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A (CSY),




‘The Grea
atest Succe
ess Is The Success W
With Your Fellow Men.’

---------------------------------------------------------- I N T R O D U C T I O N: W H A T I S E D U C A T I O N ?


 Education: the process by which people acquire knowledge, skills, habits, values, or attitudes
 Formal education: (the learning which results from) the organized instruction
 Informal education: (the learning which results from) the less organized instruction

 Advantages of education:
o Helping people acquire the skills they need for everyday activities
o Giving people the specialized training they need to prepare for a job or career
o Increasing people’s knowledge and understanding about the world
o Helping people understand social change and provide skills for adjusting to them
o Helping develop an appreciation of cultural heritage
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 patriotism : showing pride, loyalty, and love for your country.
 instill : to make someone think, feel, or behave in a particular way.
 strive : to try very hard to get or do something.
 arithmetic : the skill of working with number by adding, dividing, multiplying.
 cherish : to be very important to someone.
 rehabilitate : to return someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living.
 ethnic : of a national or racial group of people.
 sparse : small in numbers or amount, often scatter over a large area.
 cluster : a group of similar things that are close together, sometimes surrounding something.
 adequate : enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose.
 inspection : make an official visit to a building or organization to check that everything is of a good enough
 rationalization : the organization of a business or a system in a more effective way.
 commission : a request to do a special piece of work.
 domain : an area of interest or an area over which a person has control.
 consent : permission or arrangement.
 horizontal : completely flat or level.
 diagnosis : a judgment about what a particular illness or problem is, made after making examination.
 compile : to collect information from a variety of places and arrange it in the book, report or list.
 ensure : to make something certain to happen.
 lapse : when someone forgets something or stops paying attention to something for a short time.
 segment : one of the parts that can be divided.
 stipulate : to state exactly how something must be or must be done.
 indispensable : something or someone that is indispensable is so good or important that you consider them to
be essential.
 allocated : to give something to someone as their share of a total amount, for them to use in a particular
 bilateral : involving two groups or countries
 execute : to do something that has been planed or ordered.
 entrust : to make someone responsible for something.
 imperative : extremely important or urgent; need to be done or given attention immediately


 Decentralization: moving the control of an organization or government from a single place to several smaller ones. OR the
giving of power to decide or do sth to the lower levels
 School cluster: a group of schools located near each other that can provide mutual technical and material assistance to
make the teaching-learning process more effective
 Vocational education: any organized, systematic, educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal
system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population
 Internal efficiency refers to the learning achievement of the education system including the promotion, repetition and
 Multi-grade teaching method: is a way of teaching that students of different grades are taught in the same class by one

 Objective of the Cambodian education system is to fully develop children in all aspects of qualities, mentally and
 The responsibilities of schools in education system:
- Developing in the students the spirit of self-confidence, self-reliance, responsibility, solidarity, national, unity and
- Instilling in their students positive attitudes of paying respect to the law and human rights
- Nurturing children to become good citizens, to live together peacefully, to be able to strengthen their
responsibilities towards their families’ happiness and to make a contribution to promoting social welfare
 Objective of primary education is to focus on the development of children’s personalities by helping to upgrade their
mental and psychological abilities so that they will become capable of translating their basic knowledge to solve their
immediate problems, and to cherishing a love of learning and doing labor.
 Aims of secondary education:
- Ensuring the development of students’ freedom of thought and expression
- Building students’ attitude of tolerance
- Developing their talents, individual qualities, creativity, social ethnics and skills in order to create a harmonious
 Four major policies of MoEYS:
- Making nine years of basic general education available throughout the country, and developing new opportunities
for functional literacy.
- Modernizing and improving the quality of the educational system through effective reforms.
- Linking education and training development with the socio-economic requirements and the labor market.
- Rehabilitating and developing the youth and sport sub-sectors in both formal and non-formal educational systems.
 What the MoEYS does to implement the above-mentioned policies:
- Creating equal opportunities for all school-aged children to complete primary education and receive the full nine-
year basic education by:
 encouraging the complete range of grades for primary level
 applying the multi-grade teaching methods
 Encouraging core schools within school clusters to expand themselves into lower secondary school.
- Increasing the internal efficiency of education system by:
 retraining, increasing of learning hours,
 providing adequate textbook and teacher’s guides,
 applying modern teaching method,
 forming inspector teams,
 reforming methods to evaluate students’ achievements
 motivating members of the local community to be more active in education development
- Restoring the physical infrastructure and build new schools
- Developing other important sub-sectors (upper-secondary education, non-formal education, education for
vulnerable groups, higher education, technical education and vocational training)
- Enhancing all levels of education administrative and management in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness
in education sector planning, administration, management, and inspection through the implementation of
development of human resources programs
- Organizing functional literacy classes and launching a campaign aimed at coordinating the activities of the literacy
commissions at provincial and district levels
- Rehabilitating and developing youth and sport in the formal system and non-formal system
 Because of the poor communication links among the administration levels, the practice of MoEYS’s guidelines or
instructions varies in different places.
 The MoEYS has four levels or horizontal lines:
- Ministry at central level
- The provincial/municipal level
- The district or ‘khan’ level
- The school
 The reasons of school dropout:
- school is situated far away from home
- poverty
- shortage of labor in the family
- incomplete range of grades
- low level of education of the parents leads to the belief that education is not important for themselves and family
- no means of transportation
 Curriculum reform:
- Before 1975 : (French-based education) required 13 years of education (6+4+2+1)
- After 1979 : required a 10 years education system (4+3+3)
- 1986-1996 : required 11 years.
- 1996 : 12-year education system (6+3+3)
 The enrollment rate is relatively low, and internal efficiency of the education system is very low. This results in great loss
of resources in terms of finance, materials and equipment, and time to the country.
 Non-formal education aims to increase the literacy rates.
 Literacy person, defined in Cambodia, is a person who has the ability to read and write to a certain extent only.
 The very high proportion of the resources for primary education in Cambodia comes from the local community because its
people have a strong desire to restore the education system after the destruction in the murderous regime.
 International cooperation can be seen in the form of multilateral or bilateral aid and the aid channeled through non-
governmental organizations.
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 spear-head : to lead something such as an attack or a course of action
 envision : to imagine or expect as a likely or desirable possibility in the future
 miscellaneous : consisting of a mixture of various things which are not usually connected with each other
 gear : to design or organize something so that it is suitable for a particular purpose, situation or group
of people
 compulsory : if something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law
 scoring system : a system in which consist of competitive activities among students
 cater : to provide, and sometimes serve, food or to provide what is wanted or needed by someone or
 ballooned : to get bigger and rounder
 geniuses : very great and rare natural ability or skill, especially in a particular area such as science or art,
or a person who has this.
 cohort : specialized a group of people who share a characteristic, usually age
 distracted : nervous, anxious or confused because you are worried about something
 integrated : to mix with and join society or a group of people, often changing to suit their way of life,
habits and custom
 enrichment : improving the quality of something by adding something else
 admittance : permission to enter a place
 subsidise : to pay part of the cost of something
 allowance : money that you are given regularly, especially to pay for a particular thing
 lucrative : (especially of a business, job or activity) producing a lot of money
 accusation : a statement saying that someone has done something morally wrong, illegal or unkind, or the
fact of accusing someone
 anticipate : to imagine or expect that something will happen, sometimes taking action in preparation for it
 collar : to find someone and stop them going somewhere, often so that you can talk to them about


 Foundation Stage: is the first four-year stage of Singaporean primary education in which children are taught a firm
foundation in the English Language, the Mother Tongue, Mathematics and other subjects
 Orientation Stage: is the second stage of Singaporean primary education of which curriculums gear students towards
secondary education in the course most suited for them
 PSLE: is an examination taken by Singaporean students at the end of their primary 6 to determine which course they will
take in their secondary education.
 GCE ‘O’ level examination: the examination taken by Singaporean students after they have completed their four-year
course (for students in Special and Express courses) or five-year course (for students in Normal course) in secondary
 GCE ‘N’ level examination: the examination taken by Singaporean students after they have completed their four-year
Normal course in secondary education.
 GCE ‘A’ level examination: the examination usually taken by Singaporean students after they have completed their two-
year course in post-secondary education in Junior College
 Co-curricular activities: academic or non-academic activities done by students outside of and in addition to course of
study, such as athletic teams, journalistic or library
 Gifted Education Programme: a programme in Singaporean education system in which intellectual gifted students are
offered special enrichment programmes to cater their needs
 Integrated Programme (through-train programme): a program in Singaporean education system which allows students to
skip GCE ‘O’ level examination and go straight to take GCE ‘A’ level examination after having spent 6 years
 Junior college: post-secondary school in Singapore which provides 2-year course leading up to GCE ‘A’ level examination
 Polytechnics: a type of educational institution in which 3-year diploma courses are provided to Singaporean students who
hold GCE ‘O’ level, GCE ‘A’ level, or ITE certificate
 Centralized Institute: a type of educational institution in Singapore in which students holding GCE ‘O’ level certificate are
provided a 3-year course leading up to GCE ‘A’ level examination
 Institute of Technical Education: a type of educational institution in Singapore in which students holding GCE ‘O’ or GCE
‘N’ level certificate are provided 2-year courses leading up to a locally recognized ‘National ITE Certificate’

 Responsibilities of MoE of Singapore on education system:
o directing the formulation and implementation of education policy
o controlling the development and administration of government and government-aided education institutions
o playing a consultancy/supervision role with respect to private or independent schools
 Language used in instruction is English.
 Primary education is free, though parents have to pay a miscellaneous fee of up to S$10 monthly.
 Primary education consists of two stages: Foundation stage (4 years, from primary 1 to 4) and Orientation stage (2 years,
primary 5 and 6).
 Secondary education: students undergo either in Special, Express, or Normal, according to the result of PSLE taken at
primary 6.
 Both Special and Express are four years courses leading up to a GCE ‘O’ level examination, and the difference is that in
Special the mother tongue languages are taught at a higher level.
 Normal is a 4- years courses leading up to a GCE ‘N’ level examination, with the possibility of 5th year followed by a GCE
‘N’ level examination. Normal is split into Normal (Academic) and Normal (Technical).
 Gifted Education Programme: Pupils enter this programme through a series of test at Primary 3, which will identify the
top 1% of the cohort based on IQ.
 Integrated Programme: Only the top performers are able to take part in this programme, and they still have to take their
‘O’ level exam in their respective schools, for fear that they are unable to complete their ‘A’-level after their Junior
course, they do not have a fallback ‘O’ level certificate.
 Singaporean government ranks the junior colleges by the result of their graduates in ‘A’ level every year. They are ‘Top
Colleges’, ‘The Second-Rate Schools’, and ‘The Bottom Ones’.
 The benefits of going to Top Colleges:
o receive a free four year education in the top tertiary institution
o monthly allowance
o a job ready for them at home when they graduate
 Some students who graduate from public colleges refuse to work for the government, and this results in:
o hefty payments due to the government
o social pressures including the accusation of being not patriotic
 Shortcomings of the Singaporean education system:
o too specialized, too elitist and too stressful
o doesn’t place emphasis on creative thinking
o students have poor command of the standard of English language because Singaporean English (Singlish) is more
different from the standard English.
o Secondary education is not receptive of international students with the exception of Malaysians and the admission
is marked by bias and total lack of transparency.
 Comparison between Singapore education and Cambodia education:

Cambodia Education Singapore Education
Primary education Grade 1-6 Foundation stage: Primary 1-4
Orientation stage: Primary 5 and 6
No leaving examination PSLE at Primary 6
Lower secondary education (for Cam.)= Grade 7-9 Special and Express: 4 years,
Secondary education (for Sing.) Lower secondary education examination GCE ‘O’-level examination
Normal : 4 years,
GCE ‘N’-level examination
Upper secondary education (for Cam.)= Grade 10-12 Junior college : 2 years,
Post secondary education (for Sing.) Baccalaureate or Bacc II GCE ‘A’ level examination
Centralised Institute: 3 years,
GCE ‘A’ level examination
ITE : 2 years,
National ITE certifcate
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 prefecture : an older student who is given some authority and helps to control the younger students
 stipulated : to state exactly how something must be or must be done
 prescribed : to tell someone what they must have or do; to give something as a rule
 demonstrate : to show; to make clear: these figures clearly demonstrate the size of the economic problem
facing the country.
 undergraduate : a student who is studying for their first degree at college or university.


 Graduate school: a part of a college or university where you can study for a second or further degree, such as Master’s or
 Research students: are non-degree students studying in a graduate school before they are admitted to their graduate

 Japan educational system is composed of :
o 6 years of elementary education
o 3 years of junior high school education
o 3 years of senior high school education
o 4 years of undergraduate education (6 years for medical science, veterinary science and dentistry)
o 5 years of graduate education
 There are 3 main categories of universities in Japan: National, Public and Private.
 Universities are organized into faculties which are further subdivided into departments.
 Subjects of instruction in the undergraduate program are divided into subjects for general education and those for the
students’ major field of study. Some subjects are required and some are elective according to faculty and department.
 Except for medical science, dentistry and veterinary science programs, the undergraduate program makes use of the unit
 The master’s degree is conferred upon those who have been enrolled in the master’s program for 2 years or more, obtained
at least the minimum number of units of 30 in their major field, passed an examination on their major field, and passed
other prescribed examinations.
 Besides degree student, non-degree students or, otherwise called, research students may enroll in a graduate school.
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 Implementation :(n) the act of putting a plan or system into operation
 Walks of life :(adj) very different jobs and positions in society
 Evolve :(v) to develop gradually, or to cause sth or s.o to develop gradually
 Workload :(n) the amount of work to be done, especially by a particular person or machine in a period of
 Standardize :(v) to make all the things of one type the same as each other
 Generic :(adj) not specific
 Upfront :(adv) (to pay) before doing sth
 Defer :(v) to delay sth until a later time, to postpone
 Threshold :(n) the level or point at which you start to experience or at which sth start to happen
 Consistency :(n) the quality of always happening or behaving in the same way
 Provision :(n) the action of providing or supplying
 Deduced :(v) to decide that sth is true using the information that you have
 Weight :(n) ( of subjects of study) importance ; marks
 Incur :(v) to experience or be responsible for sth, especially sth unpleasant


 Adult Matriculation: is the year 12 of Australian education which helps students prepare for their higher education
 Junior Certificate (SSC): is the certificate which Australian students receive after having completed grade 10
 Senior Certificate (HSC): is the certificate which Australian students receive after having completed grade 11 and 12
(senior college)
 Co-education school: a school where boys and girls are taught together in the same buildings and classrooms
 Same sex school: a school that teaches only boy or only girl students
 Tertiary education: a term used for higher education or post secondary education by some scholars in comparative

 The schools in Australia are divided into three main groups:
o Primary Schools: Kindergarten or grade 1 to grades 6 or 7
o Secondary High Schools: grades 7 or 8 to grade 12
o Senior Colleges: grades 11 and 12 only
 School attendance is compulsory from grade 1 at the age of 6, and students must complete grade 10 to receive their junior
certificate (SSC). If they complete grand 11 and 12, they will get their senior certificate (HSC). HSC is very necessary if
students want to pursue their higher education courses at universities or some technical & further education centres
(TAFEs) and private commercial courses.
 There are 3 main types of schools in Australia: public schools, non-religious private school and religious private school.
 The main focus of primary education in Australia is to develop the child’s basic foundation of knowledge and build their
learning abilities.
 The results of SSC do not impact the student’s academic record greatly; it is the result of HSC.
 Core Skill Test is the exam for all grade 12 students in order to standardise all school students together, moreover, it is not
a knowledge based exam but rather a skill based exam in which students are graded from A(highest) to E(lowest).
 The strength of Australian Education system is the equal opportunity for all students, regardless of financial background to
have access to a good education up to and including tertiary levels.
 The weakness of Australian Education system is the widening gap of quality of education between public and private
schools. This has resulted in a heavy reliance on private schools and a lack of faith in the public schooling system.
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 Legislature :(n) the group of people in a country or part of a country who have the power to make and change laws
 Quantitative :(adj) relating to numbers or amounts
 Aptitude :(n) natural ability


 Boarding school: a public school where students live and study
 Parochial school: private school run by the church groups
 Grade Point Average GPA: is a quantitative figure representing a student’s accumulated grades
 Scholastic Aptitude Test SAT: a standardized quantitative examination taken by high school students throughout the
United States as a means for university or college admission.
 Graduate Record Examination GRE: a standardized quantitative examination taken by Bachelor’s degree holders used as
a means for graduate school admission
 Credit: a unit which represents a successfully completed part of an educational course
 Thesis: a long piece of writing on a particular subject, especially one that is done for a higher college or university degree
 Continuous assessment: a system of giving a student a final mark/grade based on work done during a course of study
rather than only on one exam. OR a way of judging a student’s level of achievement by looking at his coursework
 Coursework: work done during the courses
 Valedictorian: those who have the highest GPA in class
 Tuition fee: the cost of teaching
 Nursery school: a school for children between the ages of two and five

 There is no national education system in the US because of the country’s history and cultural values.
 Each of the 50 states has its own department of education.
 Public colleges and universities receive founding from student tuition and the state.
 The school board governs the school district and the school district controls control the school.
 Students are not required to pay the tuition fee until grade 12.
 The school districts are divided into 3 group:
o Elementary school ( students in kindergarten and grade 1 to grade 5 or 6)
o Middle school ( grade 6-8) or junior high school ( grade 7-9)
o High school ( grade 9-12 or 10-12)
 All high school students are required to take English, math, science and social studies courses, and they graduate after they
have successfully passed all of the required courses.
 The education is compulsory until the age of 16 or 17.
 The admission to a college or university based on several factors:
o student’s high school courses,
o high school GPA,
o SAT scores,
o written essay
o and possibly a personal interview.
 GPA is calculated by adding all points earned for each course and dividing the sum by the total number of courses.
 There are four types of degree:
o Associate’s (completion of a program in a specific career field)
o Bachelor’s (conferred after completion of an undergraduate program)
o Mater’s (first graduate degree)
o Doctorate (second graduate degree and final degree)
 Most courses are only one-semester or one-term long, and each course is assigned a number of credit hours. Most courses
are 3 or 4 credits, but some courses may be 1, 2 or 5 credits.
 A final thesis is required for Master’s and Doctorate degrees.
 Admission to a graduate school:
o students’ undergraduate course of study
o undergraduate GPA
o GRE score (for most schools)
 Graduation requirements for Doctorate degree:
o first, students have to earn enough credit hours required
o then they are allowed to take a qualifying examination
o after passing the exam, students can start writing their thesis
The Differences between American and British Education Systems:
 School age
o In the US, children must go to school from the age of 5 or 6 between the ages of 14 and 16, but their parents have
to pay them for nursery education.
o In the UK, children have to go to school from the age of 5 or 6 as well.
 State and Private School
o In the US, Public School is known as the schools that provided by the government, but if the parents pay for their
children’s education is called Private School.
o In the UK, State School is the school that provided by the government, in contrast, Private School or sometimes
Public School is the school that parents pay for children’s education.
 Subjects
o In the US, national, state and local government decide what subjects will be taught in the school.
o In the UK, the subjects taught in school are listed in the National Curriculum.
 Examinations
o In the US, students don’t take national examination. They take exam at the end of each semester all the subjects.
Moreover, students who want to go to university must take the test called the SAT or another test called the ACT.
o In the UK, students who want to pursue their university’s degree take GSCE exam first, and then a year later they
can take HIGHERS exam, after which they can either go to university or spend another year at school and take the
Certificate of Sixth Year Studies.
 Social Events and Ceremonies
o In the US, there is a formal ceremony for graduation. Also sports, dances, plays and musical events, which are
performed and organized by students, are very popular.
o In the UK, schools often have dances, plays and musical events as well, but in primary schools the Sports Day and
the School FETE are very important events.
 Universities
o In the US, students usually study in college for 4 or 5 years, and they usually choose one main Major and one minor
subjects that related to their major. Some universities are partly paid by the state government, but they still need
to borrow money from a bank because they must spend a lot of money for their education.
o In the UK, students usually spend 3 or 4 years for their universities, and they typically study either one subject or
two subjects that are related. Students borrow money from a bank for their living cost.
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 emphasis : the particular importance or attention that you give to something
 jurisdiction : the authority of an official organization to make and deal with especially legal decisions
 outlaw : to make something illegal or unacceptable
 euphemism : a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word
 aptitude : a natural ability or skill
 arbitrary : not decided by rules or laws but by a person’s own opinion
 champion : to support, to defend or to fight for a person, belief, right or principle
 integral : necessary and important as a part of, or contained within, a whole
 intervene : to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or prevent it
from getting worse
 referendum : a vote in which all the people in a country or an area are asked to give their opinion about or
decide an important political or social question
 requisite : necessary; needed for a particular purpose


 Primary or elementary education: the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood
 Adolescence: the period of time in a person's life when they are developing into an adult
 K-12 education: the education from kindergarten to grade 12
 One-teacher, one-class mold: a way of teaching in which students are taught by one teacher in every subject
 Corporal punishment: punishment which is made to the body
 Kindergarten refers to the first level of official education, according to the K-12 educational system
 Reception: another equivalent term for kindergarten usually used in England and Wales
 Preparatory grade/ grade prep/ prep: another equivalent term for kindergarten used in Australia
 Secondary education: a period of education which follows directly after primary education, and followed by tertiary or
post secondary education
 Grammar school: is a secondary school in the UK attended by pupils aged 11 to 18 who would be going on to higher
education and concentrated on the classics, science, etc.
 Secondary modern (school): is a secondary school in the UK intended for children who would be going into a trade and
concentrated on the basics plus practical skills
 Eleven plus: the examination taken by the children at the age of eleven before they are admitted to Grammar School
 Comprehensive school: a single type of secondary school designed to give every child a complete education.
 Higher education: education provided by universities and other institutions which award academic degrees, such as
university, colleges, etc
 Graduate student: an individual who has completed a Bachelor’s degree and is pursuing further higher education
 Two-tier system refers to the education system in which secondary schools are divided into Grammar Schools and
Secondary Modern Schools

 England:
o The education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland emphasises on the depth and students have to sit a small
number of more advanced examinations.
o The education in Scottish emphasises on the breadth and students have to sit a large number of less advanced
 Primary education:
o Primary education generally begins at the age of 4 to 7.
o The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all their students and
establishing foundations in science, geography, history and other social sciences.
o The practice of corporal punishment has been outlaw in the UK.
 Kindergarten:
o Youngsters, usually aged 4-6 attend kindergarten to learn the finer points of meeting friends, professional
authority (teacher), playtime, naptime, drawing, music, sometimes the basics of reading and writing, and various
other activities.
o Kindergarten serves the purpose of training the children to be apart from their parents without anxiety.
o Kindergartens often last only for a half a day, though some are full-day kindergartens.
 Elementary school: (!!!No interesting key ideas, besides some key terms!!!)
 Secondary education:
o The purpose of a secondary education can be to prepare students for either higher education or vocational
 Grammar schools in the United Kingdom:
o The entry to Grammar school is controlled by means of an academically selective process consisting, largely and
exclusively, of a written examination.
o It was generally accepted that dividing the secondary school into Grammar school and Secondary Modern school
was the show of discrimination because students were not getting the education equally and the authorities
prioritized their budgets on the Grammar schools, damaging the education prospects of children attending
Secondary Moderns.
o Comprehensive school was created to give every child a complete education. However, some authorities still run
the old system of Secondary Moderns and Grammar schools.
 Higher education: (!!!No interesting key ideas, besides some key terms!!!)
 Degrees and Graduation:
o There are three-level hierarchy of degrees in the UK: Bachelor, Master, and Doctor.
o Admission:
 Admission to research degree requires the sponsorship of a professor.
 Admission to Master’s degree depends upon having an undergraduate degree obtained in a related
o Life:
 very intensive work
o Funding:
 There are a few scholarship for master’s courses
 Most Master’s students are self-funded.
 Funding is available for some PhD courses.
 Costs:
o Primary and Secondary: No charge
o Higher education: around 1000 pounds
 Public schools in the UK:
o A public school in the UK
 is usually prestigious and historic,
 charges fees,
 doesn’t arbitrary restrict admissions,
 is often boarding school
 and is financed by private charitable trust other than the state.
o Today most public schools are highly selective on (this means that students are admitted to public school by):
 academic grounds
 financial grounds (ability to pay high fees)
 social grounds ( a family connection to the school)
------------------------- U N I T 7: H O M E E D U C A T I O N – C O N C E P T S A N D O B J E C T I O N S


 hurdle : a problem that you have to deal with before you can make progress
 bureaucratic : of a system for controlling or managing a country, company or organization that is operated by a large
number of officials who are employed to follow rules carefully
 omnibus : bringing many different things together as a unit
 cocoon : a safe quiet place
 utopian : of (the idea of) a perfect society in which everyone works well with each other and is happy
 disservice : an action which harms something or someone
 counterpart : a person or thing which has the same purpose as another one in a different place or organization
 sanction : approval or permission, especially formal or legal
 majoritarian : resulting from or based on rule by the majority of any given group
 idiosyncrasy : a strange or unusual habit, way of behaving or feature that someone or something has
 conform : to behave according to the usual standards of behaviour which are expected by a group or society
 premise : an idea or theory on which a statement or action is based
 erroneous : wrong or false
 dogmatic : If someone is dogmatic, they are certain that they are right and that everyone else is wrong.
 creationism : belief that the world was made by God exactly as described in the Bible
 bias : a tendency to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal
opinions to influence your judgment
 disarray : the state of being confused and lacking in organization or of being untidy


 Home-schooling: the process of teaching sb at home, or being taught at home rather than in the public school system
 Socialization: the process of acquiring values, habits, norms, etc, through joining in social activities
 Elitism: when things are organized for the benefit of a few people with special interests or abilities
 Confirming behaviour: the usual standards of behaviour which are expected by a group or society
 Etiquette: the set of rules or customs which control accepted behaviour in particular social groups or social situations
 Norm: an accepted standard or a way of behaving or doing things that most people agree with
 Code of conducts: a set of rules of accepted behaviour.
 Credentials: proof of sb's abilities and experience

 The concept ‘home education’ should be used instead of ‘home-schooling’ and ‘home-based education’ because:
o ‘Home education’ refers to when parents educate their own children by themselves. It is not the ordinary school
inside home.
o ‘Home-schooling’ and ‘home-based education’ associates with ordinary school inside home and the actors in these
education are internet-schools, not parents.
 Objections to home-schooling:
o socialization:
 The inability to cope:
 Home-schooled children will not be able to cope with the harsh realities of life beyond their
family environment.
 Home-schooled children will be unprepared for the harsh and competitive nature of the labour
 Home-schooled children do not receive the majoritarian filtering of norms provided by schools,
but are more likely to pick up their parents idiosyncratic understandings of the world.
 Bias and narrow curricular content:
 No parent, no matter how intelligent and dedicated, could possibly provide a sufficient broad
education for their children.
 Some parents choose to teach their children an erroneous view of the world even though they
know full well about what the dominant social attitudes, beliefs and understandings are.
 Lack of exposure to others:
 Home-schooled children do not receive enough exposure to other people and their distinctive
ways of life because they are cooped up at home. They don’t learn the value of tolerance,
differences, novelty, and cooperation; an awareness of dominant culture; and broad perspective
of life.
o elitism:
 Elite people home school their children because they think that the education in school is not good. When
they do like this, they are shirking from the duties because there will be no one fight for the
improvements of school education.
 Home-schooling can only be done by the rich and middle class people who are so well-educated that they
can teach their children. Thus, those who are poor must rely on the education in the public school.
o higher education:
 Home-schooled children find it hard to be accepted when they apply for college, trade school or
university because they don’t have any credentials such as high school diploma and so on. As a result,
some of them have to return to school to earn the credential.
o citizenship and choice in education:
 This supporters of this argument mention that only common schools can provide and develop the best way
of ensuring a vibrant sense of citizenship among and future generation.

The Difference between Socialisation and Elitism Arguments:
 In Socialisation argument, the critics criticize home-schooling by giving the disadvantages and value the education in the
common schools.
 In Elitism argument, the critics accept that home-schooling is better than school education and that there are many
problems in common school.

-------------------- U N I T 1: S E T T L E M E N T G R O W T H A N D R U R A L S E T T L E M E N T S


 confluence : the place where two rivers flow together and become one larger river
 indentation (indent) : to make a space in the edge or on the surface of sth
 defensible : able to be protected from attack, or able to be supported by argument
 convergence (converge) : if lines, roads or paths converge, they move towards the same point where they join or meet.
 spur : to encourage an activity or development or make it happen faster
 proximity : the state of being near in space or time
 deltaic plain (delta) : an area of low flat land, sometimes shaped approximately like a triangle, where a river divides
into several smaller rivers before flowing into the sea
 scout : to go to look in various places for sth you want
 disperse : to scatter or move away over a large area, or to make sth do this
 farmstead : the house belonging to a farm and the buildings around it
 rugged : (of land) uneven and wild; not easy to travel over
 prone (be prone to sth/do sth): tending to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic
 meandering : moving slowly in no particular direction or with no clear purpose
 orchard : an area of land where fruit trees are grown
 nucleated : to come together as a nucleus, or bring things together to form a nucleus
 junction : a place where things, especially roads or railways, come together
 inception : the establishment of an organization or official activity
 hamlet : a small village, usually without a church
 tillage : the ploughing or hallowing in preparation land for growing crops
 oasis (pl oases) : a place in a desert where there is water and therefore plants and trees and sometimes a village
or town
 fortify : to strengthen sth, especially in order to protect it.
 fortress : a large strong building or group of buildings which can be defended from attack
 hideout : a secret place where sb can go when they do not want to be found by other people
 savanna : a large flat area of land covered with grass, usually with few trees, which is found in hot
countries, especially in Africa
 loess : a fine-grained yellowish brown deposit of soil left by the wind
 enclave : a part of a country that is surrounded by another country
 marsh : ground near a lake, river or the sea, that tends to flood and is always wet
 dwindle : to become smaller in size or amount, or fewer in number
 predecessor : sb who had a job or a position before sb else, or sth which comes before
another thing in time or in a series
 relic : an object, tradition or system from the past which continues to exist
 croft : a very small farm around a house, or the house itself
 estancias : a large landed estate, especially a cattle ranch, in South America
 prairie : a wide area of flat land without trees in Canada and the northern US
 inn : a pub where you can stay for the night, usually in the countryside
 outlying : far away from main towns and cities, or far from the centre of a place
 squatter : a person who lives in an empty building without permission


 Settlement: a place where people live, work, and interact with other members in the community
 Site: the actual piece of ground on which a settlement is built. It focuses more on the kind of landform
 Satellite town: an area which is situated in the suburbs of a city or town and which is developed into a small town too
 Confluence: the place where two rivers meet and then flow together as one river
 Situation: the location of a settlement in relation to the nearby landforms or the rest of the region
 Settlement pattern: the physical layout of a settlement which takes into consideration the arrangement of buildings—
shops, houses, offices, and other architectural structures
 Dispersed settlements: a type of settlement pattern in which settlements are located far away from each other, isolated
by cultivated ground, roads or open spaces
 Linear settlements: a type of settlement pattern in which settlements develop along the roads, rivers either on one side
or both sides in a straight line pattern
 Ribbon settlements: another name for linear settlement referring to the settlements which are often found along a
meandering river either on one side of the river bank or both sides
 Nucleated settlements: a type of settlement pattern in which lots of settlements are gathered together at, for example,
an intersection of a road or railway
 Hierarchy of settlement: a structure that shows the types of settlements in the order of their ranks. It is determined by
the size of population and the function it performs
 Sphere of influence: an amount of influence a particular place has in providing products and services
 Isolated farmsteads: a lonely farm house which is located far away from the very next house
 Hamlet: a form of rural settlement which is larger than the isolated farmstead but smaller than the village
 Village: typical form of rural settlements whose population varies from a few dozen folks to several thousand people
 Physical relief: refers to landform of a particular area
 Population density: number of people per square kilometre of land
 Rural resettlement: the moving of people to live in the rural area by the government with development reasons

 All settlements have a site, situation (location), layout and function.
 Settlements vary in size, complexity, and stage of development.
 The more favourable sites (physical site) are those:
o Along the sea coast
o On the plain
o By the side of a lake
o Along the river
 Settlements are also developed in:
o Mining districts
o Industrial regions
o Farming areas
o Suburbs of the cities (as satellite towns)
o In housing estates
 The less favourable sites are those:
o On hill slopes
o On hill tops
o On offshore islands
o At the foot of the dams
 The site and the situation of a settlement are often interlinked. A good site with a poor situation which makes accessibility
difficult will not attract many people. The settlement may die a natural death or will remain small and sparsely populated.
 There are three patterns of settlement:
o Dispersed settlements
o Linear settlements
o Nucleated settlements
 Advantages of siting houses along the river banks:
o a ready supply of fish
o water and river transport
o water for irrigating into the fields and orchards
 Advantages of nucleated settlements:
o Security against the intruders or wild animals
o Easy for the supply of piped water and electricity
 Hierarchy of settlements:

Size of population
Hamlet Less than 100
Village Less than 10000
Town 10000-100000
City 100000-1 million
Metropolitan More than 1 million

 Status of settlements:
o Temporary: nomadic camps…
o Semi-permanent: huts of shifting cultivators…
o Permanent: traditional houses in the village…
 The factors influence the siting, pattern and growth of rural settlements:
o Physical relief:
 The most ideal relief is level lowland such as river basins, valley and flood-free deltaic plain.
 The least ideal is a rugged terrain such as those in hilly uplands or mountainous districts.
o Water supply: water is vital for human life. People enjoy the advantages such as water for drinking, cooking
and washing, fish caught in the river or lake to supplement the diet, and water as the cheapest means of
transport. This is why settlements are often found near the water.
o Defence: settlements are also built in the place which can defend the folks from the intruders and wild
o Shelter:
 Settlements are situated near the source of building materials which can be used to build the
 Settlers also build their settlements in a place where climate is favourable for living and cultivating
and a place with fewer risks of diseases and natural disasters.
o Mineral deposits:
 The discovery of rich deposits attracts people.
 The original mining settlement became ghost town when there is no rich deposit left.
o Historical influences: people move from place to place to follow their predecessors and settle down in the
same village or somewhere nearby for security and protection reasons.
 Types of rural settlements:
o Isolated farmstead
o Hamlet
o Village
----------------------------------- U N I T 2: U R B A N I Z A T I O N A N D U R B A N S E T T L E M E N T S


 agrarian : describes a place or country that is dependent on farming rather than industry
 wholesale : of or for the selling of goods in large amounts at low prices to shops and businesses, rather than the
selling of goods in shops to customers
 retail : to sell goods to the public in shops or by post
 predominance : when one person or group of people has more importance or power than others
 outlet : a shop that is one of many owned by a particular company and that sells the goods which the company
has produced
 cater : to provide, and sometimes serve, food
 dilapidated : describes sth old and in poor condition
 exorbitant : unreasonably high or large
 bidder : a person who offers a particular amount of money for sth which is for sale and compete against
other people to buy it, especially at a public sale of goods or property
 bungalow : a house that has only one storey
 wander : to walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction
 vacant : not filled or occupied; available to be used
 corrugated : (especially of sheets of iron or cardboard) having parallel rows of folds which look like a series of waves
when seen from the edge
 haphazard : not having an obvious order or plan
 ventilate : to cause fresh air to enter and move around an enclosed space
 middleman : a person who buys goods from a producer and makes a profit by selling them to a shop or a user
 vicious : describes people or actions that show an intention or desire to hurt sb or sth very badly
 racket : a dishonest or illegal activity that makes money
 sprawl : a large area of land with buildings which have been added at different times so that it looks untidy
 cram : to force a lot of things into a small space, or to do many things in a short period of time
 provision : when sth is provided
 mall : a covered area with shops where vehicles are not allowed
 dilute : to make a liquid weaker by mixing in sth else
 inhale : to breathe air, smoke, or gas into your lungs
 septic : infected by bacteria which produce pus
 persistent : when sth continues to exist
 migraine : severe continuous pain in the head, often with vomiting and difficulty in seeing
 mete : to give or order a punishment or make sb receive cruel or unfair treatment
 squad : a small group of people trained to work together as a unit
 flush : if you flush a toilet, or if a toilet flushes, its contents empty and it fills with water again
 aggravate : to make a bad situation worse
 aquifer : a layer of permeable rock, sand, or gravel through which ground water flows, containing enough water
to supply wells and springs
 aqueduct : a structure for carrying water across land, especially one that looks like a high bridge with many arches,
which carries pipes or a canal across a valley
 polyester : a type of artificial cloth


 Urbanization: the activity of expanding and developing the urban areas
 Millionaire city : the city with population of more than one million
 Industrial revolution: the period of time during which work began to be done more by machines in factories than by hand
at home
 Conurbation: the extensive overgrown urban area which is formed when two or more urban areas meet and emerge
 Megalopolis: is the term used to call the very large conurbation
 City-forming function: basic service provided at the central location of the city such as banking, wholesaling, and
 City-serving function: non-basic service provided at the central location of the city such as transportation,
communication, retailing, sports, recreation, and entertainment
 Central Business District (CBD): the focal point of the city
o High-rise buildings, office blocks, commercial center
o Most accessible
o Traffic focus
o Highest land value
o Very high population in day time and low in the night time
 Transitional zone: 2nd zone
o Commercial land, public buildings, some industries, hotels, recreational outlets
o Lower rental than on CBD
o Moderate population density
 Zone of industry and working class housing: 3rd zone
o Many houses for workers, Many industries
o Moderate to low land value
o Fairly high population both in night and day times
o Traffic is quite heavy during the pick hours.
 Suburban zone: 4th zone
o Better house, market gardens, special land use, more open space, more greenery and better air quality
o High land value
o Population density is between low and moderate.
 Outer suburbs: 5th zone
o Satellite towns, dormitory or residential towns, and agricultural land
o Low population density
o Land value: low to moderate
 Squatter settlements: a settlement or an area in a city where there are slums and illegal settlers
 Fresh immigrants: people who recently moved into or arrive at a place
 City dwellers: people who live in the city
 Subsidy: money given as part of the cost of sth, to help or encourage it to happen
 Car pool: the practice of sharing cars
 Sewage system: the system of carrying away waste water and human waste from houses and other buildings through large
underground pipes or passages
 Waste/garbage disposal: an electrical machine connected to a kitchen sink which cuts up food waste so that it will flow
easily through the pipes
 Pollution: the activity of worsening the quality of air, water, etc. by harmful substances
 Acid rain: rain which contains some amounts of mild acid or harmful chemical substances
 Maritime habitat: place in the water where fish and other aquatic lives live
 Sanitary landfill: a site which is used to bury waste
 Incineration plant: a factory where waste is destroyed by burning
 Desalination plant: a factory which converts the sea water to the drinkable water
 Slope terracing: the cutting of slope of the mountain into the large flat steps so that people can grow crops there
 Sea reclamation:
 Commuter belt: an area outside the city where commuters live
 New town: a thoroughly planned satellite or dormitory town located at a short distance from the main urban center to
house the over-spilled population.
 Urban planning: (the course of) deciding how the land in a city or a urban area is used; how to install the transport
system, sewage system, electricity and water supply; how the urban area is expanded; etc. in order to avoid the problems
in the future.

 The rate of urbanization in both developing and developed countries had greatly accelerated since the industrial revolution
in 1760
 People moved into industrial cities because:
o There were many job opportunities in the cities
o Improved agricultural techniques reduced the demand for farm laborers
 Almost three-quarters of the millionaire cities are located in the developing countries or the Third World.
 Some cities have limit land size, and are crowded with millions of inhabitants, giving rise to an alarming high population
density. It is unhealthy and can be vulnerable to fire, diseases and ill health.

1. Housing Problems:
 People, even the middle and upper-income groups, cannot afford purchasing or renting house because of high cost.
 Fresh immigrants to a city cannot afford even the cheapest resident because many of them are jobless or hold lowly paid
jobs. So, they end up sleeping along the streets, under the bridge, ruined buildings,, in train station
 Poor people, who have been in the city for some years, form illegal squatter settlements in which they live in bad
conditions and are vulnerable to floods, landslides, fire, diseases, and other health hazards.

 Solution to housing problems:
 The government should control the price of house and punish those who commit vicious housing racket
 The government should provide subsidized public housing by building low-rise apartment in less densely populated cities
and high-rise apartment in the more densely populated cities.
 The government should improve the squatter settlements by strengthening the house with concrete, supplying piped water,
electricity, sewage system and paved roads.
 The government should control the flow of rural immigrants into the city by improving the rural condition and allowing only
those who are able to have a job and accommodation in the cities.

2. Traffic Problems:
 Most cities experience traffic jams because of:
o Rapidly population growth which leads to uncontrollable traffic congestion
o Poor road conditions
o Frequent road repairs, unplanned roadwork for installing underground cables for telephone, electricity or water

 Solution to traffic problems:
 The government:
o Reduce the number of vehicles on the road by making car ownership an expensive affair.
 Raising import tax for cars
 Increasing the annual tax
 Making car insurance very expensive
 Increasing the driver’s license fees
 Encouraging car pools
 Classifying restricted zone
 Imposing the fee for using some major highways
 Creating ‘malls’ by closing some roads so that pedestrians can walk without traffic stress.
o Improving the city’s transport system:
 Widening the existing roads to accommodate more vehicles
 Building more roads
 Erecting (building) more flyovers
 Building more expressways with multi-lanes
 Constructing underground railways
 City residents:
o Make greater use of the public transport system
o Travel less often in the city
o Maintain good condition of vehicles

3. Pollution Problems:
 Air pollution:
o Causes:
 exhausted gas from transport vehicles,
 burning of fossil fuels from the factories and thermal plants
o Consequences:
 Causes acid rain which damages trees, contaminates fish and corrodes the buildings
 Harms the human bodies, damages their respiratory and nervous systems—leading to headaches, nausea,
asthma, eye irritation, kidney failure, lung cancer and heart attack
 Causes haze and smog which make the landing and taking off of the planes difficult.
 Water pollution:
o Causes:
 Toxic chemicals and wastes from the factories
 Sewage from septic tanks and treatment plants
 Garbage and solid waste thrown into the rivers by the city residents
 The oil spills in the ports and along the sea coasts
o Consequences:
 Kill fish and destroy the natural ecosystem of aquatic species in the rivers
 Water becomes dangerous for drinking, cooking, washing, and bathing
 People become ill when they eat the fish from the polluted water
 Worsen the beaches and seas condition, which make swimming dangerous.
 Noise pollution:
o Causes:
 Ceaseless stream of motor vehicles
 Endless noise from construction sites and machines from the factories and workshops
 Other sources of distracting sound
o Consequences:
 Permanent hearing loss
 Persistent hearing in the ear (tinnitus)
 Headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, deafness, psychological stress and disorder.
 Waste and garbage disposals:
o Causes:
 Waste from house, office, factories
o Consequences:
 Give out unpleasant smell
 Source of health hazard
 Contaminate the air
 Spoil the city landscape
 Cause land pollution
 Solution to pollution problems:
 The government:
o Legislate the clean air law and strictly control the emission of exhaust from motor vehicles, smoke from the
factories and open burning by city folks
o Penalize the factories which release toxic chemical and heated waste water into the rivers
o Devise effective system of garbage disposal by using:
 Sanitary landfill
 Incineration plants
 Recycling
o Invest more in the research of new non-polluting energy resources
o Set up the enforcement squads in all parts of the city
o Government should work hand in hand with other non-governmental organizations to combat environmental
pollution and the conservation of natural resources.
 Individuals:
o Set a good example to others
o Caution one’s neighbours and friends against wilful disposal of garbage in a haphazard manner
o Bring to the attention of the relevant authorities for instances of air, water, noise and land pollution
o Read widely and be familiar with the nature of all the environmental pollution in the cities
o Pass on to the media any useful and latest information relating environmental protection

4. Water Supply Problems:
 Water shortage is caused by:
 Less water catchments area
 Amount of water treated by the water treatment plants cannot meet the demand of people
 Industrial expansion which consumes large amount of water
 Water leakage and wastage in the old and rusty pipes
 Prolonged drought which absorb the existing water in the reservoirs
 Water pollution
 Excessive use of land for industrial, residential and transportation purpose which make land scarce for building the

 Solution to water supply problems:
 Build more catchments areas
 More water treatment plants need to be constructed
 Build an elaborate network of aqueducts
 Inspect regularly the water pipelines to minimize the incidences of burst pipes and water wastage.
 Import water from distance places or the neighbouring countries
 Build desalination plants to convert sea water into drinkable water
 Practice water-saving habits


 Aquatic : connected with, depending on, consisting of water
 Crustacean : an invertebrate animal with several a hard protective pairs of jointed legs, outer shell, two
pairs of antennae, and eyes at the ends of stalks.
 Cephalopod : an invertebrate ocean animal with a large head and tentacles, e.g. an octopus, squid, or
 palatable : having a good enough taste to be eaten or drunk
 iodine : nonmetallic crystal halogen element
 varnish : a solution of a resin in oil or spirits, applied to a surface to give it a protective gloss
 lubricant : a substance, typically oil or grease, applied to a surface to reduce friction between moving
 margarine : a yellow fat that usually consists of a blend of vegetable oils or animal fats mixed with water,
flavoring, and other ingredients
 delicacy : a delicious, rare, or highly prized item of food
 aquarium : a water-filled transparent container, often box-shaped, in which fish and other water animals
and plants are kept
 angling : the sport of catching fish with a hook, line, and rod
 shoal : school
 cod : a bag
 trawler : a boat that is used in trawling for fish
 flounder : to make clumsy uncontrolled movements while trying to regain balance or move forwards
 perch : any temporary resting place for a person or thing
 carp : to keep complaining or finding fault, especially about unimportant things
 Tentacle : a long flexible organ around the mouth or on the head of some animals, especially
invertebrates such as squid, used in holding, grasping, feeling, or moving
 Limpet : a small invertebrate ocean animal that has a low rough conical shell and clings to rocks.
 Aquaculture : the farming of ocean and freshwater plants and animals for human consumption
 Cormorant : a large diving bird with webbed feet, a hooked beak, and a long neck that can expand to
swallow fish


 Fishing : the catching of aquatic animals in seas, oceans, inland rivers and lakes
 Ecosystem: all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment
 Food chain: a series of living things which are connected because each group of things eats the group below it in the series
 Angling: the sport of trying to catch fish with a rod, line and hook
 Organic manure: excrement from animals, usually mixed with straw, used as fertilizer for soil
 Aquarium: a glass container in which fish and other water animals can be kept OR a building, usually open to the public,
which holds many aquariums
 Saltwater fish: a type of fish living in sea and ocean
 Freshwater fish: a type of fish living in freshwater like in rivers, lakes, ponds, etc.
 Maritime creature: water animal such as fish, shellfish, lobsters, etc.
 Anadromous fish: fish such as salmon and shad that return from the sea to the rivers where they were born in order to
 Commercial sea harvest: the harvesting of various kinds of maritime creatures
 Pelagic fish: a type of fish which swim only on the surface of ocean water and are usually found in large shoals
 Demersal fish: a type of fish which swim at the bottom of oceans and are of great commercial value
 Drifting: a kind of fishing method with various kinds of drift nets used mainly for catching surface-swimming fish
 Trawling: the most efficient method of catching bottom-swimming fish by using trawl nets
 Seining: a kind of fishing method used mainly for catching surface-swimming fish by using seine nets
 Lining: a kind of fishing method, which uses line, used mainly for catching bottom-swimming fish in the sea where sea floor
is rugged and may damage the trawl nets
 Inshore fishing: a type of fishing done close to the shore in shallow sheltered coastal waters, normally within 5 km from
the coast
 Offshore fishing: a type of fishing done far from the coast from 5 km to more than 400 km at sea
 Deep-sea and mid-ocean international fishing: a type of fishing done in the international waters beyond the 320-km
Exclusive Economic Zone by very large fishing nations
 Freshwater fishing or inland fishing: a type of fishing done in the rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps and even padi fields
 Overfishing: the activity of catching excessive amount of fish in a speed faster than the reproduction of fish, which leads
to the extinction of fish species
 Indiscriminate fishing: the fishing of all fish regardless of species, size and age
 The importance of fishing/fish:
o Fish keep balance of ecosystem.
o Fish keep balance the nature’s food chain.
o Fish provide valuable sources of protein and health food.
o Fish interior and wastes are grounded into fertilizers.
o Fish and other marine creatures are processed into medical products.
o Parts of fish and other marine creatures are processed into useful products such as perfume, cosmetics, ornamental
products etc.
o Fish provide fun.
 Types of fish:
o Saltwater fish
 pelagic fish
 demersal fish
o Freshwater fish
 The commercial fishing methods:
o Drifting: using various kinds of drift nets
o Trawling: mostly used to catch the demersal or bottom swimming fish
o Seining: used to catch plastic fish with haul seine
o Lining: used to catch demersal especially where the rugged sea floor is
 The local fishing methods:
o Square lift net
o Beach seine or drag net
o Drift qill or floating net
o Trawl net
o Fishing stake
o Casting net
o Other various kinds of fishing traps
 Types of fishing:
o Inshore fishing
o Offshore fishing
o Deep-sea and mid-ocean international fishing
o Freshwater fishing
 The factors which influence the location of major fishing grounds:
o The physical and natural factors
1. Continental shelves
2. Ocean currents
3. Cold waters of the temperate latitudes
4. Offshore winds
5. Physical relief of the coastal regions
6. A viability of temperate timber
o The human and economic factors
1. Availability of labor
2. Demand for fish caught
3. Viability of ports
4. Capital and technology
5. Government policies and international operation
 Problems of fishing
o Overfishing
o Water pollution
o Indiscriminate fishing
 Fish conservation
o Restocking overfished water
o Artificial fertilization of eggs
o Forbiddance of indiscriminate fishing
o Protection from water pollution
o International agreement on the world’s fishing grounds
o Researchers in the world fisheries
o Increase fish production through aquaculture

----------------------------------------------------- U N I T 1: T H E M A N U F A C T U R I N G I N D U S T R Y


 render(v) : to cause someone or something to be in a particular state
 loaf(n) : bread which is shaped and baked in a single piece and can be sliced for eating
 cater(v) : to provide, and sometimes serve, food
 foodstuff(n) : any substance that is used as food or to make food
 crockery(n) : cups, plates, bowls, etc., used to serve food and drink
 utensil(n) : a tool with a particular use, especially in a kitchen or house
 garment(n) : a piece of clothing
 array(n) : a large group of things or people
: to arrange a group of things in a particular way
 appliance(n) : a device, machine or piece of equipment, especially an electrical one that is used in the house
 usher in(pv) : to be at the start of a new period, especially when important changes or new things happen, or
to cause important changes to start happening
 poultry(n) : birds, such as chickens, that are bred for their eggs and meat
 haul(v) : to pull something heavy slowly and with difficulty
 metallurgy(n) : the scientific study of the structures and uses of metals
 amenity(n) : something that is intended to make life more pleasant or comfortable for the people
 layout(n) : the way that something is arranged
 rudimentary(adj) : basic
 fabric(n) : (a type of) cloth or woven material
 synthetic(adj) : describes products that are made from artificial substances
 fibre(n) : any of the thread-like parts which form plant or artificial material and which can be made into
 derive(v) : to get or obtain something from something else
 miscellaneous(adj) : consisting of a mixture of various things which are not usually connected with each other
 craft(n) : skill and experience, especially in relation to making objects
 mill(n) : a factory where a particular substance is produced
 conform(v) : to behave according to the usual standards of behavior
 merit(n) : the quality of being good and deserving praise
 proximity(n) : the state of being near in space or time
 awkward(adj) : difficult to use, do, or deal with
 combat(v) : to try to stop something unpleasant or harmful from happening
 bulky(adj) : too big and taking up too much space
 smelter(n) : a factory or machine in which metal is smelted
 concentration(n) : the ability to think carefully about something you are doing and nothing else
 entail(v) : to make something necessary, or to involve something
 ingot(n) : a piece of metal, usually in the shape of a narrow brick
 thermal(adj) : connected with heat
 wire(n) : a piece of thin metal thread which can be bent, used for fastening things
 brewery(n) : a company that makes beer
 embark(v) : to go onto a ship
 incentive(n) : something which encourages a person to do something
 induce(v) : to cause something to happen
 expedite(v) : to cause to be done more quickly; to hurry
 legislation(n) : a law or set of laws suggested by a government
 encroach(v) : to gradually take away someone else's rights
 launch(v) : to begin something such as a plan or introduce something new
 alloy(v) : to spoil or reduce in value
 ferrous(adj) : containing or relating to iron
 versatile(adj) : able to change easily from one activity to another
 crust(n) : a hard outer covering of something
 distort(v) : to change something from its usual, original, natural


 Industry: the work done by mankind in the fields, in the factories and anywhere where services from banks, shops, and
hotels are rendered. OR organized economic activity connected with the production, manufacture, or construction of a
particular product or service
 Primary industry: a type of industry which involves the extraction of natural resources from the earth, most important of
which are farming, lumbering, mining and fishing
 Secondary industry: a type of industry including processing industry which changes the state of raw materials and
manufacturing industry which is the assembly of component parts of various raw materials to form completely new
 Tertiary industry or service industry: the type of industry which involves the rendering of services including trading,
tourism, transport, banking and many others
 Input: money, technology, time, energy, etc., which are invested in hope of getting a particular outcomes in return
 Output: the amount of sth which is produced by a person, machine, factory, a country, etc.
 Plough-back: the activity of spending the earnings of a business or a factory to, for example, buy in more raw materials,
better machinery and for further extension of the factory building
 Net/gross profit: gross profit minus all the costs incurred by a business
 Capital: wealth, especially a large amount of money used for producing more wealth or for starting a new business
 Raw material: a natural unprocessed material that is used in manufacturing process to produce a new product
 Amenities: things which are considered to be necessary to live comfortably
 Proprietor: a person who owns a particular type of business
 Food-processing industry: a type of industry which produces food product
 Commodity: product which can be bought or sold
 Perishable goods: goods such as food that decays quickly
 Labour-intensive industry: a kind of industry which requires lots of labour workers
 Industrial estate: a special area on the edge of a town where there are a lot of factories and businesses
 Green belt zone: a strip of countryside round a city or town where building is not allowed

 Industry refers the work done by mankind in the fields, in the factories and anywhere where services from banks, shops,
and hotels are rendered.
 Manufacturing industry refers to the activities of changing the state of raw materials into something more useful and more
 Industries are classified into three main categories:
o Primary industry
o Secondary industry
o Tertiary industry or service industry
 All manufacturing industries perform as the systems with inputs, outputs and plough-back of earnings.
o Decision
o Capital
o Site (suitable place)
o Machinery
o Workers
o Electricity
o Raw materials
o Transport
o Net profit
o Plough-back
 The factors influence the location of industry:
o Raw material
o Fuel or power
o Human resources:
 Management staffs
 Labor supply
 Technology and research
o Transport
o Market
o Capital
o Government policies
o Other factors:
 Availability of land
 Political stability
 Historical factors
 Climate
 Water supply
--------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 2: T H E T O U R I S T I N D U S T R Y


 heal(v) : to make or become well again, especially after a cut or other injury
 gout(n) : a painful disease which makes the joints, especially the feet, knees and hands
 therapeutic(adj) : causing someone to feel happier and more relaxed or to be more healthy
 indulge(v) : to allow yourself or another person to have something enjoyable
 frolic(v) : to behave in a happy and playful way
 bestow(v) : to give something as an honor or present
 conserve(v) : to keep and protect something from damage, change or waste
 savanna(n) : a large flat area of land covered with grass
 roaring(adj) : loud and powerful
 poacher(n) : someone who catches and kills animals illegally
 magnitude(n) : the large size or importance of something
 far-reaching(adj) : something far-reaching has a great influence on many people or things
 sphere(n) : an object shaped like a round ball
 possess(v) : to have a particular quality
 flourish(v) : to grow or develop successfully
 flora(n) : all the plants of a particular place
 fauna(n) : all the animals that live wild in a particular area
 appeal(v) : to make a serious or formal request, especially to the public, for money or help
 archaeology(n) : the study of the buildings, graves, tools and other objects which belonged to people who lived
in the past, in order to learn about their culture and society
 ruin(v) : to cause a person or company to lose all their money or their reputation
 convocation(n) : a large formal meeting, especially of church officials
 implement(v) : to put a plan or system into operation
 shrine(n) : a special place in which you remember and praise someone who has died, especially someone
 mosque(n) : a building for islamic religious activities and worship
 itinerary(n) : a detailed plan or route of a journey
 glorious(adj) : deserving great admiration, praise and honor
 can-can(n) : a fast dance in which a row of women on a stage kick their legs high and lift their skirts
 chalet(n) : a small wooden house found in mountainous areas
 sophisticated(adj) : having a good understanding of the way people behave and/or a good knowledge of culture and
 patronize(v) : to be a regular customer of a shop or restaurant, etc
 hawker(n) : someone who makes money from hawking goods
 hawk(v) : to sell goods informally in public places
 deteriorate(v) : to become worse
 trample(v) : to step heavily on something or someone, causing damage or injury
 cordon off(pv) : put something around it in order to stop people from entering
 batik(n) : a method of printing patterns on cloth
 tarnish(v) : to make or (especially of metal) become less bright or a different color
 scantily(adv) : wearing very little clothing
 slump(v) : to fall suddenly in the price, value, sales, etc. of something


 Tourism: the service such as transport, place to stay, foot to eat, entertainment etc. provided to people who are on
 Going away: leaving one’s home in order to spend time somewhere else, usually for a holiday
 Spa: a town where water comes out of the ground and people come to drink it or lie in it because they think it will improve
their health
 Cruise: a journey on a large ship for pleasure
 Saturnalia: is an ancient Rome feast of Saturn in December 19th when everyone enjoyed the religious feasting and other
frolic enjoyment
 Affluence: the state of having an abundance of material wealth
 Tourist boom: the dramatic rise in number of tourists
 Vandalism: any activity that is considered to be damaging or destroying sth that was good
 Price inflation: a general, continuous increase in price
 Tourist slump: a period when tourism is in a bad state and there is a lot of unemployment
 Convocation: a large formal assembly, e.g. of a college or university community
 Itinerary: a detailed plan or route of a journey
 Can-can dance: a fast dance, originally performed in France in the 19th century, in which a row of women on a stage kick
their legs high and lift their skirts
 Infrastructure: the basic systems and services, such as transport and power supplies, that a country or organization uses in
order to work effectively
 Accommodation facilities: a place such as hotel room where people can stay or live when they are traveling
 Tranquillity: a state of being calm and peaceful and without noise, violence, anxiety, etc
 Silent deterioration: the gradual worsening process
 Mass production: the process of producing a lot of products cheaply by the machine in the factory
 Eco-tourism: a form of tourism that strives to minimize ecological or other damage to areas visited for their natural or
cultural interest

 Why do people want to go for holiday?
o relaxation in pleasant surrounding
o visiting relatives and friends to keep up good relations
o visiting foreign countries
o health reasons
o meeting people of different countries
o witnessing festive occasions
o sporting activities
o satisfaction of personal or special interest
o attending their children’s/relatives’ convocation overseas
o official trips
 What are the factors influence the development of the tourist industry in a country?
o physical factors:
 attractive natural scenery
 pleasant climate: cool temperate climate with distinct four seasons is the most favourable one
o Cultural factors:
 Historical places
 Religious buildings
 Cultural centers
 Entertainment facilities
o Economic factors:
 Infrastructure
 Accommodation facilities
 Shopping facilities
 Eating places
 Other economic factors: tour guiding, banking, postal service etc.
 The benefits of tourism to a country:
o providing employments to people: tourist agency, transportation workers, hotel operators etc.
o source of foreign earning for the country: money spent on the airfare, hotels, restaurants, souvenirs etc.
o promoting cultural exchange among people of the world: tourism creates better understanding, fosters goodwill
and generates tolerance among people.
 Disadvantages of tourism to a country:
o threatening the tranquillity of the countryside and the once-quiet beaches
o deteriorating the historical buildings and other places visited by the tourists
o deteriorating the natural habitat
o provoking noise pollution, vandalism, thefts and price inflation
o worsening the reputation of local handmade products and the country when there is the mass production
o affecting the cultural values, for example, by the introduction of scanty cloths
o people lose their job during the tourist slumps.
 Cambodia is a good place for tourists because of:
o favourable physical factors:
 we have beautiful beaches, forests, mountains and especially Tonle Sap and Mekong rivers which give the
attractive scenes to the tourists
 we have temperate climate which is not too hot and too cool
o attractive cultural factors:
 we have temples like Angkor Wat, Preah Vihear, etc.
 we have traditional dances, performances, dramas, music, and so on
 we have historical buildings, museums, status, royal palace, cultural village, night markets,
o improved economic factors:
 roads are being erected and major tourist destinations are now accessed to easily and safely
 shopping centers, hotels and restaurants of different levels are available everywhere
 services like banking, flight, postal service, communication facilities etc. are also being improved
o the security through out the country:
 police and tourist-related authorities are now easily contacted
 Cambodia has no war and political unrest

-------------------- T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F P H Y S I C A L A N D H U M A N R E S O U R C E S


 renovate : restore to good condition; repair
 welfare : well-being, happiness; health and prosperity
 utility : usefulness
 foodstuff : a substance suitable for consumption as food
 affluent : wealthy, rich
 steer : direct or guide in a particular direction
 condominium : a building or complex containing a number or individually owned flats or houses
 sophisticated : showing worldly experience and knowledge of fashion and culture
 flyover : a bridge carrying one road or railway line over another
 appliance : a device designed to perform a specific task, a fire engine
 amenity : a useful or desirable feature of a building or a place
 prevalent : a widespread in a particular area at a particular time
 ventilate : cause air or enter and circulate freely in a room or building
 shack : a roughly built hut or cabin
 drain : cause the liquid in something to run out leaving it empty or dry
 clog : block or become blocked
 conduction : the transmission of heat through a medium from a higher temperature
 prevail : prove more powerful or superior
 incentive : a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment
 hamper : hinder or impede the movement or progress of
 dispatch : send off to a destination or for a purpose, deal with quickly and efficiently
 turmoil : a state of great disturbance, confusion, or uncertainty
 loot : private property taken from an enemy in war or stolen by thieves, (v): steal goods from,
especially during a war
 shambles : a chaotic state
 allocate : assign or distribute
 doom : destruction, another terrible fate


 Development: the state of changing things around us to improve the way we live
 Development indicators: statistics used to measure the differences in development
 Life expectancy: the length of time that a living thing, especially a human being, is likely to live
 GNP per capita: the average income per person per year
 Cool temperate climate: the climate condition in which the weather is not very hot or very cold
 Climatic hazard: danger caused by climate, for example, flood and drought
 Physical barrier: natural obstacle such as desert, mountain, dense forest, etc. which hinder the development process
 Capitalist country: a country whose economic, political and social system based on private ownership of property,
business and industry, and directed towards making the greatest possible profits for successful organizations and people
 Automation: operation by machines or computers in the factory or office, which is used to reduce the amount of work
done by humans and the time taken to do the work
 Public amenities refers to the public services such as medical facilities, electricity supply, etc. which are benefited by the
citizens and serve the investors and visitors
 Depopulation: the state of having few people in an area or a country
 Ageing population: refers to the population with large number of old people
 Stalinization: the accumulation of salts in the top soils in the irrigated farm
 Water-logging: the accumulation of dissolved salts on roots of plants when the water table is being raised
 Sterilization: the process of having a medical operation to make it impossible to have children
 Monogamy: when sb has a sexual relationship or marriage with only one other person at a time

 Examples of a better lifestyle: bigger house; better-quality goods such as modern phones, cars and so on; better equipments
such as washing machine, vacuum cleaner, dishwasher, air-conditioner and so on.
 The stages of development in a country:
o Subsistence economy:
 raising just enough food for her(the country’s) people
 simple shelters and home utilities
 poor transportation with small bumpy roads
 a large rural population and birth rate
 a domestic economy with little foreign trade
 simple lifestyle and no or few luxuries of any kind
o Secondary economy:
 an increased amount of imported foodstuffs
 better home and utilities
 improved transport system in land, sea, and air travels
 an increased urbanization and a low birth rate
 a greater liberalization in trade with many foreign countries
 a higher standard of living and a more affluent society
o Highly matured economy:
 a high food intake (in terms of calories) per person per day
 modern homes in high-rise flats and expensive houses and in highly urbanized cities
 a complex system of transport with multi-lane highways, flyovers, overhead-bridges, sophisticated airports,
seaports, and underground trains
 most people are engaged in industrial activities and a low birth rate
 a wide range of manufactured goods and tertiary services and global trade
 a high level of material, car ownership, a wide range of electric appliances, a reliable telephones, electricity
and safe-drinking water
 How is development measured?
The development of a country may be grouped under two factors:
1. Economic development (measured in aspects such as GNP per capita, energy consumption per capita, the
percentage of population working in the farms, and the ratio of people per car and other material comfort)
2. Quality of life (measured in aspects such as health, literacy, and welfare)
 What are the factors which influence the inequalities in development amongst countries?
1. Physical factors
 The climate:
o Cool temperate climate is the most conductive for human activities.
o The steaming heat of the tropics, the deserts, heavy rain of the equatorial region, the
prolonged droughts, and the savanna make unfavorable condition of life.
 The physical barriers:
o Sahara Desert in Africa, the Himalaya Ranges in Central Asia, the Amazon forest of
Brazil etc. hinder any form of the economic development because much effort and
huge capitals are needed to make it suitable for farming, mining or urban
2. Political factor
 Capitalist and democratic countries such as US, Canada, Australia and those of Western Europe are
economy developed countries because they undertake extensive investment and financing large
 In Communism countries like Russia, China, North Korea and Vietnam, people are equally poor
because all development projects are undertaken by the government.
3. Social factors
 Literacy skills:
o In most developed countries such as US, Canada and Europe, literacy rates are high,
which contributes to the rapid economic development.
o In contrast, developing countries such as those in Africa and Asia have a very low
literacy rate, which has greatly hampered the development.
 Technology (machinery):
o In developed countries, machinery and automatic operations are installed in the
factories and are used greatly in the farm. Consequently, they receive maximum
output with good quality.
o In developing countries, much labor forces are still required and the practice of
subsistence farming still exists; this retards the economic development of those
 In what ways can the developing countries improve their economic development and their quality of life?
1. Reduction of rapid population growth
 Family planning or birth control
 Sterilization
 Monogamy
 Late marriage
2. Greater development of the country’s natural resource
 Importing technology
 allowing greater foreign investment
3. Improvement in infrastructure
 constructing more roads
 improving the transport system
4. Political stability
 stabilizing the peaceful political condition
 assuring the foreign investors with security
5. Education
 improving literacy rate
 training the high educated citizens to be management staff, commercial entrepreneur
6. Technology
 learning the technical know-how to benefit the imported technology
 seeking financial aids and technical know-how from foreign developed countries
7. Public amenities
 establishing certain essential public amenities such as:
- Medical facilities
- Safe-drinking water
- Telecommunication facilities
- Sanitary system
- Electricity supply
- Garbage disposal
 What are the undesirable effects from development in developed and developing countries?
1. Decreasing population
2. Environmental deterioration
3. Depletion of the natural resources
 How do we minimize the ill effects that come with development?
o Make prudent use of the natural resources
o Give careful planning to all the development project (e.g.: studying of the negative impacts on the
o Replace some natural resources (e.g.: reforestation in timber extraction)
o Conserve all natural resources
o Avoid wastage and recycle wastes if possible
o Find alternatives or substitutes
o Protect our forest
o Minimize soil erosion
o Search for new mineral deposit



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- T H E B E G I N N I N G


 raid :(v) to attack a place suddenly
 wreck :(v) to destroy or badly damage something
 whip :(n) a piece of leather or rope which is fastened to a stick, used for hitting animals or people
 chase :(v) to hurry after someone or something in order to catch them
 bulldozer :(n) a heavy vehicle with a large blade in front, used for pushing earth and stones along and for making
areas of ground flat at the same time
 smash :(v) to cause something to move with great force against something hard, usually causing damage or
 editorial :(n) an article in a newspaper which expresses the editor's opinion on a subject of particular interest at
the present time
 brutality :(n) behaviour that is very cruel or violent showing no feelings for others, or an act of this type
 march :(v) to walk somewhere quickly and in a determined way, often because you are angry
 fold :(v) to bend something, especially paper or cloth, so that one part of it lies on the other part, or to be
able to be bent in this way
 glance :(v) to give a quick short look
 exploded :(v) to react suddenly with a strong expression of emotion
 sincerity :(n) honesty
 descend :(v) to go or come down (position)
 sew :(v) to join two pieces of cloth together by putting thread through them with a needle


Chapter 1:
Donald Woods, a white man, is the editor of the Daily Dispatch, which is against South African Government. Mr. Woods does not
approve of discrimination. He accepts the laws that the black people should not allowed to vote and should live in separately from
the white. However, he does not approve with the brutality with black people, people who are suffered with their difficulties in
lives. He has put the picture of the police raid at Crossroad and written an editorial criticizing Stephen Biko, one of the black
leaders, and his black consciousness under the title BANTU STEPHEN BIKO—THE ULGY THREAT OF BLACK RACISM. After that he
received phones calls from the police threatening for his life. Most significantly, he was visited in the office by Dr. Mamphela
Ramphele, a black doctor who had been given a place at Natal Medical School, to tell him to visit Biko in order to find out the truth
about him.

Chapter 2:
Woods visited Biko in a church in King William’s Town, a white town. When he entered the church, two things surprised him. One
was the unexpected warmth and friendliness of Biko’s wife, Ntsiki and another was the group of black people working and learning
in the church. Finally, Woods was able to meet and talk to Biko face to face in Biko’s small office. During the talk, Woods told Biko
that he didn’t like Biko’s dangerous idea and that the black people would have done the same thing as the white do, if they had
been in the white’s situation right now. This idea made Biko laugh because he thought that it was impossible.


1. Describe the photos of police raid on Crossroads:
 A woman holding a baby in her arms in front of wrecked home; two policemen beating a boy; an old man sitting in
an armchair, with broken walls around him; a policeman with a whip chasing a girl, a bulldozer smashing through a
tiny kitchen. In other words, people in Crossroad lived in bad (filthy, poor, old and violent) conditions.
2. Why did the police raid the black township called Crossroad?
 Because they had no work permits, brought their family with them, and built a room for them out of wooden
boxes or bits of tin, which were against the law. Moreover, the police did not want this place become the
permanent township for illegal black workers.
3. Describe what Donald Woods thought about black people:
 He thought that
 black people are making black prejudice/discrimination
 black people should not be allowed to vote
 they should be separated from the white
 but they should not be brutalized.
4. Why did Mamphela Ramphele want Woods to go and see Steve Biko?
 Because she wanted Mr. Woods to find out more about Mr. Biko
5. Describe what was happening in the church center when Woods went in:
 Some men and women were painting the walls while others were putting up partitions. Some girls were sewing in
one corner of the church; there was a library of old books and magazines in another area; two older men were
making children’s toys in a third area.
6. What did blacks use the word ‘System’ to describe?
 “System” was referred to any white authority—police, government, army etc.
7. What was the idea that made Biko laugh aloud?
 “Whites in the township and he in the Mercedes”


1. Woods said, “Well, Dr. Ramphele, I’ve written against white prejudice, and if you think I’m going to ignored black
prejudice, then you are complaining to the wrong man!”
 Mr. Woods wanted to emphasize that he worked against both black and white prejudices, which he thought exist
in South Africa.
2. “From here. From South Africa.” Mamphela was still angry. “I was one of the two from my tribal area to be given a
place at Natal Medical School. I am an example of your white concern for the black people of these land.”
 In this quote, “From here. From South Africa.” implies that Mamphela knew everything about South Africa and
Biko. “I am one of two from my tribal area to be given a place at Natal Medical School” implies that she was
educated enough to understand the situation in South Africa. “I am an example of your white concern for the
black people of this land” means that white people concerned that one day black people would fight against the
white government if they had high education.
3. I know you are not a fool, Mr. Woods, but you are uninformed. Steve Biko is one of a few people who can still save
South Africa.”
 Here, Dr Memphela might have wanted to say that what Mr. Biko wrote about Mr. Woods in his editorial was
resulted from misunderstanding (confusing). In fact, Mr. Biko was a good man; he did not discriminate white
people and he was the only person who could save South Africa from apartheid. She also wanted Woods to see
Biko in order that he could find out the truth about Biko.
4. Woods nodded coolly, “I wonder what kind of liberal you would make, Mr. Biko, if you were the one who possessed
the house, the job, the Mercedes—and the whites lived in the townships.”
 Here, Mr Woods wanted to mock at Biko and he meant that if Biko were in the same situation as white government
was, he would also do the same things.


1. It was mentioned in Chapter 1 that The Daily Dispatch was against the South African Government. However, Woods
wrote an article in the editorial on Biko, BANTU STEPHEN BIKO—THE UGLY THREAT OF BLACK RACISM, which was
against the black. What do you think about this contrary?
 Mr Woods worked against the racism both of white and black people. He was against the South African
Government because the white government prejudiced the black; and he wrote against the Mr Biko, a black
people, because he thought that black people also prejudiced the white people.
2. What are the exploitations of the white over the black that you learn from this chapter? Do you think it is justifiable
for the white to do such things over the illegal black?
 The exploitation of the white over the black people was taking the low wage that the black earned from their
illegal works.
3. Why do you think Biko was banned to live in certain area in the white town?
 Because he was accused of calling for violence against the government.
4. What are the different views of Biko and Woods towards the term ‘liberal’? Why did they have such differences, do
you think?
 Biko referred “liberal” to Mr. Woods, whereas Mr. Woods referred “liberal” to all the white people. This resulted
from their misunderstanding.
5. At the end of chapter 2, it was mentioned that woods held out his own hand and took Biko’s. It was the beginning.
What was the beginning of?
 It may be the beginning of education of a liberal (Mr. Woods), the beginning of Biko’s plan to persuade Woods to
be on his side to help him work against the white government…


 Supposed that you were Donald Woods, write an editorial on Steve Biko, under the title BANTU STEPHEN BIKO—THE UGLY
THREAT OF BLACK RACISM. (Make sure your writing is in the form of paragraphs in the newspaper).
The Daily Dispatch: Editorial

Dear readers;

First, I would like to say thank you for your support for The Daily
Dispatch. Your support inspires us a lot to work harder and harder for the
betterment of our publications.

In my editorial of this issue, I am writing about Stephen Biko and his
Black Consciousness. I think most people have heard about him because now his
name and pictures are everywhere in this country. He is one of the black leaders
whose Black Consciousness leads to black racism in South Africa. He believes
that black people should create their own organizations where only black people
can work and refuse to work with white people. I think this is surely the threat
of black racism. However, this ugly black leader was accused of involvement in
the meetings of two students’ organizations two years earlier and at last was
charged by the court to be banned.

I think that his idea is dangerous, for it can bring South Africa violence
and confrontation resulted from black and white racisms. I strongly believe that
South Africa needs both black and white people to work together.


Donald Woods
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- E D U C A T I O N O F A L I B E R A L


 Splash : if a liquid splashes or if you splash a liquid, it falls on or hits something or someone.
 Stretch : to cause something to reach, often as far as possible, in a particular direction
 Stiffly : straight and not bending
 Tribal : relating to a tribe. Tribal war


Chapter 3
Later that morning Woods and Biko visit the clinic at Zanempilo. It was a clinic for black people, with black workers, and a black
doctor. Woods thought that it was a great achievement of Black Consciousness in creating their own organization though he believed
that South Africa needed organizations where black and white people could work together.
Biko tried to explain Woods that he did not discriminate white people and refused to work with them, but he just felt that there
was something wrong to be born black and he wanted the black people to believe that they could do what the white could do—
doctors or leaders. In other word, Biko wanted to build hope in black people.
At the last part of this chapter, Biko asked Woods to visit the black township to see how they live, and Woods agreed.

Chapter 4
Biko thought that showing how black people live to a white liberal like Woods was a duty, though he might have ended up in the
prison if he had got catch.
Woods and Biko took the black taxi with other seven men to the black township outside East London where people live with misery,
violence and insecurity. Biko also tried to tell Woods about the brutality and exploitation of the white people over the black. Woods
was amazed by what he saw in the township and what Biko told him. It seemed to him that he never understood about those things
at all.
Chapter 5
After visiting the black township, Woods was invited to have dinner with a black family. There was a serious argument between
Woods and the black people in that family, but Woods learned a lot from this. He was told what happened when white people first
came to South Africa. He understood the idea of black people toward the government and white people. He learned that Black
people also believe like him that South Africa was a place for both black and white people to live equally and in the way each
people prefer to. However, he thought that black people should not fight against the government, but to adapt themselves into the
present society.


1. Describe the trips Woods had with Biko.
 A. Visiting Zanempilo
The clinic at Zanempilo was at the top of a hill. It was a clinic for black people, with black workers, and a black
doctor, Woods though that the clinic was an amazing achievement. He understood Biko’s idea about the clinic and he
was impressed by Biko’s idea. He had some ideas about blacks.
 B. The black township
Woods met Mapetla, Biko and other black outside the East London. Then, Woods went with Black in the black taxi.
Even, the car was old and narrow, but there was an atmosphere of fun and adventure as the men joked with each
other. When they arrived, they were all silent as they started out at the crowds of people walking through the little
streets. As Woods looked at all those black faces, tired and unsmiling, he felt that the black world, which he believe
he knew so well, had a life he was totally unaware of. There was such a miserable in the black township.
 C. Eating with black family
That black family lived in the little house which divided into four rooms. It was the home of Tenjy Mtinso, a girl of
twenty who was the nurse at the clinic in Zanempilo. The meal was a meat soup with rice and bread, served on a big
plate. There was no electricity in the house but two oil lamps hung from the ceiling. It was a noisy and happy meal.
After dinner, the women washed the discs and the men sat and talked. They talked about white man first came to
Africa. They supported their own race. However, Woods understood black more and more.
2. What was Woods’s belief about Africa and his perception of Biko’s belief?
 - Woods believed that South Africa needed organization where black and white people could work together.
- Woods believed Biko’s speech that black people had the same ability to be a doctor, a leader as a white man.
3. Describe Biko’s achievement in creating the black consciousness.
 - Church
- Clinic
4. What happened to Biko and Woods if he got caught?
 - Biko: live in prison
- Woods: write a letter of explanation to the Borad of his newspaper.
5. Why didn’t Biko and his friends approve of the aims of white liberals?
 Government didn’t treat the black and white equally.
6. What did Tenji believe black society could teach other society?
 How to live together


1. “This is it.” Biko replied. “A clinic for black people, with black workers, and black doctor.”
 - Black had their ability like the white.
- This is a black achievement.
- White discriminated black; they didn’t go to black clinic; they went to luxury one. ( Black didn’t discriminate the
White, but white didn’t want to cooperate with black).
2. “You see, we know how you live. We cooks your foods, clear your rubbish, cut your grass,” he said quietly. “Would
you like to see how we live?”
 - Black didn’t discriminate the white.
- Black knew how the white lived.
- They could live with the white peacefully. They didn’t do something bad even it was very easy for them to do
something awful to the white as they lived with the white (servant).
3. Biko smiled. “The education of liberal? It is a duty.”
 - It was his duty to educate Woods.
- Time for Biko to educate Woods about the suffering of black society.
- Time for persuade Woods to support black as Woods didn’t like unfairness.
- Time for change Woods concept about black, especially, about Biko
- One of his plan to get freedom by use white to fight white ( Diplomatic negotiation)
4. “ But if you do survive in the township and you get the education the white man gives you, then you go to work in
their city- you see that their houses, their street, their cars. And you begin to feel there is something not quite right
about you. Something to do with your blackness. Because no matter how stupid or how clever the white child is, he is
born into his white world. But you, the black child, clever or stupid, are born into this...and, clever or stupid; you will
die in it...”
 Biko wanted Woods to imagine if he was black. If you were born in the black world, you had no opportunity. Black
started to feel unequal, why they suffered and the white enjoyed? Therefore, their solutions were:
- Those blacks who got high education and got out of township, they lived in the happy world and they didn’t want
to be black, so they started to feel that black was bad. In order to go away from township, they had to do
everything for white, work as informer, tell everything about black’s plans, and do everything as the white
- Or black can fight back and go against white.
5. “And even to stay in a legal township like this one, the white boss must sign your pass every month, the white
governments tell you which house to live in and what the rent is. You can never own land or pass everything on to
your children. The land belongs to the white man...and all you have got to give your children is this...”
 - Biko wanted to show Woods that Black owned nothing, even in the township. They didn’t have any right.
- White totally controlled the black.
- Black can’t pass anything to their children; the only thing that they can pass was black skin which symbolised the
discriminated and suffering.
6. “Homelands are not home to us, and the land is no good; that’s why the government wanted us to live there.”
 - Home: Physical and emotional: peaceful, good, romantic feeling
- House: Physical building: place to live, apartment
- Meaning: Their homeland was not comfortable for them. They lived in suffering condition. The land was not good.
They didn’t want to live in that place.
7. “We don’t want to be put into your society,” Biko said forcefully. “I am going to be me—as I am—and you can put me
into prison, or even kill me, but I am not going to be what you want me to be.”
 - Biko didn’t want to involve with white.
- He wanted to create his own government.
- Biko and black have strong determination to deserve the black identity.
8. “But we want to march our own time.” Mapetla declared bitterly. “The best you want for us is to sit at your table
with your knives and forks; and if we learn to do it right, you will kindly let us stay. We want to wipe the table clean.
It is an African table. We are going to sit at it in our own right.
 - The white wanted black to follow their cruel system. If they followed  let they stayed. But black wanted to have
an equal right and live peacefully.
9. “ In your white world, everything white is normal – the way the world should be – and everything black is wrong, or
some kind of mistakes...And your real achievement is that for years you’ve convinced most of us of that idea, too”
 White tried to show other in general that white is good, black is bad.


1. Why do you think Biko took Woods to visit Zanempilo and asked him to visit the black township?
 to change Woods perception
2. What can you infer from the story told by the black people and their use of language?
 - Story: White tried to took the black land.
- Languages: They showed close relationship in the family and society.
3. What are the significant information do you think Woods learn from the trip?
 He might feel that in fact he never realized the life of black.
4. In these chapters, there are illustration of the unfair aspects of law between the black and the white in South Afirca.
Discuss your findings and quote the details from the story to support your opinion.
 - Black received serious punishment. ( if Biko got caught outside his banning area)
- Taxi: Black taxi was the old and carried many passengers as much as possible.
- Pass and properties law: sign black’s pass every month, the white governments tell you which house to live in and
what the rent is.
5. What might be changes in Woods’ attitude toward the black people?
 - Woods might support Biko to fight back.
- Woods might share his idea to prepare a good plan.
- Woods might allow black people to work with him.
- Woods might write some good article about Biko.......


 Supposing that you are Donald Woods. During the eating with black family, Woods and Biko seriously disagreed with each other
on the issues between the black and the white.
Write the possible conversation between Biko and Woods.
Note: Make sure your writing includes their logical reasons to defend their position.

Woods: Look, I think South Africa would be a better place to live in if you let us liberals gradually fit you into our society.
Biko: But how will you fit us into your society, Mr. Woods?... By giving us a slightly education so that we can have a slightly-paid
job and you can easily cheat and convince us?... Listen, Mr. Woods, we are black people and this is South Africa, the
country for black people. We don’t want to be put into any society, but to live the way we are, the way we want to be in.
We don’t want you to give us everything; we want to have it by ourselves.
Woods: But we liberals can give you some advantages that you and your black world don’t have…if only you listen to us…For
example, we have a good health care system, you see, only few of our children died.
Biko: All you can say is that your society is better than other societies. But, why don’t you mention other inconveniences your
society has?...Guns, bombs, anxiety and conflicts and many else…But we are different from you; we don’t think life is an
endless competition. We believe that we can give something to the others too, by teaching them how to live together
Woods: You did have the tribal war in you society, didn’t you?
Biko: Yes, of course we have…But you don’t? What do you called WWI and WWII? Weren’t they caused by your white society?
Listen, Mr. Woods, our case is simple; we just want to be treated equally and be allowed to have our way of living.

 Supposing that you are Donald Woods. After visiting many places with Biko, you decided to write down the information you
learnt into your diary.
Note: You should include as much as possible.

Biko was right. Black people know how we whites live, but we have no idea how black South Africans live.

When we went to the black township, there were nine of us in the taxi. I sat in the back, wearing

somebody’s hat to cover my hair. I was so squashed that I couldn’t even move my hands. We drove

around, watching the crowds of people until the evening rush was over. Then four of us went on foot

down side the streets. Most woman work as domestic servants, so they see their children only on Sundays.

Biko took me to eat with a black family—twelve people living in four rooms, with no electricity, and they

have to fetch water from an outside tap and heat it on the cooker. We sat and talked about the

differences between black and conditions, I tried to understand their feelings and their bitterness. I

realize now that I have never understood the feelings of the black community. . (Donald Woods)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C O N F R O N T A T I O N


 confrontation (n) : being face to face; meeting between opposing sides
 board (n) : the large flat piece of wood
 murmur (n) : low whisper of voices or low sounds
 appeal (n) : request to the law courts to consider a verdict
 pride (n) : pleasure in your own abilities/ achievement/ possessions
 bribe (n) : money given illegally to someone
 revenge (n) : action to harm someone in return for harm he has caused
 informer (n) : person who informs against his accomplices
 ban (n) : law/ instruction which forbid something
 poison (n) : substance which kills or makes you ill if it is swallowed or it gets into the blood stream
 flash (n) : short sudden burst of light or emotion
 instantly (adv) : straight away, immediately
 hatred (n) : great dislike
 struggle (v) : to fight violently
 prosecutor (n) : government lawyer who accuses a criminal in a law court on behalf of the state
 terrorism (n) : policy of using violence in a political cause
 anxious (v) : very worried
 township (n) : small town and the administrative area round it
 sacrifice (n) : killing of animal/ person as an offering to a god
 trap (n) : device to catch animals
 trial (n) : a court case to judge a criminal
 platform (n) : raised floor space for speakers in a hall
 disturb (v) : to bother/ to worry someone
 hood (n) : loose covering for the head attached to a coat
 priest (n) : person who has been ordained to serve god
 appreciate (v) : to increase value
 betray (v) : to reveal a secret about someone to his enemies
 warrant (n) : written official paper permitting someone to something
 van (n) : small vehicle for carrying goods by road or rail
 sympathetic (adj) : showing empathy
 nappy (n) : towel used to cover a baby’s bottom
 gasp (n) : show intake of breath


Chapter 6
Six weeks later, one morning Donald Woods arrived late at the offices of the Daily Dispatch. Tenjy and Mapetla followed him.
People stopped to stare at them as they walked quickly through the newsroom. One journalist spilt coffee all over her desk. Ken
Robertson lifted his head to speak, stopped with his mouse open. After Woods presented Tenjy and Mapetla to Ken, he stared at
Woods and them. Woods asked Ann to meet two new reporters and Ken to teach them how to use cameras. Woods let them to work
in the large open office, the newsroom. Their roles are to cover black news- wedding, music, sport, crime. They’ll start writing
about Black Consciousness. After visiting the clinic at Zanempilo, Wendy becomes friends with Mamphetla, Ntsiki, and Biko. Not long
afterwards, Woods invited Ken to meet him out in the country one Sunday afternoon. They went to the black football match by a
black taxi with Mapetla in the back seat. As they walked towards the small stadium, three men stepped in front of them, ready to
prevent them from going in until John Qumza said Steve had asked them to come. Then Mzimbi, a black leader openly calling for
violent revolution was wanted by the securities police. Next, Biko said we’re going to change South Africa; the white man can be
defeated. Biko convinced the crowd not to kill someone but to kill the idea that one kind of man is better than another kind of man.
We have got to fill the black community with our own pride- something we make out of our own lives, and to teach our children
black history by telling them our black heroes and black society.

Chapter 7
Supporters of black revolution say if 3 black people meet together, one of them will be an informer for the government. There are
so many ways to bribe informers: a job, a work permit for a son or daughter. Then Biko was brought to the police station in King
William’s Town because he’s out of your banning area and talking to a crowd. Biko and De Wet got argued, and De Wet hit Biko on
his face. Instantly, Biko jumped up and hit him across the face with same force, but De Wet stopped the detective because Biko’s
going to be a witness at another trial. Biko felt very angry and wanted to hit De Wet by saying, ‘nothing to be afraid of, we just as
weak and human as you are’. De Wet, ‘we’re going to catch you one day, then we’ll see how human you are.’ It was different Steve
Biko entering the witness box two weeks later in a court in Pretoria, the capital of South Africa, 800 km north of King William Town,
was dressed in a suit, a tie, a white shirt. His intelligence was going to be tested by the State Prosecutor and Judge Regter. Two
years earlier, a group of Black Consciousness leaders were arrested and kept in jail without being charged. Biko said we believed
South Africa needs all parts of the community. The Prosecutor attempted to involve Biko in the terrorism, but Biko could reflex this
word to bad things the government did- about police beating people and shooting people, starving people in the townships. He
claimed to avoid using violence, and he just told the blacks people to stop accepting those problems, to confront them. The whole
point of black consciousness was hope for them and for the country-to build a sense of our own humanity, our proper place in the

Chapter 8
The next Board meeting was not easy for Woods to print Biko’s words. Many newspapers had used Biko’s words, so the government
would not attack one particular newspaper. After the court, Dilima, the night guard at the old church in King William’s Town was
disturbed by noises outside the yard. Then the front door crashed open and Dilima saw three big men entering with iron bar and
covering their heads, faces. Everything was smashed. Biko asked Woods to come to the church with Wendy. Later Woods went to
meet Kruger at his home outside Pretoria on Saterday. They started to talk about Biko. Kruger showed starving women and children
to Woods. Kruger started to tell the white built this country, and the white weren’t going to give all this away. Then Kruger said he
knew more about Biko than Woods. Woods started to talk about the smashed church with Kruger, and told him the one did it. Kruger
said he shall pursue this matter. Finally, Woods was amused.

Chapter 9
On Sunday afternoon, Wendy was in the kitchen and Woods was reading in the living room, when someone banged on the front door.
Two men came to ask for witness from Woods by stating the law to push Woods to tell them. The orders came from the very top
one. Finally, Woods could know Kruger had betrayed him. After that, nothing happened for several weeks. Woods printed a long
article by Tenjy and Mapetla about the damage done to the church, and another flood of gifts poured in. Thursday afternoon, a
court official was waiting at the door and handed him an envelope from the court. Then Woods went to meet Biko and told him the
white wanted to break off our friendship. Woods aimed to prevent Dilima although whatever happens. Biko said a rotten policeman
was a rotten policeman. Later on at Biko’s house, about a week later, Biko was writing an article for Woods to be printed the Daily
Dispatch under anther name. According the banning order, he was not allowed to write anything, not even a letter. Someone
banged loudly on the front door. They were Lemick and his two regular minders. They had orders to search your house for dangerous
documents. Then Biko tried to suspend the time and made them annoyed. Nothing was found in the house.


1. How did the workers at the Daily Dispatch react when seeing Tenjy and Mapetla? Why do you think they had such
 The workers at Daily Dispatch felt very surprised and shocked when seeing Tenjy and Mapeltla; they stared at them,
and one journalist split coffee all over her desk, Ken Robertson wanted to speak, but stopped with his mouse open.
 They had such reaction because it was amazing that black people entered the Daily Dispatch which was the white
2. Who were the main speakers at the black stadium? What were the main points of their speech?
 Mzimbi—black leader who was looking for by the police—and Biko.
 The main points of their speech was to tell the black what the white government had done to them, to tell them not
to accept this suffering condition and to tell them to fight for freedom. But the speakers gave different ways of
fighting: Mzimbi encouraged people to fight for freedom in a violent way, while Biko encouraged people to fight for
freedom from the white government by using idea confrontation.
3. What happened to Biko after giving speech at the stadium?
 He was brought to the police office in King William’s Town.
4. How did the State prosecutor attempt to trap Biko in the court? How did Biko respond?
 The state Prosecutor attempt to trap Biko by asking from one question to another question in order that Biko accept
that he called for direct confrontation.
 Biko responded that though he called for direct confrontation, he didn’t mean the violent confrontation, but the idea
confrontation without violent.
5. What was the main concept that Biko wanted to convince the participants in the court?
 He wanted to convince/to tell the participants about the concepts of Black Consciousness in changing South Africa.
6. What happened to the church and Biko’s house after the court?
 After the court, at the church, three big men smashed everything- windows, typewriters, chairs, children’s toys, and
telephone in Biko’s room on the desk.
Then, at Biko’s house, Lemick and two minders wanted to find out the papers Biko was working on.
7. Who did Woods seek for help concerning the smash-up at the church? What was the result?
 For the smashed down there, Wood decided to seek for help from Mr. Kruger, minister police.
 But the result was that Lemick came to threaten him to tell the name of the witness. (Kruger betrayed him)


1. ‘Where are we going?’ Ken demanded.
‘Should I have let my family know I might not be back?
 When Ken demanded this he concerned that he, a white, would be killed by the blacks when he went to Black
2. ‘Why does the white man stir up trouble between us? Because when we fight among ourselves, he can convince our
friends overseas that it is right to tell where to live, and how to live.’
 Mzimbi wanted to tell black people not to fight among each other, but to cooperate, because when they fought, the
white would easily convince other countries that black people were violent, they must be under the control the white
who were the peace keeper.
3. ‘If the only way we can get the message to him is to make sure he can never sleep in his big white bed in his big
white house and know he is safe—then that is how it must be!’
 (Teacher’s idea) Mzimbi wanted to show that the blacks now is growing, full of black liberal, and strong cooperation
and this concerned white people.
 (My idea) I think Mzimbi was encouraging the black to fight violently!!!. There are some reasons that I think this:
o He used the word ‘the only way’, which means it is the last choice. What can be the last choice is fighting
o Mzimbi was known to be a black leader who called for violence. So, he might also be calling for violence this
o The confusing words here is ‘Never’; let’s think about these two:
 Never sleep in his big white bed in his big white house + know he is safe????
 Never sleep in his big white bed in his big white house + never know he is safe????
4. ‘Then,’ Biko declared forcefully, ‘then we will stand up to him in any way he chooses. Confrontation if he likes, but
an open hand, too-to say that we can both build a South Africa worth living in. A South Africa for equal men-black or
white. A South Africa as beautiful as we are!’’.
 This quotation Biko and the black just wanted to negotiate with the white government or to protest them for equal
right in order to live in the world of Africa peacefully, with same job opportunities, high education, and economic
5. ‘Come on, don’t be afraid. Once you try, you’ll see that there’s nothing to be afraid of. We’re just as weak and
human as you are.’
 Biko wanted to mock at De Wet and the whites as the whole that they were afraid of confronting in terms of ideas with
the black because when ever the black want to confront, the police always responded to them in a violent way.
6. ‘That’s right. We will not accept society as it exists in South Africa. We demand confrontation.’... ‘you and I are now
in confrontation, but I see no violence.’
 Biko wanted to change South Africa by confronting non-violently with the government. He wanted to negotiate with
the government to change South Africa which was suitable for both black and white people.
7. ‘We are telling them to stop accepting those problems, to confront them. Black society has lost hope in itself, it feels
defeated. We believe that black people must not give in; they must find ways –even in this situation-to develop hope.
Hope for themselves, hope for this country. That is the whole point of Black Consciousness –to build within ourselves
a sense of our own humanity, our proper place in the world…’’
 This quotation want to show that blacks lived in the bad condition because they were uneducated and under white
ideology. That was why Biko decided to give education and health care to the blacks. He asked for cooperation, built
confidence and hope among the black to confront with the white government to get freedom and live peacefully and
8. ‘Let me tell you, Mr. Woods, any Afrikaner family could show you the same thing. We built this country. Do you think
we are going to give all this away? That is what Mr. Biko wants. This is a black country, he says. Gott! What is here
was made by Afrikaner work and struggle and blood. The blacks come to us for work-remember that. We did not
force them to work.’’
 This quote shows the stand of the white toward this country (South Africa). They wouldn’t allow black people to
interfere in governing this country because they thought that South Africa today was the result of their hardworking
and sacrificed lives. Moreover, the black themselves who came to work; the white did not force them.
9. ‘We know we must find a way to work together and live together. We are trying to find a way. Maybe it’s a little too
slow for some of them, but Mr. Biko is giving them false hope. We are not just going to roll over and give all this
 Kruger was telling Woods that he also believed that black and white can live and work together, and he was trying to
find a way for this to happen. But the way of living and working together that he (Kruger) mentioned was different
from what Biko usually told the black because in whatever condition black must be under the control of the white.
10. ‘Report to whoever you like. Our orders come from the very top.’
 It told Woods not to protest against them (the police). It’s useless; he’d better cooperate with them.
11. ‘A rotten policeman is a rotten policeman. He breaks heads for the same reasons.’
 It means police always used law to ban, put in jail, and kill the blacks. Whenever the white thought that the blacks
were wrong, they used law to arrest and kill them.


 Suppose you were the journalist in the court in Pretoria. After hearing Biko’s speech, you decided to print his speech in the
news paper for tomorrow.
Produce an article about the event during the court in Pretoria.
The Daily Dispatch

Reported by Miguel Makara,
a sincere journalist

Yesterday morning, a trial was brought against Steve Biko, known as a
black leader of Black Consciousness, in the national court of Pretoria. The
situation during the trial was tense with serious questions from the State
Prosecutor. He tried to make Mr. Biko confess that he had accused the government
of being terrorist, and that he had called for violence from the two students’
organizations two years earlier. Standing tall and proud in the witness box, Mr.
Biko responded to the State Prosecutor with confidence that he did believe in
the existence of terrorism of the government. However, his terrorism referred to
the violence that the police do to the black people, the starvation in the
townships and the desperate and hopeless people. He also accepted that he did
call for confrontation—the idea confrontation, not the violent confrontation.
The participant in the court listened to him silently. ‘Black society has
lost hope in itself, it feels defeated…we believe that black people must not
give in; they must find ways—even in this situation—to develop hope…hope for
themselves, hope for the country,’ said Biko, ‘that’s the whole point of Black
Consciousness—to build within ourselves a sense of our humanity, our proper
place in the world.’ Listeners were filled with Biko’s humanity. It seems like
yesterday’s trial was the stage for Biko to send out the concept of Black
Consciousness to the public.

 Suppose you were Donald Woods. After football match, the smash-up at the church, and the court in Pretoria, you decided to
write down the information you have learnt into your dairy.

The government often accused black leaders of being terrorists, but Biko thought that the government

itself was guilty of terrorism. I think he was right when he said the violence that the police have done to

black people; and the starvation, the despair, and hopelessness that black people encounter in the

townships contribute to the terrorism. Though the government tries to stop Biko in many ways—hot and

cool—, Biko still tries to find way to tell black people to confront the problem of the society and to build

sense of their own humanity. He wants to challenge face-to-face with the government by using ideas, not

violent action. He doesn’t believe that violence is the solution and he wants to influence the government

by the force of his argument. (Donald Woods)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- T H E S Y S T E M F I G H T S B A C K


 pass : an official document or ticket which shows that you have the right to go somewhere
 bantu : offensive word used to refer to individual black people
 warrant : an official document, signed by a judge or other person in authority, which gives the police permission
to search someone home, arrest a person, or take some other action
 hatred : an extremely strong feeling of dislike
 inquest : an official process to discover the cause of someone death
 roadblock : a temporary structure put across a road to stop traffic
 corridor : a long passage in a building, esp with rooms on either side
 march : to walk with regular steps keeping the body stiff, usually in a formal group of people who are all
walking in the same way
 sympathy : understanding and care for someone else’ suffering
 mortuary : a building 0r a room in a hospital where dead bodies are kept so that they can be examined before the
 despair : lose or be without hope
 coffin : a long box which a dead body is buried
 stiffen : to become less relaxed and more formal
 parcel : an object or collection of objects wrapped in paper, esp so that it can be sent by post
 desperate : feeling that you have no hope


Chapter 10
Woods faced six months in prison if he didn’t give the name of Dilima to the court. If after the six months, he still refused to give
the name, he would another six months in prison. However, under the work of Harold Levy, Woods was released on a legal point.
Later that evening Woods was in the living room telling the children about his trial. Suddenly, there were two policemen came to
inspect and question Evalina, the servant in Wood’s house, for her pass. Finally, by using the gun, Woods was able to protect Evalina
and his family. The the two policemen got back after checking Evalina’s pass. The next day the police took their revenge. Ken saw
it all, even got pictures of it. it happened in the middle of the morning. The police came to arrest Mapetla in front of the Dispatch
building. Later that night, Woods told Wendy what had happened, and they discussed the problem. Eventually, Woods decided not
to print the pictures due to remaining Mapetla’s safty. Suddenly, there was a loudly knock on the front door. It was Biko who
wantned to know about Mapetla. He told them that he wanted to have a word in the important meeting of black students before
they decide anything. For two days later, Woods didn’t print news of Mapetla’s arrest, and the police refuse to give him any
information about Mapetla. Woods hoped that the police would release him in a few days. In contrast, at 12 o’clock, when the
streets around the Dispatch were most busy, the police drove to the Dispatch to arrest another black person who was Tenjy Mtinso.
Ken began taking pictures as Woods tried to help Tenjy by asking for the charges in the warrant, but it was impossible for him. The
next day, Woods printed the photograph of Mapetla’s arrest, as well as those of Tenjy’s arrest, on the front page of the Daily
Dispatch. Then late one evening Ken went to say goodnight to Woods and to announce the death of Mapetla. Biko, despite his
sorrow, was able to demand an inquest and Wifred Cooper agreed to represent Mapetla’s family and Biko. The main witness at the
inquest was Tenjy. This inquest has been called to determine the reason for the death of , Mapetla Mohapi who was found hanged in
prison. According to the example shown by Tenjy in court, it appeared to Woods that the death of Mapetla was resulted from the
brutality of the security officer, Captain Schoeman, and his colleague.

Chapter 11
One night Biko and his closest friend, Peter Jone drove to Cape Town in order to hand the writhen document and posters of
Mapetla’s arrest as well as to join the black students’ meeting. Then after driving back more than half-way home to King William’s
Town, they were stopped by the police at road-block outside Port Elizabeth. The police inspected their car and questioned their
identity. Finally, Biko was arrested. Six days later, a police car with guard dogs and a doctor drove through the forest trees to the
Walmer police station in Port Elizabeth. The doctor was led by the chief police officer to treat a naked figure lying on the bare
floor. It was Biko who was deeply unconscious as he was badly attacked. At that time the doctor said with fear but with as much
determination as he could manage to the police officer that the prisoner was in serious condition. He should be sent to a hospital in
Port Elizabeth, 4km away. However, the police thought that he was pretending and he refused to send him to the hospital
recommended by the doctor since he thought that Biko could escape, so he decided to take him to the police hospital in Pretoria
which was a thousand km away as he was in the purpose of leaving Biko died.

Chapter 12
In the night Woods knew that Biko was dead in custody. This was on the front page of the Daily Dispatch the next morning. The
news was taken up by every newspaper in the country and Woods also called his friends outside South Africa so that the story was
printed in almost every country in the world. In the black townships, black crowds attacked police station, and in crossroads, there
were thousands marched in a procession that went on for a whole day and night, with drums and wild singing. The minister of
police, Mr. kruger, denied police responsibility for Biko’s death. He said that Biko died because he starved to death in the prison.
Kruger’s smiling face drove Woods into action. The next day Woods and Ken drove to King William’s Town to meet Nstiki( Biko’s
wife) in order to tell her to demand an inquest. At the mortuary, Woods could see that Biko had been seriously attacked, and Ken
took photograph of the bruised body. The funeral was held two days later.

Chapter 13
Two days after Biko’s funeral Woods flew north to Pretoria for a national meeting of editors. On the day, Wendy was alone in the
house with children, watching the news on television in her bedroom. Suddenly, they heard the sound of a car outside. Then, there
were two men running from the car to garden wall, and they started to fire the gun thrice toward their house. For Woods when
leaving Pretoria, he phoned Cape Town to ask Bruce Mccullough, one of his Australian oldest friends, and Farther Kani to come to
his house that evening to discuss about his plan of releasing the truth of Biko’s death. Woods booked his flight to Boston through
New York. The day before he left he printed the pictures of Biko’s body with an editorial demanding an inquest. Then he flew to
Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa, using a false a name, to catch the evening plane to New York. Bruce met him at the
airport in Johannesburg. Bruce told him that he had sent copies of the photograph to England and America. Unfortunately, while
walking down the hall to the security desk, Woods was caught by the security desk, Woods was caught by the security police. Then,
he was declared a banned person. He was forbidden to meet with more than one person at a time, except for members of his
family. Also, he was forbidden to write anything, either privately or printed. Furthermore, he was forbidden to enter any printing
offices of any kind, and he was to stay within the district of East London for a period of 5 years.

Chapter 14
The second he was home Woods started writing about Biko, using the typewriter. A few minutes later, the police burst into the
house. That is how Woods learned that the house was bugged. Therefore, Woods dare to type only when Jane was at home and
reading his study. After three months, Woods finished writing. Then he invited Father Kani to the house and showed him the
manuscript. Farther Kani took it away with him, secretly, to read. Three days later he came back, and said that he liked it, but
because of caring about Woods’ securtiy, he suggested him to destroy what he had written or leave South Africa with it. Finally,
Woods decided to call Bruce and asked him to come and visit him. Bruce agreed with Kani, but instead of telling Woods to destroy
the manuscript, he contacted a friend in London who promised to publish it if it reached London. A few days later, Woods and
Wendy took the children to one of many beaches on the East London coast. At that time, Woods told Wendy that they must leave
South Africa so that the book on Biko could be published in England. However, Wendy strongly disagreed with his idea. More than
ten days later, there was a parcel sent for Duncan and Mary. It consisted of a T-shirt printed a picture of Biko on the front, and a
very small shirt. Unfornately, the shirts contained the chemical substance which burnt the both kids’ skin. Wendy, knowing that
South Africa was not safe for her anymore, decided to follow Woods’ words.


1. What happened to Woods’ house after his trial was. Describe the situation.
 Two policemen went to his house to check Evalina’s pass.
There were an argument between Woods and the two policemen.
2. What happened to Mapetla and Tenjy?
 They were both arrested, and Mapetla died in prison.
3. What happened to Biko after returning from the meeting of the black students?
 He was caught outside his banning area.
4. Describe how seriously injured Biko was when the doctor examined him. Which hospital did they take Biko to?
 His hands were tied behind his back, and one leg tied to the bars of the wall.
He was breathing heavily.
His body was covered with bruises.
His forehead and his eyes were seriously injured.
There were cuts on his chest and lips.
He was deeply unconscious.
His reflex indicated possible brain damage.
 They took him to the police hospital in Pretoria which was a thousand km away.
5. What are the reactions of the black after Biko died and? What was the reason for Biko’s death provided by the police?
 Black crowds attacked police stations. Huge fire was lit in the township every evening until the funeral. In
crossroad, thousands marched in a procession that went on for the whole day and into the night, with drums and
wild singing.
 Police said that, once in custody, Mr Biko had refused to eat. He starved himself to death.
6. What did Woods attempt to do to Biko’s death?
 Asked Ntsiki to demand an inquest in order to find the truth of Biko’s death.
He attempted to spread the news of Biko’s death.
7. What are the possible reasons that Woods was arrested?
 He cooperated with the black to fight back the white.
He allowed the black to work with him
He wanted to publish the reality of Biko’s death.
8. What happened to him during the banning?
 He was forbidden to meet with more with more than one person at a time, except for members of his family.
He was forbidden to write anything.
He must stay within the district of East London for a period of five years.
Day and night, two security policemen sat across the road at his house.
A T-shirt printed Biko’s picture on the front and a very small shirt sent to his house burning his children’s skin.

1. ‘She is a woman not a female Bantu!’ Woods shouted, pointing the gun to the white policemen. Why do you think
Woods had such a reaction to the police?
 They threatened Evalina by using the bad words as if she was an animal.
 Woods hated the police because Kruger betrayed him
2. What are the possible reasons that the police arrested Mapetla and Tenjy?
 They were the black, but they worked with the white. They broke the constitution law.
The white were afraid of confrontation
The white wanted to reduce the black’s agents by separating the black and the white. (threaten the black)
3. Why did Biko try to join the meeting of the black students, despite the dangerous situation of being caught?
 He wanted them to hear what he had to say before they decide something.
He didn’t want them to use violence.
He wanted to deal in peaceful way with the white government.
4. Why didn’t the police send Biko to the nearest hospital?
 He wanted to let Biko died.
He is a prisoner, so if police didn’t send him to the police hospital in Pretoria and sent him to the hospital in Port
Elizabeth, there maybe black people who came to help him.
They wanted to hide the reality of Biko’s injury.
5. Describe Woods’ attempt to spread the news of Biko’s death.
 Printed the photo of Biko’s body and demanded an inquest before going to USA (but he couldn’t go).
Wrote a manuscript about Biko and his death
Left South Africa to publish the book
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- E S C A P E F R O M S O U T H A F R I C A


Chapter 15
Bruce McCullough and Father Kani helped Woods to plan his escape. One day in December, Woods went secretly to meet Bruce
who would tell him about the plan for Woods to escape.
On 31st December, the day that everyone will be having a parties and drinking, and the police won’t be careful, was the best day for
escape. Woods has to change himself into Father David Curren, an Irish priest and hitch-hikes to north of Queenstown, where
Father Kani waits. Then Kani will drive Woods to Lesotho border. Woods will cross the river Telle into Lesotho at night where Bruce
will be waiting him and driving him to Maseru (the capital of Lesotho). Woods can fly from Maseru to Botswana.
Five day later, Woods met father Kani to know about the plan for his wife and children to escape.
On 1st January, Wendy would pretend to go to the beach, but in fact, she has to drive to Umtata, her parents’ house and waits until
Woods phones her at 10 o’clock. After, she would drive on to the Lesotho border.
31st December was a warm and sunny day. Woods changed himself into Father Curren, took the manuscript, and left with sorrow.
Wendy drove Woods to the main road north to King William’s town and stopped at the long line of hitch-hikers. It began to rain and
Woods hitch-hiked to Queenstown where he can meet Kani and continue his journey. As it was raining and the road was climbing
higher and higher, it was very difficult for a little car to drive. However, they still can reach river Telle. Woods tried to cross the
river, but the water was moving so fast, so he decided to come back to the edge of the river at 6.05 a.m.

Chapter 16
Twenty minute after, Woods had found the village and met Tami Vundla, the black elderly man, so he tried to tell his story. Tami
drove Woods to the Telle Bridge by his very old car. Then, he arrived at the bridge and met Moses who had given him a ride to
Maseru, but they had to pass through the Lesotho.
Meanwhile, Wendy was on the road to Umtata with the children. They met some difficulty as the road damaged.

Chapter 17
In Lesotho, Woods finally met Bruce and they went to Maseru. After arrival, they went to the British High Commission in order to
meet the High Commissioner, but they were in London, so he met the Acting High Commissioner, James Moffat. Woods demanded
to use the phone urgently because he had to call to his wife.
In Umtata, Wendy arrived just at the moment that Woods called, and she picked up the phone and Woods told her to go quickly to
Maseru as much as possible. Then, Wendy’s parents drove her and the children to the Telle Bridge.

Chapter 18
James Moffat acted quickly as soon as he understood what Woods’ problem was. Chief Jonathan, Prime Minister of Lesotho, wanted
to help Woods too, but his country was dependent on South Africa. Therefore, Moffat contacted, John Monyane, who would be
sympathetic to a liberal white South African. Monyane listened to Moffat’s description and read the manuscript. Then, Woods said
that he had hoped to fly to Botswana. Monyane said that in order to fly anywhere out of Lesotho, Woods had to fly 500km over
South Africa and South African Government demanded that all planes Lesotho must land in South Africa before going on. Woods felt
trapped, but at least he had to get his family somewhere safe, so Moffat sent someone to meet them and bring them to meet Woods
It was heavily raining at Telle Bridge. Talk about Wendy and the children, they ran through the rain to the passport building after
they arrived at the Bridge. Wendy told the passport official that she was taking her children to the holiday. As they looked ahead to
the Lesotho side of the Bridge, they could saw a Lesotho Government Land Rover and they drove them to meet Woods.
The next morning, Bruce, Woods, Wendy, and the children went to the airport and met Mr McElrea, a Canadian, who was the boss
of the three planes that flow out of Lesotho. He said that he would risk one plane, if its pilot was willing to fly out without landing
in South Africa. Richie De Montauk, a pilot from New Zealand, was called into the office. Without a moment’s hesitation, he agreed
to make the flight. They had decided to fly south-west of Johannesburg and then into the Gaberone, the Capital of Botswana.
Suddenly, Moffat and McElrea went to meet Woods and told that the South African Government knows about the flight; they have
refused to allow the plane to fly over South Africa. If you do, they will force the plane down. Then, Moyane came and told that
“Chief Jonathan has arranged United Nations passports for all of you, and he has decided that I should accompany you to
Botswana.” Then, they flight to Botswana.


9. Describe Woods ‘plan to escape from South Africa.
 On 31st December, the day that everyone will be having a parties and drinking , and the police won’t be careful, was
the best day for escape. Woods has to change himself into Father David Curren, an Irish priest and hitch-hikes to
north of Queenstown, where Father Kani waits. Then Kani will drive Woods to Lesotho border. Woods will cross the
river Telle into Lesotho at night where Bruce will be waiting him and driving him to Maseru (the capital of Lesotho).
Woods can fly from Maseru to Botswana. On 1st January, Wendy would pretend to go to the beach, but in fact, she has
to drive to Umtata, her parents’ house and waits until Woods phones her at 10 o’clock. After, she would drive on to
the Lesotho border.

6. Do you think it is right that woods risked his whole family’s life to escape from South Africa to get his book published?
 It is good idea because he can publish book. He gets his right and can do everything. He can complete Biko’s wishes. He can
ask for help from other country to fight against the white government. He wouldn’t survive after 5 years if he stays in
South Africa.

--------------------------------------- T H E L I F E A N D W R I T I N G S O F E D G A R A L L A N P O E

It is important that you understand and remember about Poe’s life and his writing, because in some case you might be asked
to compare between the life of the EDGAR ALLAN POE and WILLIAM WILSON. Therefore, open your course book and note down
the important events in Poe’s life.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- W I L L I A M W I L S O N

The narrator introduces himself with what he reveals to be a fake name, “William Wilson.” His real name is such an object of scorn
that he doesn’t want to dirty the page with it. He calls himself an outcast and asks if he is forever dead to the world.
Men, he explains, usually become evil by degrees. But he became evil all at once. Now that death is approaching, he’s going to tell
you his story.
William asks that you look for a degree of fatality in this story, in order to find some degree of sympathy for his character. Man has
never been tempted, never suffered the way that he himself has, he claims. Before beginning his tale, he asks if he has been living
in a dream…
To begin, William established that his family has always been people of overactive imagination and ungovernable passions. His
parents tried to keep him in line, but gave up pretty quickly, and he was left to his own devices at a rather small age.
He recalls his childhood in a Gothic-looking town in England. He’s going to reveal all the details he can; though they seem trivial,
they are actually the early signs of his ultimate fate.
His schoolhouse is old and irregular, with extensive grounds, and is surrounded by a tall brick wall that made it look like a prison.
His school principal was also the pastor of his Church, and he finds this to be an unfathomable paradox (the principal was Draconian
or excessively severe while the pastor was benign or harmless).
Wilson recalls the spiked, intimidating gate at the corner of the wall, as well as the playground. Mostly he remembers the dormitory
building he lived in with other young boys. It is enormous and confusing, such that he never knows how many rooms there are or
where exactly his is located in the grand scheme of the edifice.
Wilson was at school here between the ages of 10 and 15 with about 20 other boys. He remembers enjoying himself immensely, and
remarks that his memory is vivid even though these events are so far back in his childhood.
He recalls that his energy and demeanour gave him mastery over most of the other boys at the school – except for one boy in
particular, who, by some bizarre coincidence, shares the exact same name! Since he’s using the name “William Wilson,” for the
purposes of this story, this other boy is also named “William Wilson.” Anyway, this other William is stiff competition both on the
playground and in the classroom.
Secretly, William is afraid of this other boy. He fears that, if the other William can so easily match him, he must be secretly better
than him. And yet, amazingly, none of the other boys seem to notice their rivalry! The second William doesn’t even have any
motivation to do well, other than to compete with our narrator William. Oddly enough, William sometimes perceives an affection on
the part of the second boy for him.
Another strange coincidence is that this second William Wilson entered school the same day as our William Wilson, and, amazingly,
was also born on the same day.
Still, William finds that he cannot hate this other boy completely. Perhaps, if they hadn’t had this competition, they would have
been friends. Even as it stands, they are essentially inseparable.
He would describe their antagonism as more of the practical joke variety rather than the open hostility type. But this second
William hates to be laughed at. He has a deficiency about which he is sensitive: he cannot raise his voice above a whisper.
The narrator pauses to reflect on his real name (remember that “William Wilson” is a made-up name for the purposes of this story).
He hates his real name. He finds it to be commonplace. As such, he resents this other boy for doubling the frequency with which he
has to hear his own name.
As if that were not annoying enough, the second William has taken to imitating the first William in appearance, dress, and
mannerism. Though, strangely enough, the narrator seems to be the only one to notice this.
The second William also has a habit of interfering with the first William’s activities. He has a strong moral sense and often imposes
it on our narrator in the form of advice.
At first, William maintains some affection for this other boy, but over the years his feelings grow to hatred. One night, after fighting
physically with the other boy, he has the strangest feeling that he has known this boy some time very long ago, in his early years.
Shortly after, in his fifth year at the school, he decides to play a practical joke on the second William. The boarding house, as he
has already mentioned, is full of nooks and crannies and odd little rooms. The second William Wilson, our narrator’s foe, lives in a
very tiny room that is basically the size of a closet. The narrator creeps to his nemesis’s room and approaches him as he sleeps.
Except, as he peers at the sleeping face of his foe, William is suddenly possessed by horror. Is it really William Wilson at whom he
stared? The face seems so very similar to his own. He trembles at the thought that this boy looks like him, was born on the same
day, has the same name…
And so William Wilson leaves the academy, never to return again.
Sometime later, he finds himself at Eton. With no second William Wilson around to gum up the works, he engages in vice to his
heart’s delight. One night, while drunk and carousing at a friend’s place, a guy comes to the door and asks to see William Wilson.
The visitor turns out to be exactly William’s height and wearing exactly the same clothes. He whispers “William Wilson!” in our
narrator’s ear before departing (29).
For the next few weeks, William tries to figure out where this guy comes from, or what he wants, or really who he is. He finds no
answer, though he does discover that the second William Wilson left their school the same day he himself did.
Soon enough William moves on from Eton to Oxford, where he gets to engage in vice with all of his privileged classmates. He takes
up gambling as a way of increasing his own pocketbook at the expense of his friends.
Two years into this vice-fest, William makes the acquaintance of an extremely wealthy young nobleman named Glendinning. He
gradually befriends Glendinning and earns his trust. William even lets Glendinning win at cards a few times so he’ll start to feel
comfortable with gambling.
Then comes the sting: William gets the nobleman alone at a card table, surrounded by spectators, drunk, and eager to bet all of his
fortune, which William gladly wins. At first he thinks, no big deal, this kid’s pockets are deep enough to cover it, but he soon finds
out that he has utterly ruined the young nobleman, who is now completely broke.
At this moment, the doors to the apartment in which they were gambling are thrown open, and there stands a man in a cloak –
exactly the same cloak that William Wilson was wearing that night. This mysterious fellow steps forward and tells the men in the
room to examine the inner lining of William’s left sleeve.
The young men do, and of course find the treasure trove of cheating paraphernalia that William has been using for years to ensure
his victory at cards.
The young men hand William Wilson his cloak and ask him to leave – the party, Oxford, and their friendship.
William Wilson flees. He travels all over the world trying to lose his double, but he is never able to do so. He tries to figure out what
this man wants, but all he concludes is that this second William Wilson interferes with him every time he gets up to some mischief.
The second William Wilson never lets our narrator see the details of his face. But Wilson is sure that he is the same boy from his
childhood days at school.
For a long time William is left with no option but to submit to his double’s will and stop doing mischief. But as time goes by, he
begins to resist, to rebel.
In Rome, William is at a masquerade and attempting to meet up with a married woman for the purposes of an affair. He’s busy
looking for her in the crowd when he hears a whisper in his ear. Wheeling around, William sees his double, the second William
Wilson, wearing a costume exactly identical to his own, but with his face concealed. William drags his double into a small room and
shuts the door behind him.
Now he’s really angry. William demands that his double draw his sword, and then runs him through with his own weapon. He turns
around to lock the door, lest anyone come in, but when he turns back around finds that the scene has changed. Rather than face
the second William Wilson, he now faces a large mirror.
As he steps forward to the mirror, he sees his nemesis or enemy William Wilson reflected in it, pale and bloodied and rather about
to die. The reflection begins speaking, but not in a whisper as he usually does. The narrator fancies that he himself was speaking, in
fact, as his nemesis spoke.
“You have conquered,” the reflection tells Wilson, “and I yield” (54). But he explains that William is now also dead, since he only
existed through his double. “Thou hast murdered thyself,” he concludes (54).


1. How did Wilson become bad?
 He became bad because he let his desires control him.
2. Why was William Wilson telling this story?
 Because he nearly died, he wanted others to understand his sufferings and to find solution to control one’s desire.
How his evil thing began.
3. What kind of family did William Wilson come from?
 He came from a fanciful family and too lively mind.
4. What was the playground behind the house like?
 No trees, the ground is hard like stone.
5. What soon separated William Wilson from the other boys?
 The warmth of his character and his wish to lead and command others boys.
6. Who was also born on the 19th of January 1809?
 The second William Wilson.
7. When did William Wilson first see hanging over him the terrible promise of things to come?
 When he first came to his first school.
8. Tell about the house-how many rooms did it have and how was it built?
 The house was very old and really big. It has too many rooms to count. It was built with high wall, iron gate with iron
points at the top. For each room to every other there were sure to be three or four steps either up or down.
Then the room branched into each other, and these branches were too many to count, and often turned and came
back upon themselves
9. What did the other William Wilson do or not do that troubled Wilson greatly? Explain.
 He didn’t listen to what Wilson commanded, and didn’t believe in Wilson.
 The stand Wilson took against him.
10. How was the boy with the same name different from Wilson?
 By didn’t desire as what Wilson did to stand first.
11. What was the battle that Wilson and I continued to fight?
 To command and control each other.
12. What were my feelings toward Wilson?
 There were no love, but I felt fear of him. Yet I saw something to honor in him, and I wished to learn more about him.
13. What was Wilson’s weakness?
 He wasn’t able to raise his voice above a very low whisper.
14. Why did my anger grow?
 Because of everything happening that showed that in any way, body or mind, William Wilson and I were a like.
15. How did Wilson increase the likeness between us?
 Lay both in words and actions.
16. What happened the last time I saw Wilson at the School?
 I entered Wilson’s room while everyone was asleep and planned to hurt him.
17. What did I see when I moved the light nearer to Wilson’s face?
 I saw the face of Wilson.
18. What did I see the night I went to Wilson’s room?
 The face of William Wilson which is completely the same as his face.
19. How did several moths at home change my feelings about Wilson?
 I forgot all about Wilson and I went to study at famous school and as well as forgot the days at the other school.
20. What did three years of wrongdoing while I was at Eton do to me?
 I had grown bigger in body but smaller in mind.
21. When a group of friends who were as evil as I came to a secret meeting in my room at Eton. What did we do?
 Drank wine, played card and godless talked.
22. Who was the person that the servant said wanted to speak with me?
 William Wilson.
23. What did Wilson do when I met him in the hall?
 He came quickly and taking me by arm and whisper the word William Wilson in my ears.
24. My friends at Oxford University trust me. What kind of a person did they think I was? Explain.
 To them I was the laughing but honorable William Wilson who freely gave gifts to anyone and everyone.
25. How did Glendinning lose his money?
 First got drunk and then he didn’t play well so Wilson play trick with him and took money from him by wining the
26. What did the man about my own height say about my coat after the lights went out?
 He wanted the other people took off my coat and then took through it every carefully.
27. What happened when the wide, heavy doors of the room were suddenly opened?
 Every light in the room went out.
28. What did my friends find in the coat?
 All high cards need to win in the game.
29. What did I notice about my coat and the stranger’s coat?
 The two are a like.
30. What did I do after leaving Oxford University?
 Went to everywhere, from city to city to escape from Wilson.
31. What did I do in Rome, during the Carnival 1853?
 Went to masquerade in the palace of the Duke Di Brogilo. (went to dance)
32. What did I do when Wilson placed his hand upon my shoulder?
 Took him in strong hold and put him in a room.
33. What happened during the fight?
 Some people tried to open the door but I tried to lock it. And I already put the rapier again and again into Wilson’s
34. Who did I kill?
 Myself, William Wilson


1. What were the important points contributing to the wrong doing of the narrator in the story William Wilson? Explain each
point with example.
2. Describe the connection between his wrongdoings, his busy mind, and his hatred of his name William Wilson.
3. How did William Wilson lead his life when he let his desire control him?
4. ‘William Wilson is the man who is battling against his conscience.’ Explain this statement.
5. What are the similarity between William Wilson and Edgar Allan Poe?
6. ‘Men usually go wrong by degrees. From me, in a moment, all goodness fell, as if I had dropped a coat. From small acts of
darkness I passed, in a great step, into the blackest evil ever known.’
7. Analyse the characteristic of the narrator and the head-teacher.
8. ‘I have lost. Yet from now on are you also dead—dead to the World, to Heaven and to Hope! In me you lived—and in my
death, see by this face, which is your own, how wholly, how completely, you have murdered yourself.’ Explain literally and

--------- C H A P T E R 1 : T H E O V E R T H R O W O F M R . J O N E S O F M A N O R F A R M


 lurch : to move in an irregular way, especially making sudden movements backwards or forwards or from side
to side
 boar : a male pig kept for breeding on a farm, or a type of wild pig
 barn : a large building on a farm in which hay and grain are kept
 exhibit : to show sth publicly
 ensconced : positioned safely or comfortably somewhere
 stout : (especially of older people) quite fat and solid-looking
 benevolent : kind and helpful
 perch : to sit on or near the edge of sth
 conceal : to prevent sth from being seen or known about; to hide sth
 tremendous : very great in amount or level, or extremely good
 tread : to put your foot on sth or to press sth down with your foot
 purr : to make a quiet continuous soft sound
 slaughter : to kill an animal for meat
 hideous : extremely ugly or bad
 dwell : to live a place or in a particular way
 abolish : to end an activity or custom officially
 grumble : to complain about sb or sth in an annoyed way
 foxhound : a type of small dog with ears that hang down and short smooth usually black, white and light brown fur
 falter : to lose strength or purpose and stop, or almost stop
 astray : away from the correct path or correct way of doing sth
 enmity : a feeling of hate
 vice : moral fault or weakness in sb’s character
 preliminary : coming before a more important action or event, especially introducing or preparing for it
 in unison : together; at the same time


One night, Mr. Jones, who was the owner of the Manor Farm, was too drunk to remember to do his work on the farm. According to
the strange dream of Old Major who was the middle white boar, all animals were required to join the meeting in the big barn at
that night as soon as Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. When all animals had found the comfort seats already, Old Major started
talking to them. First, he told about the nature of animals’ lives. Then, he said that man is the real enemy they have because only
man who controlled them and made them live in miserable condition. In addition, he also told them how the man got advantages
from animals and how the animals got suffered. Therefore, Old Major gave them a message of Rebellion. He asked all the animals to
pass this message to the future generations until the rebellion is victorious. He added that all the habits of man were evil and all
animals were equal. Next, he started telling the animals about the strange dream of last night. It was the song Beasts of England.
He sang it with the hoarse voice but well enough. Not for long, all animals could sing it five times in delighted succession.
Unfortunately, this song woke Mr. Jones up and he shot the gun because he thought that there was a fox in the yard. All animals
immediately ran in messy ways toward their own places. Finally, the whole farm became quiet in a moment.


1. Who is Mr. Jones? Describe his responsibilities in the farm. And from this description, how can you evaluate his as a
leader of the farm?
 Mr. Jones is the owner of the Manor farm.
 His responsibilities in the farm:
o Manage the farm
o Feed the animals
o Protect the animals from the fox
o Order and divide the works for the animals as a labor
o Punish the animals when they did not complete a good job
 As a leader of the farm, I can evaluate that Mr. Jones is:
o Careless because he forgot to feed the animals.
o Cruel and violent because he shot the gun and he killed the animals.
o Guttery because he liked eating more than requirement.
o Self-absorption because he did nothing and just stand to command and get the advantages from the
2. Who are the animals in the farm? Briefly list all of them and the adjectives used to describe them. From this
description, what can you tell about their personalities?
a. Old Major: majestic-looking, stout, wise, and old
b. Clover: stout motherly, sympathetic
c. Boxer: strong but dim witted (stupid)
d. Benjamin: oldest, worst tempered, cynical, and pessimistic
e. Mollie: foolish, childish, and vain (selfish).
3. Describe the movement of the animals in the farm who came to listen to Old Major. Why do you think it was such a
 The movement of the animals in the farm:
o First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher
o And then the pigs, who settled down in the straw immediately in front of the platform.
o The hens perched themselves on the window-sills, the pigeons fluttered up to the rafters
o The sheep and cows lay down behind the pigs and began to chew the cud.
o The two cart-horses, Boxer and Clover, came in together, walking very slowly and setting down their vast
hairy hoofs with great care lest there should be some small animals concealed in the straw.
o After the horses came Muriel, the white goat, and Benjamin, the donkey.
o The two horses had just lain down when a brood of ducklings flied into the barn, cheeping feebly and
wandering from side to side to find some places where they would not be trodden on.
o At the last moment Mollie came mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of sugar. She took a place near the
front and began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw attention to the red ribbons it was plaited with.
o Last of all came the cat, who looked round for the warmest place and finally squeezed herself in between
Boxer and Clover, there she purred contentedly throughout Major’s speech without listening to a word of
what he was saying.
o While Major was speaking, four large rats had crept out of their holes and were sitting on their
hindquarters, listening him. The dogs had suddenly caught sight of them.
 It was such a mess because of the nature of the animals:
o They are unorganized. They were uneducated and they did not know where to sit during the meeting.
o They need the supervision and correction from human beings.
4. What can you understand from Old Major speech to the animals in the farm? How would you compare it to the social
ideologies in use nowadays?
 The Old Major’s speech in the farm refers to the fact of life of the animals. If we compare to the social ideologies in
use nowadays, it means that the animals live in slavery, misery, and can survive for only short time.
5. In his speech to the animals in the farm, Old Major used lots of rhetorical words to influence the animals. Read his
speech again and underline the rhetorical words you can find. Discuss how it can influence the animals.
 The Italic phrases describe how Old Major’s rhetorical words can influence the animals:
o Miserable, laborious, and short
o The last atom of our strength
o Slaughtered with hideous cruelty
o The life of an animal is misery and slavery
 The fact of life of the animals

o Food in abundance
o Support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep
o Comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining
o Stolen from us by human beings
o Man is the only real enemy we have
o Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished forever.
 Cause of animals’ suffering (Man)
Man’s activities

o Miserable lives
o Reach their natural plan
o No animals escapes the cruel knife in the end
o Scream your lives out at the block
o Cut your throat and boil you down
o Ties a brick round their necks and drowns them in the nearest pond
 How animals died
Resolution to animals’ suffering (call for Rebellion)
Solidarity among the animals
6. Study the song used by Old Major, especially the images and the symbols in the song. What can tell about the song?
 The images and the symbols in the songs:
o Every animal listen to him about their golden future.
o The future place that they are going to live is where there are animals and no human beings.
o Animals will be free.
o Abundance of food
o Happiness
o Struggle for freedom.
 The song tells about the rebellion of the animals against human beings.
7. What is the appropriate theme of Chapter 1? Explain it with reasons and support from the story.
 The appropriate theme of Chapter 1 is power of language. ( speech of old major, Squealer, Snowball)
---------- C H A P T E R 2 : T H E R E V O L U T I O N A N D T A K E – O V E R O F T H E F A R M


 pre-eminent : more important or better than others
 vivacious : attractively energetic and enthusiastic
 inventive nimble : quick and exact either in movement or thought
 expound : to give a detailed explanation of sth
 apathy : when sb shows no interest or energy and is unwilling to take action, especially over
sth important
 absorb : to understand facts and ideas completely and remember them
 unfailing : describes a positive quality of sb’s character when it shows itself all the times
 dishearten : to make a person lose in confidence, hope and energy; to discourage
 lounge : to spend your time in a relaxed way, sitting or lying somewhere and doing very little
 rabbit : to continue talking about sth which is not interesting to the listener
 lash : to hit with a lot of force
 accord : (a formal) agreement
 thrash : to hit a person or animal hard many times as a punishment
 triumph : a very great success, achievement or victory
 fetch : to go to another place to get sth or sb and bring them back
 file : to walk in a line, one behind another
 attend to : to deal with sth or help sb
 inscribe : to write words in a book or carve (=cut) them on an object
 udder : the organ of a cow, sheep or other animal, that produces milk and hangs like a bag
between the legs
 trotter : a pig’s foot used for food


Three nights later, Old Major died peacefully in his sleep. There were three intelligent pigs: Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer.
Following by Major’s speech, they formed the secret activity during the next three months. The pigs are the cleverest of the
animals. They gave the name of Animalism. However, the other animals were much stupidity and apathy. They did not understand
the spirit of Animalism. What they thought was contrary to this. The stupidest questions were asked by Mollie. Then, she agreed
with Snowball’s speech; but she wasn’t very convinced.
After, Moses had lied about the Sugarcandy Mountain, the place to which animals went when they died. The pigs argued very hard
to persuade the animals who believe in Sugarcandy Mountain that there was no such place.
June came, Mr. Jones got so drunk at the Red Lion. He forgot to feed the animals for two days. All animals could stand it no longer.
So, a cow broke in the door of the store-shed. It was just then Mr. Jones woke up. He and his four men came to the store-shed with
whips in their hand. The hungry animals started butting and kicking those men from all sides. In the end, Mr. Jones and his men
were pursued by the animals to the main road outside the farm. Mrs. Jones saw this situation; she slipped out of the farm by
another way.
All animals were so happy with their successful rebellion without any plan beforehand. They burned the cloths. It means that all
animals should go naked. They made a tour of inspection of the whole farm. They entered the farmhouse and considered it as a
museum. After all, Snowball had painted out the name of MANOR FARM and changed into ANIMAL FARM. They also set the seven
commandments due to the principles of Animalism. They are:
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animals shall wear clothes.
4. No animals shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animals shall drink alcohol.
6. No animals shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.
All animals tried to learn these commandments by heart. Then, they started to work in the harvest. They milked the cows fairly
successfully. However, the milk had disappeared then when they came back from the hayfield.


1. After Major died, who were to be responsible for educating the other animals? Briefly compare and contrast between
Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer.
- The pigs were responsible for educating the other animals because they are cleverer than the others.
- Compare and contrast between:
 Snowball: vivacious, quicker in speech, more inventive
 Napoleon: fierce-looking, not much of a talker, getting his own way (selfish)
 Squealer: shrill voice, brilliant talker, had a way of skipping from side to side (move around), persuasive, could turn black
into white.
2. What is “Animalism”? How did the pigs try to convince the other animals of Rebellion through Animalism?
- Animalism refers to the belief that the animals should fight to get freedom from human and live peacefully.
- The pigs tried to convince the other animals of Rebellion through Animalism by telling them the difficulties they met under
the control of human beings. The pigs did not want the animals in the farm to be afraid of death.
3. What told of the Sugarcandy Mountain? What was this belief about?
 Moses told it to the animals in the farm. He told that Sugarcandy Mountain was situated somewhere up in the sky, a little
distance beyond the clouds. This belief was that the animals would go to this place when they died.
4. This chapter tells more about Mr. Jones. What can you learn from the description of Mr. Jones?
 From the description of Mr. Jones, I can learn that he like drinking because he always got drunk. He is careless, forgetful,
and he did not happen to think of the others’ need.
5. How did the Rebellion start? What was the result?
 It was started because the animals had no food to eat. Then, they accord t fight the farm’s owner. The result was ecstasy.
6. Describe what the animals did after winning in the battle. What does this image represent?
- Gallop in a body right round the farm
- Race back to the farm building
- All Jones’ materials were thrown to rubbish fire.
This image represents anger and victory.
7. The next morning came. What did the animals do in the farm and farmhouse?
- In the farm: they make a tour of inspection.
- In the farmhouse: they looked around the properties there. And then, they all agreed to put the farmhouse as a museum.
8. After breakfast, their main tasks were to change the name of the Manor Farm to Animal Farm and print the seven
commandments on the wall. Why do you think they painted the commandments, and how would they carry them out
 They painted the commandments because:
- They wanted to make all animals remember these commandments.
- They wanted to show that all animals are equal.
- They wanted to punish the one who breaks these seven commandments.
They carry them out by trying to remember by heart.
9. The animals noticed that before the harvest there were buckets of milk, but they came back, the milk was gone. What
do you think happen to the milk? How might this disappearance influence their relationship?
 The milk might have drunk by one animal. This disappearance might make their relationship become bad because this animal
had betrayed the commandments.
----------------------- C H A P T E R 3 : P R I N C I P L E S A N D P R A C T I C E O F A N I M A L I S M


 toil : to work hard
 harness : to control sth, usually in order to use its power
 tramp : to walk, especially long distances or with heavy steps
 wastage : the amount that is wasted
 stalk : eye-opening with surprise
 conceive : to imagine sth
 dole out : to give sth, usually money, to several people
 parasitical : being lazy and living by other people working
 shirk : to avoid work, duties or responsibilities, especially if they are difficult or unpleasant
 peculiar : unusual and strange, sometimes in an unpleasant way
 hoist a flag : to raise a flag to the top of a pole using a rope
 indefatigable : always determined and energetic in attempting to achieve sth and never willing to admit defeat
 sparrow : a small grey-brown bird which is especially common in town
 faculty : a special ability to do a particular thing
 maxim : a short statement of a general truth, principle or rule for behaviour
 propulsion : a force that pushes sth forward
 mischief : behaviour, especially a child’s, which is slightly bad but is not intended to cause serious harm or
 bleat : to make high, shaking sound
 wean : to cause a baby or young animal to stop feeding on its mother's milk and to start eating other food,
especially solid food, instead
 seclusion : separation, being alone or away from other people
 mash : food crush
 preserve : to keep sth as it is, especially in order to prevent it from decaying or being damaged or destroyed


Since then, they work so hard in the farm. And the harvest was bigger success than they had hoped. With their works, they face
many difficulties; however, they still tried to complete the works. Through that summer, the work of the farm went like clockwork.
All animals were happy and they had enough food to eat. On Sundays, there was no work. There was a ceremony in this day.
Snowball had created a flag from an old green tablecloth and it was painted on a hoof and a horn. So, the first of the ceremony
came the hoisting of the flag. After that, they had a meeting in the big barn, debating about the resolution. During this talking,
Snowball and Napoleon were never in agreement. In the end of the meeting, they always sang the song of Beasts of England.
Every day, all animals learn to read the alphabets and some of them could read better, but some could the seven commandments
only. Whereas the sheep, hens, and, ducks were unable to learn these commandments at all. That was why Snowball reduced it into
“Four legs good, two legs bad” instead.
Besides this, Napoleon was not interested in Snowball’s committee. He took nine puppies to feed and kept them far from the
Not for long, the disappearance of the milk and apples was cleared up. It was drunk and eaten by the pigs. Squealer told the other
animals that in fact, the pigs did not like the milk and apples. Everything is just to strengthen their health only. Therefore, Mr.
Jones couldn’t come back. Finally, other animals had no more to say and they agreed to reserve the milk and apples for the pigs


1. Describe the animals’ difficulties in carrying out the tasks in the farm.
 Every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the hay and gathering it. The ducks and hens toiled to and
fro all day in the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks. When they harvested the corns, they had to tread it
out in the ancient style and blow away the chaff with their breath, since the farm possessed no threshing machine.
2. Describe the significance of the pigs and the horse in the work. What might you learn from this scene?
 Pigs: so clever, supervised the others, work by using brain.
Horse: the most hard-working, use energy, worked longer than others, and did volunteer work.
3. Describe the animal flag. What do you think I symbolizes?
 The flag was made of old green tablecloth and there was a paint of a hoof and a horn on it.
Green: green field of England
The hoof and horn: future republic of animals without human beings.
4. Do snowball and napoleon usually agree on the issues brought up in the animal farm? Why? Outline the different
things/attempts that Snowball and Napoleon did in the farm to bring improvement in the farm.
 No, they both always disagreed because of their opposite ideas.
Snowball organized animals to animal committee.
Napoleon thought teaching the young animals was more important.
5. Did Snowball succeed in establishing the Animal Committee? Discuss his aims and, if any causes of his failure.
 No, it was failure. His aim was to try to change the nature of the animals through education and division
separately the tasks to the animals. The causes of this failure were the nature of animals and the naïve in his
6. The truth of the milk and apples was revealed in this chapter. What do you think other animals felt about this issue?
How did the pigs solve this problem? Discuss the rhetorical use of language by Squealer in persuading the animals to
believe him.
 The others felt that it was unfair. The pigs solved this problem by sending Squealer to convince other animals.
Squealer explained that it was just for the sake of the animal farm. In fact, pig did not like the milk and apples.
7. This chapter also provides deeper insight into some characters in the story. Discuss the actions, behaviors, and
perceptions on the animal farm of the following characters:
Napoleon: reasonable, sensible
Snowball: clever, creative, naïve of his ambition
Boxer: admired, hard-working
Mollie: lazy, think only her beauty
Old Benjamin: unchanged, never shirking and never volunteering.
--------------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 4 : T H E B A T T L E O F T H E C O W S H E D


 mingle : to move around and talk to other people at a social event
 monstrous : very bad or cruel
 sympathize : to support and agree with sb or sth
 adjoin : to be very near, next to, or touching
 drive hard bargain : to expect a lot in exchange for what you pay to do
 scorn : to show a very strong feeling of no respect for sb
 wickedness : a slightly immoral or bad one for you, but in an attractive way
 cannibalism : a belief that a person who eats human flesh, or an animal which eats the flesh of animals of its
own type
 circulate : to move around or through sth, or to make sth move around or through sth
 tractable : easily dealt with, controlled or persuaded
 savage : extremely violent, wild or frightening
 rage : (a period of) extreme or violent anger
 contemptible : deserving no respect
 irrepressible : full of energy and enthusiasm; impossible to stop
 coo : to speak in a soft, gentle or loving way
 stack : to arrange things in an ordered pile
 alight : to land on sth
 peck : hits or picks up sth small with its beak
 prod : to push sth or sb with your finger or with a pointed objects
 butt : to hit sth or sb hard with the head or the horns
 hobnailed boot : a heavy boot or shoe that has nails hammered into the bottom to make it last longer
 hurl : to throw sth with a lot of force, usually in an angry or violent way
 gore : to cause an injury to sb, or damage sth, with the horns or tusks
 trample : to step heavily on sth or sb, causing damage or injury
 ignominious : embarrassing because of being a complete failure
 stir : to cause sth to move slightly
 exploit : to use sth for advantage
 impromptu : done or said without earlier planning or preparation
 confer : to give an official title, honor, or advantage to sb


By late summer after the practice of animalism, the yields which they collected from the farm are more than the yields of doing
farming activities which were conquered by Mr. Jones. They were so happy at that time and they also sent out flights of pigeon to
neighbouring farm in order to tell another animal about the story of rebellion and the tune the Beast of England. Mr. Jones was at
the Red Lion pub drinking the whiskey and the other farmers seemed sympathy in principal but they did nothing to help Mr. Jones.
After that the other farmers were also frightened by the rebellion of the animals in their farms. Then, they were so angry that they
called all farmers to attack the animal farm. However, they were defeated by all animals in the farm because snowball who was the
most intelligent one had planned the strategy which he had learnt form the book in order to fight against the human being. Boxer
which was the energetic animal was upset because he unintentionally killed a man who came to invade animal farm, but snowball
convinced that it was the war so we must do like that and then he released with everything he had done. Afterward, they
celebrated their victory for that Battle which was called “the Battle of the cowshed”.


1. How did snowball and Napoleon spread the news of the rebellion to the other farm? Why do you think they did so?
 They sent out pigeon to mingle animals on neighbouring farm to tell the story of rebellion and teach them the tune
of Beast of England. They did so because they need cooperation and rebellion against human being for golden
2. What did Jones do after he lost his control over the farm? Describe how the other listeners felt about Jones’
misfortune. What can you reflect on this scene?
 He spent time sitting in the taproom (pub) at Willington, complain about injustice he had suffered. Others felt
sympathized in principal but not help because they want to take advantages from Jones misfortune.
 We can see from the scene that all people take advantages from each other, they are self-centered or self-
3. What did Frederick and Pilkington say about the Animal farm (a) at first? And (b) later? In their description of the
Animal farm, Frederick and Pilkington mentioned the word ‘law of nature’. What do you think the word ‘law of
nature’ refers to in this context?
 First they think that animals can’t live without human being, and they will be starving. Farm will go bankrupt.
 Later they change their mind. Animals became immoral; this was what came of rebelling against the law of
 ‘Law of nature’ is the world where animal are under control of human being and human get benefit (material gain)
from them.
4. As the news of the rebellion spread with incredible speed, Jones attempted to take back what was his property by the
help from the neighbouring farm. Describe their battle with the animal. Who won in the battle? What do you think the
scene symbolize?
 Jones and all his men, with half a dozen others from Foxwood and Pinchfield had entered the five-barred gate and
were coming up the cart-track that led to the farm. They were all carrying sticks, except Jones, who was
marching ahead with gun in his hand. Obviously they were going to attempt the recapture of the farm.
 Animals won.
 The scene symbolize is the battle of cowshed or material gain.
5. After the battle, Boxer seemed to concern over lying boy while Snowball did not seem to care much about that. What
can you learn about the difference between Boxer and Snowball’s character in this scene?
 Snowball: strong in emotion, he wants to won the human and he didn’t care who will die. He is a strong leader, he
said war is war.
 Boxer: simple in emotion, he wants to win human but he didn’t want to kill anyone. He cares about the dead
6. After the wining in the battle, the animals made three important decisions for the farm. What are they? Briefly
describe each one, and think of how each of them signifies.
 The three decisions are:
o create a military decoration
o naming the battle of cowshed
o decision to fire the gun twice a year
 The signification is that they want to build strong military (absolute power). The farm changes from agrarian
society to military society.

----------------------------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 5 : T H E R I S E O F N A P O L E O N


 hedge : a line of bushes or small trees planted very close together, especially along the edge of a
garden, field or road
 prance : to walk in an energetic way and with more movement than necessary
 whereabout : the place where a person or thing is
 publican : the manager of a pub
 canvass : to try to get political support or votes, especially by visiting all the houses in an area
 liable : responsible for sth or sb
 knoll : a small low hill with a rounded top
 dynamo : a devise which changes energy of movement into electrical energy
 conjure : to make a picture or idea appear in sb’s mind
 closet : to put yourself in a place, especially a closed space, and stay there
 aloof : not interested or involved, usually because you do not approve of what is happening
 quarry : to dig stone, etc. from a hole
 faction : a group within a larger group
 reinstate : to give sb back their previous job or position, or to cause sth to exist again
 procure : to get sth, especially after an effort
 glowing : praising with enthusiasm
 whisk : to take sth or sb somewhere else suddenly and quickly
 creep : to move slowly, quietly and carefully, usually in order to avoid being noticed
 mount : to go up or onto
 preside : to be in charge of a formal meeting or ceremony
 expulsion : forcing sb, or being forced, to leave a school, organization or country
 dismay : a feeling of unhappiness and disappointment
 articulate : able to express thoughts and feelings easily and clearly, showing this quality
 disinter : to find and use sth that has not been used for a long time
 reverent : showing great respect and admiration


In January there came bitterly hard and the pig occupied themselves the work of coming season. Then, snowball was voted to be
the majority in the animal farm but only Napoleon who was disapproval with this election. In the name of the majority, snowball
taught other animals with not only the agricultural sector but also the educational sector. Unfortunately, other animals could not
catch what snowball taught except the sheep that could talk the slogan “4 legs good, 2 legs bad”. Surprisingly, not only the other
animals were learning but also snowball was doing the research on the “windmill” for the long life of animal farm with comfortable
feeling. After the research was completed, snowball showed it with the detail explanation to other animals. During the windmill
construction plan was put to vote by the committee of type of animal, Napoleon called his nine dogs which he taken from Mr.
Jones’s house in order to force snowball out of the animal farm.


1. What kind of work did Mollie do in the farm? What was the suspicious that the animals had on her?
 She has contacted with man at Foxwood. Later, she disappeared from farm to outside public house (bar). She is
self-interest (follow her dream).
2. Who decided all questions of farm policy? Did Snowball and Napoleon usually on the topics or matters in the debate?
Why or why not? Describe their personal style in winning argument.
 Pigs decide policy on the farm. They always argue with each other on the same topic because they want to have
power and fame.
 Snowball often won over the majority by his brilliant speeches (logic and rhetorical speech to control animals).
Napoleon was better at interruption by disturbing “4 legs good 2 legs bed” from sheep, using violence (dogs), and
using food to control animals.
3. Snowball consulted with many useful sources to bring improvement to the farm. List the things that he introduced to
the farm, and what was the most important of all?
 Field drams, silage, basic slag, complicated scheme, windmill.
 The most important is windmill.
4. List 2 important disagreements that Napoleon had with Snowball. Briefly describes each one and the reasons they
used to defend themselves in the debate.
 Windmill:
o Snowball: labour saving device, electricity (think about future)
o Napoleon: waste time to produce food that leads to starvation (think only present time, just eating and
 Defence of the farm:
o Snowball: sent out pigeon and stir up rebellion to animals on other farms.
o Napoleon: procure firearms and train animals in using gun.
5. Based on the points mentioned in question 4, what do you think the windmill symbolizes? And differentiate the
leadership style of Snowball and Napoleon.
 Snowball: too ambitious, think about the future
Napoleon: think about the present first (dictatorship)
 Windmill symbolized “technology”. It is the source of power because technological process cause animal became
6. However Snowball and Napoleon argued, Benjamin did not seem to fall in favour of any side. Why do you think he did
not endorse any of them?
 Because he believes in the nature of animal, no matter how you change them, in the end, they will return in the
bad condition as before.
7. How did Napoleon get the power to control the farm? Briefly describe the changes that occurred in his leadership.
 By let his dogs to chase Snowball form the farm
By creating propaganda (4 legs good 2 legs bad)
By sculling of old major (extract old major’s skeleton to show his respect to him as well as respect animalism)
 The changes are:
o No more Sunday morning meeting
o Didn’t sit all together
o No more debate
o No question or object to his command
o Threat of violence to those who try to against him

8. Since previous chapters, Squealer was noticed with his skill of talking and turning black into white. Study how
Squealer used his rhetorical skills to deal with the matters in the animal.
 Leadership is not a pleasure and Napoleon takes over to a sacrifice. He tries to pain Napoleon martyr (kind of
person who think about other benefit).
 Rewrite history
------------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 6 : T H E C O N S O L I D A T I O N O F P O W E R


 grudge : to not want to spend time or money on sb or sth, or to not want to give sth to sb
 topple : to (cause to) lose balance and fall down
 superintendence : supervision
 strain : to become stretched or to experience pressure, or to make sth do or experience this
 arable : describes farming and farm land that is used for, or is suitable for, growing crops
 intermediary : sb who carries messages between people who are unwilling or unable to meet
 reconcile : to find a way in which two situations or beliefs that are opposed to each other can agree and
exist together
 symptom : any single problem which is caused by and shows a more serious and general problem
 repose : when sb is resting or lying down
 plod : to walk taking slow steps, as if your feet are heavy
 imposing : having an appearance which looks important or causes admiration
 gale : a very strong wind


After on, Napoleon declared himself to be the majority in the farm. However, it has a disagreement from the other animals.
Unfortunately, it did not work because Napoleon had used the dictatorship by using his fearful dogs to threaten other animals in the
farm. Renewably, Napoleon announced that the windmill was to be built. Then, the other animals could not speak out so they had
to work hard under the communist regime of Napoleon. Even though they work hard as slaves but they seemed happy with their
works because they thought that it would paid off with benefits after it was already built. Unlucky again, the animal farm faced the
problems of both lacking of the foods and materials for constructing the windmill. Therefore, Napoleon decided to enter a definite
agreement with human being who were Mr. Pilkington of Foxwood farm and Mr. Frederick of Pinchfield farm in order to fill the
need. All animal started disagreeing because it against the rule of animal farm. November, they stopped to build the windmill for a
while because there was strong wind so that it was not affordable to build. One night came; the windmill was destroyed by the
storm but Napoleon blame it on snowball and all animals were surprised by his speech and they wonder that how snowball could do
such a thing. Afterward, Napoleon forced them to rebuild the windmill for second time.


1. Describe the work of the animals throughout the spring and summer. Also, Napoleon declared that the animals
voluntarily work on Sunday. What do you think about his promoting sense of volunteerism?
 They work like slave, 60 hours per week, for the voluntary work. It was strictly voluntary, but any animal who
absented himself from it would have his rations reduce by half.
2. What were the difficulties the animals faced in building the windmill? Lists all the difficulties and mention who were
the most significant in solving these problems.
‐ Lash rope round huge boulders
‐ Drag rope with slowness up the slope to the top of the quarry
‐ Drag the blocks
3. What were the products that were in shortage and could not be produced? How would they be getting them, do you
 They need paraffin oil, nails, string, dog biscuits, iron for horse shoes, seeds and artificial manners, and machinery
for windmill.
 Napoleon started new policy by engage in trade by selling stack of hay, wheat crop, and eggs to buy material.
4. What did Napoleon do in order to bring improvement later in the farm? What did other animals think about this
 Napoleon would give Mr. Whymper to act as intermediary between animal farms and outside world, and would
visit the farm every Monday morning.
5. Describe how Squealer convinced the animal to accept the new decision- the engagement of trade with human being.
‐ He use animal ignorance to cheat animals
‐ He try to rewrite the history about using money and engaging in trade with human being
6. What does the word “bed” refer to, as defined by the pigs? What rational did the pigs use in order to argue against
their act of sleeping in the farm house and on the beds?
 Bed means place to sleep. Pig said the rule was against sheet, which are human invention, but they have removed
it from bed.
7. How was the windmill destroyed? Who did Napoleon accuse of destroying the windmill? Why? And what was his
decision towards the windmill?
 Windmill was destroyed because of the violent wind. Napoleon blames it on Snowball because snowball is
scapegoat for the farm misfortune.
 He decided to rebuild the windmill through winter, rain or shine.
--------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 7 : N A P O L E O N , T H E S U P R E M E L E A D E R


 embolden : to make sb brave
 hitherto : until now or until a particular time
 pretext : a pretended reason for doing sth that is used to hide the real person
 emerge : to appear by coming out of sth or out from behind sth
 escort : the state of having sb with you who gives you protection or guards you
 thwart : to stop sth from happening or sb from doing sth
 decree : to officially state that sth must happen
 stupefy : to make sb tired and unable to think clearly
 lure : to persuade sb to do sth or go somewhere by offering them exciting
 cower : to lower your head or body in fear, often while moving backwards
 shriek : to make such a cry
 countenance : approval
 treachery : when a person deceives, or is not loyal to, sb who trusts them
 retribution : deserved and severe punishment
 fidget : when a person deceives, or is not loyal to someone who trusts them
 huddle : to come close together in a group, or to hold your arms and legs close to your body, especially
because of cold or fear


It was a bitter winter. The stormy weather followed by sleet and snow, but all animals carried on their work to complete the
windmill project on time in order to show to human being that they can do it. In January food fell short and animals seem starving,
but Napoleon plan not human being knew about this problem. So he cheated Mr.whymper and continued to report to outside world
that there was no shortage of food in animal farm. On Sunday morning Squealer announced that the hens need to lay 4 hundred eggs
a week for contract, but hens rebel against him. As a result, they were punished not to give food to them. After a while, it was said
that snowball was in Frederick farm and Pinchfield farm as an agency of human. All night he came to animal farm did bad things. At
that time, animals seem not believe, but then they were persuaded by Squealer. From time to time, Napoleon use cruel punishment
on animals, and each time they always sing the Beast of England. Soon, it was no longer use by order of Napoleon through Squealer,
and it was replaced by “Comrade Napoleon”.


1. Did the animal have a good day in rebuilding the windmill? Describe the difficulties they faced in rebuilding it.
 They didn’t have good day in rebuilding the windmill.
 They had shortage of food such as maize, potato;
-experienced the coldness and hunger;
-worked in dried weather;
-had to move larger and bigger stone than before.
2. What was the problem that the animal farm faced? What did the human beings tell about the fact in animal farm? How
did Napoleon solve this problem?
 problem: shortage of food
 human: all animal were dying of famine and diseases. All animals fight themselves and they practices cannibalism
and infanticide.
 Napoleon solves this problem by creating movie (video clip). The director is Napoleon, animal are actors. Mr.
Wymper is an audience; when Mr. Whymper passes the farm, the sheep said “our food increase, so we enjoy
more”. He feels this is no shortages of food in the animal farm.
3. The coming of the end of January was the hard time for the animal farm as they needed to procure some more grain
from elsewhere. How did Napoleon behave in this situation?
 He rarely appear in public, but spent all time in farmhouse, which was guarded at each door by dogs. Frequently
he did not even appear on Sunday mornings, but issued his orders through one the other pigs, usually Squealer.
4. What solution did Napoleon give to the animal on the Sunday morning meeting? How did the animals react? And what
was the solution to it?
 He had accepted a contract with Whymper for 4 hundred eggs a week and the price of there would pay for enough
grain and meal to keep the farm going till summer came on and condition were easier.
 Hens rebel against Napoleon by flying up to the rafters and lay their egg which smash to piece on the floor.
 Napoleon orders all animals not give more food to hen; otherwise, they will be killed.

5. What was the fortune that Napoleon could have for the animal farm? Did he succeed in doing so?
 Napoleon could have for animal farm was selling a pile of timber.
 He did not succeed because of the price.
6. There was rumor about Snowball in this chapter. What did people say or believe about snowball? Describe each of
their views.
 It was said, he is at one of the 2 farms, and all night he went to animal farm perform all kind of mischief.
(Napoleon use snowball as a scapegoat for the farm misfortune)
7. Napoleon sent Squealer to convince the animals of the strange presence of snowball in the farm. Study the
conversation between them, and state the points that Squealer and other animals made about snowball’s invisible
 Squealer said that snowball is Mr. Jones secret’s agency because they have found some document which snowball
left behind him but Squealer did not show this document to animal and said he could show this to them if all
animals are able to read it. However, at the first time, Boxer did not believe it, but then he said that it must be
right if comrade Napoleon said.
8. What was the strange happening at the meeting on Sunday afternoon? What did the animals feel about this happening?
And what is your feeling about it?
 Animals confess their crime to Napoleon, because they commit wrong doing, and hope for slightly punishment. But
as a result they were slaughter. Animals feel terror, shock, and pain.
9. After the confession and execution, the animals assembled on the knoll. Describe each of their feeling at that time.
 Boxer: shock, surprise, put all blame on animals, so he will work harder.
 Clover: speechless but inside her mind she is thinking about what happen in the farm. She understands more about
nature of animal farm, but she did not express herself.
10. What happen to the song ‘Beast of England’? What song did the animals sing in the farm?
 The song “Beast of England” (ask for rebellion) was no longer use. The song the animals sing in the farm now is
“comrade Napoleon” (ask for not against Napoleon).

----------------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 8: A L C O H O L I S M O N A N I M A L F A R M


 surmount : to deal successfully with a difficulty or problem
 precaution : an action which is done to prevent sth unpleasant or dangerous happening
 impeding : to slow down or cause problems for the achievement or finishing of sth
 title deed : a document which states and proves a person’s legal right to own a piece of land or a building
 clamour : to make a loud complaint or demand
 contemplate : to spend time considering a possible future action, or to consider one particular thing for a
long time in a serious and quiet way
 machination : complicated and secret plans to give power or control
 nocturnal : happening in or active during the night, or relating to the night
 forsake : to stop doing or having sth
 hullabaloo : a loud noise made by people who are angry or annoyed
 forgery : an illegal copy of a document, painting, money, etc. or the crime of making such illegal copies
 halt : to (cause to) stop moving or doing sth or happening
 limp : to walk slowly and with difficulty because of having an injured or painful leg or foot
 lamentation : sadness and feeling sorry or sth that expresses these feelings
 solemn : serious and without humour
 scrawl : to spread the arms and legs out carelessly and untidily while sitting or lying down


In chapter 7 we learned that some animals had been killed, and that was against the commandment. However, a few days later, the
commandment was edited to “No animal shall kill any other animal without cause”. Because of their poor memory, the animals did
not know if the commandment had been edited, yet they agreed that the commandment was not violated.
In this chapter we learned that the animals worked harder and harder but they were fed less and less, which was not much different
from Mr. Jones’s day.
Talking about Napoleon, he had become more and more powerful and respected. It had become usual to give Napoleon the credit
for every successful achievement and every stroke of good fortune. And a song was especially composed for Napoleon, entitled
Comrade Napoleon.
As it was mentioned in chapter 7, the Animal Farm was considering the timber trade with either Foxwood of Mr. Pilkington or
Pinchfield of Mr. Frederick. But, it seemed like the relation between Animal Farm and Foxwood had become better and better after
the rumour that said Mr. Frederick was in relation with Snowball and other men to attack the Animal farm and that he had done
many cruelties towards the animals in his farm. However, two days after the work of windmill was finished, it was announced that
the Animal farm would do the trade with Mr. Frederick and that the rumour of attacking Animal farm was untrue. But the rumour
became true. A few days after giving the forged-five-pound note to Animal farm for the price of the timbers, Mr. Frederick had led
the attack toward Animal farm. But at last, the animals had driven off their enemies. And it was called Victory, though the windmill
was destroyed with blasting powder and many animals were killed and wounded including Boxer, the strongest animal in the farm.
This battle was called the Battle of the Windmill.
At the end of this chapter, we’ve seen that the pigs, particularly Napoleon had broken the fifth commandment which initially stated
that No animal shall drink alcohol. And the same as the commandment about killing animal, this commandment was changed to “NO
ANIMAL SHALL DRINK ALCOHOL IN EXCESS” and the paddock beyond the orchard was intended to grow barley.

1. At the beginning of the chapter, Clover reminded herself of the Sixth Commandment, but when Muriel read it to her,
it seemed different from what she remembered. What do you think might happen to the Sixth Commandment?
 There had been a change in the Sixth Commandment from “No animal shall kill any other animals” to “No animal
shall kill any other animals without causes” which means animals can be killed as long as there is reason.
2. Describe the work of the animals in this chapter. Compare their conditions under Napoleon and those under Jones.
Which do you think is better?
 They worked much harder and fed no better than in Jones’s day; moreover they were exploited by Napoleon. I
think the condition in Napoleon’s day is better because animals had more freedom and they were not slaves under
the human control.
3. As Napoleon was in total and undisputed control of the Animal Farm, he became a paranoid egomaniac. Describe how
he behaved and the other animals spoke of him.
 He vanished from the public
 He lived in a separate room from the other pigs
 He ate from the Crown Derby dinner service
 He ordered the gun to be fired on this birthday
 The other animals must address him in a formal way like ‘Our leader, Comrade Napoleon’
 He had his profile inscribed on the wall
 He had Pinkeye to taste all his food
 He named the finished windmill Napoleon Mill
4. Study the poem, by Minimus, to express the general feeling on the farm. What do you think the poem expressed?
Compare and contrast between the song Beast of England and the poem Comrade Napoleon.
 The song Comrade Napoleon praised Napoleon and showed Napoleon’s power. When the animals sang this song
they would like Napoleon more and more; in contrast, the song Beast of England encouraged rebellion and if the
animals sang this song, one day they would rebel against Napoleon, that’s why this song was replaced by the song
Comrade Napoleon.
5. Between Frederick and Pilkington, which did Napoleon gain more friendly relationship? What do you think this scene
 Napoleon gained more friendly relationship from Pilkington. This scene shows the intelligence of Napoleon in
increasing the price of the timber.
6. What was the rumour about Frederick towards Animal Farm? Briefly describe it. What did Napoleon do to it?
 They said that Snowball was hiding in Pinchfield, Frederick was planning an attack to Animal Farm, and that
Frederick did many cruelties towards the animals in his farm. Napoleon said that he would never at any time
contemplated selling the pile of timber to Frederick and he sent pigeons to drop the slogan ‘Death to Frederick’ in
the Pinchfield.
7. What did the Animals now think of Snowball?
 They thought that Snowball had never received the order of ‘Animal Hero, First Class’
8. The windmill was completed in autumn. What did the animals feel about the windmill?
 The feelings animals towards the finished windmill
o They felt proud despite their hardworking
o They hoped that they would work less and lived in good condition as described by Snowball
9. What did Napoleon do to the windmill? What do you think it signifies?
 Napoleon named the windmill Napoleon Mill. This signifies the political image of Napoleon; that is, he wanted the
other people/animal to think of him as the one who had built the windmill, while in fact it was the work of all
10. After a while, Napoleon announced his secret agreement with Frederick over the selling of timber. What did the
animals feel about it? How was the Animal Farm’s relationship with Pilkington’s? What was the actual reason beyond
this event?
 The animals were stuck dumb with surprise. All relations with Foxwood had been broken off; insulting messages
had been sent to Pilkington, and even the pigeon changed their slogan from ‘Death to Frederick’ to ‘Death to
Pilkington.’ The actual reason beyond this event was to increase the price of the timber.
11. The truth reveals that Frederick played trick on Napoleon over the trade on timber. What did Napoleon do to this
matter? Describe the attack on the Animal Farm by Frederick and his men.
 Napoleon wanted to revenge; he wanted to kill Frederick. However, when he was about to revenge, Frederick and
his men arrived and attacked the Animal Farm. In the fight, the windmill was destroyed and many animals were
injured and died, even Napoleon and Boxer were injured.
12. The windmill was destroyed in the Battle of the Windmill. What do you think it symbolizes?
 It symbolizes the collapse of everything or the disappointment of animals in building the windmill. No matter how
hard they worked and how long hour they worked, finally they got nothing. They had to live in bad condition and
work harder and harder forever as what was said by Benjamin that windmill, no windmill, nothing is going to
13. The chapter ends with Napoleon’s decision to use the paddock as place to harvest barley instead of the old-age home.
Why do you think Napoleon decided to do so?
 He wanted to get money from the sale of barley, which meant that he valued money than the animals in the farm.
------------------------------------------- C H A P T E R 9 : T H E R E P U B L I C O F A N I M A L F A R M


 superannuated : old, and almost no longer suitable for work or use
 waft : to (cause to) move gently through the air
 offset : to balance one influence against an opposing influence, so that there is no great difference as
a result
 precinct : the area which surrounds a building or place, especially when enclosed by a wall
 flank : to be at the side of someone or something
 complicity : involvement in a crime or some activity that is wrong
 stratagem : a carefully planned way of achieving or dealing with something, often involving a trick
 inflict : to force someone to experience something very unpleasant
 haunch : one of the back legs of an animal with four legs that is used for meat
 indignantly : in an angry way because of something which is wrong or not fair
 oration : a formal public speech about a serious subject
 lament : to express sadness and regret about
 interment : the act of burying a dead body
 banquet : a large formal meal for many people, often followed by speeches in honour of someone
 crate : a box made of wood, plastic or metal, especially one divided into parts to hold bottles
 uproarious : extremely noisy and confused


Boxer, despite the wound he had and his friends’ advice, worked harder because he wanted the windmill finished before he reached
the age of retirement which was due the following year.
Life was hard. The animal suffered not only from the cold but also the shortage of food and their ration were reduced. Squealer, as
usual, tried to convince the animals to believe that the condition today was better than that in Jones’s day because in those days
they had been slaves and now they were free and that made all the differences.
Thirty-one young pigs were born into the farm. It was announced that later, when bricks and timber had been purchased, a
schoolroom would be built in the farmhouse garden. About this time, there had been a rule mentioning that when a pig and any
other animal met on the path, the other animal must stand aside; and also that all pigs were to have the privilege of wearing green
ribbons on their tails on Sundays.
There were more songs, more speeches, and more processions. Napoleon commanded that once a week there should be held
something called a Spontaneous Demonstration, the object of which was to celebrate the struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm. By
and large, the animals enjoyed this celebration. They found it comforting to be reminded that, after all, they were truly their own
masters and that the work they did was for their own benefit.
Animal Farm was proclaimed a Republic, and Napoleon was elected unanimously as President. Moreover, fresh documents were
discovered which revealed Snowball’s complicity with Mr. Jones. It appeared that Snowball was fighting on Mr. Jones’s side in the
Battle of Cowsheds and that the wound on Snowball’s back was inflicted by Napoleon’s teeth.
In the middle of the summer, Moses the raven reappeared on the farm telling the animals about the Sugarcandy Mountain and not
doing work. The pigs declared that what Moses said was lie, yet they allowed him to stay in the farm.
One evening, when Boxer was working on the Windmill, he had fallen; his neck stretched out; his eyes were gazed; his sides matted
with sweat and a thin stream of blood had trickled out of his mouth. The animals were worried about him, especially Clover and
Benjamin. Squealer told the animals that Napoleon had decided to send Boxer to the hospital; while in fact he was sold to the horse
slaughterer. This was found out later by the animals when they saw the van with the mark ‘Horse Slaughterer’. However, Squealer
tried to explain them that Boxer died in the hospital in Willingdon after the receiving the every attention and that the van was
previously the property of the knackers, and had been bought by the veterinary surgeon.
The money from selling the timbers was used to buy the wine which was delivered by the grocer’s van from Willingdon in the day
appointed for the memorable banquet in Boxer’s honour.
------------------------------------------------------ C H A P T E R 10 : A N I M A L S E V E N — Y E A R S O N


 inebriated : having drunk too much alcohol
 rheumy : having watery discharge from the eyes
 morose : unhappy, annoyed and unwilling to speak or smile
 taciturn : saying little, especially habitually
 filial : of a son or daughter
 denounce : to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly
 frugally : carefully when using money or food, or (of a meal) cheap or small in amount
 nuzzle : to touch, rub or press something or someone gently and/or affectionately, especially with the
head or nose, usually with small repeated movements
 dimmer : If your eyes are dim, you cannot see very well
 tug : to pull something quickly and usually with a lot of force
 deputation : a group of people sent to speak or act for others
 creep : to move slowly, quietly and carefully, usually in order to avoid being noticed
 peer : to look carefully or with difficulty
 incumbent : to be necessary for someone
 licence : permission or freedom to do what you want
 prevail : to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time
 subsist : to obtain enough food or money to stay alive
 witticism : a remark that is both clever and humorous
 contend : to have to deal with a difficult or unpleasant situation
 intimate : to make clear what you think or want without stating it directly
 malignant : evil: having a strong desire to do harm
 subversive : trying to destroy or weaken something, especially an established political system
 hitherto : until now or until a particular time
 masthead : the title of a newspaper or magazine which is printed at the top of the front page


This chapter tells about animal farm seven years later. It seemed like everything changed. Old animals were dead and new
generation was born. The farm became more prosperous, better organized and grew richer and richer. However, the animals,
except the pigs and the dogs, were still poor and worked harder and harder. But all animals did not lose hope. They were proud of
what they had right now compared to other farms in England which were owned by human, and to the old days they had in Mr.
Jones’s day. They still believed that the Republic of Animal which Old Major had foretold would become true in one day though it
might not be soon, but one day.
One day, the surprising thing happened. The animals saw the pigs walking on their hind legs. They wanted to protest this but they
were interrupted by the bleating of the sheep, ‘Four legs good, two legs better.’
After this, all commandments were erased except a commandment which said ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE
A week later, in the afternoon, a deputation of neighbouring farmers had been invited to make a tour of inspection. They expressed
a great admiration for everything they seen in the farm. The animals worked diligently, hardly raising their faces from the ground,
and not knowing whether to be more frightened of the pigs or of the human visitors.
In that evening, there was an assembly among the pigs and the farmers which made a loud noise and attracted the other animals’
attention that they came to see through the window. In the meeting, Mr. Pilkington made a speech. He said that after he and other
farmers had inspected the farm, the mistrust and misunderstanding came to an end. He saw not only the up-to-date methods, but a
discipline and an orderliness which should be an example to all farmers elsewhere.
He ended his remark by emphasizing once again the friendly feelings that subsisted and ought to subsist, between Animal Farm and
its neighbours. Between pigs and human beings there was not, and there need not be, any clash of interests whatever. Their
struggles and their difficulties were one.
After Mr. Pilkington’s speech, Napoleon also made a short speech. In his speech, there were many significant points, the most of
which was the change of ‘Animal Farm’ to the ‘Manor Farm’, which he believed was correct and original name.
The animal watched the scene, and it seemed to them that strange thing was happening. Then, when the applause having come to
an end, the pigs and the farmers took up their cards and continued the game that had been interrupted, and the animals crept
silently away. However, uproar of voices was coming from the farm house after they had gone just twenty yards. The animal came
back and saw the quarrel between men and pigs because of the game of card. They looked from pig to man and from man to pig,
but already it was impossible to say which was which.


----------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 7: G E T T I N G O N T O G E T H E R


 acronym : a word formed from the initial letters of other words
 strap : fasten or hold in a place with a strip of leather, plastic, etc
 get on sb’s nerves : annoy sb
 cosy : warm and comfortable
 at one/sb’s wits’ end : so worried by difficulties that one/sb does not know what to do
 sponge : take (esp money) without giving anything in return
 forfeit : lose (sth) as a punishment for or as a result of an action
 perk : money, goods, etc given by one’s employer in addition to one’s pay
 help oneself/sb to : serve oneself/sb with food, drink, etc
 titbit or tidbit (US) : small tasty piece of food
 accumulate : become or make greater in quality


 get at sb : criticize sb
 get at sth : (a) reach or get access to sth
(b) discover
 be getting at sth : suggest sth indirectly
 get away : (a) escape
(b) have a holiday
 get into sth : (a) cause oneself to be in a difficult situation
(b) develop a habit
(c) become interested in sth
(d) start sth
(e) start a career in sth
 get (sb) off : (cause sb to) leave a place or start a journey
 get (sb) off (with sth) : (cause sb to) escape with little or no punishment
 get on (with sth) : (a) make progress
(b) continue
 be getting on : (a) be elderly
(b) be late
 get out : (a) to escape
(b) become known
 get out of sth/doing sth : avoid doing sth that one ought to do
 get over sth : (a) recover from sth
(b) overcome
 get sth over (to sb) : make sth clear to sb
 get sth over (with) : finish sth unpleasant
 get round sth : avoid obeying a rule, etc but without breaking it
 get round to sth/doing sth: do sth, usually after a delay
 get through : use up
 get through (sth) : be successful in (an exam, etc)
 get through (to sb) : contact sb, esp by telephone
 get (sth) through to sb : succeed in making sb understand
 get up to sth : (a) reach
(b) do sth naughty, unexpected


Related Verbs

You shouldn’t… = if I were you… You should… = it is always a good idea to…
May I… = is it ok if I…? You will… = you’re bound to…
You can… = you’re allowed to… You mustn’t… = you’re not permitted to…
I can… = I am able to… I couldn’t… = I didn’t manage to…
You must… = you are required to… I won’t… = I refuse to…
Modal Auxiliary Verbs of Probability, Present and Future

The use of will/won’t, must and can’t, should, may and might, could:

‐ Will and won’t are used to predict a future action. The truth or certainty of what is asserted is more or less taken for
‐ Will and won’t are also used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present.

Must and Can’t:
‐ Must is used to assert what we infer or conclude to be the most logical or rational interpretation of a situation. We do not
have all the facts, so it is less certain than will.
‐ The negative of this use is can’t.

‐ Should expresses what may reasonably be expected to happen.
Ex: This sentence shouldn’t take you too long to understand.
‐ Should expresses what we want to happen.
Ex: You should pass the exam. You’ve worked hard.

May and might:
‐ May expresses the possibility that an event will happen or is happening.
Ex: we may go to Greece this year.
‐ Might is more tentative and slightly less certain than may

‐ Could has a similar meaning to might.
‐ Negative of could we use might not because couldn’t is not use to express a future possibility.
‐ Couldn’t has a similar meaning to can’t above, only slightly weaker.

Other Uses of Modal Auxiliary Verbs and Related Verbs

Willingness and refusal:
Will expresses willingness, while Won’t expresses a refusal.
Wouldn’t is used in the past.
Shall is used in question.

Obligation/duty/necessity: must/ have to / are required to / aren’t supposed / need to
Ex. You must sign the contract.

Lack of necessity: doesn’t need to/ doesn’t have to/ needn’t do
Ex: He needn’t go to his class too early.

Advice: ought to/ should/ must/ had better (strong advice)
Ex: You should buy the small one, I think.

Suggestions: can/ could/shall
Ex: Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

Ability: can/ could/ be able to / we use managed to or was able to instead of could if we talk about one particular occasion in the
Ex: She can carry the big pail of water.

Lack of ability: cannot/ couldn’t
Ex: I cannot dare to say I love her.

Asking permission: can/ could/ may/ might
Ex: Can I open the window?

Giving permission: can/ may
Ex: Can I hug you for the first time?

Refusing permission: can’t/ may not/ mustn’t
Ex: You mustn’t/ can’t park here.
Request: can/ will/ could/ would/ may/ might
Ex: May I have one of those leaflet?

Prohibition: mustn’t/ can’t
Ex: You mustn’t/ can’t lie in the court.

Possibility: could/ may/ might
Ex: She might finish her work by six o’clock.

Offer: shall/ can/ could
Ex: Can I help you cross the road?

Criticism: Ought to/ should have done
Ex: She ought to/ should have told the truth.

Note for Modal Auxiliary Verbs:

 No –s in the third person
 There is no do/does or don’t/ doesn’t in question and negative.
 They are followed by an infinitive without to, exception for ought
 They don’t really have past forms or infinitives or –ing forms. Other verbs are used instead.
Ex: I had to (must) work hard when I was young.
 They can be used with perfect infinitives to refer to the past.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 8: G O I N G T O E X T R E M E


 taxi : (of an aircraft) move along the ground before or after flying
 sumptuous : rich, lavish, costly
 terminal (building) : building for passengers or goods, esp. at an airport or port
 stable : building in which horses are kept
 aptly : suitable
 cockpit : place for pilot
 airborne : transported by air
 nostril : either of the two openings of the nose
 profuse : lavish, extravagant, plentiful
 wash : (of a river or sea) touch
 straddle : (a) stand or sit across a thing with the legs spread
(b) be situated at both sides of
(c) part one’s legs widely
 reindeer : sub-arctic deer with large antlers
 vodka : strong Russian alcoholic drink
 fortune : great wealth
 adorn : add beauty to, decorate
 walrus : large amphibious long-tusked arctic mammal
 tusk : long pointed tooth, esp. protruding from a closed mouth, as in the elephant
 downpour : heavy rain
 screw-drive : tool with a tip that fits into the head of the screw to turn it


 completely : in every way or as much as possible
 dramatically : very suddenly or noticeably
 exactly : used when you are giving or asking for information that is completely correct:
 extremely : very very
 profusely : extremely ( in amount)
 properly : correctly, or in a satisfactory way
 really : used to express great certainty
 seriously : very OR badly
 stupidly : in a foolish or unwise way


Base adjectives Strong adjectives Base adjectives Strong adjectives
(used with VERY and (used with ABSOLUTELY (used with VERY and (used with ABSOLUTELY
excellent, great, superb,
good, nice wonderful, fantastic, valuable priceless
awful, horrible, terrible,
bad silly ridiculous
wet soaking funny hilarious
clever brilliant interesting fascinating
excited thrilled pleased delighted
small tiny pretty, attractive beautiful, gorgeous
surprised astonished, amazed big enormous
angry furious tired exhausted
unhappy miserable tasty delicious
dirty filthy hungry starving


There are two types:
1. Defining relative clause: tells us exactly which person or thing is being referred to.
Ex: she likes people who are good fun to be with.
2. Non-defining relative clause: adds secondary information to a sentence
Ex: My friend Dara, who is smart, plays a lot.
‐ In defining relative clause, we can’t erase the clause but we can erase the relative pronoun if it is the object of the
relative clause.
Ex: Did you like the present (which) I give you?
‐ In non-defining relative clause, we can erase the extra information (relative clause), but we can’t erase the relative


‐ Present participles (-ing) are used like adjectives or adverbs, they are active in meaning.
Ex: Pour boiling water onto the pasta.
‐ Past participles (-ed) are used like adjectives or adverbs, they are passive in meaning.
Ex: I’m interested in modern art.
‐ Participles after a noun define and identify in the same way as relative clauses.
Ex: I met a woman riding a donkey. (=who was riding…)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 9: F O R E V E R F R I E N D S


 hippie : person rejecting convention, typically in long hair, jeans, beads, etc and taking
hallucinogenic drugs
 big-head : a person with to high opinion of him/herself
 bloke : (slang) man or fellow
 sitcom : situation comedy
 soap opera : a broadcast serial with domestic themes
 microcosm : sth that represents a large system on a small scale
 cappuccino : frothy milky coffee
 surge : sudden increase in price or activity, etc
 whine : complain
 flaw : imperfection
 dense : (of people) slow in understanding
 eccentric : odd in behaviour or appearance
 masseur/masseuse : person who give massage for a living
 aura : quality or feeling that seems to be produced by a person or place
 sip : drink in small mouthful
 witty : showing esp. verbal intelligence
 disdain : treat with the feeling that sb/sth is not good enough to deserve respect


 dead easy  wide awake
 brand new  fast asleep
 bored (such adjectives as scared, dull, etc) stiff  great big
 freezing cold  boiling hot
 tiny little


HOMONYMS are words with the same spelling and more than one meaning.
 bank : borrow money from the bank
the bank of a river
 cool : slightly cold, ex. cool breeze
cool guy
 date : November 2, 1989
an appointment with a loving partner
 set : to put sth in a particular place
chess set
 fit : healthy
suit in size
 bear : tolerate
teddy bear
 wave : to wave a hand to sb
huge wave in the sea
 suit : a set of cloth
 fan : electrical appliance
football fan
 miss : miss the train
miss my family
 type : types of animals
type a letter by computer
 point : point to the board
small point
 train : train station
training program
 right : right hand
right decision
 mind : don’t mind me
your mind
 fair : fair hair
fair decision
trade fair

HOMOPHONES are words with the same pronunciation, but different spellings and different meanings.

 Road, rode, rowed  War, wore
 Whole, hole  Hire, higher
 Piece, peace  Pair, pare
 Flower, flour  Plain, plane
 Sail, sale  Waist, waste
 Sell, cell  Seas, seize
 Bored, board  Sure, shore
 Caught, court  Aloud, allowed


Will and Would

Will and would express typical behaviour. They describe both pleasant and unpleasant habits.
 He will sit on in his chair for hours on end.
 She would spend all day long gossiping with the neighbours.

Will and would, when decontracted and stressed, express an annoying habit.
 He will come into the house with his muddy boot on.
 She would make us wash in ice-cold water.

Used to + Infinitive

1. Express past action and/or a state
2. Negative (didn’t use to) and question (did you use to…?)
3. We CANNOT use used to with a time reference + a number
Ex.: I used to live there for 10 years.
But - I used to go there for every year.

Be/Get Used To+ Noun/ + -Ing

It is used to express an action that was difficult, strange, or unusual before, but is no longer so.
Ex.: I am getting used to the climate.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 1 0: G O I N G T O E X T R E M E


 clash : to fight or to argue
 plain : a large area of flat land
 blizzard : a severe snow storm with strong winds
 fierce : strong and powerful
 wagon : a four-wheel vehicle, usually pulled by horses or oxen, used for transporting heavy goods,
especially in the past
 a plague of sth : a large number of things which are unpleasant and likely to cause damages
 self-inflicted : of sth bad, done to yourself
 morale : the amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people, especially when in a dangerous
or difficult situation
 flare : to start or to get much worse
 stab : to injure sb with a sharp pointed object such as a knife
 impassable : describes a road or path that cannot be travelled on because of bad weather conditions or
because it is blocked
 savage : a person whose way of life is at a very early stage of development
 pioneer : a person who goes to an area and establishes farms, houses, etc
 ammunition (ammo) : objects that can be shot from a weapon such as bullets or bombs
 flock : to move or gather together in large numbers
 ensue : to happen after sth else, especially as a result of it
 tame : to control sth fierce or powerful
 hostilities : fighting in the war
 atrocity : when sb does sth extremely violent and shocking
 appalling : shocking and very bad
 foible : a strange habit or characteristic that is seen as harmless and unimportant
 inauspicious : showing signs that sth will not be successful or positive
 spring : to move quickly or suddenly toward a particular place
 shin : the front part of your leg between your knee and your foot
 calf : the thick curved part at the back of the human leg between the knee and the foot
 frown : to bring your eyebrows together so that there are lines on your face above your eyes to show
that you are annoyed or worried


 buddy = friend  gradually = slowly
 delicious = tasty  loath = detest
 novel = story  shout = scream
 dreadful = appalling  fat = overweight
 describe = relate  furious = angry
 frequently = often  miserable = unfortunate
 allow = permit  told = informed
 unlucky = inauspicious  concerned = upset
 hurry = run  shock = surprise
 spring = leap  reserved = self-controlled
 begin = commence  kids = children
 imagine = guess  fate = end
 initially = first


 to give sb a hand : to help sb
 to head for sth : to go toward sth
 to have one’s hands full : to be busy
 to have a heart of gold : to be kind and generous
 to have a heart-to-heart talk: to talk honestly
 my heart isn’t in it : I’m not interested in it
 to face the fact : to accept the truth and respond to it
 to put on a brave face (ALSO put a brave face on it) : to behave as if a problem is not important or does not worry you
 on its last legs : broken down or in a bad condition
 go to sb's head : 1. If sth goes to sb's head, it makes them think that they are very important and makes them a

less pleasant person
2. If alcohol goes to your head, it makes you feel slightly drunk
 pull sb's leg : to try to persuade sb to believe sth which is not true as a joke
 find my feet : to become familiar with and confident in a new situation
 have a sharp tongue (ALSO be sharp-tongued) : to be sb who often speaks in a severe and critical way


Expressing Possibility and Probability in The Past

Degree of certainty Affirmative Negative
100% She was sick. She wasn’t sick.
99% She was sick. She can’t/couldn’t have been sick.
95% She must have been sick. She mustn’t have been sick.
Less than 50% She might/may/could have been sick. She might not/may not have been sick.

 Would have thought is common to express an assumption or supposition.

Other Uses of Modal Verbs in The Past

 should have done expresses advice and criticism about a past event. Sometimes, it is used for comic effect as well.
 could have done expresses:
o an unrealized past ability. Someone was able to do sth, but didn’t do it:
I could have gone to the university, but I didn’t want.
o a past possibility that didn’t happen:
Lucky you! You could have died by entering the lion’s cage.
o criticism to people for not doing things:
You could have told me that there was no class this morning so that I didn’t have to get up early.
 might have done:
o is used as should have done
o might have known/guessed that…introduce a typical action of someone or sth:
I might have known that Peter would be late. He’s always late.
 needn’t have done expresses an action that was done, but it wasn’t necessary. It was the waste of time:
You needn’t have come to school. There is no class today.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 1 1: I N Y O U R D R E A M S


 dart : to move quickly or suddenly
 perpetual : frequently repeated OR continuing forever in the same way
 psyche : the mind, or the deepest thoughts, feelings or beliefs of a person or group
 meteor : a piece of rock or other matter from space that produces a bright light as it travels through the
Earth's atmosphere
 swarm : a large group of insects all moving together
 spin : to (cause to) turn around and around, especially fast
 stem from sth : to originate or develop as the result of sth
 medieval : related to the Middle Ages (= the period in European history from about 600 AD to 1500 AD)
 painstakingly : in a way that shows you have taken a lot of care or made a lot of effort
 tedious : boring
 stroke : (a line or mark made by) a movement of a pen or pencil when writing or a brush when painting
 loop : the curved shape made when sth long and thin, such as a piece of string, bends until
one part of it nearly touches or crosses another part of it
 flat pack : a piece of furniture that is sold in pieces inside a flat box, ready for the buyer to put them

W O R D P A I R S or B I N O M I A L S

 each and every : det. every
 shock and horror : n. absolute horror
 ups and down : n. changes
 pros and cons : n. arguments—agreements and disagreements
 sooner or later : adv. eventually
 ifs and/or buts : n. excuses and/or arguments
 wait and see : v. be patient and find out later
 ins and outs : n. exact details
 give and take : v. compromise/be flexible
 by and large : adv. generally speaking
 grin and bear it : v. tolerate it as best as you can
 odds and outs : n. things
 take it or leave it : v. accept it or refuse, I don’t care
 touch and go : adj. uncertain/ risky
 now and then : adv. sometimes
 there and then : adv. immediately
 slowly but surely : adv. gradually
 sick and tired : adj. fed up with/ bored of
 more or less : adv. approximately
 peace and quiet : n. tranquillity
 safe and sound : adj./adv. safe and healthy



Situation IF-clause Result Clause Example
True in the present and/or Simple present Simple present If you love me, please tell me.
future time Will + base form
Untrue in the present and/or Simple past Would + base form If I had enough money, I would marry you.
Untrue in the past Past perfect Would have + past If I had passed LS, I would have had enough
participle marks to pass this semester.

Inversion in Condition Sentences

If-clause Inversion
If you should need more information, please phone our Should you need more information, please telephone our
headquarters. headquarters.
It would be a serious setback, if the talks were to fail. It would be a serious setback, were the talks to fail.
If Dara had asked, I would have been able to help. Had Dara asked, I would have been able to help.

Inversion after Negative Adverbials
 After the time adverbials never (before), rarely, seldom; barely/hardly/scarcely…when/before; no sooner…than
Ex: Seldom did Napoleon appear at the farmhouse.
Ex: Hardly had Boxer changed his mind 'I would work harder'.

 Unless is used in conditional sentences with the meaning 'if…not'
Ex: There is no chance of you passing the second semester of year two unless you read this handout.
Ex: You cannot pass the final exam unless you work harder.

 Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will be the same.
Ex: I am going to give all of you this handout on Monday whether or not it is finished.
 Sentences with even if are close in meaning to those with whether or not. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition
does not matter. The result will not change.
Ex: I have decided to go to school on Monday. Even if it rains, I am going to go to school.
 In case and in the event that express the idea that something probably will not happen, but it might. They mean "if by
chance this should happen." However, in the event that is more formal than in case.
Ex: I have to put helmet on my head in case I would be fined.
Ex: In the event that I would be fined, I have to put helmet on my head.


"True" statement Verb form
A wish about the future  She will not tell me.  I wish she would tell me.
 He isn't going to be here.  I wish he were going to be here.
 I can't come on Monday.  I wish I could come on Monday.
A wish about the present  I don't know you.  I wish I knew you.
 It is raining right now.  I wish it were not raining right now.
 I can't speak Chinese.  I wish I could speak Chinese.
A wish about past  Navy didn't come to give handout.  I wish Navy had come to give handout.
 Napoleon wasn't responsible for  I wish Napoleon had been responsible for
confrontation. confrontation.


Past to talk about the present Would + base form refers to the future Past perfect refers to the past
If only I knew more people. If only it would stop raining, we could go If only she hadn't told the police, everything
out. would have been all right.
If only I was better-looking. If only somebody would smile!


----------------------------------------------------------------------- U N I T 1 2: I T ’ S N E V E R T O O L A T E


 frantic : almost out of control because of extreme emotion, such as anxiety
 grasp : if you grasp an opportunity, you take it eagerly
 ritual : a set of fixed actions and sometimes words performed regularly, especially as part of a
 lunacy : stupid behaviour that will have bad results
 atheist : sb who believes that God or gods do not exist
 convene : to arrange (a group of people for) a meeting, or to meet for a meeting
 centenary : (the day or year that is) 100 years after an important event; the 100th anniversary
 scandalous : describing sth extremely bad which cause shock and disapproval
 pore : a very small hole in the skin of people or other animals, or a similar hole on the surface of
plants or rocks
 cerebral : relating to the brain
 abscess : a painful swollen area on or in the body, which contains pus (= thick, yellow liquid)
 therapy : a treatment which helps sb feel better, grow stronger, etc., especially after an illness
 snatch : to do or get sth quickly because you only have a short amount of time
 exhilarating : making you feel very excited and happy
 stagger : to walk or move with a lack of balance as if you are going to fall
 horrendous : extremely unpleasant or bad
 puppet : a toy in the shape of a person or animal that you can move with strings or by putting your
hand inside
 pauper : a very poor person


 not on your life : said as a way of strongly refusing sb's suggestion or request
 take your time : said to mean that you can spend as much time as you need in doing sth, or that you should slow
 get a life : sth you say to a boring person when you want them to do more exciting things
 kill time : to do sth that keeps you busy while you are waiting for sth else to happen
 third time lucky : literal meaning
 no time to lose : If you say there is or that you have no time to lose, it means that you must do quickly
whatever it is that you want to do
 that’s life : said after sth bad or unlucky has happened, to express your feeling that such events will
sometimes happen and have to be accepted
 not before time : said when sb does sth or sth happens that you think should have been done or have happened
much sooner
 any old time : any time you want
 a cushy time : easy and undemanding time
 you can bet your life : used to say that you are completely certain that sth is true or will happen
 better luck next time : said to tell sb that you hope they will succeed when they try again
 get a new lease of life : to become more energetic and active than before
 it’s high time : if it is about time/high time that sb did sth, it should have been done sooner or a long time
 for the time being : for a limited period
 stand the test of life : If sth stands the test of time, it is still popular, strong, etc. after a long time
 see life : to experience many different and often unexpected things
 in the nick of time : at the last possible moment
 dead on time : happening or done at the particular moment that it was expected to happen or be done
 anything for a quiet life : anything to make life safe, easy and quiet


 We use an before words that begin with a vowel sound: an orange, an Italian, an umbrella, and so on.
 We use an with words that begin with a silent letter 'h': an hour, an honest child, an honour, and an heir.
 We can use a/an before singular countable nouns, and sometimes we can use either a/an or one:
o I will be in Japan for one (or a) year.
 We use the when we expect the listener or reader to be able to identify the thing or person we are talking about, and we
use a/an when we don't.

o Narong's just bought a house in Battambang province.
o Narong's just bought the house in Battambang province. (= the house for sale we had previously talked about.
 We also use the when it is clear from the situation which person or thing we mean.
o What do you think of the table? (=the table we are looking at)

Talking about a general class Talking about an unspecified example
The novel is the most popular form of fiction writing. Reading a novel is a good way to relax.
The customer has a right to know where products are made. When the phone rang, I was busy serving a customer.
 We use the to mean the only one(s) around: the sun, the moon, the stars, the planets, the earth, the word, the unions, the
railways, etc.
 We use zero articles or no articles when we talk about institutions such as hospital, university, prison, school, college, or
church being used for their intended purpose: medical treatment in hospital, studying in university, and so on.


Expression of quantity Used with count nouns Used with non-count nouns
One One apple
Each Each apple
Every Every apple
Both Both apples
A couple of A couple of apples
A few A few apples
Several Several apples
Many Many apples
A number of A number of apples
A little A little rice
Much Much rice
A great deal of A great deal of rice
No No apples No rice
Some/any Some/any apples Some/any rice
A lot of/lots of A lot of/lots of apples A lot/lots of rice
Plenty of Plenty of apples Plenty of rice
Most Most apples Most rice
All All apples All rice

1. A few and few; a little and little
 She has been here only two weeks, but she has already made a A few and a little give a positive idea; they indicate that
few friends. something exists, is present.
 I'm very pleased. I've been able to save a little money this
 I feel sorry for her. She has (very) few friends. Few and little give a negative idea; they indicate that
 I have (very) little money. I don't even have enough money to something is largely absent. Very (+few/little) makes the
buy food for dinner. negative stronger, the number/amount smaller.

2. Singular expressions of quantity: one, each, and every
One student was late to class. One, each, and every are followed immediately by singular
Each student has a schedule. count nouns (never plural nouns, never non-count nouns).
Every student has a schedule.
One of the students was late to class. One of, each of, and every one of are followed by specific
Each (one) of the students has a schedule. plural count nouns (never singular nouns; never non-count
Every one of the students has a schedule. nouns).

3. Other
With count nouns With non-count nouns
An + other + singular noun (one more)
 another pencil = one more pencil
The other + singular noun ( last of the set)
 the other pencil = the last pencil present
Other + plural noun (more of the set) Other + non-count nouns (more of the set)
 other pencils = some more pencils  other water = some more water
The other + plural noun (the rest of the set) The other + non-count noun (all the rest)
 the other pencils = all remaining pencils  the other water = the remaining water


Most students think that writing an essay is a piece of cake and that it is something to do more with contents or ideas, which means
as long as they have ideas about the topic, they can start writing an essay. However, good contents or ideas cover only 40% or so of
the total marks. There are many more factors to contributing to a good essay, one of which is the format of your essay. Therefore,
it is also indispensable that you are familiar with the parts of different types of essay and the proper place in the essay to put your

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- P A R T S O F A N E S S A Y


 The introductory paragraph of an essay usually consists of three parts:

1. The hook: is the opening statements of an essay which is used to catch’s readers’ attention. A good hook makes the
readers want to read the rest of your essay, and to write a good hook requires a great deal of thought and practice.
There are many different ways of writing a hook:
a. asking question to the readers, which makes them want to find out the answer in your essay:
How many people out there on the road are driving uninsured vehicles?
b. beginning the essay with interesting observation:
Asian economists are not sleeping well these days.
c. beginning the essay with a unique scenario to catch readers’ attention:
Travelling at more than one hundred miles an hour, he feels as though he is not moving. He is engulfed in
complete silence. For a moment, it is as if he has entered another dimension.
d. using a famous quote as a hook:
‘Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country,’ said former US
President John F. Kennedy.

2. Connecting information: is the background information about the topic which helps connect the reader and the topic.

3. The thesis statement: is usually the last one or two sentences of the introductory paragraph which tells the readers
what to expect in the essay. There are two types of thesis statement, first of which is called Direct Thesis Statement
which states clearly the specific parts of the paper. Second type is called Indirect Thesis Statement, in which the
writer does not list down the main ideas of each body paragraph of the essay.
o Direct thesis statement: Cambodia celebrities are the poor role models because of the ways they dress, talk
and behave.
o Indirect thesis statement: With revenue it has given to the country, tourism also leaves many social problems
for Cambodia to solve.
A thesis statement must:
- have a topic and controlling idea,
- be a statement, not a question,
- be a complete sentence,
- be an opinion, not the a simple statement of fact,
- have only one controlling idea.


 Each body paragraph tells what has been mentioned in the thesis statement. In each body paragraph, the main idea is
supported by facts, figures, reasons and so on.
 Sometimes, you may not need topic sentence and concluding sentence for your body paragraph. But it may also be better
to have at least a topic sentence since it might help the readers understand your idea.
 The outline of the body paragraphs is as following:
Body paragraph1:
Topic sentence (optional): ___________________________________________________________________
Major support 1: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________
Major support 2: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________
Body paragraph2:
Topic sentence (optional): ___________________________________________________________________
Major support 1: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________
Major support 2: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________
Body paragraph3:
Topic sentence (optional): ___________________________________________________________________
Major support 1: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________
Major support 2: ________________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 1: __________________________________________________________________________
Minor support 2: __________________________________________________________________________


 Concluding paragraph is the last part of your essay. It summaries or restates what you have written in the body paragraphs
so that the readers can leave with a clear understanding. Though you can leave a final thought in this part, make sure that
your final thought is not a new information about the topic of the essay.

When people talk about educational differences between South Korea and Canada and the United States, they often
focus on obvious differences such as school uniforms, hours of study, society’s attitude toward education, and
scholarships. Despite these differences, the educational systems in all three countries continue to produce thousands
of successful college graduates each year.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROCESS ESSAY


The process essay either tells the reader how to do or make something or describes the process of something. Information
supporting the essay is always arranged chronologically.


1. Introduction:
o You should give basic information about or the true meaning of the process.
o Thesis statement tells how many steps involve in the process, or sometimes it is just an indirect thesis statement
which does not tell exactly how many.
2. Body:
o Usually the amount of body paragraphs depends on the number of process stages; however, the process can be
written in a long body paragraph as well.
o Each stage or step should have its specific purpose and details the readers need to understand.
3. Conclusion:
The conclusion summary the significance of the procedure and reveals the result of the process.

Below are two process essay organizers:

Process Essay Organizer I: How to Cook a Superior Steak

Introductory Paragraph
Thesis statement: Cooking an excellent steak is easy if you follow these five steps.

Long body Paragraph
All the steps in the correct chronological order

Concluding Paragraph
Essay conclusion

Process Essay Organizer II: How to Make Taffy
Introductory Paragraph
Thesis statement: Making taffy is very easy if you follow these steps

Body Paragraph 1
Ingredients and equipment

Body Paragraph 2
Mixing candy

Body Paragraph 3
What to do after you have cooked the candy

Concluding Paragraph
Essay conclusion


Chronological Linking Words

Transition Preposition
Subordinate Coordinate
After a few hours,
In the end,
Afterward, At last,
In the future, After,
At the same time,
In the meantime, Before,
Before, Currently, After,
Last, lastly, While,
During, And, Before,
Last but not least, When,
Eventually, Finally, Or Since,
Later, Next, Since,
First, second, etc In addition to,
Meanwhile, Until
First of all, Prior to,
Soon after,
Immediately following


Having pulled out a blank paper, a student started to write an essay assigned by his lecturer, but he was stuck after writing
the first two sentences because he did not know what to write and how to write. Writing a good essay is not an easy task, especially
if you and other students do not prepare well for it. However, if by knowing what to do before writing, while writing and after
writing, you will find writing an essay assignment a lot easier than before.

Before you start your writing, you need to know what your topic is and what you are going to write about it. Thus, what
you have to do first is to narrow down your topic into a writeable specific one. Then you have to find the relevant information about
your topic. For some topics, you may be asked to write down your opinion, so more researches may not be required because mostly
you use your own knowledge about that topic. However, for some topics, they are related to facts; therefore, you are supposed to
do more researches about those facts. After having all the relevant information, what you have to do next is to brainstorm your
idea. Brainstorming is the time when you can choose the important information among your collection to include in your essay.
There are many ways to brainstorm your idea. It can be clustering, listing, and free-writing and so on. You can choose whichever
you are convenient with. Brainstorming is not the last thing you need to do before you write, but outlining is. Outlining is the time
when you group your brainstormed ideas in an order you are going to write. In other words, it helps you to know what to write first
and next. So, these are the things you need to prepare before starting your writing.

If you have done what I have written above, this is the time to start your writing. You should start it by writing the first
draft by referring to your outline. After writing the first draft, you need to edit it carefully by yourself or you might ask your friends
to edit it for you. You or your friends should check for the grammatical mistakes, such as punctuation, verb tenses, subject and verb
agreement and so on; the spelling; the format of your essay and so on. Just find as many mistakes as you can. Then correct your
mistakes and write another draft. Ask the other friends to check it for you again. You can repeat writing the drafts and have them
edited as many times as you want. When you are sure that your essay is good enough to be submitted, you can write or type it into
the final draft. In short, what you have to do in this while-writing step is to write and edit again and again until you get the
satisfying work.

You may be a bit relieve after having a satisfying essay, but it cannot guarantee that you will have satisfying marks from
your lecturer. You have to make sure that you have all the required documents for your lecturer. Some lecturers may ask you to
submit all the drafts you have made and also the references you have collected. So, make sure that they are together when you
submit your work. The most important thing you have to avoid is handing the work late. You have to know when the deadline is, or
your mark will be deducted despite the fact that you have a good essay. Therefore the post-writing step is also important for you.

In summary, preparing a good essay assignment requires a long time and hard work. However, if you really put all your
efforts into it and follow the aforesaid steps above, you are bound to get a satisfactory score from your lecturer.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C L A S S I F I C A T I O N E S S A Y


Classification essay is an essay written to divide objects, people, or ideas into group or categories. For example, we classify
transportation into water transportation, land transportation, and air transportation.


1. Introduction:
o Provide background information about the topic to be classified
o Describe how you are going to divide the topic into groups
o Give the number of groups and a name for each one
o Explain the purpose of the classification
2. Body:
o Identify and describe one category in each body paragraph
o Explain the common characteristics of the members of each category
o Give examples of items in each category
3. Conclusion:
o Restate the method of classification
o Summarize the categories.


The languages of Classification: Useful Sentence Patterns

Two kinds
1. There are three types of _________
a few classes
There are three kinds of energy: nuclear, hydraulic, and solar.

divide parts:
2. We can classify ___________ into three groups: _____________ .
group types:
categorize kinds:

We can divide the students in my class into three groups: Asian, European, and South American.

three parts:
classified two groups:
3. ____________ can be grouped into three types: _____________ .
divided kinds:
categorized categorizes:

News articles can be divided into three categories: local, national, and international.

Linking Words FOR EXAMPLE

 For example
Some of my friends are introspective and quite people. For example, Ching and Hirofumi never say much when we are
with other people.

 For instance
People who live in the country are quite different from people who live in the city. My uncle, who is a farmer, is never
in a hurry. Once, for instance, he spent the whole day sharpening all the knives in the house, a task that an impatient
city person would have taken care of in an hour.

 Such as
Some service providers, such as doctors, lawyers, and professors, have great amount of money.


People have been making a lot of effects to the environment. The ways they make the environment become worse and
worse from its initial state is called pollution. Focusing on the place where the pollution happens or the place which is affected by
the pollution, we can categorize pollution into three types: air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution.

Air pollution refers to the worsening of the quality of air. Air pollution occurs when the harmful substances, especially
toxic gases, are released into the air. Nowadays, we all agree that the main cause of air pollution is the increasing number of
vehicles circulating in the streets. However, harmful substances can also be released from factory and human’s activities such as
the use of spray, the use of cooling agents, the burning of toxic wastes and the use of pesticides and so on. These harmful gases
somehow evolve into other substances which can give even more serious effects to the environment such as the depletion of ozone
layer, the increase in heat around the Earth’s surface, the rapid melting of ice cap and most importantly the acid rain.

A second type of pollution which affects the quality of water is called water pollution. Water can be contaminated in many
ways. Let’s talk about the case of Cambodia. Harmful substances are released into the water body by the factories which are
located near the water and by the local people who live near or on the water. Another cause of water pollution is the carelessness
of the farmers in disposing wastes. Some farmers throw the used bottle of the pesticides into the water, and consequently,
chemical substances in the pesticides pollute the water. The effect of water pollution is severe. It can make people who use the
polluted water die or heavily sick. It also kills the aquatic life which people partly count on.

Last, but not least, another form of pollution is called land pollution. This is the pollution which affects the quality of soil.
Mining, excessive use of fertilizer, over-farming which does not allow the land rest to gain it fertility, and the excessive cutting
down of trees which results in soil erosion are the causes of land pollution. Being polluted, land cannot be used to serve the
purposes of human anymore. Also, some polluted land can turn into the desert which is unfavorable for living.

In nutshells, pollution can be classified into three types based on the place where the pollution occurs and affects. These
three types of pollution, water pollution, air pollution and land pollution, affect the environment greatly. Actions are needed to be
taken if we want to prevent more serious problems resulted from these pollutions.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C A U S E A N D E F F E C T E S S A Y


It is concerned with why things happen (cause) and what happen as a result (effect). Cause and effect is a common method of
organizing and discussing ideas. For example, you are out of gas (cause) and your car won’t start (effect).


1. Introduction:
o Provide background information about the situation you are analysing.
o Describe situation.
o Identify its main causes or effects.
2. Body:
o Explain one cause or effect in each supporting paragraph.
o If there are many causes or effects, group them into several main categories.
o Organize the causes or effects, using time order or order of importance.
3. Conclusion:
o Summarize the main causes or effects.
o Draw a conclusion or make a prediction.

Below are three cause and effect essay organizers:

Cause and Effect Essay Organizer I: Having Pet
Introductory paragraph
Thesis statement: While parents get pets for their children for obvious reasons, sometime there
are long-term results that can be surprising.

Body paragraph 1
Cause 1: the child is eager to have pet.
Cause 2: the parents want to make their children happy.
Cause 3: the parents want to teach their child about responsibility.

Body paragraph 2
Effect 1: the child matures by accepting the responsibility of caring for a pet.
Effect 2: the child learns to get comfort from a non-parental source.
Effect 3: the child develops a feeling of compassion for a living creature other than himself or

Concluding Paragraph
Essay conclusion

Cause Essay Organizer II: Having Pet

Introductory Paragraph
Thesis statement: Parents get a pet for their child for many reasons.

Body paragraph 1
Cause 1: the child is eager to have pet.

Body Paragraph 2
Cause 2: the parents want to make their children happy.

Body Paragraph 3
Cause 3: the parents want to teach their child about responsibility.

Concluding Paragraph
Essay conclusion
Effect Essay Organizer III: Having Pet
Introductory Paragraph
Thesis statement: There are many beneficial effects of a child having a pet.

Body Paragraph 1
Effect 1: the child matures by accepting the responsibility of caring for a pet.

Body Paragraph 2
Effect 2: the child learns to get comfort from a non-parental source.

Body paragraph 3
Effect 3: the child develops a feeling of compassion for a living creature other than himself or

Concluding Paragraph
Essay conclusion


Linking words of Cause and Effect

Transition Preposition
subordinating Coordinating
Because For Because of
Since Due to
Now that
As a result So
Effect As a consequence
For this reason

Linking words of Consequence
 Therefore
I really enjoy the peaceful company of good friends. Therefore, I appreciate the serenity of both Carlos and

 For this reason
Change makes life exciting; for this reason, life in a city is more appealing than life on a farm or in the suburbs
for me.

 As a result/consequence
The relationships between parents and children vary from one culture to another. As a result, parents’
expectations of how their children will treat them when they get older vary as well.

 Consequently
More and more people who live alone adopt a pet for company. Consequently, the pet services industry has
expanded greatly.

More Signal Words in Cause and Effect Writing

Degrees of Certainty Level of Importance
Certainly Above all
May Equally important
Necessarily Finally
Perhaps First
Possibly Initially
Probably Last
Undoubtedly Primarily
Unquestionably Second


I strongly believe that everyone should attend university. Entering university is at the same time a so many promising steps into a
world of opportunities as long as it is accompanied by a strong will and desire for distinction. The quality and diversity of
opportunities and the spread spectrum of choices higher education can provide us is the core motive for everyone intending to
attend university. I will try to examine below the specific reasons for entering university according to which I think are the most
common viewpoints nowadays.

First let us look at what a person can typically gain from a successfully study at a university. It is a diploma and/or a degree. This is
by default leading to a more distinct, respected, well-paid profession. Nowadays unemployment crisis is troubling not only the poor
countries but the developed western countries as well, so that the ease of finding a job may play an important role in the decisions
people are making.

Another important reason is that people want to get more education. University provides a higher level of education and has all
these resources and facilities for people who crave knowledge. Learning is the key to everything that we want to improve.
Therefore, higher education helps us widen our understanding and increase our intellectual ability.

Apart from the points I made above there is also a well-known fashion all over the world that is called career preparation. Many
people attend university in order to seek either a career in science and technology or a career in business. It is believed that the
ideas, opportunities, qualifications, in-depth knowledge and expertise in science areas often make attending university imperative.
Many times a four-year study at a university may only be the beginning of a sequence of moves someone can make in order to
accomplish what he thinks best for his career.

Finally, I cannot oversee the fact that many times studying at a university also means living in a city far from home. New
responsibilities always appear but they do not become serious drawbacks. In contrast, the new sense of freedom and independence
a young man can experience or thinks he will is thought of as something of great importance. One thing is for sure though, there is
chance for everyone in the community of a university to meet people, make new friends and know individuals of great importance.

Last but not least I wish to say that the purpose of university is to harvest knowledge and to being educated, so it is obvious that
everyone can find a reason for attending university.
------------------------------------------------------------------- C O M P A R E A N D C O N T R A S T ESSAY


Compare and contrast essay tells the similarities and differences between two things or situations. There are two basic patterns for
writing a comparison/contrast essay: the block method and the point-by-point method.


Block method:
1. Introduction:
o Provide background information about the topic.
o Identify the two things being compared and contrasted.
o State the purpose of making the comparison and/or contrast.
2. Body:
o In the first paragraph(s), discuss the similarities.
o In the second paragraph(s), discuss the differences.
3. Conclusion:
o Restate the purpose for comparison and/or contrast in different words.
o Summarize the main similarities and differences.
o Draw a conclusion.

Point-by-point method:
1. Introduction:
o Provide background information about the topic.
o Identify the two things being compared and contrasted.
o State the purpose of making the comparison and/or contrast.
o Identify the points to be compared and contrasted.
2. Body:
o In the first paragraph, compare and/or contrast the two things according to the first point.
o In the second paragraph, compare and/or contrast the two things according to the second point.
o In the third and subsequent paragraphs, do the same thing.
3. Conclusion:
o Restate the purpose for comparison and/or contrast in different words.
o Summarize the main similarities and differences.
o Draw a conclusion.


Linking words of Comparison and Contrast

Transition Preposition
subordinating Coordinating
However But In contrast to
Contrast In contrast Yet Instead of
Different from
On the other hand Whereas But Unlike
Direct contrast
However While Yet
Likewise Both…and Like
Similarly Neither…nor Similar to
In the same way Not only…but


Block Method

Last week when I received acceptances from my top two choices for college, Stage and Greenwell, I knew I had a difficult
decision to make. Although I had talked to friends and relatives who had attended both schools and had visited both campuses many
times, I couldn’t make up my mind. It was only after I analyzed the similarities and differences between the two schools that I
finally came to my decision to begin classes at Greenwell in the fall.

At first glance, it seems that State and Greenwell have a lot in common. First of all, both universities are located in
Pennsylvania, where I am from. The tuition is also exactly the same at both schools—$20,000 per year. In addition, the basketball
team State is just as good as the one at Greenwell, and I would love to play for either one. Most importantly, both schools have
large libraries, excellent academic reputations, and first-class engineering departments.

It was when I looked at the differences between the two schools that I made my final decision. In terms of location, State
is more attractive. Its setting in a safe suburb was definitely more appealing than Greenwell’s location in a dangerous city
neighborhood. I also like State’s old campus with its beautiful buildings and trees more than Greenwell’s new campus, which looks
like an office block. But I realized that these should not be the most important factors in my decision. I had to pay a lot of attention
to the financial component. Although the tuition is the same at both schools, Greenwell offered me a $3,000 scholarship, whereas
State couldn’t give me any financial aid. In addition, if I go to Greenwell, I can live at home and save money on room and board.
Since Greenwell is much closer to home, I won’t have to spend as much on transportation home during vacation breaks. The most
important factor in making my decision was the difference in class size between the two universities. State has large classes and an
impersonal feeling. On the other hand, Greenwell has small classes, and students get a lot of personal attention.

In conclusion after taking everything into consideration, I think I made the right decision. Since small classes, personal
attention from my professors and saving money are all very important to me, I will probably be happier at Greenwell.

Point-By-Point Method

Last week when I received acceptances from my top two choices for college, Stage and Greenwell, I knew I had a difficult
decision to make. Although I had talked to friends and relatives who had attended both schools and had visited both campuses many
times, I couldn’t make up my mind. It was only after I compared the location, cost, and quality of education of the two schools
that I finally came to my decision to begin classes at Greenwell in the fall.

The first thing I considered was the location. First of all, both universities are located in Pennsylvania, where I am from.
But that is where the similarities end. State’s setting in a safe suburb was definitely more appealing than Greenwell’s location in a
dangerous city neighborhood. I also like State’s old campus with its beautiful buildings and trees more than Greenwell’s new
campus, which looks like an office block.

In addition to location, I had to pay a lot of attention to the financial component. The tuition is that same at both schools—
$20,000 per year. However, Greenwell offered me a $3,000 scholarship, but State couldn’t give me any money. Also, if I go to
Greenwell, I can live at home and save money on room and board. Finally, since Greenwell is much closer to home, I won’t have to
spend as much on transportation home during vacation breaks.

The quality of education at the two universities had the most influence on my decision. In many ways, State and Greenwell
have similar standards of education. Both schools have large libraries and excellent academic reputations. Also, State has a first-
class engineering department, and so does Greenwell. So I had to look at other things. What it came down to was the differences in
class size between the two universities. State has large classes and impersonal feeling. On the other hand, Greenwell has small
classes, and students get a lot of personal attention.

In conclusion, after taking everything into consideration, I think I made the right decision. Since small classes and personal
attention from my professors are very important to me, I will probably be happier at Greenwell.
--------------------------------------------------- D E S C R I P T I V E E S S A Y : D e s c r i b i n g P e o p l e


 It tells a person’s physical appearance, personality/behavior, manner/mannerism and/or detail of the life and life style
(hobbies, interests, everyday activities, etc)
 In a descriptive essay of a person, you may also be asked to explain why this person is successful/admirable/unusual, etc,
why he/she made such a strong impression on you, how he/she has influenced you, etc


1. Introduction:
o Tell who the person is/when/how you first met/saw him/her
2. Body:
Paragraph 1: Physical appearance
Paragraph 2: Personality/behavior (with justification example)
Paragraph 3: Life/lifestyle/belief
3. Conclusion:
o Comment/feelings about person

 To describe physical appearance, you should give detail of the person’s height/build, age facial, feature, hair, clothing,
etc, moving from the most general aspects to the most specific details.
Ex: Bill, who is in his early twenties, is quite tall and well-built, with thick black hair and piercing blue eyes. He is usually
dressed in jean and a T-shirt.
 To describe personality and behaviour, you can support your description with example of manner and mannerism.
Ex: Bill is rather unsociable, usually sitting silently in a corner observing others from a distance.
 To describe life, lifestyle and other beliefs, you should talk about the person’s habits, interest, profession, daily routine,
opinions, etc.
Ex: Being both a university student and a part-time assistant in a supermarket, Janet has little free time to go out in the
 If the instruction for the writing task asks you to describe s.o related to the present. e.g. “Describe a person who is
unusual…” you will describe the person using Present tense. If related to the past, so who is no longer alive, or sb whom
you met some time ago…e.g. “Describe a famous person you met who was not as you expected”… you will describe in the
person using Past tenses.


Linking words and Structure

 Writing which contains a series of short sentences or the same simple linking words such as “and” soon become boring and
repetitive. To avoid this, u should use a wide range of linking words and structure:
She is tall and striking, with long blonde hair.

Relative Clauses :
My neighbour, who is slightly eccentric, has dozen of filthy cats.
He is a scruffy child whose clothes are torn and dirty

Result: so/such (a)… (that)
She is so beautiful that she looks like a film star.

Addition: in addition to, as well as/besides, moreover, furthermore, not only… but also, etc
He is very tall, in addition to being very thing.
My grandmother has deep wrinkles, as well as thin grey hair

Contrast: but/yet/however/nonetheless/even so + clause
Although/even though/while + clause
In spite of/despite + -ing form/the fact that/noun
He looks as though he’s an old man. However, he is only 35.
In spite of being very busy, she always has time for her children.

 Linking Cause and Effect
Because/as/since owing to/due to (+-ing/noun/the fact that)
As a result/consequence of a/the result of… is
…; as a result, …
Ex: She is popular because she is open and friendly
She is popular due to being/due to the fact that she is open and friendly
A result of her being open is that she is popular.

…, so … Therefore/for this reason… The reason (that/why)… is …
Ex: She is open and friendly, so she is popular.
The reason she is popular is that she is open and friendly.

 Impressions, Opinions and Reactions
I think/feel/etc (that) It seems to me that To me/to my mind
As far as I’m concerned In my opinion/view/eyes
Sb seems/appears to be sb strike people/comes across as (being)…
Sb give the impression of being…/impression that
I/people/etc find/consider sb to be… I think of/see/regard sb as being…
Ex: Sarah strikes people as being immature.
He has habit speaking with mouth full which I find to be disgusting.
Owing to the fact that David never pays anything, he gives impression of being mean.
As he does not return things he borrowed, in my opinion, he is dishonest.
--------------------------- D E S C R I P T I V E E S S A Y : D e s c r i b i n g P l a c e s o r B u i l d i n g s


It gives general and specific details about the place/building usually moving from the general features to specific ones.


1. Introduction:
o give brief information about the name and location of the place/building
o state the reason for choosing to write about it (what it is famous for, what makes it so special, etc.)
2. Body:
o give both general and specific details about the place/building usually moving from the general features to
specific ones.
o when you describe a place you should give the overall impression by referring to landscape, building, landmarks,
etc, and particular details (sight to see, place to go, thing to do).
o when you describe a building, you should write about its surroundings (situated in Oxford Street…), then give a
detailed description of its exterior and interior.
3. Conclusion:
o express your feeling or opinion concerning the subject or give a recommendation.

 Descriptions of places/buildings may include: factual information such as age, size, color, materials, etc (e.g. the temple,
with 10-metre tall marble columns, was built in 800 BC.), details relating to the senses ( sight, hearing, smell, touch,
taste) to suggest mood and atmosphere (e.g. Visitors’ footsteps on the worn stone floors echo through the cool, dark
corridors, disturbing the tranquil silence.), opinion/impressions of the place or building (e.g. Tourist are fascinated by its
air of mystery.)
 Each aspect of the description should be presented in a separate paragraph beginning with a clear topic sentence.
 Present tenses are normally used when describing a place for a tourist brochure or a magazine article. Past tenses are
normally used when describing a visit to a place/building.
 First and second conditionals (will/would) can be used when you describe your ideal city/house, etc. But, when you give
factual information about a place or building this is normally given using Present tenses. (e.g. I flew to Madrid last
Monday. Madrid is situated in the central point of the lberian peninsula with a population of about 3,000,000.)


Expressing Impressions & Reactions

 You can express positive impressions of a place by:
a. Using a variety of adjectives such as:
Awe-inspiring, breathtaking, delightful, elaborate, eye-catching, exquisite, majestic, outstanding, overwhelming,
picturesque, quaint, spellbinding, superb, tranquil, etc
E.g. the castle, standing at the top of the mountain overlooking the city, is awe-inspiring.

b. Using variety of present or past participle from such verbs as:
Amaze, astonish, astound, impress, inspire, overwhelm, refresh, stimulate, etc
E.g. I was/felt astounded at how beautiful Florida is in the winter.
…the astonishing image of children pushing rickshaws.

c. Using a variety of nouns in expression such as:
To my amazement/astonishment/delight/surprise/etc
E.g. To my delight, the place had kept its character.

 You can express negative impression of a place by:
a. Using a variety of adjective such as:
Barren, bleak, derelict, dilapidated, inhospitable, neglected, squalid, etc
E.g. the building was in a dilapidated state.

b. Using a variety of present or past participle from such verb as:
Depress, disappoint, dismay, terrify, shock, etc
E.g. …the disappointing views of the unsightly housing.

c. Using a variety of nouns in expression such as:
To my disappointment/surprise/etc
E.g. To my disappointment, the once-tranquil village had turned into a crowded tourist resort.
Useful Languages: Explaining impressions
 Paris makes an immediate/enduring/lasting impression on all who visit it, since it is such a glamorous city.
What strikes/impresses/delights visitors about the resort most is its unique surrounding.
The most noticeable/outstanding feature of the palace is it golden dome.
A huge statue of a lion is the first thing one notice upon entering the temple.
One cannot help but be impressed/moved/struck by the natural beauty of the religion.
Without doubt, the most impressive thing about San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge.
The thing which makes the strongest/most enduring impression is the hospitality of the locals.
I was immediately struck by the staggering number of huge skyscrapers.
One particularly marvels/wonders at the variety of attraction offered.
 The first thing one notices about the house is its overgrown garden.
The reason that the area is so depressing is that there are so many derelict buildings.
The filthy, congested streets confirmed my initial impression that it was an unpleasant city.
Undoubtedly, the thing/feature that will disappoint any visitor is the lack of facilities.
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The writer of an argumentative essay wants to persuade the reader of an opinion about something. He argues his points, gives
reasons to support it, and tries to convince the readers.


1. Introduction:
o give brief information about the topic
o state which side you support
2. Body:
o Paragraph 1: give first argument with strong supporting ideas.
o Paragraph 2: give second argument with strong supporting ideas.
o Paragraph 3: give third argument with strong supporting ideas.
o Paragraph 4: state the counter-argument and give refutation to that argument.
3. Conclusion:
o Restate the thesis statement using different words
o Give opinion


Personal Opinion:
 In my opinion, / In my view, / To my mind, / To my way of thinking, / Personally I believe that / It strikes me
that / I feel very strongly that / I am inclined to believe that / It seems to me that / As far as I am concerned, / I
think that the world would be a much better place without nuclear power.
To refer to other sources:
 With reference to/ According to the article in yesterday’s The Cambodia daily, the unemployment rate in Cambodia
is decreasing.
To express reality:
 It is a fact that/ In effect, / In fact, / As a matter of fact, / The fact of the matter is that/ Actually, / In practice,
/ Indeed / To tell you the truth, a crash helmet would be quite useless in the event of a serious motorcycle accident.
To state other people’s opinion:
 It is popularly believed that / People often claim that / It is often alleged that / Some people argue that / Many
argue that / A lot of people think that / A lot of people believe that the earth is the only planet in our solar system
that has ever supported life.
 Contrary to popular belief, the earth is not the only planet in our solar system that has ever supported life.



Different people give different answers when they are asked to evaluate the learning by oneself and the learning with a
teacher. Some people say that learning by themselves is better, while some choose learning with the guidance of a teacher and say
that they would never make it without a teacher. For me, I have a strong tendency to believe that learning in class with a
teacher is better than learning by oneself.

For one thing, teachers can help students manage their time effectively. Let me take this as an example; a student wants
to know about Geometry, and he wants to learn it by himself. What he has to do first is to find the course notes and the exercises to
read and practice. This will surely be the waste of time compared to learning with teacher. By teacher, the course notes, handouts,
and exercises are automatically provided; what the student needs to do is just to read and to practice them. Thus, he can save his
time to do something else. In addition, when studying by themselves, most students find it very hard to prevent themselves from
distractions, especially television and peer-pressure. On the other hand, when learning with teacher, students are made to do what
they are told to do. Therefore, want it or not, they must concentrate on their studies.

That teachers can provide students supplementary knowledge in addition to that of the books is another reason to prove
that learning with teacher is better than self-learning. Of course, different people have different ideas about the same thing. When
students read a book of an author, they are reading about that author’s ideas based on the fact he saw when he was writing that
book. However, the teacher can tell different thing about what the author of the book wrote, and he opposes it by basing on what
he has experienced and seen recently in his life. Therefore, it is obvious that the idea of the teacher is more practical and helpful
than that in the book due to the changes in time. Moreover, the explanation of teachers can help students understand better than
when they just read the books. For instance, a student wants to know about the life in Khmer Rouge regime; it may be hard for him
to imagine how it was actually like by just reading the books. But if he studies with a teacher who has an experience of living in the
regime, he will be able to understand the situation easily, since his teacher is surely able to explain it in such a lively manner that
the student can depict the pictures in his mind.
Now, let’s think about these questions. As a student, have you ever had any problems when you study by yourself? How did
you find the answers of those problems? How could you know that they were the correct answers to your problems? Needless to say;
everyone has problems during their studies, and the best solution to their problems is teachers. Only teachers can give reliable
answers with detailed explanation to the students, and only teachers can show the students their mistakes in their studies.
Therefore, teachers help students in many ways.

Those who support the belief that studying by oneself is better than studying with teacher might say that by self-learning,
students can learn two or three times more than when they learn with their teacher in the class. Those people say that it is because
before moving on to every new point of the lesson, the teacher has to make sure that every student in the class understands the
previous point. He has to respond to the doubts of the students, so it may take time of those who have already understood the
lesson. However, I am strongly against this. Remember that quality is better than quantity. Although the process of studying in the
class with the teacher is late, it can guarantee the good quality of the study. Moreover, waiting for their teacher to move on to
another point of the lesson, students will hear many questions and answers from their classmates and teacher, which can help them
understand the lesson more clearly.

In short, I strongly believe that learning with teacher is better than learning by ourselves alone because of the fact that
teacher can help us manage the time, that he can share us the experiences which books cannot do, and that he can help us to deal
with the problems in our studies. I also reckon that teachers are irreplaceable, despite the belief of some people that someday, due
to the advances in technology, there will be no need of teachers but computer software which allows the students to learn by

The task is to describe a graph in a report, which is intended for university lecturer, so the language you use should be appropriate.
Also, no matter what figure you are describing, you should not break these rules:
 Report must be at least 150 words written in about 30 to 35 minutes;
 You shouldn’t write your opinion or copy words from the graph or topic—paraphrase and use synonyms ( or other methods)
 Never use bullets;
 Write as if you were writing an essay or a letter.

Your introduction should be composed of two parts:
 The first part/sentence should define what the graph is about: the date, location, what is described in the graph, etc.
 The second part/sentence should sum up the overall trend.

Your body should describe the most important trends, while all the information is summarized to avoid unnecessary details.
Remember that summarizing doesn’t mean throwing away information; but compressing it. The secret here is to select what is
important, organize it, compare and contrast.

The conclusion should sum up the overall trends shown in the graph and compare them if possible. Sometimes, it provides a
prediction on future development of the topic based on the trends illustrated.


Single Line Graph

Double Line Graph

Bar Chart

Process Diagram
Pie Chart