This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system.Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. Accordingly. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. . An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched. The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Voice will maintain to be an important application. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks. With bifurcation of P&T. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers.
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.11. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. 52 Million GSM Capacity. VoIP services. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts. Internet. Carrier service. IN Services etc. Presently. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. Cell One. In basic services. has 55. BSNL cellular service. BSNL is the only service provider. GSM Mobile. Today.140. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence.6 lakhs villages. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals.493 3G customers as on 30. expanding the network. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. MPLS-VPN.e. VSAT. with 35. CDMA mobile.2009. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. 287 Satellite Stations. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. Broadband. more than 38302 fixed exchanges. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai.282 2G cellular customers and 88. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber .21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. 46565 BTS. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. 7330 cities/towns and 25.
network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. Keeping pace with this transformation. DIAS. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. Account less Internet (CLI). BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings.99. Dial-up.37 billion). At present there are 0.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms.5 million WLL subscribers and 2. 000 million (US $ 14.630. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. 390 million (US $ 2. . multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. Leased Line. The company has vast experience in Planning.351. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service. Scaling new heights of success. With 3G. BSNL has more than 2. video calls and many more Value Added Services. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country. our customers will have high speed data. Installation.6 million Data One broadband customers.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz.26 billion) for last financial year. We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.
Post Offices.000 crores (US $ 1. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. is certainly on a financial ground that's sound.96 billion). Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills. 5. 35. 10. 88.000 crores (US $ 0.98 billion) and Revenues is Rs. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs. authorized equity capital of Rs. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company. verification of land records. .634 crores (US$ 17. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. The Company has a net worth of Rs. issue of birth certificates.03 billion) in 2008-09. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation.40 billion). y No.812 crores (US $ 7. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. vehicle registration etc. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas.
Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. Elevators sets. y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. .y y y y y 2 nos. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. D. substation.G.. conference hall. 4 nos.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. 66% and 100%. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers. sets. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. and Directors areas. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms. fire fighting system pumps etc. CMD. Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor.
These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually.e. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5. Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy. at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges. This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. TOWERS OF MANGALORE . approximately one third of the total maintenance budget.000 crores (replacement cost).Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges.
Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million. before they decide to move to the other provider. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy. Broadband connection: 3. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers.47 million (Feb 2008) .42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267. 40% of population by 2010. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39.
Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. beeper. also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. The country is divided into multiple zones. Although originally designed for voice communication. light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. . Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system. The signaling equipment consists of a bell. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. called circles (roughly along state boundaries).
On a modern push-button telephone. These include a transmitter (microphone).and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls. thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". filtering. usually a ringer. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy". This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. the exchange sends a busy . If the called party's line is active. and amplification. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". The exchange detects this current. The telephone consists of an alerting device. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing.
if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. in turn. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". draws DC current through the line. and the ringing signal is transmitted. and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. In modern telephone networks.signal to the calling party. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. confirming that the called phone is now active. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. DC current ceases to flow in that line. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. When a party "hangs up". placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. When the called party picks up the handset. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. However. Satellite . When a party initiates a call to this line. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. This. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call.
you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX). such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. Though the number of internet users is . you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. even in high density urban areas. The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. For calling Delhi. The country code for India is 91. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. For international calls. The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand.2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector.technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. Dialing System: On landlines. For long distance calls. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls.
faster access to information. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. and even Internet access right on their phones. or refrigerator.high. Whether it is a television. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. With the advent of the Internet. The goal is the same: long-range. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology. Bluetooth and 802. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. high-speed wireless connectivity. we need pervasive. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. cellular phone. typically in the tens of meters. To support such a powerful system. Such a system does not yet exist. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. high-speed wireless. the latest technology purchase must have new features. Meanwhile. . nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization.11 are examples. stock quotes. But that is far from the limit of features. the most-wanted feature is better.
in the 900 MHz band. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). The dominant players are Airtel. There are many smaller players. Vodafone. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. Reliance Infocomm. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. Currently there are an estimated 201.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. In September 2004. Communication via circuit . Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39.73 million fixed line subscribers. with operations in only a few states. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections.
Generally. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. . For example. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. Typically. a channel is dedicated to the connection. On each physical link. an end to end circuit must be established. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. usually by the action of one or more stations. Signals may be transmitted in both directions.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. the connection is full duplex. Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed. the connection is terminated.
A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. . some calls are blocked. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted. When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets.
BTS System .
It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. and manages operational states of each TRX. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). as well as software handling and alarm collection.for maintenance of the network. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations.BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. y The Operations support system (OSS) . spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. In this regard. it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. .
status changes. may be integrated with DRX. Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. etc. . Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Frequency hopping. It allows reducing the number of antenna used. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. software upgrades. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna.General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. etc. are done through the control function. signal DSP. On-the-spot configurations.
Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it. During this period. each device indicates how much data it has to send. Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. and every other device is in the quiescent state. one each for n devices on the network. In practice. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. There are n timeslots in each frame. During that particular time slot. This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame.TDMA TDMA. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. or Time Division Multiple Access.
and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. Once encoded. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling.´ That means. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. Thus. or Code Division Multiple Access. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. implemented in North America. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . CDMA CDMA. at an arbitrary time. where the rate of speech. Analog systems. Thus. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host. for this type of data. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. the volume of speech.
several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. In addition to GSM. GSM systems. Since then. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. CDMA . called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots. The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. Today. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. not data. GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). a similar technology. While GSM technology was developed in Europe.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems.9 GHz band. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. emerged in Japan.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. first implemented in 1991. using TDMA-based technology.
PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. However. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. As a result. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. too slow for today's Internet. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). GSM.
GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM.mobile data networks.6kbps by introducing 14. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain .4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems.4 kbps.
The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA.g. Similarly. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN). GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion.GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. will exceed 384 kbps. providing wireless voice and data . TDMA). such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. e. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface. but the data rate per timeslot will triple. ftp and HTTP-based Web services. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. in EGPRS. an Internet backbone or an X. Base Station Services (BSS). EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput.25 network. In ECSD. Mobile handsets (MS). Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN).
MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems.connectivity to the mobile handsets. the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. On the data side. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. However. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. . The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps.
to the underlying logical link control. such as IP or X. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression.25.The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D .
Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism.(LAPD). GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. authentication. SCCP. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. . selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. MTP3. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network.
and TDMA. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. The third radio interface. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. such as CDMA. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. which is also part of the core network. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. also called IS-136HS. and a circuitswitched domain. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. into one umbrella. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. GSM. It provides . the North American TDMA standard.
Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. In contrast. Data services run from the terminal device over IP. . which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice.the radio resource management. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. For example.
The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone. Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users. .
The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. If an ATM network is chosen. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. RNSAP and NBAP. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. Towards this end. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. Therefore. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. RRC. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. . However. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. Finally. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. RANAP.
Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. The network security would be much tighter. with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. All switches would be digital. 4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. etc. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . I do not think this is popular with the researching community.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. Wireless Internet. The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. Also QoS will improve. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. Also the security features will be much better.
Also Wi-Max technology (802. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. services. Since there is no consensus for the time being. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. Unfortunately. 802. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. As mentioned above. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data.16d) does not support mobility very well.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements.radius. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. or 3G. Problems with the Current System After all. . To overcome the mobility problem. However. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM. These are collectively referred to as third generation. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data.
Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. The cellular industry. but nobody else follows suit. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. Therefore. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. however. between 4G and HDTV. which has (thus far) failed miserably. The first is the nature of the service providers. . An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. however.The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. There are two key differences.
An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. In a digital realm.does not have this problem. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). who already have enough capital. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. The players are multi-billion dollar companies. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. Thus. 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. In this case. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. 173). otherwise. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. this is no easy task. Unfortunately. however. These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. security almost always means ³information . a security leak exists. But this still does not explain the security aspect. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system.
security. on the other hand.´ Therefore. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit. Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. . is not meant to contain such an audit. the objectives of future wireless technology. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. and the security measures needed to reach those goals. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). This document. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes.
Dept. As encryption is improved in the same device. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. of Commerce. This can result in a loss of signal for users. 174). To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. 5-26). one of which comes from interference. . Because of their size. speed is consequently lowered. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. and thieves can easily conceal them. U. possibility of interference increases. Even then. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges.S. 174). these devices often have extremely limited computing power. To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001.Physical security can pose problems as well. Moreover.
To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. 4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology. is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. These goals will help to direct security efforts. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. or UWB. Since the signal is disguised as noise.
Nevertheless.1to 10. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. but can also . UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. and turn up signal information. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. but curves across the spectrum.6 2GHz. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. For this reason. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. It also uses significantly less power. On the other hand.between 3. Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find.´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. because of the weakness of the UWB signal. tune.
Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. including wireless LAN technologies (e. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector. IEEE . and maximize intended signal reception.g.respond more loudly and directly as well. minimize interference.
The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming. integrated wireless and personalized services. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a . public cellular networks (2. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible. meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks.802. 3G). One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations. Under this umbrella. These devices would have to support different networks.11).5G.4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. and even personal are2a networks. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support.
5G technology including camera. dialing speed. MP3 recording. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. 5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. large phone memory.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G. video player. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections . This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. audio player and much more you never imagine. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system.
pictures.5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. Even though the loss is usually negligible. Without a packet layer. . 5G technology also support virtual private network. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. video and other information over the same hardware. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around.000 connections. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. The Internet relies on packets to move files.
Packets only require that there is an origin. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces.com ). a packet can carry any size of information. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again.323 (Protocols. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. a destination. the transmission . any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. the capacity of packets is expandable. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough. If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. and other huge types of data. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. it would read: H. audio. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. and at least one route between them.
Backbones can be replaced. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. Several standards already exist for VoIP. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. which will then connect to the destination CO. connection based communication to VoIP communication. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. such as NetPhone and Go Call. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. as far as the network is concerned.hardware will not know the difference. . However.
Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system. the keys are inverses. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. but the algorithm is the same. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. but the key is the same. Thus. In asymmetric encryption. then he too can decrypt the messages. In symmetric encryption. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. Moreover. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. If any party wishes to communicate with the users.
Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. in Europe. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone.connection. It is most . Meanwhile. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. However now it is in the declining phase. as a major mobile technology. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. symmetric keys are smaller and faster. It is also known as digital AMPS.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. other than the voice call or conference. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993. Although this technology originates from the Europe. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies.
It is a wireless technology. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. The GSM is the base of this technology. DECT. because it can operate with older devices. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. Universal mobile telecommunications systems.famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. GSM EDGE. It transmits variety of wireless signals. It is . UMTS. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems.
It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels. umbrella and Pico cells. These cells are of five different sizes. TD-SCDMA. OFDM. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. micro. femto. it can connect you to hotspot. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia.portable technology. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. SDR. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market.GSM offers moderate security. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. These cells include macro. It was originated in Finland Europe. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. Femto cell is a small base station designed to . Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum.
paging and handover. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. It¶s also known as 3. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important.cater the needs of minor business area. New techniques in location management might be implemented. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication).latest mobile phones support E2-GSM. It is connected using DSL technology. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. Each MT need not do location registration every time. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. which reports to . They can instead do concatenated location registration. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph.
Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. . Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion.the network that they are concatenated to a common object. The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements.
Indeed. Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. The cellular telephone industry. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. Unfortunately. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. simple and straightforward. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines. often turning to various solutions. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. using the computer¶s CPU for processing.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. and customer loyalty. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly. Meanwhile. is no exception. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. Customers want the features delivered to them. competition in the industry is heating up. Therefore. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. revenue. If the government wants to help. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. However. . but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.