is admissible. Considerable attention has been given in the literature to the minimization of the absolute displacement.442 G. Hence there is not a universally accepted method for every application. The maximum value of important states of the system is checked to see if it satisﬁes the constraint. If it does. Then. The problem is even more complex if we include an overall consideration of the system such as weight. on the basis of considerations that may not explicitly enter the analysis. and reliability. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. Finally. 8]. For frequency response. the designer is obligated to consider alternative isolation concepts. known as the main transmissibility. the candidate pair that is the best is selected. Optimization of vibration isolation systems has been the subject of a vast attention among of researchers in the past and present century [7. ﬁrst we need to deﬁne the domain of the working frequencies. We summarize and compare mathematically the more traditional methods in linear mount optimization. and related to the design parameters through the equations of motion. restricts the possibilities of candidate cost function. since it determines which isolation system is optimum. An obvious solution is to set up a matrix of the admissible values of x and on and solve the equation of motion [Equation (1)] for the isolated mass to determine both the maximum acceleration and relative displacement.

we mean the averaged value of them over a frequency range. Time or frequency averaged statistics. Relative displacement is also shown in Figures 7 and 8. so there is no common domain of solution. As mentioned. Minimax Absolute Acceleration for Speciﬁed Relative Displacement: Specify the allowable relative displacement. the most important deﬁned optimization methods applicable to our system are as follows [10]: 1. In order to calculate the RMS of the acceleration and the relative displacement of the isolator. respectively. such as acceleration RMS and deﬂection RMS are often used in suspension design [9]. The integral of the square of a and l are calculated as follows: Z ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ tanÀ1 po Z16 tanÀ1 po Z19 1 Z18 Z21 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a2 do ¼ Z14 o þ Z15 o3 þ þ ð6Þ 3 Z17 Z18 Z20 Z21 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Z l2 do ¼ Z7 o À tanÀ1 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z8 tanÀ1 po Z11 Z13 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ À Z9 Z10 Z12 Z13 po ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z10 ð7Þ where the parameters Z1 through Z21 are introduced in the Appendix. Following what we mentioned in introduction. Speciﬁcally for our system. we calculate the RMS of the functions a and l for any pair of x and on. the RMS of a and l would be: sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z 40p 1 R¼ a2 do ð8Þ 40p 0 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z 40p 1 l2 do Z¼ 40p 0 ð9Þ Figures 5 and 6 show the absolute acceleration versus x and on. there is no solution for @R/@x ¼ 0 if on > 12 Hz. . and then ﬁnd the minimax absolute acceleration: @R ¼0 @on @R ¼0 @x Z ¼ Z0 ð10Þ There is no guarantee to exist a unique and global absolute minimum for these conditions. we use the RMS as the average over the frequency domain of 0–20 Hz. Therefore. Note that the dashed lines in these ﬁgures show how the maxima and minima change.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 443 Hereafter. when we discuss acceleration and displacement. and there is no solution for @R/@on ¼ 0 if on < 18 Hz.

The required condition R ¼ R0 does not match with @x/@on ¼ 0.444 G. and there is no solution for @x/@on ¼ 0 if on > 18 Hz. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. 2. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. Minimax Relative Displacement for Speciﬁed Absolute Acceleration: Specify the allowable absolute acceleration. and then ﬁnd the minimax relative displacement: @Z ¼0 @on @Z ¼0 @x R ¼ R0 ð11Þ For the system under consideration. The RMS absolute acceleration for a linear vibration isolator versus the damping ratio for various natural frequencies. 3. there is no solution for @Z/@x ¼ 0 at all. varying both the damping ratio and the natural frequency: @f ¼0 @on @f ¼0 @x ð12Þ . Minimum Sum of Maximum Absolute Acceleration: Find the minimum sum of maximum absolute acceleration. and there is no optimal solution using these solutions. 5.

DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 445 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. 6. The RMS absolute acceleration for linear vibration isolator versus natural frequencies for various damping ratios. where f ¼ and Z R1 don þ Z R2 dx R1 ¼ Extremum of R with respect to on R2 ¼ Extremum of R with respect to x Because of different domain of solution for R1 and R2. there is no advantage in applying the Condition (12) for the linear mount system. 4. Minimum Sum of Maximum Absolute Acceleration and Maximum Relative Displacement: Find the minimum sum of the maximum absolute acceleration and the associated relative displacements having equal importance: @f ¼0 @on @f ¼0 @x ð13Þ . which is related to less values of R. Hence. application of the Condition (12) falls in the domain of solution for R1.

Z R1 don þ Z R2 dx þ Z Z1 don þ Z Z2 dx . Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. and R2 is a monotonically decreasing curve starting at inﬁnity for x ¼ 0 and approaches to one asymptotically.446 G. It means there is no common domain of solutions for both conditions of Equation (13). and Z2 to be a monotonically increasing curve starting at one for on ¼ 0 and approaches to inﬁnity for x ¼ 0. There is no Z1. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. The RMS relative displacement for a linear vibration isolator versus damping ratio for various natural frequencies. where f ¼ and R1 ¼ Extremum of R with respect to on R2 ¼ Maximum of R with respect to x Z1 ¼ Maximum of Z with respect to on Z2 ¼ Maximum of Z with respect to x R1 is a monotonically increasing curve starting at zero and approaches to one asymptotically. 7.

The result of the third method is close to the results of ﬁrst method. Hence. a vertical line in Figure 5 associated to the value of x. we introduce the optimum x. Then. Figures 5 and 6 show that there is no common point for the curves @R/@on ¼ 0 and @R/@x ¼ 0. and no common point for the curves @Z/@on ¼ 0 and @Z/@x ¼ 0 could be achieved. Although a modiﬁcation in . we ﬁnd an optimal value for on at the intersection of the horizontal line in Figure 5. they can also be applied for the RMS frequency responses depicted in Figures 5–8. Now. indicates a value for on at the intersection with the curve @R/@x ¼ 0. Although these methods were originally introduced for the simple frequency responses illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 [10] without any special success. Using a modiﬁed second method. If we choose a certain value for Z. the corresponding horizontal line in Figure 8 indicates a value for x on the curve @Z/@on ¼ 0. indicating the speciﬁc value of the acceleration with curve @R/@x ¼ 0. Similarly. The RMS relative displacement for linear vibration isolator versus natural frequencies for various damping ratios.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 447 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. at the intersection of the associated vertical line in Figure 8 with curve @Z/@on ¼ 0. Figures 7 and 8 also indicate that there is no solution for equation @Z/@x ¼ 0. the result of the fourth method is close to the average of ﬁrst and second methods. as well. a modiﬁed ﬁrst method works for RMS frequency response. 8.

The result is an optimal curve on the R-Z plane. Illustration of the optimal curve on the surface g2. for a linear mount. using on and x as parameters. The points of minima introduce an optimal curve on the R-Z plane that may be used for the optimization of the linear vibration isolator. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. If the constraint value is unknown. 9.448 G. R. Methods 1–4 reveals an optimal design in some sense. then we ﬁnd the optimum design on the boundary of the physical domain for natural frequency and damping ratio. 5. 4. they require a restriction (as a constraint equation) on the maximum acceleration or relative displacement. The sensitivity of acceleration with respect to relative displacement is minimum at any point of the optimal curve. and has a maximum for constant x. A plot of the absolute acceleration against the relative displacement for the different design parameter pair (on. Minimum RMS of Absolute Acceleration with respect to RMS of Relative Displacement: Find the minimum absolute acceleration with respect to the relative displacement. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE Our analyses show that we may deﬁne the acceleration R as a function of the relative displacement Z. Now we deﬁne a new optimization method. x) results in a four dimensional surface. Z. Select a desired value Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. and natural frequency on. the acceleration RMS. as a function of relative displacement RMS. . It appears that the function R ¼ R(Z) has a minimum for constant on.

x).DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 449 for relative displacement as the traveling space (or the absolute acceleration). xÞ Z ¼ h2 ðon . x). . Mathematically it is equivalent to the following constrained minimization: @R ¼0 @Z @2R >0 @Z2 ð14Þ The RMS of the absolute acceleration R and the RMS of the relative displacement Z are functions of two variables on and x as indicated in Equations (6) through (9): Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 R ¼ h1 ðon . Contour curves for the function R ¼ R(Z. 10. uniquely determines R and Z. Theoretically. and on as a function of Fig. and ﬁnd the associated values for x and on at the intersection of the associated vertical (horizontal) line with the optimal curve. x. a pair of (on. Z. we may change the variables to deﬁne anyone of these four parameters R. xÞ: ð15Þ ð16Þ Hence.

. and the planes indicated by on. and g2. x) as: R ¼ g1 ðZ. and g2 determine the dynamical behavior of the system. xÞ R ¼ g2 ðZ. ^R are the unit vectors along the axes Z. h2. on) space and (Z. ^on . NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. and rg2 is the gradient of the surface g2. e e e respectively. More speciﬁcally. ^Z . for any speciﬁc value of on there is a solution for @g2/@Z ¼ 0 that @ 2g2/@Z2 > 0. on. which depicts a relationship between on and x that makes R minimum with respect to Z. fn). If in Figure 9. and h2. The optimal curve is shown in Figure 9. or g1. the other two parameters. g1. Consequently R. then the optimal curve is deﬁned by: rg2 Á ^Z ¼ 0 e ð19Þ Fig. on Þ ð17Þ ð18Þ Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 The functions h1. We deﬁne this space curve. There is no extremum on the functions h1. but we may ﬁnd a curve on the surface g2. the optimal curve. 11. Contour curves for the function R ¼ R(Z. can be considered as a surface in (Z. passing through the minimum of intersection of g2. and R.450 G. when on is given.

Contour curves for the function R ¼ R(Z). Contour curves x for the function R ¼ R(Z) when Z approaches zero. Fig. 12b. .DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 451 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. 12a.

. and is not sensitive to small changes in Z. using the optimal curve we make R a one variable function. 13. Figure 10 shows a two-dimensional illustration of contour curves of the surface R ¼ R(Z. fn).1. indicates the other extreme case. Figure 12(a) portrays the overlapping plots of Figures 10 and 11. and there is a maximum in Figure 11 for some domains of the damping ratio. The limit point (1. with this information that it is the minimum value available for a given relative displacement RMS. Z. It shows that at optimum conditions. The line of the optimum design for a base excited linear passive vibration isolator in the R-Z plane. 0) indicates a soft suspension. Now. corresponding to the disconnection case of k ¼ 0 and c ¼ 0. is more complicated. The other limit approaches the point (0. The behavior of R ¼ R(Z) when Z approaches zero. Figure 12(b) shows the behavior of R ¼ R(Z) when Z approaches zero. Hard mount refers to the rigid connection k ¼ 1 and c ¼ 1. x) and Figure 11 shows the contour curves of the surface R ¼ R(Z. this property is much important in physical working conditions. It is seen that there is a minimum in Figure 10 for some domains of the natural frequency. 7000) until Z ¼ 0. R is just a variable of on. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. increasing the natural Fig. a hard mount. On the optimal curve. The line of minima is the desired optimum curve that satisﬁes the condition in Equation (14). Since Z is a measure of working space.452 G. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 and shows that the gradient of g2 has no component on Z axes.

at high natural frequencies. then the intersection of the corresponding vertical (horizontal) line with the line of optimum indicates the optimum value of x. .DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 453 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 frequency should be followed by increasing the damping ratio. and the corresponding level of acceleration (relative displacement). Its level of relative displacement may be less or greater than a soft mount. The line of the optimum design for a base excited linear passive vibration isolator in the xÀfn. The level of acceleration for the optimum mount always lies below the level of acceleration for the hard mount. If we know the limit value of the RMS of the relative displacement (or acceleration). In other words. the level of R changes very little for 0 < Z < 1. We have re-plotted Figure 12 in Figure 14 using x and fn as Cartesian coordinates. and 0 < R < 7000. Fig. it changes faster for Z > 1. and R and Z as parameters for the contour curves. The corresponding line of optimum is also illustrated. Although. plane. 14. the optimum RMS acceleration becomes insensitive to the value of damping. which is desirable. fn.48. It is obvious that there is no optimum mount out of the region 0 < Z < 1. Figure 13 illustrates a better view of the optimal domain of Figure 12. It may now be easier to pinpoint the values of R and Z for the parameters of a given mount. and vise versa.

5. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. OPTIMIZATION EXAMPLE Veriﬁcation of the optimization result could be examined by studying the behavior of the system for the optimal parameters. The nominal parameter values of the mount are: m ¼ 340:5 kg c ¼ 10215 Ns=m k ¼ 3:405 MN=m The dimensionless parameters of the mount. are: Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 fn ¼ 10 Hz x ¼ 0:15 Figure 12 shows that it is possible to reduce the RMS of the transmitted acceleration of the mount by lowering fn or increasing x. . the RMS of relative displacement of the mount is very high. designated by number 1 in Figure 12. Fig. 15. Figures 7 and 8 indicate that for the nominal values of x and fn. 2 and 3. from the possible optimum domain. Let us start with an odd mount. The acceleration frequency response for systems 1. Figures A1 and A2 in Appendix A show that the RMS of absolute displacement of the mount is also very high at the nominal values.454 G.

In order to compare the system at points 1. and a measured experimental random input. 16. . 2 and 3.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 455 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. Figure 16 shows that the system 2 has better relative displacement frequency response. we observe the behavior of the system for a transient time input. 2 and 3. we ﬁnd points 2 or 3 by increasing x or decreasing fn. The parameter of the optimum mount at point 2 and 3 are: fn ¼ 10 Hz and fn ¼ 4:9 Hz x ¼ 0:15 x ¼ 0:4 respectively. The acceleration and relative displacement frequency responses for point 1 through 3 are plotted in Figures 15 and 16. The relative displacement frequency response for systems 1. a white noise random input. Figure 15 shows that the system has better overall acceleration frequency response performance at point 3. Depending on the capability of the system and the physical situation.

17. A base excitation proﬁle for a sine square bump transient displacement input. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. 18. for three systems. The relative displacement time response to a sine square bump input. Fig. .456 G.

20 and 21). but it takes more time to settle down. System 3 has a lower relative displacement peak value (see Fig. 19). White Noise Random Input The performance of the isolator for a unity white noise base excitation has also been studied. Figure 20 shows the power spectral density of the isolator acceleration for points 1 through 3. We apply a sine square bump input as shown in Figure 17. Figure 21 shows the power spectral density of the isolator relative displacement for the points of concern. system 2 has a superior behavior. 5. 2. and 3 to the sine square bump input is shown in Figures 18 and 19.2.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 457 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. 18). system 3 has the best response to a white noise.1. According to this ﬁgure. The performance of systems 2 and 3 are more compatible with the . Transient Input The analysis of the time response is a good measure for comparing the mount parameters in order to ﬁnd the effect of the frequency optimized parameters on the transient response. 19. and a lower absolute acceleration peak value (see Fig. The transmitted force for a sine square bump input. for three systems. In this case. The time response performance of the system at points 1. 5. (see Figs.

such as g(rms). between 1 to 25 Hz range. It presents several utilized methods analyzing the measured accelerations. We expect that system 2 to will have a better relative displacement characteristics. . Experimental Random Input A measured acceleration input. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. including both combination vehicles and straight trucks. and system 3 have a better acceleration behavior. Hence. According to [9]. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. weighted g(rms). The acceleration PSD for a unity white noise for systems 1. 2. predicted behavior indicated in the Figure 12.3. the square root of the mean square value of the ride vibration data is frequency weighted by factors described in Table 1. To analyze our measured data we use the SAE Recommended Practice for measurement and presentation of truck ride vibration [11]. and 3. and ISO 1/3 Octave Peak. This acceleration corresponds to the front cab mount input for a typically heavy truck. is used as the input to the model. This standard details a uniform method for measurements of ride vibration of Class 7 and 8 commercial vehicles. 1/3 Octave Peak g(rms). all measured data is analyzed within this pass-band. shown in Figure 22.458 G. This frequency weighted ride vibration data is called the SAE Weighted g(rms). since the ride vibrations are limited. 5. 20.

The response of the mass m to a unit step input has a well-known solution: xðtÞ ¼ 1 À 1A 1A expðÀAon tÞ expðÀAon tÞ þ 2 ib 2 ib ð20Þ where the traditional notations are used: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ a¼x b ¼ 1 À x2 A ¼ a þ ib A ¼ a À ib ð21Þ . Figure 23 represents the SAE weighted acceleration response of the mount for points 1. 2. In the present section the transient response of the system for a unit step input is considered. The system at points 2 and 3 have a better response. but the behavior of the mount for the system 3 appears to be the best. The relative displacement PSD for a unity white noise for systems 1. TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS Time domain analysis is important for studying the transient characteristics of the system. 2. and 3. and 3. the maximum acceleration values are obtained and then minimized. 6.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 459 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. Using the analytical solution describing the dynamics to a step input. 21.

460 G. The measured front cab mount acceleration input.0–8.0–25. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL.0–4.0 8/f The corresponding acceleration obtained from Equation (21) is as follows: 1 A3 o2 1 A3 o2 n n €ðtÞ ¼ À expðÀAon tÞ þ expðÀAon tÞ x 2 ib 2 ib The peak value of the relative displacement is: Àxcos À1 ð2x2 À 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ xp ¼ exp 1 À x2 ð22Þ ð23Þ . 22.0 Hz 8. Table 1.0 Hz 4.0 Hz Vertical pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ f /4 1. The g(rms) spectrum weighted factors [8]. Frequency 1.

t ¼ 0 or at the time instant when €ðtÞ ¼ 0 x at time: t2 ¼ 2cos À1 ð2x2 À 1Þ À p pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ on 1 À x2 ð26Þ Figure 24 is a plot of the peak values of acceleration to a step input versus the peak values of the relative displacement for different natural frequency and damping ratio . The SDOF isolator response to the truck input for three different parameters. _ which occurs when xðtÞ ¼ 0 at time: t1 ¼ cos À1 ð2x2 À 1Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ on 1 À x2 ð24Þ The peak value of the absolute acceleration is therefore: 2cos À1 ð2x2 À 1Þ À p 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ap ¼ on exp À x 1 À x2 ð25Þ which occurs at beginning of the excitation.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 461 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. 23.

There is no universally accepted cost . 24. This optimal value x ¼ 0. This value of damping suggests that the point (x ¼ 0. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig.4 is obtained by solving the following transcendental equation: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð27Þ 2xcos À1 ð2x2 À 1Þ À p À 4x 1 À x2 ¼ 0 From Equation (27) it is interesting to note that the minimum peak value of the absolute acceleration with respect to relative displacement is independent of the value of natural frequency on [rad/s] or fn [Hz]. the result of an optimal design of a system depends on the deﬁnition of the cost function and the performance index. The peak value of absolute acceleration with respect to peak value of relative displacement. 7.462 G. The optimal damping ratio may next be obtained upon minimization of the equation resulting from substitution of Equation (26) into (25). these peak values depend on the natural frequency on and the damping ratio x of the mount. values (note: on ¼ 2pfn). fn ¼ 10) on the optimal curve in Figure 13.4. From Equations (23) and (25) it is observed that. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. CONCLUSION Mathematically. as the time-frequency optimal damping ratio and natural frequency values for the linear isolator under base excitation.

Anaheim. 485–493. J. J. 135–142. 363–379. F. Soc. M. 8. CA. This optimal mount parameter values are examined numerically and using actual road experimental data. and Ayre. C. J. and depicts that there is a relation between damping ratio and natural frequency for optimal isolation. 66(5) (1979). A. W. SAE Transaction 66. Ashraﬁuon. ASME Symposium on Simulation of Ground Vehicles and Transport Systems.C. REFERENCES 1. and Golnaraghi.: Mechanical Vibrations. Sevin. and Pilkey.: Shock and Vibration Handbook. 1968. 9. 11. 4th ed. Mech. 10. Den Hartog. I.: Engine Mounts for Automotive Applications: A Survey. 7. Acoustic 114 (1992).D. 79–83. pp. pp. Report of the Truck and Bus Cab Occupant and Environment Committee: Measurement and Presentation of Truck Ride Vibrations. pp. Shock and Vibration 1(5) (1994). 680749. pp. 4. McGraw Hill. and Nataraj. Hariss. Nelson..P.D. 319–330. pp. R. Chalasani. 5. Sykes. 38 (1971). pp. Sinusoidal and Random Excitations. SAE Recommendation Practice 34 J1490 JAN 87. Amer.S. 1986. In this paper we have found formulas for the RMS of the acceleration and relative displacement.: Isolation Provided by Vibration Mounts. 1245–1274. R. 2. . C. J. 3.: Dynamic Analysis of Engine Mount Systems. 1958. The optimal natural frequency and damping ratio values of the mount lie on a curve connecting the minimum of RMS absolute acceleration with respect to the RMS relative displacement. as both time and frequency optimum.: Vibration Isolation: Use and Characterization. 1956.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 463 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 function for isolation of mechanical vibration systems even for a simple linear base excited one DOF vibration isolator. Vib.C. 1987. H. J.F. New York. 6. J. SAE Paper No. ASME. Nakhaie Jazar. Appl.: Vibration Isolation: A Review. G. We further have shown analytically that the tradeoff between the absolute acceleration and the relative displacement also applies to the RMS values. pp. 1996. Kemper. 532–548. Snowden. E.: Optimization of Shock Isolation System. New York.: Optimum Damping and Stiffness in a Nonlinear Four-Degree-ofFreedom System Subject to Shock Load. Finally we have shown that the time response analysis of the system to step input may be used to identify a speciﬁc point of the above mentioned optimal curve.M. The Shock and Vibration Digest 34 (2002).O. McGraw-Hill. This optimum curve demonstrates that the physical parameter optimal values do not lie on the boundaries of constraints. Part I: Simpliﬁed Analysis Based on Quarter-Car Models.: Ride Performance Potential of Active Suspension Systems.H. Accos.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z1 ¼ o2 À8x6 þ 8x4 þ ð8x4 À 4x2 À 1Þx À1 þ x2 n Z2 ¼ 4x2 ðx2 À 1Þ Z3 ¼ o2 ð1 n À 2x Þ þ 2 ðA4Þ ðA5Þ ðA6Þ ðA7Þ ðA8Þ ðA9Þ ðA10Þ ðA11Þ ðA12Þ 2o2 x n qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x2 À 1 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z4 ¼ o2 8x6 À 8x4 þ ð8x4 À 4x2 À 1Þx À1 þ x2 n Z5 ¼ Z2 ¼ 4x2 ðx2 À 1Þ Z6 ¼ Ào2 ð1 À 2x2 Þ þ 2o2 n n Z7 ¼ 1 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z8 ¼ o2 8x6 À 12x4 þ 4x2 þ ðÀ8x4 þ 8x2 À 1Þx À1 þ x2 n Z9 ¼ 4x2 ðÀ1 þ x2 Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ x2 ðx2 À 1Þ . l. NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. Their integrals are as follows: Z ﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ tanÀ1 po ﬃ Z1 tanÀ1 po ﬃ Z4 Z3 Z6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ g2 do ¼ þ ðA1Þ Z2 Z3 Z5 Z6 Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Z l2 do ¼ Z7 o À tanÀ1 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z8 tanÀ1 po Z11 Z13 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ À Z9 Z10 Z12 Z13 po ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Z10 ðA2Þ Z ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ tanÀ1 po Z16 tanÀ1 po Z19 1 Z18 Z21 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ þ a2 do ¼ Z14 o þ Z15 o3 þ 3 Z17 Z18 Z20 Z21 ðA3Þ where the parameters Z1 to Z21 are denoted in Equations (A4) to (A24). we need to ﬁnd the integral of their square function.464 G. APPENDIX Integral of the Transfer Functions The transfer functions g. for the vibration isolator are presented in Equations (3) to (5). a. In order to use their RMS values in optimization methods.

A two-dimensional illustration of the absolute displacement RMS for linear vibration isolator versus damping ratio for different natural frequencies. . A1.DESIGN CHART FOR OPTIMAL LINEAR MOUNT 465 ðA13Þ ðA14Þ ðA15Þ ðA16Þ ðA17Þ ðA18Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z10 ¼ o2 À 1 þ 2x2 À 2x À1 þ x2 n qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z11 ¼ o2 8x6 À 12x4 þ 4x2 þ ð8x4 À 8x2 þ 1Þx À1 þ x2 n Z12 ¼ 4x2 ðÀ1 þ x2 Á qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z13 ¼ o2 À 1 þ 2x2 þ 2x À1 þ x2 n Z14 ¼ o4 ð1 þ 8x2 À 16x4 Þ n Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Z15 ¼ 4o2 x2 n À Z16 ¼ o6 128x10 À 256x8 þ 144x6 À 12x4 À 4x2 n þ ðÀ128x8 þ 192x6 À 64x4 À 4x2 þ 1Þx qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À1 þ x2 ðA19Þ Fig.

Here we plot the absolute displacement RMS in Figures A1 and A2.466 G. Downloaded By: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:41 23 June 2010 Fig. . NAKHAIE JAZAR ET AL. A2. A two-dimensional illustration of the absolute displacement RMS for the linear vibration the isolator versus natural frequencies for different damping ratios. Z17 ¼ 4x2 ðÀ1 þ x2 Þ Z18 ¼ o2 n À qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À 1 þ 2x À 2x À1 þ x2 2 ðA20Þ ðA21Þ À Z19 ¼ o6 128x10 À 256x8 þ 144x6 À 12x4 À 4x2 n þ ð128x8 À 192x6 þ 64x4 þ 4x2 À 1Þx Z20 ¼ 4x2 ðÀ1 þ x2 Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À Z21 ¼ o2 À 1 þ 2x2 þ 2x À1 þ x2 n qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃÁ À1 þ x2 ðA22Þ ðA23Þ ðA24Þ A graphical representation of the absolute acceleration RMS and relative displacement RMS is shown in Figures 5–8.

- Chapter 1 Slide
- relazione
- 03 Problemset3 Vibrations
- ZE210264270.pdf
- Theoretical foundation, methods, and criteria for calibrating human vibration models using frequency response functions
- 4.Forced Damped Vibration
- Vibration
- Dynamic Te4sting on Bridge Pier
- vibration_welcome
- Isolator Selection Guide
- M.tech MD SEM II MID I ImportantQuestions
- Vibration Catalog Pp
- understandingamp_phaseinrotatingmachineryvibinst-07-20pgs
- Vibration Isolation - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- 9781447123323-c2
- 01SingleDOF Maged
- At 2011 Discrete Modelling of Vertical Track–Soil Coupling for Vehicle–Track Dynamics
- Non-linear forced vibrations of thin/thick beams and plates by the finite element and shooting methods
- Assignment 1 1dof
- Analyzer a30
- 67-H-0112_3
- Earthquake lecture Forced Vibration Undamped
- Machine Tool Design
- gerb spring units
- Ch3
- VM E3.docx
- GKP-03-HulaHoppers
- Bd 31172177
- Ppt Mech 5sem DOM
- Fatigue Analysis [Compatibility Mode]

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading