A Practical Training Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of Award of the degree of
Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
Accordingly. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. Voice will maintain to be an important application.Introduction
Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched.
. With bifurcation of P&T. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers. The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks.
MPLS-VPN. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. IN Services etc. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. Cell One. has 55. BSNL is the only service provider.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. 46565 BTS. 7330 cities/towns and 25. BSNL cellular service. In basic services.493 3G customers as on 30. Today. CDMA mobile. Broadband. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. Presently. Carrier service. more than 38302 fixed exchanges. expanding the network. VoIP services.e. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector.2009. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. with 35. 52 Million GSM Capacity. GSM Mobile.140. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. 287 Satellite Stations. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber
. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS).6 lakhs villages.282 2G cellular customers and 88.11. VSAT. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. Internet. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts.
DIAS. Keeping pace with this transformation. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. 000 million (US $ 14.630.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms.5 million WLL subscribers and 2. 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.351. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. Account less Internet (CLI). Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. Leased Line. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. The company has vast experience in Planning. At present there are 0.99. Installation. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country. video calls and many more Value Added Services. our customers will have high speed data. 390 million (US $ 2. Dial-up.
. We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. With 3G. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings.6 million Data One broadband customers.37 billion).5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. BSNL has more than 2. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute.26 billion) for last financial year. Scaling new heights of success. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them.
98 billion) and Revenues is Rs.40 billion). BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. vehicle registration etc. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. y No.03 billion) in 2008-09. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats.000 crores (US $ 1. The Company has a net worth of Rs. 5. is certainly on a financial ground that's sound.
. issue of birth certificates. 35. the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.812 crores (US $ 7. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts.96 billion). verification of land records. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company.634 crores (US$ 17. 88. 10. Post Offices. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity. authorized equity capital of Rs. Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs.000 crores (US $ 0. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills.
Elevators sets. sets. 66% and 100%. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. substation.
Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. 4 nos. D. CMD.. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers. and Directors areas.
. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor.G.y
2 nos. fire fighting system pumps etc. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. conference hall.
CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms. 12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos.
at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually. This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy.000 crores (replacement cost). Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5. Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i.
TOWERS OF MANGALORE
. approximately one third of the total maintenance budget.e. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies.Maintenance of networks
Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges.
TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009.47 million (Feb 2008)
. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10. 40% of population by 2010.Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI. Broadband connection: 3. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers.51 million (January 2008)
Cell phones: 267. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million. before they decide to move to the other provider.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26.
Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). beeper. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. The country is divided into multiple zones. commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Although originally designed for voice communication.
. the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex.Telephony System
Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls. The signaling equipment consists of a bell. called circles (roughly along state boundaries).
1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system.
that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing. the exchange sends a busy
. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. thus operating a button switch or "switch hook". The exchange detects this current. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing.and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. These include a transmitter (microphone). and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing. filtering. This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call. On a modern push-button telephone. usually a ringer. and amplification. The telephone consists of an alerting device. If the called party's line is active. sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange.) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy".
Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. draws DC current through the line. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. DC current ceases to flow in that line. When a party "hangs up". However.signal to the calling party. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. and the ringing signal is transmitted. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. confirming that the called phone is now active. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. When the called party picks up the handset. and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. in turn. In modern telephone networks. This. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook". signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. When a party initiates a call to this line. Satellite
Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones.2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. The country code for India is 91. even in high density urban areas. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. Though the number of internet users is
. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. For long distance calls. For calling Delhi. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. Dialing System: On landlines. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (.technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number. For international calls. The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX).
To support such a powerful system. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. or refrigerator. The goal is the same: long-range. But that is far from the limit of features. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. the latest technology purchase must have new features. cellular phone. manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. high-speed wireless connectivity.11 are examples. typically in the tens of meters. high-speed wireless. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. Meanwhile. stock quotes. Whether it is a television. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances.
. and even Internet access right on their phones. we need pervasive. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. Such a system does not yet exist. With the advent of the Internet. Bluetooth and 802.
Consumers demand more from their technology. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand.high. faster access to information. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. the most-wanted feature is better. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging.
Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system. The dominant players are Airtel. with operations in only a few states. There are many smaller players. In September 2004. Reliance Infocomm.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation.Cellular Technology
The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39. in the 900 MHz band. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections. Currently there are an estimated 201. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. Communication via circuit
Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA).73 million fixed line subscribers. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL. Vodafone. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band.
the connection is full duplex. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. a channel is dedicated to the connection. For example. Typically. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. usually by the action of one or more stations. an end to end circuit must be established. Signals may be transmitted in both directions.
.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network.
Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted. the connection is terminated. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. Generally. On each physical link. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed.
When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted.
In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets. some calls are blocked. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate.
The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. and manages operational states of each TRX. as well as software handling and alarm collection. It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. y The Operations support system (OSS) .BTS in Mobile Communication
A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers.for maintenance of the network. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). In this regard.
. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations).
etc. On-the-spot configurations. Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. software upgrades. are done through the control function. may be integrated with DRX.General Architecture
Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. Frequency hopping. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). It allows reducing the number of antenna used. etc. Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. status changes. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. signal DSP.
. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna).
and every other device is in the quiescent state. one each for n devices on the network. During this period. every device gets a timeslot in every frame. This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. each device indicates how much data it has to send. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA)
. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. In practice. Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it. or Time Division Multiple Access. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. There are n timeslots in each frame.TDMA
TDMA. During that particular time slot.
CDMA. the volume of speech. while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of
.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. at an arbitrary time. Analog systems. and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. where the rate of speech. Once encoded.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. or Code Division Multiple Access. for this type of data. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . implemented in North America. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. Thus. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host.
GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling.´ That means. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times.
several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). not data. The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. Since then. In addition to GSM. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world. Today. first implemented in 1991. called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. emerged in Japan. The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. using TDMA-based technology.9 GHz band. GSM systems. CDMA
. GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. While GSM technology was developed in Europe.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM).
Second Generation Wireless Technology
The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. a similar technology. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
As a result. the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services.uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small. GSM. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies.
Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section. However. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. too slow for today's Internet. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband
. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD). CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow.
GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM.4 kbps.
GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems.6kbps by introducing 14.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14.mobile data networks. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain
ftp and HTTP-based Web services. SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. e. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). but the data rate per timeslot will triple. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. In ECSD. Mobile handsets (MS). providing wireless voice and data
. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. Similarly. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. in EGPRS. Base Station Services (BSS). and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. TDMA). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA. an Internet backbone or an X. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput.GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface.g. will exceed 384 kbps. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN).25 network.
The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information.
. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps. the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. However. On the data side. Hence providing broadband
services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS.connectivity to the mobile handsets. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA).
The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D
. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection.25. such as IP or X. SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression. to the underlying logical link control.
Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR.(LAPD). BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. MTP3. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context.
. SCCP. authentication.
known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. and TDMA. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. the North American TDMA standard. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. It provides
. The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. which is also part of the core network. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. also called IS-136HS. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. and a circuitswitched domain. GSM. Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. The third radio interface. which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. such as CDMA. into one umbrella. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks
3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components.
For example. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. Data services run from the terminal device over IP. In contrast. Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000.the radio resource management. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000. The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice.
. Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone.
Towards this end. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services. this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. Therefore. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. If an ATM network is chosen. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. RANAP. However. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. RRC. RNSAP and NBAP. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. Finally.
.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services.
The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. All switches would be digital. Also the security features will be much better. with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. The network security would be much tighter. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km
. Also QoS will improve. I do not think this is popular with the researching community. etc. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6.
The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). Wireless Internet. The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference.
These are collectively referred to as third generation. However.
Problems with the Current System
After all. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. services. Since there is no consensus for the time being. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors). Also Wi-Max technology (802. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM.radius.
. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. or 3G. To overcome the mobility problem. As mentioned above. 802. Unfortunately. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology.16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data.16d) does not support mobility very well.
but nobody else follows suit. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. There are two key differences. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. however. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G.The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. which has (thus far) failed miserably.
. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers. Therefore. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. between 4G and HDTV. Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. The first is the nature of the service providers. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. The cellular industry. An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. however. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it.
however. An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. In this case. Thus. But this still does not explain the security aspect. wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. Unfortunately. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan. this is no easy task. a security leak exists. Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. In a digital realm. 173). security almost always means ³information
Information Security Model
Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems.does not have this problem. The players are multi-billion dollar companies. who already have enough capital. otherwise.
but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit.´ Therefore. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. This document.
Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). and the security measures needed to reach those goals. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes. is not meant to contain such an audit.security. the objectives of future wireless technology.
. on the other hand.
Dept. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop. one of which comes from interference. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. of Commerce. 174). possibility of interference increases. To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. Even then. these devices often have extremely limited computing power.
. and thieves can easily conceal them. U.S. speed is consequently lowered. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. Because of their size. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001. As encryption is improved in the same device. Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. 5-26). an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. 174).Physical security can pose problems as well. Moreover.Wireless Security Issues
Wireless systems face a number of security challenges. This can result in a loss of signal for users. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST.
To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. or UWB. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of
. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications. Since the signal is disguised as noise. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. These goals will help to direct security efforts.
4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks
Ultra Wideband technology.
Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. For this reason. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. and turn up signal information.1to
10. but curves across the spectrum. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. On the other hand.
The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat.6
2GHz. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder.between
3. It also uses significantly less power. but can also
.´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second. tune. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal. because of the weakness of the UWB signal.
Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. Nevertheless.
There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth
4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. minimize interference.g. including wireless LAN technologies (e. IEEE
. and maximize intended signal reception.respond more loudly and directly as well. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the
3G).802. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access. public cellular networks (2. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. integrated wireless and personalized services. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. Under this umbrella.11). 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible.4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).5G. and even personal are2a networks. The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a
. These devices would have to support different networks. meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network.
5G technology including camera. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market.
The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections
. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G. 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. audio player and much more you never imagine. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. large phone memory. video player. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. MP3 recording. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. dialing speed.
000 connections. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective.
IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer
The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). video and other information over the same hardware. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible. Even though the loss is usually negligible. 5G technology also support virtual private network. pictures. there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. Without a packet layer.5G Features
5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. The Internet relies on packets to move files.
323 (Protocols. a packet can carry any size of information. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. and other huge types of data. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted.Packets only require that there is an origin. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces.com ). As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. the capacity of packets is expandable. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. it would read: H. If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. the transmission
. the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. and at least one route between them. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. a destination. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. audio. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough.
as far as the network is concerned.hardware
difference. Several standards already exist for VoIP. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone. such as NetPhone and Go Call. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. which will then connect to the destination CO. However. connection based communication to VoIP communication. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct.
. Backbones can be replaced.
In asymmetric encryption. but the key is the same. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. then he too can decrypt the messages. In symmetric encryption. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system. Thus. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. Moreover. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended
. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. the keys are inverses. but the algorithm is the same. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key.Encryption
Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm.
GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. It is most
. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones. symmetric keys are smaller and faster. as a major mobile technology. However now it is in the declining phase. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. in Europe. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. It is also known as digital AMPS. other than the voice call or conference. Although this technology originates from the Europe. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. Meanwhile. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system.connection.
EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. GSM EDGE. The GSM is the base of this technology. It is a wireless technology.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well.famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. because it can operate with older devices. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. It transmits variety of wireless signals. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module).EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA. DECT. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. UMTS. It is
. Universal mobile telecommunications systems. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology).
micro. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. femto. OFDM. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. umbrella and Pico cells. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. These cells are of five different sizes. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels.GSM offers moderate security. it can connect you to hotspot. The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. SDR. It was originated in Finland Europe. TD-SCDMA.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. These cells include macro. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology.portable technology. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. Femto cell is a small base station designed to
Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. It is connected using DSL technology. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. Each MT need not do location registration every time. It¶s also known as 3.cater the needs of minor business area. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. New techniques in location management might be implemented. paging and handover. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph.
Mobility Management includes location registration.latest mobile phones support E2-GSM.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. They can instead do concatenated location registration. which reports to
. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G.
A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements.
. The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques.
Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train.the network that they are concatenated to a common object. Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management.
Meanwhile. often turning to various solutions. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly.Conclusion
Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. The cellular telephone industry. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements. If the government wants to help. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. is no exception. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. revenue. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices. Customers want the features delivered to them. and customer loyalty. Indeed. competition in the industry is heating up. However. Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry. Therefore. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. simple and straightforward. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic.