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Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. Accordingly. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. With bifurcation of P&T. Voice will maintain to be an important application. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. .Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions.
Today.493 3G customers as on 30. BSNL is the only service provider.2009. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber . 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). Internet. In basic services. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. 7330 cities/towns and 25.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.282 2G cellular customers and 88. with 35. VoIP services. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. MPLS-VPN. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. has 55. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. BSNL cellular service.11. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. Cell One.6 lakhs villages. Presently.140. Carrier service. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. CDMA mobile. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. 52 Million GSM Capacity. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts. IN Services etc. 46565 BTS. VSAT. 287 Satellite Stations. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. expanding the network.e. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. GSM Mobile. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. Broadband. more than 38302 fixed exchanges. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it.
Keeping pace with this transformation.37 billion). our customers will have high speed data. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. The company has vast experience in Planning. video calls and many more Value Added Services. Leased Line. We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country.630. .26 billion) for last financial year. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs. 390 million (US $ 2. 000 million (US $ 14. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. Account less Internet (CLI). With 3G.351. Installation. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. At present there are 0. BSNL has more than 2.6 million Data One broadband customers. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz.99. Dial-up. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. DIAS. Scaling new heights of success. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings.
98 billion) and Revenues is Rs. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects. y No. 5. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills. authorized equity capital of Rs. verification of land records. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company. . issue of birth certificates.812 crores (US $ 7.000 crores (US $ 0. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs. Post Offices. The Company has a net worth of Rs.634 crores (US$ 17.000 crores (US $ 1.03 billion) in 2008-09.40 billion). 88. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation. 35. vehicle registration etc.96 billion). is certainly on a financial ground that's sound. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. 10.
Elevators sets. sets.y y y y y 2 nos. . Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. substation. D. 4 nos. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system.G. CMD. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. fire fighting system pumps etc. 66% and 100%. conference hall. and Directors areas. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s.. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%.
at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5.e. TOWERS OF MANGALORE . Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. approximately one third of the total maintenance budget. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually.000 crores (replacement cost). The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy.Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges. Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges.
Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI. Broadband connection: 3. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. before they decide to move to the other provider. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. 40% of population by 2010.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39.47 million (Feb 2008) .16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10.
beeper. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex. called circles (roughly along state boundaries). Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system.Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. The country is divided into multiple zones. . Although originally designed for voice communication. commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. The signaling equipment consists of a bell.
filtering. and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". These include a transmitter (microphone). that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". the exchange sends a busy . thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. If the called party's line is active. and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. The telephone consists of an alerting device. The exchange detects this current. sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange. and amplification. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. On a modern push-button telephone. A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. usually a ringer. the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy".and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls.
and the ringing signal is transmitted. placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. draws DC current through the line. Satellite . This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. in turn. fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. When a party initiates a call to this line. However. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. This. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. When a party "hangs up".signal to the calling party. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. confirming that the called phone is now active. When the called party picks up the handset. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. DC current ceases to flow in that line. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. In modern telephone networks. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call.
you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. For international calls. Though the number of internet users is . The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX).2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand.technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. For calling Delhi. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. even in high density urban areas. Dialing System: On landlines. The country code for India is 91. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. For long distance calls.
or refrigerator. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. Whether it is a television. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. The goal is the same: long-range. cellular phone. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks.high. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. and even Internet access right on their phones. stock quotes. Meanwhile. To support such a powerful system. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances. With the advent of the Internet. we need pervasive. Such a system does not yet exist. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. the most-wanted feature is better. But that is far from the limit of features. the latest technology purchase must have new features. Bluetooth and 802. faster access to information. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. high-speed wireless connectivity. . typically in the tens of meters.11 are examples. high-speed wireless.
The dominant players are Airtel. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections. Vodafone. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. Communication via circuit . International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. Reliance Infocomm. in the 900 MHz band. with operations in only a few states. Currently there are an estimated 201. There are many smaller players. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. In September 2004.73 million fixed line subscribers.
Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted. . Typically. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. Signals may be transmitted in both directions. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. a channel is dedicated to the connection. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. Generally. the connection is full duplex. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed. usually by the action of one or more stations.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. the connection is terminated. On each physical link. For example. an end to end circuit must be established. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E.
some calls are blocked. When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted. . A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency.
BTS System .
The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. In this regard.BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers.for maintenance of the network. y The Operations support system (OSS) . and manages operational states of each TRX. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. . Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. as well as software handling and alarm collection.
etc. On-the-spot configurations. signal DSP. Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. software upgrades. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. It allows reducing the number of antenna used.General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). status changes. etc. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. may be integrated with DRX. are done through the control function. Frequency hopping. . Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS.
is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. During this period. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum.TDMA TDMA. and every other device is in the quiescent state. each device indicates how much data it has to send. one each for n devices on the network. Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. or Time Division Multiple Access. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. In practice. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. There are n timeslots in each frame. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. During that particular time slot. Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it.
This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. implemented in North America.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. the volume of speech. and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host. Analog systems. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone. Thus. while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . Thus. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. for this type of data. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . where the rate of speech. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling. or Code Division Multiple Access. at an arbitrary time. Once encoded.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network.´ That means. CDMA CDMA. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times.
GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. not data. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America.9 GHz band. using TDMA-based technology. a similar technology. Today. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). In addition to GSM. CDMA . first implemented in 1991. While GSM technology was developed in Europe. several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. Since then.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. GSM systems. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. emerged in Japan. GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems.
the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. As a result. too slow for today's Internet. However.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small. the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). GSM. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section.
4 kbps.6kbps by introducing 14.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain . GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57.mobile data networks.
Base Station Services (BSS). in EGPRS. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS.GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface. In ECSD. providing wireless voice and data . The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN.25 network.g. an Internet backbone or an X. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). e. but the data rate per timeslot will triple. TDMA). GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput. will exceed 384 kbps. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN). Mobile handsets (MS). The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. Similarly. ftp and HTTP-based Web services.
The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems.connectivity to the mobile handsets. and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. On the data side. . The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. However. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps.
The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol.25. to the underlying logical link control. such as IP or X. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D .
BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. SCCP. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. MTP3. .(LAPD). Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. authentication. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.
RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. and a circuitswitched domain. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). It provides . also called IS-136HS. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. The third radio interface. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. the North American TDMA standard. into one umbrella. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. which is also part of the core network. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. GSM. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. such as CDMA. Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. and TDMA. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF).
the radio resource management. For example. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. Data services run from the terminal device over IP. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. In contrast. . Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice. Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched.
The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone. . Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.
RANAP. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. RRC.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. However. . MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. Finally. Therefore. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. If an ATM network is chosen. Towards this end. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. RNSAP and NBAP. The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region.
More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. 4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). etc. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. I do not think this is popular with the researching community. All switches would be digital. Also the security features will be much better. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . Wireless Internet. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. Also QoS will improve. The network security would be much tighter.
Unfortunately. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. Since there is no consensus for the time being. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology. As mentioned above.16d) does not support mobility very well. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM. To overcome the mobility problem. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data.radius. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. . with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. services. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. or 3G. Also Wi-Max technology (802.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. However. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. These are collectively referred to as third generation. Problems with the Current System After all. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. 802.
No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. but nobody else follows suit. .The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. which has (thus far) failed miserably. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. however. An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. however. The cellular industry. There are two key differences. Therefore. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. The first is the nature of the service providers. between 4G and HDTV. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers.
These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. who already have enough capital. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. security almost always means ³information . Unfortunately. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. this is no easy task. The players are multi-billion dollar companies. In this case. 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. 173). the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. Thus. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. In a digital realm. But this still does not explain the security aspect. a security leak exists.does not have this problem. however. otherwise.
the objectives of future wireless technology. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. and the security measures needed to reach those goals. This document. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit.´ Therefore. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes. is not meant to contain such an audit. on the other hand. .security. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide.
U. Dept. of Commerce.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges. an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. these devices often have extremely limited computing power. . Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. speed is consequently lowered. 174). one of which comes from interference.S. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. 174). one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. As encryption is improved in the same device. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Even then. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. possibility of interference increases. Moreover. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. and thieves can easily conceal them. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. Because of their size. 5-26).Physical security can pose problems as well. To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum.
or UWB. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). especially when the system is faced with specific threats. is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. These goals will help to direct security efforts. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. 4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology. To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. Since the signal is disguised as noise. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications.
between 3. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. For this reason. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. tune. UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks.1to 10. On the other hand. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat.6 2GHz. but curves across the spectrum. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. It also uses significantly less power. because of the weakness of the UWB signal. but can also . thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. and turn up signal information.´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. Nevertheless.
including wireless LAN technologies (e. and maximize intended signal reception. minimize interference. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks.g. IEEE .respond more loudly and directly as well. There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission.
which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations. public cellular networks (2. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access.802. 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. Under this umbrella. The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming.5G. One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. These devices would have to support different networks. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. 3G).11). Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a .4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). integrated wireless and personalized services. and even personal are2a networks. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support.
With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. video player. MP3 recording. dialing speed. 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections . 5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. audio player and much more you never imagine. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. 5G technology including camera. large phone memory.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G.
video and other information over the same hardware.5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. pictures. The Internet relies on packets to move files. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible. .000 connections. 5G technology also support virtual private network. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. Without a packet layer. IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. Even though the loss is usually negligible.
the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. the capacity of packets is expandable. a destination. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. it would read: H. and at least one route between them. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. and other huge types of data. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. a packet can carry any size of information.Packets only require that there is an origin. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces. audio.323 (Protocols.com ). in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. the transmission .
VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet. such as NetPhone and Go Call. Backbones can be replaced. Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. However.hardware will not know the difference. Several standards already exist for VoIP. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. which will then connect to the destination CO. connection based communication to VoIP communication. as far as the network is concerned. . VoIP packets are the same as any other packet.
The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. but the algorithm is the same.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. In asymmetric encryption. Thus. but the key is the same. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. then he too can decrypt the messages. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. Moreover. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. the keys are inverses. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. In symmetric encryption. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . that party can encrypt the message using the public key. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system.
Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. It is also known as digital AMPS. Meanwhile. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time.connection. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. symmetric keys are smaller and faster. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. Although this technology originates from the Europe. It is most . other than the voice call or conference. However now it is in the declining phase. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. as a major mobile technology. in Europe. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem.
It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). It is . There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. Universal mobile telecommunications systems. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. DECT.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. It is a wireless technology.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. GSM EDGE. The GSM is the base of this technology. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. because it can operate with older devices. It transmits variety of wireless signals.famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. UMTS. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access.
it can connect you to hotspot. This technology is based on the wireless internet access.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. femto. These cells include macro. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. These cells are of five different sizes. umbrella and Pico cells. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. TD-SCDMA. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. It was originated in Finland Europe. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent. SDR. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station.portable technology. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. OFDM. The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels.GSM offers moderate security. micro. Femto cell is a small base station designed to . These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS.
It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas.cater the needs of minor business area. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. They can instead do concatenated location registration. which reports to . All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. paging and handover. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. It¶s also known as 3. It is connected using DSL technology. Each MT need not do location registration every time.latest mobile phones support E2-GSM. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration. New techniques in location management might be implemented. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph.
A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques.the network that they are concatenated to a common object. . ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train.
Therefore. If the government wants to help. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. competition in the industry is heating up. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. often turning to various solutions. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices. revenue. is no exception. The cellular telephone industry. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. and customer loyalty. Customers want the features delivered to them. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. . Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry. However. simple and straightforward. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. Meanwhile. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. Indeed. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. Unfortunately.
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