A Practical Training Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of Award of the degree of

B. TECH.
In

Electronics & Communication Engineering
At

SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:

Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department

Uma Agarwal
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION

WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION

CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.

ABSTRACT
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra

BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers.Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. Accordingly. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks. Voice will maintain to be an important application. With bifurcation of P&T. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. . the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network.

11. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence.140. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). more than 38302 fixed exchanges. 46565 BTS. IN Services etc.493 3G customers as on 30. 287 Satellite Stations.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. In basic services. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. 52 Million GSM Capacity. CDMA mobile. Internet. Carrier service. BSNL is the only service provider.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. 7330 cities/towns and 25.2009. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity.6 lakhs villages. GSM Mobile. has 55. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. Broadband. BSNL cellular service. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. MPLS-VPN.e. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. VoIP services. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber .282 2G cellular customers and 88. with 35. Presently. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts. Today. VSAT. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. expanding the network. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. Cell One. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it.

Installation. The company has vast experience in Planning. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. Keeping pace with this transformation. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. 390 million (US $ 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs. Account less Internet (CLI). We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings.99. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service.37 billion).630.26 billion) for last financial year.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit.6 million Data One broadband customers. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country.351. Dial-up. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. . A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. video calls and many more Value Added Services.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. Leased Line. BSNL has more than 2. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them. With 3G. At present there are 0. 000 million (US $ 14. DIAS. Scaling new heights of success. our customers will have high speed data.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. 10. 88. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. Post Offices. vehicle registration etc.40 billion). is certainly on a financial ground that's sound. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs. 35.634 crores (US$ 17. 5. issue of birth certificates.812 crores (US $ 7.98 billion) and Revenues is Rs.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company.96 billion).03 billion) in 2008-09. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills. y No.000 crores (US $ 0. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. authorized equity capital of Rs. The Company has a net worth of Rs. verification of land records. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. .000 crores (US $ 1. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation.

G. fire fighting system pumps etc. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. and Directors areas. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers.. sets. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms. conference hall.y y y y y 2 nos. . Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. 66% and 100%. D. y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. CMD. Elevators sets. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply. substation. 4 nos. Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor.

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Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5.e. TOWERS OF MANGALORE . Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy. These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually.000 crores (replacement cost). at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. approximately one third of the total maintenance budget. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges.

23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. Broadband connection: 3.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else.47 million (Feb 2008) . 40% of population by 2010. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI. before they decide to move to the other provider.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267.

Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system. called circles (roughly along state boundaries). The country is divided into multiple zones. commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. . the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex. also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. Although originally designed for voice communication.Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. The signaling equipment consists of a bell. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. beeper.

A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy". and amplification. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. These include a transmitter (microphone). (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". filtering. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. On a modern push-button telephone. sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". The exchange detects this current. thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call.and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls. The telephone consists of an alerting device. usually a ringer. If the called party's line is active. the exchange sends a busy .

signal to the calling party. DC current ceases to flow in that line. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. This. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. When a party "hangs up". When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. However. Satellite . the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. confirming that the called phone is now active. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. draws DC current through the line. in turn. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. When the called party picks up the handset. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. In modern telephone networks. and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. When a party initiates a call to this line. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. and the ringing signal is transmitted.

Though the number of internet users is . you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. For calling Delhi. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand. The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. even in high density urban areas.2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. For international calls. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. Dialing System: On landlines.technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. For long distance calls. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX). The country code for India is 91.

cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers.11 are examples. The goal is the same: long-range. or refrigerator. But that is far from the limit of features. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. typically in the tens of meters. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. Bluetooth and 802. the most-wanted feature is better. high-speed wireless connectivity. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. Whether it is a television. and even Internet access right on their phones. With the advent of the Internet. high-speed wireless. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances. the latest technology purchase must have new features.high. . we need pervasive. To support such a powerful system. Meanwhile. stock quotes. Such a system does not yet exist. cellular phone. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. faster access to information.

India primarily follows the GSM mobile system.73 million fixed line subscribers. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. In September 2004. Vodafone. Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. Communication via circuit .29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39. with operations in only a few states. in the 900 MHz band. The dominant players are Airtel.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000. Currently there are an estimated 201. Reliance Infocomm. There are many smaller players. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers.

. Generally. Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted. a channel is dedicated to the connection. the connection is terminated.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed. usually by the action of one or more stations. For example. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. Signals may be transmitted in both directions. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. an end to end circuit must be established. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. Typically. On each physical link. the connection is full duplex.

since each connects to its node at its proper data rate. . some calls are blocked. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets. A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network.

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BTS System .

it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. y The Operations support system (OSS) .BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers. .for maintenance of the network. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). as well as software handling and alarm collection. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). In this regard. and manages operational states of each TRX. Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS.

Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. Frequency hopping. Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). etc.General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. software upgrades. It allows reducing the number of antenna used. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. may be integrated with DRX. . signal DSP. etc. are done through the control function. Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. status changes. On-the-spot configurations.

This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. During this period. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. In practice. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network.TDMA TDMA. There are n timeslots in each frame. During that particular time slot. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. one each for n devices on the network. or Time Division Multiple Access. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. and every other device is in the quiescent state. each device indicates how much data it has to send. Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it.

GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling. where the rate of speech. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . or Code Division Multiple Access. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. CDMA CDMA. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. Once encoded. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times. Analog systems. Thus. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone. at an arbitrary time.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. implemented in North America. Thus.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. for this type of data. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. the volume of speech. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host.´ That means.

In addition to GSM. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. using TDMA-based technology. not data.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. While GSM technology was developed in Europe. a similar technology. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. GSM systems. first implemented in 1991. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). emerged in Japan. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. Today.9 GHz band. called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. Since then. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots. CDMA .

the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. too slow for today's Internet. GSM.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small. However. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. As a result. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call.

4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain . This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57.4 kbps.6kbps by introducing 14. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems.mobile data networks.

including all eight timeslots in the radio interface.25 network. TDMA). whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet.g. providing wireless voice and data . SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. In ECSD. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. ftp and HTTP-based Web services. an Internet backbone or an X. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA. in EGPRS. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN.GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. will exceed 384 kbps. but the data rate per timeslot will triple. Similarly. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. Base Station Services (BSS). Mobile handsets (MS). e. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN).

The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems. However. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS.connectivity to the mobile handsets. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. On the data side. and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). .

SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression. such as IP or X.The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection. to the underlying logical link control.25. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D .

SCCP. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context.(LAPD). GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. . GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. authentication. MTP3. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting.

Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. The third radio interface. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. and a circuitswitched domain. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. which is also part of the core network. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. It provides . GSM. the North American TDMA standard. which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. into one umbrella. Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. also called IS-136HS. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. and TDMA. such as CDMA.

Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. Data services run from the terminal device over IP.the radio resource management. . For example. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. In contrast. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000.

The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone. . Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.

. The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. RNSAP and NBAP. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. If an ATM network is chosen. Therefore. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. RANAP. However. Finally. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. Towards this end.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. RRC. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services.

with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. All switches would be digital. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. 4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. Also QoS will improve. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. I do not think this is popular with the researching community. The network security would be much tighter. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. Also the security features will be much better. Wireless Internet. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. etc.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used.

This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology. . However. 802.16d) does not support mobility very well.radius. Since there is no consensus for the time being. Unfortunately. As mentioned above. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. Also Wi-Max technology (802. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. To overcome the mobility problem. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). or 3G. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. These are collectively referred to as third generation. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. services. Problems with the Current System After all. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized.

An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. The cellular industry. which has (thus far) failed miserably. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. There are two key differences. but nobody else follows suit. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. however. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. The first is the nature of the service providers. between 4G and HDTV. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. .The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. however. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. Therefore. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G.

the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: ‡ Government regulator ‡ Network infrastructure provider ‡ Wireless service provider ‡ Wireless equipment provider ‡ Wireless user (Russell 2001. security almost always means ³information . a security leak exists. this is no easy task. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. In a digital realm.does not have this problem. Thus. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. however. otherwise. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. In this case. Unfortunately. who already have enough capital. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. 173). An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. The players are multi-billion dollar companies. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. But this still does not explain the security aspect.

is not meant to contain such an audit. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. on the other hand. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit. the objectives of future wireless technology.security. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes. and the security measures needed to reach those goals. This document. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. .´ Therefore.

Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001.S. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Because of their size. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. and thieves can easily conceal them. 174). As encryption is improved in the same device. U.Physical security can pose problems as well. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. ‡ To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. speed is consequently lowered. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. 174). of Commerce. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. ‡ To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. ‡ To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. Even then. Moreover. possibility of interference increases. Dept. one of which comes from interference. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges. . as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001. 5-26). these devices often have extremely limited computing power.

4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). ‡ To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices.‡ To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . Since the signal is disguised as noise. These goals will help to direct security efforts. or UWB. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. ‡ To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. ‡ To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services.

but can also .´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. tune. For this reason. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. Nevertheless. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. because of the weakness of the UWB signal. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second. On the other hand.6 2GHz. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. and turn up signal information. Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find. It also uses significantly less power.between 3.1to 10. but curves across the spectrum. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse.

g. There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission. Smart antennas can thereby: ‡ Optimize available power ‡ Increase base station range and coverage ‡ Reuse available spectrum ‡ Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. including wireless LAN technologies (e. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. and maximize intended signal reception.respond more loudly and directly as well. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector. minimize interference. IEEE .

3G).802.11). The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access. These devices would have to support different networks. 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations. Under this umbrella. integrated wireless and personalized services. public cellular networks (2. One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. and even personal are2a networks. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a .5G. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support. The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks.

5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections . 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology including camera. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. large phone memory. dialing speed. audio player and much more you never imagine.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. 5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. MP3 recording. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. video player. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone.

5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. The Internet relies on packets to move files. there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around.5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. Even though the loss is usually negligible. . IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. video and other information over the same hardware.000 connections. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. Without a packet layer. pictures. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). 5G technology also support virtual private network. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible.

audio. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces.Packets only require that there is an origin. and other huge types of data. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough. the capacity of packets is expandable. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. the transmission . a destination.com ). As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. it would read: H. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. and at least one route between them. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing.323 (Protocols. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). a packet can carry any size of information.

Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet. Several standards already exist for VoIP. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. which will then connect to the destination CO. as far as the network is concerned. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. such as NetPhone and Go Call.hardware will not know the difference. Backbones can be replaced. . One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. However. connection based communication to VoIP communication.

but the key is the same. the keys are inverses. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. then he too can decrypt the messages. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. Moreover. but the algorithm is the same. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. In asymmetric encryption. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. Thus. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. In symmetric encryption. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system.

in Europe. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. However now it is in the declining phase. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. Although this technology originates from the Europe. Meanwhile. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. symmetric keys are smaller and faster.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. other than the voice call or conference. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. It is most . Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993.connection. as a major mobile technology. It is also known as digital AMPS. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber.

UMTS. It transmits variety of wireless signals. It is . core network and USIM (subscriber identity module).EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. It is a wireless technology. DECT.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. Universal mobile telecommunications systems.famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. GSM EDGE. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. The GSM is the base of this technology.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. because it can operate with older devices. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute. however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). It is complex network and allows for covering radio access.

TD-SCDMA. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum. it can connect you to hotspot. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology. These cells include macro. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. umbrella and Pico cells. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. Pico cells also cover a small geographical area.GSM offers moderate security. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. Femto cell is a small base station designed to .portable technology. femto. OFDM. SDR. These cells are of five different sizes. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. It was originated in Finland Europe. micro. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent.

So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). New techniques in location management might be implemented. paging and handover. It¶s also known as 3. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. Each MT need not do location registration every time. Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph. It is connected using DSL technology. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8.cater the needs of minor business area. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. which reports to . Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas.latest mobile phones support E2-GSM.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. They can instead do concatenated location registration.

Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. . The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements. Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques.the network that they are concatenated to a common object.

the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. Therefore. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. If the government wants to help. is no exception. Customers want the features delivered to them. Indeed. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. . The cellular telephone industry. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. Meanwhile. Unfortunately. However. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. simple and straightforward. competition in the industry is heating up. Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. and customer loyalty. revenue. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic. often turning to various solutions. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices.

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