Use of the modified Ginzburg-Landau equations in high temperature superconductors

L.N Shehata(*) and H.M.Taha Department of Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, AEA Post Office, Cairo, Egypt PACS 74.20 De, 74.25 Ha

Abstract: The modified Ginzburg-Landau equations are used to study some fundamental problems for the high temperature superconductors. The derivations of these fundamental equations are summarized and the layered features of the sample were taken into consideration and the relation between the coherence length and the separation distance of the layers. The domain wall energy, the maximum supercurrent and the parallel critical field of high temperature superconducting thin film were evaluated. Comparison with previous works is given.

1 Introduction
In 1950, and on the basis of the Landau’s theory of second – order phase transition, Ginzburg and Landau [1] (GL) successfully proposed their GL theory to describe the properties of the conventional ( or low temperature superconductors (LTS) ) near the transition temperature Tc. Later on, in 1957, the microscopic theory [2] of Bardeen – Cooper - Schriefer (BCS) was developed and the equivalence of the two theories as T → Tc was proven by Gor’kov [3].This shows that the suggested GL order parameter and the coefficients of the free energy functional can be calculated from the microscopic mean field theory. On the other hand, the GL theory has successfully overcome the London electrodynamics difficulties, e.g., the origin of the positive surface energy. After the discovery of the first high temperature superconducting (HTS) compound La - (Ba, Sr)-Cu-O (at Tc ~ 40 K) by Bednorz and Mueller [4] in 1986, several attempts were done to understand the real microscopic mechanism of the behavior of these novel materials. Nevertheless, the GL theory remains very useful and successfully to describe and explain the behavior of HTS regardless of the pairing mechanism. On the basis of Landau’s theory of second-order phase transition, Ginzburg and Landau were able to construct for conventional superconductors the free energy functional in terms of the powers of a complex order parameterψ (r) . It is known that the region of thermal fluctuations of the order parameter near the mean-field theory critical
(*)

Corresponding author: e- mail: louisns@frcu.eun.eg

1

6 2 Brief preview on the derivations of the MGL equations The general theory of Landau’s second order phase transition is based on the existence of a complex order parameter (r) . e. In this theory. In sec. 2 . etc.1). to solve relevant problems for HTS. These values are negligible and could be not achieved experimentally [6]. and therefore. Early. In its original form for conventional superconductors the free energy expansion ends at the forth power of and the temperature ¤ ¤ £ ¢ ¡   ¡ dependent of the 2 coefficient. where ξ (0) ~ d. therefore. Theoretically the range of temperature around Tc and within which the fluctuations are effective. The free energy of the system may be expanded in terms of the even powers of and the coefficients of the expansion are regular functions of the temperature. 3. which tends to zero at the transition temperature and its temperature dependence is (T . obtained from the modified free energy. The proposed form of the MGL effective free energy functional expansion in terms of the complex order parameter ψ (r) . is of the order of the interatomic distance d. (T) . ξ (0) . The first one concerns the surface energy between normal and superconducting phases and whether the solutions of these equations in both cases of LTS and HTS are the same or not (sec. the mean-field theory was not able to explain the reason of other second-order phase transitions.temperature. for alloys (type II SC) it is T . We will use the MGL equations [10] to solve three fundamental problems for HTS. with modified expansion coefficients. In sec.3. takes the form (T) = o τ. for pure SC. is T . the theory of superfluidity was proposed for 4 He . Tc. Therefore. The purpose of the present study is to use these modified Ginzburg Landau (MGL) equations. whereas. the term ψ with temperature independent constant coefficient and with the effective mass tensor m∗ to describe the anisotropy of HTS.2 we will consider the problem of thin film to calculate the maximum critical current that could be carried by this film or wires of HTS. In the new HTS the coherence length ξ (T) near Tc extrapolated to T = 0. for these LTS materials is very small [5] and could be neglected. Several works. stressed on the possibility of using the same modified GL theory for the case of HTS [9-12].Tc < 10−7 Tc . 3.g. was used as a modified form of ik the free energy functional for HTS. In sec. liquid crystals.Tc )/Tc . the GL free energy functional for the order parameter and with modified temperature dependence of the coefficients was taken as the effective Hamiltonian [7.3.2 a brief preview of the derivations of the MGL equations will be demonstrated. our work is organized as follows. it was neglected in the original GL work for LTS.. Because of this. superfluidity helium.4 some concluding remarks and conclusions will be given.Tc < 10−14 Tc . The critical parallel field in the thin film will be given in sec.8].

. (compare with ref. s. and (T) = o τ are the temperature dependent coefficients of the second and fourth power of the order parameter. [8..the perpendicular mass component to the sample surface.Tc ) Tc . where. i. s. F{ ¢ }= V Fs dV . i.M) (T) (T) . Fse. the layered details will be irrelevance and one can use the effective mass approximation [14-16] to write the following form for the MGL free energy functional. The second term gives that part of energy. which is associated to the equilibrium value of the order parameter e . m x = m y = m . where B is the microscopic magnetic induction inside the SC and A is its associated vector potential [10]. The HTSs as we know are characterized by the layered structure. The coefficient of was taken to be temperature independent constant.τ = ( T . where m is the parallel mass component to the sample 4 surface. However.. 3 ¨ © ¨ ¥ § § ¥ 1 + 2 m 2 2e i∇ + A c 2 1 ∂ 2e + i + Az m ⊥ ∂z c 2 ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ c Fs = Fn + o Tcτ 2 ln τ 2 + (T) (r) 2 + 1 2 (T) (r) 4 + ¡ ¡   © © ¡ (1) 1 3 go (r) 6 B2 + 8 (2) (3) (4) . respectively. which should be added to the free energy due to the order parameter fluctuations (for more 1/ 3 2/3 details see ref. i. As long as the coherence length component perpendicular to the layers ⊥ (T) (or z (T) ) is large compared with the distance between the layers.[21]). ¨ 6 2 e © (T) = and © M= § go (T) 4 e (T) § ( 1 . and m z = m ⊥ .e.e. the first term Fn in the right hand side is the free energy of the normal phase.e. £ In the above formula. In the absence of the fields and the spatial variations of (r). determines the relevance of the layered details to be considered in the system. and 17]). B = curl A . (T) = o τ τ . In ik the present study we will consider the case of uniaxial anisotropy. Fs will have minimum value. Experimental results [13] ensure the anisotropy structure of the HTS. and go is a temperature independent coefficient of . the relation between the normal component of the coherence length ⊥ (T) and the layers separation. 10. In this case the scalar effective mass m∗ is replaced by a mass tensor m∗ .

M = 0 and for HTS M = 1/2 . while go is a positive constant. div B = 0 (7. and M satisfies the inequality 0 ≤ M < 1 . These equations will be used in the following sections to explore their effectiveness to solve relevant problems for HTSs.2) . 4 3 Use of the MGL equations 3. the solution of which will give the values of that correspond to the minimum of Fs . is minimized with respect to ∗ and A . eq. (T) and the term go .M) 1+ M 3 (T) 2 (T) 2 To obtain the MGL equations the free energy Fs. This term was neglected in the case of LTS. Expression (3) may be used to find the condensation energy.∇ ) 16 e 2 − m c2 * ∂ ∂ * ∂z ∂z 16 e2 m ⊥ c2 The Maxwell equation should be added to these formulas. Therefore.The first MGL equation (6) differs from the first usual GL equations [17] by the modified temperature dependent coefficients (T) . (2). the dimensionless parameter M characterizes the existence of the term 6 (r) in equation (2)..3) The boundary conditions at the surfaces of the superconductor for the MGL equations are 2e ˆ (8) (1) i∇ + A ⋅n = 0 c ∂ 2e ˆ i + A z . for LTS. i. (3) and (4) it is easy to verify that Fs is a minimum when (T) is negative and (T) is positive. which takes the form Fn . here. The MGL equations reds. we get the following two MGL equations.e.n = 0 (9) (2) ∂z c ˆ n .Fs = H2 c = 8 ( 1 .1 The Domain Wall Energy 4 ¦ ¦¥ ¦ ¦¦©§¨¦ ¤ + + 2 A 2 Az §  §             ¦ ¢  £ ¡  © ¨ (5) 2 + go 4 =0 (6) (7. 1 2e i∇ + A 2 m c 2 2 1 ∂ 2e + i + Az m ⊥ ∂z c * 2 ( curl B ) ( curl B )⊥ 4 e = ( im c 4 e = im ⊥ c * ∇ . Subsequently. where both of them are temperature dependent coefficients.Here. From esq. is the normal component of the unit vector to these boundaries .1) (7.

for HTS sample. which subdivides the superconducting bulk into alternate normal and superconducting domains. that would appear if the sample were entirely superconducting. we have to use the MGL equations (6) and (7) and introduce the dimensionless quantities defined as [17] r 2e 2e = e f. the surface energy will then be the difference between the energy Fp and the condensation energy. r = . infinite isotropic SC sample with a boundary plane z = 0 in an external magnetic field H0 directed along the SC boundary. or the surface energy. A= (T) A. Taking into account the reduction of the magnetic energy due to the penetration of the field. The phenomenological GL theory well describes many properties of the flux lines. was firstly introduced by London [20]. as was stated above gives the reduction in the free energy if the system were entirely SC. it was stated by Abrikosov [19] that the magnetic flux can penetrate a type II SC in the form of flux lines each carrying a quantum of magnetic flux. 8 ¤ In order to calculate the wall energy σ ns . This reduction is described by the condensation energy Econd. where. It will be assumed that H0 = Hc. For simplicity we will consider a one-dimensional. In his concept the Meissner state cannot have the lowest energy without the existence of domain wall energy. the domain wall energy σ ns per unit area will have the form. Econd = +∞ -∞ Hc2 d V. where Fp is given by   2m ⊥ In the above formula the induction B ≡ (B x (z). the value of the thermodynamic critical field. 0) . Later. s denotes the area of the SC and the second integral in the above definition. £ σ ns = Fp − (H s 2 c 8 ) dv Where. Therefore. B= (T) λ (T) B (13) λ c c ¥ ¥ 5 ¢ ¢ 2ie ∇ − A + 2m c 2 2 + 2 ∂ 2ie − Az ∂z c 2 £ £ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ Fp = dv (T) (r) 2 +1 2 (T) (r) 4 + 1 go 3 (r) 6 + B Hc H2 B2 − + c 8 4 4 (10) (11) (12)  .The concept of the domain wall energy. It is now understood that the mixed state in HTS is an energetically favorable state because of the presence of the flux lines lattice. 0. In electromagnetic London theory the vortex core was treated as a singularity.

eqs (15) and (16) may be rewritten in the form: ¢ £ ¡ f o 2 B . The surface energy reads. Ao = ( Ao . (15) and (16) are: In the normal region. f = 1.Mf 2 o curl ( 0.(3). A oz ) The thermodynamic critical field in reduced units Bc reads Bc = 1 M 1+ 3 2 1/ 2 The boundary conditions necessary to solve eqs. Where. (22) dz By using these boundary conditions.fo 2   κ 2 fo − = 1-1 ¡ ( 1-M ) f . we require f = 0 and B=Bc. and B = 0.. -∞ −   1 κ 2 f d2 f 1 dB + 2 2 dz f dz The MGL equations take the forms. f = f o exp ( i ) ¢ fo is the modulus of the reduced order parameter and satisfies the gauge invariance A = A0 + ∇ ¤ where. and A (18) (19) (20) . (21) df = 0. In the SC region.The surface energy and the MGL equations will take the following forms in terms of the dimensionless notation by taking into account eq. A oz ) = 2 grad f o × curl B − curl curl B fo   −∇ 2 −1 1 ∂ 2 fo 1 2 + 3 [ curl B ] + 3 ( curl B ) z 2 2 κ ∂z fo fo 4 o 6   σ ns Hc2 λ = M 4 1+ 3 ¤ +∞ dz −f 2 + 1-M 4 Mf 6 1 d df f + + 2 f − 2 3 κ dz dz (14) 2 + ( Bc -B ) 2 2 = (15) fo (16) (17) (r) is its phase. and by taking into account the boundary behaviors of f and B. z ≤ 0. z > 0.

eq.M f4 f (23) f 2B = − Af 2 = 2 df dB d2B + f dz dz dz 2 dB dz (24) (25) After tedious calculations. which defines the character of the phase partition in the sample. B = 0. f ≠ 0 and is evaluated numerically with the use of eq. In type I SC the magnetic field obeys Meissner state. and therefore. (21) and (22)). = 1 M 1+ 3 +∞ dz ( Bc -B ) − 2 -∞ The type of the SC is determined according to the sign of . (26) 1 2 (1-M ) f 4 − Mf 6 2 3 (27) £ f3 .−   1 κ 2 ∂2f 1 + 3 2 ∂z f dB dz 2 = 1- ( 1-M ) f2 . it is easy to verify that in this case σ ns = 0 . ¤ ¤ ¤ − ¥ 1 κ 2 ∂2f ∂z 2 = f- ( 1-M ) This equation should be solved together with the boundary conditions given by eqs. ζ (T) H c 2 8 § ¦ ∆I 7 ¤ ¡ σ ns H c2 = 2λ 8 ¢ . where z > 0. σ ns = Where.(23) reduces to. A type I SC is characterized by a positive .(27) to give. while a negative characterizes the type II SC. this gives df = + dz ¦ κ (1 − f Since f = 0 and B = Bc as z < 0. in the region.M f5 (28) 2 1/2 ) Bc 2 1 2 M 13 1 f M f4 3 2 1/ 2 (29) (30) . in which B = 0 (up to H0 = Hc). On the other hand. but not difficult we obtain the following results where.

7638 > 1 σ ns = . 1 2 (35) (1-M ) f 4 − M f 6 2 3 The last equation shows that B = 0 as f = 1.M f 4 dz The last equation gives B= 1- The magnetic induction B may be found from equations (32) and (34) by using the boundary conditions (21) and (22) i. For LTSs M = 0 and Bc = 1 Bc = 0.54 < 1 for M = ½ and c = 1 2 1 for M = 0. M = 0 (LTS).e. as it should B2 = Bc 2 - be. (1 − M ) 1 + 2 3 c 2 .1 ∆I = 0 1+ f 2 + 4M 4 f 3+M 1 M + 2 3 ( 1 2 +f 2 ) −1/ 2 df (31) For type II SC λ (T) the left hand side of the equation (23) may be neglected. i.. the first term on ( 1-M ) f2 .(20)).887 and in this case / 1.( 1 . This value does not indicate the phase partition corresponds to LTS or 1 HTS.M ) f 2 . κ 1 and therefore. e. It is easy to show that for type II SCs (37) ¤ . for type I SC. and equations (24) and (25) will have the forms dB = − f 2 1dz B(z) = - d 1. ∆ I = 1. in general. where c = 1 M . and for HTSs (M = 1/2) 2 . ζ (T)..M f 4 1/ 2 df dz (34) 2 (see eq. The interface indicator is zero and = c .M f4 1/2 (32) 1/ 2 (33) f (1-M+2M f 2 ) ( 1-M ) f2 . £ £ ¤ ¡   κ= Therefore.λ ¢ H c2 ∆ II (36) 8 Where ∆ II ≈ 2 for M = ½ (HTS) and the wall energy in this case is always negative as it should be. However. which is obtained as M 2 = 0. for > c = we have type II HTS and for 2 £ £ The critical value of GL-parameter c should be 8 £ £ £ which gives = 0. and B = Bc as f = 0.

Therefore. (39) Vs.1 = 0 . s ) . (i stands for or ⊥ ) 2 Minimization of Fs with respect to gives the equation The solution of this equation gives 9 ¥ 2 ¨ M f 4 + (1-M ) f 2 + m (V 2 .s = 1 m⊥ ∂ 2e − Az ∂z c § V .2 Maximum supercurrent in HTS thin film (T) .s 2 + V⊥ . we consider an important simple example in which exact analytic solution of MGL equations is possible. c ¦ § ¦ J ⊥s = 2e 2m 2 ∂ 2e − A z = 2e ∂z c ¦ 1 1 2 2 2 V2 + V⊥ 2m 2m ⊥ and for the currents 2e 2e 2 Js = ∇ − A = 2e 2m c ¦ § ¦ ¦ 2 2   £ i (r) ¡ i (r) + 1 go 3 (r) 6 + . 2 3. the values of M are 1 . put (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) .0 ≤ M ≤ In this section. e. Thus. Therefore. ¡ variation). g. V⊥s . The corresponding electrons supervelocities are The maximum possible supercurrent that could be carried by a HTS thin film or wire will be attained when the supervelocity Vi = Vis. a thin film or wire with thickness d   ¢ ¢   £ < £ c = 1 2 the SC belongs to the LTSs. J s is the maximum supercurrent in the direction parallel to the film surfaces and J ⊥s is the maximum supercurrent in the direction perpendicular to the film surfaces.s = 1 m ∇ − 2e A . An interesting example is that in which has the same value everywhere (without any substantial (r) = e = e f e . f = /Ψ0 . one may write the free energy density in the following form ¦ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ F = dv Fn + + (T) (r) 2 +1 2 (T) (r) 4 Where. where. ¦ § V⊥.

s + V 2 ⊥. one obtain for the velocities 1/ 2 V . Subsequently. the corresponding supercurrents are (cf. (48) and (49) into eqs. eqs. s = 2e e m ¥ 2 ¥   with = m⊥ .s = m 1 .(1-M ) f 2 − M f 4 ¦ ¨ m 1 . equation. M f4 + 3 1 = 0 (1-M ) f 2 − 4 2 From the above we conclude the following result ¨ ¡ J ⊥.(1-M ) f 2 − M f 4 1 .1 1/ 2 (46) 2 ⊥. (40) and (41)) To obtain maximum J s and maximum J ⊥s we differentiate each of eqs.s ) -1 1/ 2 (47) ¥ ¥ (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) . s = Where. (46) and (47) with respect to their corresponding velocity V s and V⊥s .(1-M ) + (1-M ) 2 −4 M m ¥ 2 (V 2 .(1-M ) f 2 − M f 4 1/ 2 2 V⊥ .(1-M ) + 2M 2 (1-M ) 2 −4 M m (V 2 . s = 2e e m 1/ 2 This will be maximum at that value of f 2 .Note that the positive sign of the square root was chosen for convenience. Substituting eqs.s 2 + V⊥ . (40) and (41) the maximum supercurrents will have the forms 1/ 2 ¡ J .(1-M ) + (1-M ) 2 ¥ 2 −4 M m ¨ 1 f = . s . 1/ 2 f2 1/ 2 10 ¥ 2 f2 which satisfies the following ¨ ¦ J ⊥s 2e = 2M 2 e V⊥s . m 2 1 .(1-M ) f 2 − M f 4 1/ 2 1/ 2 V⊥ . s ) .s + V ¨ ¦ Js 2e = 2M 2 e V s . s = V 2.s ) -1 1/ 2 (45) (V 2 .

¨ 3m ¥ 2 . with (53) (54) . V⊥ .c = J . m ≡ m ≡ m⊥ ( = 1 ) ¥ 2 2 1/2 ¨ ¡ J ⊥. then f 2 = 0. s = 2e e where . and we have V⊥ .1/ 2 1/ 2 (A) If . 1/ 2 ¡ J .c ≡ J . which corresponds to the isotropic LTS case [18]. and 2 2 3 3m 1/ 2 . (the case of HTS). s = m The square of the supervelocity is Vs 2 = V⊥ . s 2 = 2   1 ¦   3m + 1 . s = Vs 2 = V⊥ . s = 2 m   where. we get V . s = 2 e C 2 ¥ J . where C = 0. Vs 2 = 3m . s = 2e e 3m ¥ 2 2 3 ¥ ¨ For = 1 . s = M = 0 . C 1 m + 1 11 ¨ ¥ C 1 .c = 2e e (B) If M = and V .c + J ⊥. 2 2 2 3 3m 1/ 2 . the corresponding maximum values of the critical currents read. ¡ Jc = J . s 2 + V .692 . s = 2 e C 2 ¦ ¥ C 1/ 2 . s 2 + V .c = J ⊥. s 2 =   and for the supercurrent components are 1/ 2 0 ¡ m 1/ 2 0 ¡ ¨ m ¥ J ⊥.c ≡ J ⊥ . then f = 3 3m ¥ 2 .414568.

where eff in zero transition (i. In our coordinate system x is the normal axis to the film surface.the superelectrons number and H is field. in which the applied field may replace the vector potential. we get 12 ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ G =d Fn + (T)   (r) + 2 1 2 (T) (r) + 4 1 3 go (r) 6 H2 − 8 ¢ ¦ ¦ ¢ ¤ ¦ G =d Fn + (T) ¥ 1 (r) + 2 2 (T) (r) + 1 g o 3 4 ¨ m ¥ 2 2 1/2 2 1 1/ 2 + 1 . the Thus kinetic vs = −2e A mc external applied magnetic and 2 2   − 2e − 2e Ay = H x.3 Parallel critical field in HTS thin film To calculate the parallel critical field for HTS thin film with thickness d < . (57) may be dropped. mc mc   1 1 −2 e H x 2 m vs y 2 = m 2 2 mc unit area of film is d/2 . Thus. Here H z ≡ H and H x ≡ H ⊥ .e.d/2 As it was mentioned above. 0 ) for the parallel field and for the H ⊥ we take A y = A = constant z . (55) ¡ or = energy (56) (r) 6 − H2 8 + ¦ e2 d 3 H 2 + 6m∗ c 2 (r) 2 (58) .1/ 2 ¡ Jc = J . which bounded by x = ± d/2 planes. To find the critical field for a thin film that have second-order phase 2 → 0 ) and eff (H) → ∞ then A y = Hx .. Jc is the maximum critical current for the HTSs.c + J ⊥. we will consider a sufficiently thin film. ¡   ¡ ¡   field can refers to by the vs y = with 2 ≅ n s . Therefore the Gibbs free energy per Gs = . the vector potential A = ( 0.c = 2eC 0 where.d/2 Fs - BH 4 § dx (57) d/2 e2 d 3 H 2 2 ( B . 3. Two cases may be considered: the first case concerns the magnetic field parallel to the thin film surface and the second case is that in which the field is perpendicular to the surface. Hx. in thin film we can approximate B by H and therefore the last term in eq. £ ¡ Minimizing G with respect to 2 .H )2 (r) + dx + 8 6m ∗ c 2 .

1)). It was shown that the surface energy. It was shown that the supercurrent in the direction normal to the surface of the SC sample depends on the anisotropy factor γ.2)) concerns the calculation of the maximum supercurent in HTS thin film. which emphasize that this partition is energetically favored in spite of the existence of the sixth power term of the order parameter. has little diamagnetic energy for given applied field in comparison to an equal volume of a bulk superconductor [18]. the parallel component does not depend on γ. (3. being largely penetrated by the field. for large values of γ 13 ¡ → 0 .Using the results of sec. has negative sign. If the anisotropy factor is very large the normal current component will tend to zero (see eq. One the other hand. The physical reason for this is simply that the thin film. eq. and therefore. (55). in this case. (62) 1/ 2 M d 1+ 3 The last formula indicates that the parallel critical field may exceed the thermodynamic critical field Hc . H= 2 6 H c λ (T) . 6m ∗ c 2 (59) e 2d 2H 2 −1 6m c2 ¢ £¢ (60) e 2d 2H 2 6m c 2 = 1. The second problem (sec. and this takes place if M=1 and ¡ − (1-M ) ± (1-M )2 − 4M ¥ ¥ (T) +     (T) (r) + g o 2 (r) + 4 e2 d 2 H 2 = 0. (54. 2. The first one was the domain wall energy. the net value of the super current.2 it is easy to find 2 = 2 e 2M 2 ¡ In the normal phase using that[21] 2e 2 H c 2 λ 2 (T) =M 1+ m c2 3 we get. Discussions and Results 1. The MGL equations were used to solve three fundamental problems for HTS. By ¤ (61) . Our results show that the modification in the GL free energy function is important to meet with the new characteristics of the novel materials.

1785. Bulaevskii. C. It was shown that the parallel critical magnetic field that was calculated by the MGL equations depends on the parameter M. Erratum. 87. Gor’kov. Bardeen. References [1] V. Chilton (Stanford Research Institute. L. R. Fiz. Bednorz and K. Ter Hear (Pergamon. Physica C 125. 378. Zh. [12] A. Moscow. 537. Conf. Part 3. Oxford. Rev. Phys. Vol. [8] V. and on the orientation of the external field with respect to the layered planes. JETP. Phys. B 36. B. 1958. such a problem needs careful study as it is shown in ref. Men of physics. I. 64. Ginzburg and L. On Low Temperature Physics LT-18. N. Zh. 1965). Phys. and J. 1988. Mueller. Cooper. the phase composition of the sample. Sobyanin. 108. 1958. (English translation. 156. 1957. L. Ginzburg and A. Uspekhi. p. and 37. 3930. R. Hohenberg. Superconductivity. It was shown that the free energy variation depends on whether the variation is going with respect to the vector potential A or with respect to the magnetic field itself. 1950. P. in Proceedings of Fluctuations in Superconductors. S. as was usually doing in driving GL equations. 14 . D. single or multiphase. Phys. Fiz. Goree and F. Zh. V. [10] L. 20.[19]). 1960 (10. 6. 189. N. 1975. (Mir. Bulaevskii. 38. Ginzburg. [6] P. A. Phys. A.1960) [4] J. Sov. Subyanin and D. 19. 1987. Tinkham. The maximum supercurrent also depends on the magnetic field and on the coherence length.[22]. L. 138). which characterizes the sixth power of the order parameter in the MGL free energy functional. Z. and A. 1. [5] W.1407. 34. Proc. 1987) ch. [9] L. Phys. 36. Eksp. 1976 (J. Rep. Teor.g. edited by W. (Sov. Eksp. 4. 1959). Eksp. Stanford 1968). 1984. e. J. A. 1988. [3] L. 505. This term was put to be zero. 49. 1049. L. 7. C. Prog. 164. 1959 (9. B 37. Kapitul’nik M. N. Ginzburg and A. [7] V. Landau. Fiz. J. Skocpol and M. 507. L. Phys. A. [2] J. 505. Superdiamagnetism and Superfluidity. A.998. 1064. 1988.. V. 1982). p.3). ed. Teor. 3. Lobb. [11] C. A. Khomskii. 1490. Rev. 18th Int. However. 1175. Sobyanin. G. Teor. Rev. Sobyanin. Ginzburg. The parallel to the SC surface critical magnetic field in HTS thin film is calculated in sec. Phys. Schrieffer. Beasley. L. 773. 244. 1986.will have large value compared with that derived from the usual GL equations (compare with ref. Low temp. D. In our work less concern was given to the role of the surface boundary conditions in the MGL free energy variation procedure. Di Castro. (3. Castellani and C. Landau and D. 1987. edited by L. 652.

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