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Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
With bifurcation of P&T.Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. Accordingly. Voice will maintain to be an important application. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. . The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched.
Broadband. In basic services. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services.493 3G customers as on 30. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer.282 2G cellular customers and 88. 52 Million GSM Capacity.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. Presently. 7330 cities/towns and 25. BSNL is the only service provider. more than 38302 fixed exchanges.6 lakhs villages. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts. BSNL cellular service. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber . VSAT. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it. 287 Satellite Stations. Cell One. Internet. with 35. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. Carrier service. 46565 BTS.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Today.11. expanding the network.2009. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). MPLS-VPN. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. IN Services etc.140. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. has 55. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. GSM Mobile. CDMA mobile.e. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. VoIP services.
Dial-up. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. BSNL has more than 2. We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful.6 million Data One broadband customers. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country. DIAS. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings. .99. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service. Account less Internet (CLI). Keeping pace with this transformation. Scaling new heights of success.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. With 3G. 390 million (US $ 2.26 billion) for last financial year. Installation. our customers will have high speed data. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.37 billion). 000 million (US $ 14.5 million WLL subscribers and 2. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. The company has vast experience in Planning. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them. video calls and many more Value Added Services.351. At present there are 0.630. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. Leased Line. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit.
Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats.812 crores (US $ 7. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs.40 billion). y No. 10.96 billion). . vehicle registration etc. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. verification of land records. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects. Post Offices. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. 35. 88. is certainly on a financial ground that's sound.000 crores (US $ 0.03 billion) in 2008-09. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. issue of birth certificates. The Company has a net worth of Rs. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills. authorized equity capital of Rs. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity.000 crores (US $ 1.98 billion) and Revenues is Rs.634 crores (US$ 17. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. 5.
Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. 4 nos. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms. substation. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply..G. D. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. CMD. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. fire fighting system pumps etc.y y y y y 2 nos. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. and Directors areas. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers. . conference hall. y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s. 66% and 100%.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. sets. Elevators sets.
Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually.Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges. TOWERS OF MANGALORE . This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country.e. approximately one third of the total maintenance budget.000 crores (replacement cost). Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges. The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy. at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5.
47 million (Feb 2008) . Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267. Broadband connection: 3.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009. 40% of population by 2010. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million. before they decide to move to the other provider.
Although originally designed for voice communication. called circles (roughly along state boundaries). Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world.Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. The signaling equipment consists of a bell. The country is divided into multiple zones. the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex. beeper. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system. commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. . also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS).
A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. If the called party's line is active. which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). the exchange sends a busy . The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. filtering. sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange. (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. These include a transmitter (microphone). and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". On a modern push-button telephone. that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". The exchange detects this current. and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy". attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. usually a ringer. The telephone consists of an alerting device. This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. and amplification.and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls.
The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. and the ringing signal is transmitted. DC current ceases to flow in that line. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. This. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. When a party "hangs up". placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. draws DC current through the line. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges.signal to the calling party. confirming that the called phone is now active. However. When a party initiates a call to this line. and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". Satellite . When the called party picks up the handset. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. In modern telephone networks. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. in turn.
technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. Dialing System: On landlines. The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand. For long distance calls. For calling Delhi. The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. Though the number of internet users is . There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. For international calls. even in high density urban areas.2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. The country code for India is 91. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX). intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices.
Bluetooth and 802.11 are examples. To support such a powerful system. the latest technology purchase must have new features.high. high-speed wireless. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. typically in the tens of meters. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. Such a system does not yet exist. But that is far from the limit of features. faster access to information. Whether it is a television. . A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. Meanwhile. the most-wanted feature is better. or refrigerator. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. we need pervasive. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. stock quotes. With the advent of the Internet. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology. cellular phone. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. high-speed wireless connectivity. and even Internet access right on their phones. The goal is the same: long-range.
in the 900 MHz band. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. with operations in only a few states. There are many smaller players.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39. The dominant players are Airtel. Currently there are an estimated 201. Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications.73 million fixed line subscribers. Communication via circuit .These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. Vodafone. In September 2004. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections. Reliance Infocomm.
station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. the connection is terminated. an end to end circuit must be established. On each physical link. the connection is full duplex. Generally. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed. Signals may be transmitted in both directions. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. usually by the action of one or more stations. For example. Typically. . That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. a channel is dedicated to the connection.
When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network. some calls are blocked. A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. . On a packet switching network packets are still accepted. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate.
BTS System .
The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF).for maintenance of the network. it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA.BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers. Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. y The Operations support system (OSS) . a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. In this regard. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. . and manages operational states of each TRX. as well as software handling and alarm collection. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS.
Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. It allows reducing the number of antenna used. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Frequency hopping. software upgrades. status changes. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. . signal DSP. are done through the control function. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. etc. etc. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx).General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. may be integrated with DRX. Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. On-the-spot configurations. Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations.
This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. one each for n devices on the network. In practice. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. or Time Division Multiple Access. each device indicates how much data it has to send. During this period. Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it. and every other device is in the quiescent state. There are n timeslots in each frame.TDMA TDMA. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. During that particular time slot.
CDMA CDMA.´ That means. where the rate of speech. Thus. GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. or Code Division Multiple Access. at an arbitrary time. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. Thus. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. implemented in North America. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. Once encoded. the volume of speech. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host. Analog systems. and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. for this type of data.
The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM).9 GHz band. CDMA . using TDMA-based technology. first implemented in 1991. called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. Since then. several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. GSM systems. not data. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. a similar technology. In addition to GSM. GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. emerged in Japan. The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. While GSM technology was developed in Europe. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Today.
These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . As a result. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. too slow for today's Internet. the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. However. GSM.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small.
This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM.mobile data networks.6kbps by introducing 14. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain .4 kbps.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.
GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. TDMA). but the data rate per timeslot will triple. ftp and HTTP-based Web services. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. Base Station Services (BSS). e. an Internet backbone or an X. In ECSD. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface.GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. in EGPRS. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. Similarly. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). will exceed 384 kbps. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA.25 network.g. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. Mobile handsets (MS). providing wireless voice and data .
connectivity to the mobile handsets. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps. and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. . The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). On the data side. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). However. The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems.
Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D . SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression.25. such as IP or X.The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. to the underlying logical link control. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection.
BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. MTP3. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. . This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. authentication. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP. GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. SCCP.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services.(LAPD). MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism.
and TDMA. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. the North American TDMA standard. which is also part of the core network. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. and a circuitswitched domain. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. such as CDMA. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. also called IS-136HS. It provides . Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. The third radio interface. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. GSM. into one umbrella. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality.
The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. . Data services run from the terminal device over IP. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice. For example. In contrast. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000.the radio resource management.
The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone. . Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.
The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. RRC. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. RANAP. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. If an ATM network is chosen. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. Towards this end. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. RNSAP and NBAP. . The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. Finally. However. Therefore.
Wireless Internet. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. Also the security features will be much better. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. The network security would be much tighter. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. I do not think this is popular with the researching community. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. All switches would be digital. etc. Also QoS will improve. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. 4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously).The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology.
Unfortunately. . However. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors).radius. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. These are collectively referred to as third generation. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. Also Wi-Max technology (802. As mentioned above. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. Since there is no consensus for the time being. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data. To overcome the mobility problem. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM. services. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. Problems with the Current System After all. 802. or 3G. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data.16d) does not support mobility very well.
An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. between 4G and HDTV. There are two key differences. . Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. The first is the nature of the service providers. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. The cellular industry. but nobody else follows suit. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. however. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. Therefore.The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. however. which has (thus far) failed miserably.
Unfortunately. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. a security leak exists. But this still does not explain the security aspect. otherwise. this is no easy task. In a digital realm. security almost always means ³information . 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. The players are multi-billion dollar companies. the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. Thus. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. who already have enough capital. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. In this case. These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. however.does not have this problem. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. 173). engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system.
on the other hand. is not meant to contain such an audit. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. the objectives of future wireless technology.´ Therefore. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). This document. .security. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit. Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. and the security measures needed to reach those goals. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes.
As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. As encryption is improved in the same device. one of which comes from interference. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. these devices often have extremely limited computing power. Moreover.S. 174). 5-26). an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. Even then. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. possibility of interference increases. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Because of their size. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. of Commerce. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. and thieves can easily conceal them. . U. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. speed is consequently lowered. 174).Physical security can pose problems as well. Dept.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges.
or UWB. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. Since the signal is disguised as noise. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. These goals will help to direct security efforts. 4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications.
´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. and turn up signal information. but curves across the spectrum. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. tune. but can also . Nevertheless. because of the weakness of the UWB signal.between 3. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. For this reason. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. It also uses significantly less power. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. On the other hand. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal.1to 10. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat.6 2GHz. UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second. Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find.
g. and maximize intended signal reception. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission. IEEE .respond more loudly and directly as well. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. including wireless LAN technologies (e. minimize interference.
The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).5G. Under this umbrella. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. These devices would have to support different networks. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. public cellular networks (2. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a .802. and even personal are2a networks. One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access.11). 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network. 3G).4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). integrated wireless and personalized services. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations.
With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. MP3 recording. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections . 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. video player. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G. dialing speed. 5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. audio player and much more you never imagine. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. large phone memory. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology including camera.
IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted.000 connections. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. 5G technology also support virtual private network. video and other information over the same hardware. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. Without a packet layer. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible. pictures. . The Internet relies on packets to move files. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed.5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. Even though the loss is usually negligible. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate.
Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. the transmission . it would read: H. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded.323 (Protocols. and at least one route between them.Packets only require that there is an origin. a packet can carry any size of information. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. the capacity of packets is expandable.com ). a destination. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough. and other huge types of data. audio. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using.
connection based communication to VoIP communication. However. Several standards already exist for VoIP. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. as far as the network is concerned. such as NetPhone and Go Call. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. Backbones can be replaced. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. . Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks.hardware will not know the difference. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. which will then connect to the destination CO. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet.
The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. In asymmetric encryption. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. In symmetric encryption. the keys are inverses. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. but the key is the same. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. but the algorithm is the same. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. then he too can decrypt the messages. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. Moreover. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . Thus.
symmetric keys are smaller and faster. It is also known as digital AMPS. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. However now it is in the declining phase.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. other than the voice call or conference.connection. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber. as a major mobile technology. Meanwhile. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. in Europe. It is most . Although this technology originates from the Europe.
It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. It is .famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. because it can operate with older devices. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). UMTS. GSM EDGE. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). Universal mobile telecommunications systems. It transmits variety of wireless signals. however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. The GSM is the base of this technology. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). It is a wireless technology. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access. DECT.
Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent.portable technology. it can connect you to hotspot.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. Femto cell is a small base station designed to . The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. umbrella and Pico cells. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. TD-SCDMA. It was originated in Finland Europe. femto. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec.GSM offers moderate security. These cells include macro. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. OFDM. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology. These cells are of five different sizes. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. SDR. micro. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM.
which reports to . paging and handover. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. It¶s also known as 3. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. New techniques in location management might be implemented. They can instead do concatenated location registration.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. It is connected using DSL technology. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology.latest mobile phones support E2-GSM. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ.cater the needs of minor business area. Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. Each MT need not do location registration every time. Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration.
The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements. Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. .the network that they are concatenated to a common object. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train.
and customer loyalty. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices. simple and straightforward. Meanwhile. . However. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly. often turning to various solutions. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. If the government wants to help. competition in the industry is heating up. Customers want the features delivered to them. Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. revenue. Therefore. Indeed. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. Unfortunately. The cellular telephone industry. is no exception. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines.