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Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. With bifurcation of P&T. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. . the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL.Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. Accordingly. Voice will maintain to be an important application. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks.
2009. has 55. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. VoIP services.140. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. Carrier service. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. Broadband.e. In basic services. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts. GSM Mobile. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it. Today. BSNL cellular service. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. Presently.11. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. with 35.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. IN Services etc. 46565 BTS. Cell One.6 lakhs villages. MPLS-VPN. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. BSNL is the only service provider. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. VSAT. expanding the network. 52 Million GSM Capacity. more than 38302 fixed exchanges.282 2G cellular customers and 88.493 3G customers as on 30. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. Internet. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber . making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. 287 Satellite Stations. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. CDMA mobile.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. 7330 cities/towns and 25.
With 3G. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network.26 billion) for last financial year. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. The company has vast experience in Planning.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. Installation. Scaling new heights of success. 390 million (US $ 2. DIAS. 000 million (US $ 14.37 billion). The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz.6 million Data One broadband customers.351. At present there are 0. Dial-up. Keeping pace with this transformation. BSNL has more than 2. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them.5 million WLL subscribers and 2. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs. our customers will have high speed data. video calls and many more Value Added Services.99. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service.630. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. Leased Line. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. . We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. Account less Internet (CLI). the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.
y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. y No.000 crores (US $ 0. Post Offices.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills.96 billion).000 crores (US $ 1. is certainly on a financial ground that's sound. 35. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects. 10.812 crores (US $ 7.98 billion) and Revenues is Rs. 88. 5. The Company has a net worth of Rs.03 billion) in 2008-09. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company. verification of land records. authorized equity capital of Rs. . vehicle registration etc. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats.40 billion).634 crores (US$ 17. issue of birth certificates.
480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers. conference hall. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room.G. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. D.. 66% and 100%. CMD. sets. 4 nos. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. and Directors areas.y y y y y 2 nos. substation. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply. Elevators sets. . y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s. fire fighting system pumps etc.
The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy.e. at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually.000 crores (replacement cost). This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. TOWERS OF MANGALORE . approximately one third of the total maintenance budget. Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges.Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5.
47 million (Feb 2008) . To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10. 40% of population by 2010.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else. Broadband connection: 3. before they decide to move to the other provider. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers.
the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex.Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. Although originally designed for voice communication. The signaling equipment consists of a bell. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. . called circles (roughly along state boundaries). Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system. commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. The country is divided into multiple zones. beeper. Fax and dial-up Internet communication.
which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange. usually a ringer. the exchange sends a busy . thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". The telephone consists of an alerting device. A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing. and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". and amplification.and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call. (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. The exchange detects this current.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy". A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. These include a transmitter (microphone). This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. If the called party's line is active. filtering. and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone. the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line.
placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. DC current ceases to flow in that line. in turn.signal to the calling party. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. draws DC current through the line. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. and the ringing signal is transmitted. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". confirming that the called phone is now active. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. When a party initiates a call to this line. When a party "hangs up". and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. However. fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. This. In modern telephone networks. Satellite . When the called party picks up the handset.
The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand. For long distance calls. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. For calling Delhi. The country code for India is 91. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle.2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. Though the number of internet users is .technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX). For international calls. even in high density urban areas. Dialing System: On landlines.
or refrigerator. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology. . But that is far from the limit of features. Meanwhile. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. and even Internet access right on their phones.11 are examples. cellular phone. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers.high. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. The goal is the same: long-range. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. the latest technology purchase must have new features. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. To support such a powerful system. Such a system does not yet exist. high-speed wireless. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances. the most-wanted feature is better. faster access to information. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. With the advent of the Internet. stock quotes. Bluetooth and 802. we need pervasive. typically in the tens of meters. Whether it is a television. high-speed wireless connectivity.
Reliance Infocomm. In September 2004. There are many smaller players. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. The dominant players are Airtel. in the 900 MHz band. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. with operations in only a few states. Communication via circuit . India primarily follows the GSM mobile system. Currently there are an estimated 201.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications.73 million fixed line subscribers. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). Vodafone.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39.
Signals may be transmitted in both directions. For example. the connection is full duplex. a channel is dedicated to the connection. an end to end circuit must be established. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. Typically. . the connection is terminated. Generally. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. On each physical link. usually by the action of one or more stations.
A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. some calls are blocked. . When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network.
BTS System .
In this regard. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. . as well as software handling and alarm collection. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. and manages operational states of each TRX. It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA.BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). y The Operations support system (OSS) . The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations.for maintenance of the network.
Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. .General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. On-the-spot configurations. etc. etc. are done through the control function. signal DSP. may be integrated with DRX. status changes. Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. It allows reducing the number of antenna used. software upgrades. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. Frequency hopping.
During this period. In practice. This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. There are n timeslots in each frame. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission.TDMA TDMA. Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. During that particular time slot. one each for n devices on the network. each device indicates how much data it has to send. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. or Time Division Multiple Access. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it. and every other device is in the quiescent state. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices.
at an arbitrary time. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host. Thus. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. Analog systems. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . or Code Division Multiple Access.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received.´ That means. where the rate of speech. for this type of data. implemented in North America. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. Once encoded. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times. GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling. CDMA CDMA. the volume of speech. Thus. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone.
GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots. CDMA . several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide.9 GHz band. first implemented in 1991. GSM systems. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Today.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. Since then.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). using TDMA-based technology. not data. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. a similar technology. In addition to GSM. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. While GSM technology was developed in Europe. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). emerged in Japan.
HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . However. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. GSM. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small. too slow for today's Internet. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. As a result.
mobile data networks. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems.4 kbps.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.6kbps by introducing 14. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain .
e. Similarly. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. in EGPRS. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. In ECSD.g. ftp and HTTP-based Web services. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN).GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). Mobile handsets (MS). will exceed 384 kbps. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface. Base Station Services (BSS). The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA. providing wireless voice and data . SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion.25 network. but the data rate per timeslot will triple. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. an Internet backbone or an X. TDMA).
Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. On the data side. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. . these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM).connectivity to the mobile handsets. the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. However. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems.
such as IP or X. to the underlying logical link control. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D .The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection.25. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression.
922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. . MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. MTP3. GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. authentication.(LAPD). SCCP. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers.
Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. and a circuitswitched domain. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. It provides . which is also part of the core network. the North American TDMA standard. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. into one umbrella. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. The third radio interface. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. GSM. and TDMA. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. also called IS-136HS. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. such as CDMA.
For example. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS.the radio resource management. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000. In contrast. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. Data services run from the terminal device over IP. .
. Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone.
The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. However. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. Towards this end. RRC. Finally. . The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. RNSAP and NBAP.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. RANAP. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. Therefore. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. If an ATM network is chosen. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP.
Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. 4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. etc. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. Also QoS will improve. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. Wireless Internet. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. I do not think this is popular with the researching community.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. The network security would be much tighter. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. All switches would be digital. Also the security features will be much better. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology.
These are collectively referred to as third generation. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. or 3G. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. Also Wi-Max technology (802. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. To overcome the mobility problem. However. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data. services. 802. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). Unfortunately. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. As mentioned above. Problems with the Current System After all. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM. . Since there is no consensus for the time being.16d) does not support mobility very well.radius.
Therefore. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. however.The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. however. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. between 4G and HDTV. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. The first is the nature of the service providers. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. . Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. There are two key differences. which has (thus far) failed miserably. but nobody else follows suit. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. The cellular industry.
the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. this is no easy task. But this still does not explain the security aspect.does not have this problem. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. 173). The players are multi-billion dollar companies. In a digital realm. a security leak exists. security almost always means ³information . These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. otherwise. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. In this case. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. who already have enough capital. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). Unfortunately. Thus. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. however.
Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. the objectives of future wireless technology. . is not meant to contain such an audit. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC).security.´ Therefore. This document. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. on the other hand. and the security measures needed to reach those goals.
Dept. and thieves can easily conceal them. . speed is consequently lowered. 5-26). Moreover. an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. possibility of interference increases.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges. these devices often have extremely limited computing power. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. As encryption is improved in the same device. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. 174). 174). Even then. To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. one of which comes from interference.S.Physical security can pose problems as well. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001. Because of their size. of Commerce. U.
To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . or UWB. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. Since the signal is disguised as noise. The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications. These goals will help to direct security efforts. To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. 4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology.
but curves across the spectrum.1to 10. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. tune. Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. because of the weakness of the UWB signal.´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. For this reason. UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second.between 3. but can also . regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. Nevertheless. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock.6 2GHz. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. On the other hand. It also uses significantly less power. and turn up signal information. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat.
and maximize intended signal reception. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. IEEE . including wireless LAN technologies (e. minimize interference. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission.respond more loudly and directly as well.g.
This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks.11). 3G). MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a . One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. Under this umbrella. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access. integrated wireless and personalized services.802. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming.5G. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally.4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible. These devices would have to support different networks. public cellular networks (2. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. and even personal are2a networks. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations.
5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. dialing speed. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. audio player and much more you never imagine. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. large phone memory. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections . With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. MP3 recording. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. video player. 5G technology including camera.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G.
5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. 5G technology also support virtual private network. video and other information over the same hardware. pictures. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. Without a packet layer. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. . there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65.000 connections. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. The Internet relies on packets to move files. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. Even though the loss is usually negligible. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible.
the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. it would read: H. the transmission .Packets only require that there is an origin. If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. and other huge types of data. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video.com ). the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years.323 (Protocols. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. a packet can carry any size of information. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. a destination. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. audio. the capacity of packets is expandable. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. and at least one route between them. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough.
Backbones can be replaced. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. Several standards already exist for VoIP. which will then connect to the destination CO. as far as the network is concerned. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. However. such as NetPhone and Go Call. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet.hardware will not know the difference. . connection based communication to VoIP communication.
In asymmetric encryption. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. but the algorithm is the same. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. the keys are inverses. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. but the key is the same. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. In symmetric encryption. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. then he too can decrypt the messages. Moreover. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . Thus. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private.
Meanwhile. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. However now it is in the declining phase. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies.connection. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem. It is most . iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. in Europe. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993. Although this technology originates from the Europe. symmetric keys are smaller and faster. as a major mobile technology. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. other than the voice call or conference. It is also known as digital AMPS.
The GSM is the base of this technology. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. GSM EDGE. UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). It transmits variety of wireless signals. Universal mobile telecommunications systems. UMTS. DECT.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more.famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). because it can operate with older devices. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. It is a wireless technology.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. It is . however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage.
Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. These cells include macro. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. umbrella and Pico cells. SDR. These cells are of five different sizes. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels. femto. Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. It was originated in Finland Europe. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology. OFDM. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme.GSM offers moderate security. it can connect you to hotspot.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. TD-SCDMA. micro. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology.portable technology. Femto cell is a small base station designed to . The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM.
which reports to .latest mobile phones support E2-GSM. Each MT need not do location registration every time. paging and handover.cater the needs of minor business area. It is connected using DSL technology. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. They can instead do concatenated location registration. Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. It¶s also known as 3. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). New techniques in location management might be implemented. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology.
Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. . The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques. Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks.the network that they are concatenated to a common object. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train.
Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. The cellular telephone industry. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. Therefore. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices. often turning to various solutions. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. Customers want the features delivered to them. competition in the industry is heating up. simple and straightforward. If the government wants to help. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines. is no exception. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. However. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. Indeed. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic. Unfortunately. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. . Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. revenue. Meanwhile. and customer loyalty.