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97.

315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic:ELECTRIC FIELD

Lecture 2

TITLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

• Theory
• Field and force • One point charges, n = 1 • Units

•Theory • Charge distributions
• Linear • Surface • Volume

• Examples of calculation
• Point charges

• Theory • Multiple point charges, • Two point charges
n>1

•Examples of calculation • Line
• …..

• Examples of calculation

• Assignment • References
Lecture 1 OUTLINE

• Summary

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Action at a distance!!!!!

How do the charges qo know of the presence of the large charge Q?

qo

qo

Q

Similar to the action at a distance force of gravitation
Lecture 2 THEORY

sun earth

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Gravity: Another action at a distance effect!!!!

sun

earth Introduce the idea of a gravitational field. A mass placed in the gravitational field will experience a gravitational force.

Field Test mass Force
Lecture 2 THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

We define an electric field similar to that of a gravitational field. A charge produces an electric field such that when another “test” charge is placed in the field it will experience an electrical force. Electric field Test charge Electric force
Lecture 2 THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

The electric field at any point is the force per unit charge experienced by a charge at that point.

v F

v v F E= q

q
Since the electric force is a vector then the electric field is also a vector.

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

v v F E= q
q
v F

Electric field and electric force are vectors which point in the same direction when the test charge q is positive.

The electric field lines for a positive source charge point away from the source charge.

v F

q
Lecture 2 THEORY

The electric field lines for a negative source charge point towards the source charge.

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Consider two point charges (+Q and +q) again and the force that exists between them.

v F
q
Electric force on q
r

v Qq ˆ F =k 2 r r
Electric field at q

Q

v v F Q ˆ E= =k 2 r q r

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

P
v r

Observation point

Q

[k]-Coulomb constant; meter/Farad {m/F} [q]-charge; Coulomb {C} [r]-distance; meters {m} [E]-Electric field; Newton/Coulomb {N/C} [E]-Electric field; Volt/meter {V/m}

v Q ˆ E=k 2 r r
ELECTRIC FIELD
Lecture 1 UNITS

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Some properties of the electric field for a POINT CHARGE Q
(1) Electric field is a vector quantity. Thus at all points where the electric field exists it has magnitude and direction. (2) The charge q must be small and positive such that it does not disturb the source charge Q. (3) For a positive source charge Q the electric field vector and the electric force on the test charge q are in the same direction. (4) For a positive source charge Q, the electric field lines are directed away from the charge. (5) For a point charge Q located at the origin the electric field vector is:

Y

ˆ q

ˆ r
ˆ y

v Q ˆ E=k 2 r r
ˆ x

Q

+

X

ˆ ˆ é r ù é cos(q ) sin (q )ù é x ù =ê êq ú - sin (q ) cos(q )ú ê y ú ˆ ûë ˆû ë û ë
Lecture TEXT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: COULOMB FORCE

PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY 1. Consistent units are essential. Distances must be in meters, charge in coulombs. Don’t forget to convert. 2. Remember that the electric force is a vector quantity. You may want to go back and review vector algebra. It’s often useful to use components in an (x, y, z) coordinate system. Be sure to use the correct vector notation. Indicate your coordinate axes clearly on your diagram, and be certain that the components are consistent with your choice of axes. 3. In working out directions of electric field vectors, be careful to distinguish between source point and the field point P. The field produced by a positive point charge always points in the direction from the source point to field point; the opposite is true for a negative point source.
Lecture 1 ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) What is the electric field 30 cm from a charge q = 4.0 nC?

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) What is the electric field 30 cm from a charge q = 4.0 nC? Z P

ˆ r

v E=

1 q ˆ r 2 4pe o r
q = 4.0nC = 4.0 ´10 -9 C

r
q
q
f

r = 30cm = 3 ´ 10 -1 m

Y

1 Nm 2 = 9.0 ´10 -9 2 4pe o C

X
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

v N ˆ E = 400 r C

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Alternate Solution) Obtain the force on a test charge Z

v F=

1 qq ¢ ˆ r 2 4pe o r

ˆ r

q = 4.0nC = 4.0 ´10 -9 C

r = 30cm = 3 ´ 10 -1 m
1 Nm 2 = 9.0 ´10 -9 2 4pe o C

r
q
q
f

Y

X
Lecture 2

Then obtain the electric field
EXAMPLE

v N ˆ F = 400q¢ r C v v F N ˆ E = = 400 r q¢ C
END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A charged raindrop carrying 10 mC experiences an electric force of 0.30 N in the +x direction. What is the electric field at this location? What would be the force on a -5.0 mC drop at the same location?

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A charged raindrop carrying +10 mC experiences an electric force of 0.30 N in the +x direction. What is the electric field at this location? What would be the force on a -5.0 mC drop at the same location? Y
q¢ = +10 mC

v v F E= q¢

v E=

v ˆ F = 0.30 Nx

X

ˆ 0.30 Nx + 10 ´ 10 -6 C

Z
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

v 4 N ˆ E = 3.0 ´ 10 x C

Electric field at location of charge q¢

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A charged raindrop carrying +10 mC experiences an electric force of 0.30 N in the +x direction. What is the electric field at this location? What would be the force on a -5.0 mC drop at the same location? Y
q¢ = -5.0 mC

r v F = q¢E

v 4 N ˆ E = 3.0 ´ 10 x C

v N ˆ F = -5 ´10 -6 C * 3.0 ´10 4 x C

X
v ˆ F = -0.15 Nx

Z
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

Electric force on negative charge q¢

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Summary) A charged raindrop carrying +10 mC experiences an electric force of 0.30 N in the +x direction. What is the electric field at this location? What would be the force on a -5.0 mC drop at the same location?
You might wonder if the field should point in the -x direction when we talk about putting a negative charge in the field. It doesn’t because the whole point of the field concept is to provide a description that’s independent of the particular charge experiencing that force. The electric field in this example points in the +x direction no matter what charge we may choose to put in the field. For a positive charge the force q’E points in the same direction as the field; for a negative charge q’ < 0, and the force is opposite the field direction. As always the algebra takes care of the sign.

q¢ = +10 mC

v E
v F

q ¢ = -5 . 0 m C

v F

v E

ˆ x
END

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by multiple point charges (n = 2) Z q1

v r1

v r2

q2

P

v r
Y q1 and q2 are the source point charges. P is the field point

X

The charges (q1 and q2) produce the electric field observed at the point P
Lecture 2 THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Consider each charge in turn, independently of all other charges present.

Z

q1 q2

v E1 v E2
Y P Charge q1 produces an v electric field E at point P.
1

Charge q2 produces an v electric field E2 at point P

X

The total electric field at P is the vector sum of the electric field produced by each individual charge.
THEORY

v v v EP = E1 + E2

Lecture 2

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Consider charge q1 only Z q1 q2
v v r - r1

v r1

P

v r
Y

Electric field produced by charge q1 at P

X
Distance separating q1 and P

v v v kq1 ì r - r1 ï E1 = v v 2 í v v r - r1 ï r - r1 î

ü ï ý ï þ

Unit vector along line joining q1 and P
Lecture 2 THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Consider charge q2 only Z q1
v v r - r2

v r2

q2

P

v r
Y

Electric field produced by charge q2 at P

X
Distance separating q2 and P

v kq2 E2 = v v 2 r - r2

v v ì r - r2 ï ív v ï r - r2 î

ü ï ý ï þ

Unit vector along line joining q2 and P
Lecture 2 THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

The total electric field at P is the vector sum of the electric field produced by each individual charge. Z q1
v v r - r1 v v r - r2

v r1

v q2 r2

P

v r

v v v E P = E1 + E2
v v ì r - r1 ï ív v ï r - r1 î ü kq2 ï ý+ v v 2 ï r - r2 þ v v ì r - r2 ï ív v ï r - r2 î ü ï ý ï þ

X
Lecture 2 THEORY

v kq1 E= v v2 r - r1

Y

v v v v v kq1 (r - r1 ) kq2 (r - r2 ) E= v v3 + v v 3 r - r1 r - r2

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by multiple point charges (n > 1) qi Z q1
v v r - ri

q3 q2 P

v ri
qn

v r
Y

q4

v v v v v E = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 + ....
v n v E = å Ei
i =1

The total electric field at P is the vector sum of the electric field produced by each individual charge.

X q5

Lecture 2

THEORY

v v n v r - ri E = k å qi v v 3 r - ri i =1

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
Given a group of charges we find the net electric field at any point in space by using the principle of superposition. This is a general principle that says a net effect is the sum of the individual effects. Here, the principle means that we first compute the electric field at the point in space due to each of the charges, in turn. We then find the net electric field by adding these electric fields vectorially, as usual.

v v v v v E = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 + ....

v n v E = å Ei
i =1

Lecture 2

TEXT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) The figure shows two point charges each of +10 nC separated in air by 8.0 m. Compute the electric field at the points A, B, and C
y
(m) 4

B

+ 10nC

+

A
4 (m)

+ 10nC +

x

(m)- 4

C

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) The figure shows two point charges each of +10 nC separated in air by 8.0 m. Compute the electric field at the points A, B, and C
Point A: Make a sketch of the layout and then draw in vectors for the fields E1 produced by q1 and E2 produced by q2. To do that imagine a positive test charge at A. The force on it due to the charge q1 acts along the center-to-center line, is repulsive, and so points to the right. That means the E1 at A is to the right along the axis. Similarly, the force due to q2 on our imaginary test charge is to the left as is E2. Next calculate E1 and E2 and add them vectorially. We are spared this effort since E1 = E2, the two cancel and the field at A is zero v v E2 E1

+

A

+

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) The figure shows two point charges each of +10 nC separated in air by 8.0 m. Compute the electric field at the points A, B, and C
Point B: At point B the fields act as drawn in the figure, and we must find their components. First we will calculate E1 and E2.

v E2

B

v E1

+
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

q

45o

+

X

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
Point B: Since the charges and distances happen to be the same, the magnitudes of the two contributing fields are equal:

q Nm 2 (+10.0 ´10 -9 C ) E1 = E2 = k 2 = (9.0 ´109 2 ) 2 r C æ 4. 0 m ö ÷ ç sin 45o ø è

( )

E1 = 2.81 N

C

v E2

Now for the vector components +
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

B

v E1

q

45o

+

X

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
Point B: Since the charges and distances happen to be the same, the magnitudes of the two contributing fields are equal:

v ˆ ˆ E1 = 2.81 N (cos(45) x + sin( 45) y ) C v ˆ ˆ E2 = 2.81 N (- cos( 45) x + sin( 45) y ) C
v E2 v E1

( (

) )

B

+
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

q

45o

+

X

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
Point B: The horizontal field components are equal and act in opposite direction. They will cancel. Only the vertical field components contribute, and in the same direction.

E B = E1 sin 45o + E2 sin 45o = 2(2.81

( )

( )

N )(0.707) C

E B = 4 .0 N

C
q

v E2

Y
B

v E1

The direction is straight up in the positive y-direction

+

45o

+

X

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
Point C: The point C is similarly located with respect to the charges as point B is.The field magnitude at C is the same as at B except the direction is straight down in the negative y-direction.at

E B = E1 sin 45o + E2 sin 45o = 2(2.81
y

( )

( )

N )(0.707) C

EC = 4.0 N

(m) 4

B

C
+ 10nC
+
A
4 (m)

The direction is straight down in the negative y-direction

+ 10nC +

x

(m)- 4

C

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) The figure shows two point charges each of +10 nC separated in air by 8.0 m. Compute the electric field at the points A, B, and C
Additional figures related to this example question

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

+

+

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A molecule consist of separate regions of positive and negative charge, modeled approximately as a positive charge q at x = a and a negative charge -q at x = -a. Find the general expression for the electric field at any point on the y axis and an approximate expression valid at large distances (y >> a)
v E+

q

v E

v E-

@
+ +

+

q

y

r

r

x = -a
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

+

x = +a

x

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A molecule consist of separate regions of positive and negative charge, modeled approximately as a positive charge q at x = a and a negative charge -q at x = -a. Find the general expression for the electric field at any point on the y axis and an approximate expression valid at large distances (y >> a)
The figure shows the individual field vectors E+ and E- along with their sum. The y components cancel to give a net field parallel to the x axis.
v E+
v E

q

v E-

q

y

r

r

x = -a
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

+

x = +a

x

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
The x components of the two fields are clearly the same so we have:

Ex = Ex- + Ex+

æq ö = -2k ç 2 sin (q )÷ èr ø
v E+
v E

The minus sign occurs because the net field points in the negative x direction. Also

r=
sin (q ) =

y +a
a = r a

2

2

q

y2 + a2

v E-

q

Then

y
ˆ x

r

r

v ˆ E = Ex x = Lecture 2

2kqa

(y

2

+ a2

)

3

2

x = -a

+

x = +a

x

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
Does this result make sense: Try the point y = 0.

v ˆ E = Ex x = -

2kqa

(y

2

+a

2

)

3

ˆ x
2

At y = 0 gives

v 2kq ˆ ˆ E = Ex x = - 2 x a
v E+

q

Which is indeed twice the field of either charge at a distance a.

v E

v E-

q

y

r

r

x = -a
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

+

x = +a

x

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
We are frequently interested in the field far from a dipole which is the reason why this example asks for an approximate expression for the electric field at y >> a.

+

+

@

+

In this case we can thus neglect a2 compared to y2 in our expression for the electric field giving: v
E+

q

v 2kqa ˆ lim E = - 3 x y >> a y

v E

v E-

q

y

r

r

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

v 2kq ˆ ˆ E = Ex x = - 2 x a

x = -a

+

x = +a

x

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous charge distribution In is often useful to imagine that there is a continuous distribution of charge. The principle of superposition applies provided the charge distribution is divided into small elements of charge Dq and the total electric field at an observation point is obtained by summing all electric field contributions from each element Dq.

Charged line

Charged surface

Charged volume

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous charge distribution In is often useful to imagine that there is a continuous distribution of charge.

Charged line

Charged surface

Recall in calculus

Charged volume

Dq ® 0

å Dq Þ ò dq

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

dq

ˆ r
r

v dE

r
r
P

v dE
v dE

v E

ˆ r
dq dq

ˆ r

The electric field at the point P is the sum of the v vectors dE arising from the individual charge elements dq in the entire distribution, each calculated using the appropriate distance r and unit ) vector r .

Lecture 2

SUMMARY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous line of charge P Electric field produced at P by one segment dq

v r

L

dq

dl

v dq ˆ dE = k v 2 r r
Electric field produced by all segments along line of length L

rl

Linear charge density on the line

{rl}
Lecture 2

Units; {C/m}

dq= rldl Charge on length segment dl
THEORY

v v ˆ rr l dl E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r L L

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous line of charge

v r

P

L

r l may be a function of the coordinates
usually a constant

dq

dl

1 k= 4pe

dl = dx,.....
v v ˆ rr l dl E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r L L

Integration over length of line charge
Lecture 2 THEORY

unit vector function of (x,y,z),….

v r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,....

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous surface of charge

v r
dq
dA

P

Electric field produced at P by one segment dq

v dq ˆ dE = k v 2 r r
Surface charge density

S

rs

Electric field produced by all segments of surface S

{rs}
dq= rsdA

Units; {C/m2}
Charge on surface element dA

v v ˆ rr s dA E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r S S

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous surface of charge

v r
dq
dA

P
rs may be a function of the coordinates usually a constant

S

1 k= 4pe

dA = dxdy ,.....

v v ˆ rr s dA E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r S S
Integration over surface of charge unit vector function of (x,y,z),….

v r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,....

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous volume of charge P Electric field produced at P by one segment dq

v r
dq
dV

v dq ˆ dE = k v 2 r r
Electric field produced by all segments in volume V

V

rV

Volume charge density Units; {C/m3} Charge in volume element dV

{rV }
dq= rV dV
Lecture 2 THEORY

v v ˆ rrV dV E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r V V

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric field produced by a continuous volume of charge P

v r
dq
dV

rV may be a function of the coordinates usually a constant

1 k= 4pe

dV = dxdydz ,.....

V
Integration over volume of charge

v v ˆ rrV dV E = ò dE = k ò v 2 r V V
unit vector function of (x,y,z),….

v r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,....

Lecture 2

THEORY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) Wires, antennas, and similar elongated structures can often be considered as thin rods carrying electric charge. Suppose a rod of length l carries a positive charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. Find the electric field at the point P a distance a from the end of the rod.

l

dy

dq

a

y

P
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

y=0

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Wires, antennas, and similar elongated structures can often be considered as thin rods carrying electric charge. Suppose a rod of length carries a positive charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. Find the electric field at the point P a distance a from the end of the rod.

l

l

dy

dq

Let the y axis lie along the rod, with origin at P. Consider a small length dy of the rod, containing charge dq, and located a distance y from P. A unit vector from dq to P is: - y ˆ

a
The field at P due to dq is:

y

v dq ˆ dE = - k 2 y y
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

P
y=0

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Wires, antennas, and similar elongated structures can often be considered as thin rods carrying electric charge. Suppose a rod of length carries a positive charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. Find the electric field at the point P a distance a from the end of the rod.

l

l

dy

dq

The net fieldvat P is the sum- that is the integral- of all the fields dE arising from all the dq’s along the rod:

v v y =a +l æ dq ç- k 2 E = ò dE = ò ç y =a y è

ö ˆ÷ y÷ ø

a

y

P
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

y=0

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
In order to evaluate the integral we must relate dq to y. The rod carries a uniform charge Q distributed over the length l . The line charge density is therefore:

l

dy

dq

rl = Q

l

This is the charge per unit length. Thus a length dy carries charge dq given by:

a
v v y =a +l æ dq ç- k 2 E = ò dE = ò ç y =a y è
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

y

ö ˆ÷ y÷ ø

P
y=0

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)
v y = a + l æ dq ö ˆ ç 2÷ E = -ky ò çy ÷ y =a è ø v Q y y = a + l æ dy ö ˆ ç ÷ E = -k l òy = a ç y 2 ÷ è ø

l

dy

dq

v E = -k Q
v E = -k Q

æ -1 ö ˆç ÷ y l ç y ÷ è øa

a +l

1 ö æ1 ˆ y l ça a+l÷ è ø

a

y

v - kQ ˆ y E= a (a + l )
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

P
y=0

Does this answer make sense?

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Consider

a >> l

v - kQ ˆ y E= a (a + l )

l

dy

v - kQ ˆ lim E = 2 y a >> l a
The rod appears as a small concentration of total charge Q at a distance a away from the point P

dq

a

y

P
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

Does this answer make sense?

y=0 END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A long straight power line coincides with the x axis and carries a linear charge density r l C/m. What is the electric field at point P on the y axis. Use the approximation that the line is infinitely long.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A long straight power line coincides with the x axis and carries a linear charge density r l C/m. What is the electric field at point P on the y axis. Use the approximation that the line is infinitely long. Here both the direction and magnitude of the electric field element dE arise from charge elements on the line vary with the position x of the charge element.
v dE y v dE
q
P

The figure shows that charge elements on opposite sides of the y axis give rise to electric fields whose x components cancel. Thus the net field points in the y direction, that is away from the positively charged rod.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

v dE
q
y

r = x2 + y2

dq

dq

x

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A long straight power line coincides with the x axis and carries a linear charge density r l C/m. What is the electric field at point P on the y axis. Use the approximation that the line is infinitely long. Each element of charge dq contributes an amount dEy to the net electric field at P.

With:

dq dE y = k 2 cos(q ) r

v dE y v dE
q
P

dq = r l dx
r= x +y
cos(q ) = y x2 + y2
2 2
dq

v dE
q
y

r = x2 + y2

dq

x

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A long straight power line coincides with the x axis and carries a linear charge density r l C/m. What is the electric field at point P on the y axis. Use the approximation that the line is infinitely long. Each element of charge dq contributes an amount dEy to the net electric field at P.

dE y = k

(x

r l ydx +y
2

2

)

v dE y

3

2

v dE

q
P

v dE
q
y

r = x2 + y2

We integrate from x = -¥ to x = +¥
dq

dq

E = E y = ò dE y = ò k

(x

r l ydx
2

x

+y

2

)

3

2

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)

E = E y = ò dE y = ò k

(x

r l ydx
2

+y

2

)

3

2

x limits

ù é x E = kr l y ê ú ê y 2 x 2 + y 2 ú -¥ û ë

v dE y v dE
q
P

Lecture 2

é 1 - 1ù E = kr l y ê 2 - 2 ú y û ëy 2kr l E= y
EXAMPLE

v dE
q
y

r = x2 + y2

dq

dq

x

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution)

2kr l E= y

Since the line is infinite in both directions and has cylindrical symmetry, the expression for the electric field holds for any point a distance y from the line. The result thus shows that the electric field from a positively charged infinite line points radially away from the line.

v dE y v dE
q
P

v dE
q
y

The magnitude of the E field drops as

1/y
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

r = x2 + y2

dq

dq

x

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A thin ring of radius a is centered on the origin and carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly around the ring. Find the electric field at a point P located a distance x along the axis of the ring, and show that the result makes sense at x >> a.
dq
x2 + a2
a
O

v dE

q
x

P

v dE x

v dE

q

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A thin ring of radius a is centered on the origin and carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly around the ring. Find the electric field at a point P located a distance x along the axis of the ring, and show that the result makes sense at x >> a. dq A point on the ring axis is equidistant from all points on the ring, so the field magnitudes dE are the same but their directions vary.
x2 + a2
a
O

v dE

q
x

P

v dE x

v dE

q

The figure shows that any components perpendicular to the x axis cancel for any pair of charge elements on opposite sides of the ring, leaving a net field in the x direction.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A thin ring of radius a is centered on the origin and carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly around the ring. Find the electric field at a point P located a distance x along the axis of the ring, and show that the result makes sense at x >> a. Each charge element dq contributes an amount dEx to the total field. dq

dq dE x = k 2 cos(q ) r
2 2

x2 + a2
a
O

with

r = x +a
cos(q ) =
Gives

v dE

x x +a
2 2

q
x

P
v dE
q

v dE x

dE x = k
Lecture 2

xdq

(x

2

+a

2

)

3

2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) In this example k, x, and a are constants so we have:

E = Ex =
E=

ring

ò dE
2

x

ring

ò

k

xdq

(x

2

+a

)

3

dq
2

x2 + a2
a
O

E=k

x

(x

2

+a

2

)
2

3

2

ring

ò dq
2

v dE

q
x

P
v dE
q

v dE x

E=k
Lecture 2

xQ

(x

+a

)

3

2

EXAMPLE

Does this result make sense?

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A thin ring of radius a is centered on the origin and carries a total charge Q distributed uniformly around the ring. Find the electric field at a point P located a distance x along the axis of the ring, and show that the result makes sense at x >> a. At a large distance from the ring x >> a.

dq

Q lim E = k 2 x >> a x
The ring appears as a small concentration of total charge Q at a distance x from the point P.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

x2 + a2
a
O

v dE

q
x

P
v dE
q

v dE x

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) Find the electric field caused by a uniform surface charge density rs on a disk of radius R, at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. Assume that x is positive.

R
O
P

dE x

r

x

dQ
Q

x

dr

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Find the electric field caused by a uniform surface charge density rs on a disk of radius R, at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. Assume that x is positive. We can represent the charge distribution as a collection of concentric rings of charge. We already have the expression for the field produced from one ring, so all we have to do is add the contributions from all the rings.
R

O

P

dEx

r

x

dQ
Q

x

dr

E=k

xQ

(x

2

+a

2

)

3

2

Result for one ring of charge Q and radius a
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Find the electric field caused by a uniform surface charge density rs on a disk of radius R, at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. Assume that x is positive. Execute a variables: change of
R
P

Q Þ 2pr s rdr

E Þ dE x
Then

aÞr

O

dEx

r

x

dQ
Q

x

dr

E=k

xQ

(x

2

+a

2

)

3

2

Þ dE x = k

(x

x 2pr s rdr
2

+r

2

)

3

2

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Find the electric field caused by a uniform surface charge density rs on a disk of radius R, at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. Assume that x is positive. To find the total field due to all the rings, we must integrate over r from 0 to R.
R
O
P

dEx

r

x

dQ
Q

x

E = ò dE x = ò k
0 0

R

R

(x

x 2pr s rdr
2

dr

+r

2

)

3

2

Then

E = ò dE x = kx 2pr s ò
0 0

R

R

rdr

(x

2

+r

2

)

3

2

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Find the electric field caused by a uniform surface charge density rs on a disk of radius R, at a point along the axis of the disk a distance x from its center. Assume that x is positive.

E = k 2pr s x ò
0

R

rdr

(x

2

+r

2

)

R
2

3

O
R

P

dE x

r

x

é -1 E = k 2pr s x ê ê x2 + r 2 ë

(

)

ù ú 1 2ú û0

dQ
Q

x

dr

é 1 E = k 2pr s x êê x2 + R2 ë

(

)

1

2

1ù + ú xú û

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point. P

R

Uniform surface charge on shell.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dA

(x1,y1,z1)

v r

P (x2,y2,z2)

R
v r =

(x2 - x1 )2 + ( y2 - y1 )2 + (z2 - z1 )2

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

here (x2 , y2 , z 2 ) constants and (x1 , y1 , z1 ) variables that depends on location of dA.

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dA

(x1,y1,z1)

v r

P (x2,y2,z2)

ˆ r

R

)( )( )) ˆ (( r = x2 - x1 , y2 - y1 , z 2 - z1 v r
variable that depends on location of dA.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dA

(x1,y1,z1)

v r

P (x2,y2,z2)

R

dq = r s dA
variable that depends on location of dA.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dq = r s dA
q

R

f

dq = r s R sin (q )dqdf
2

variable that depends on location of dA.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Field at P produced by charge element dq:

dq

v r
q

P

v dq ˆ dE = k v 2 r r

ˆ r

R

f
v dE = k
Lecture 2

((x

r s R 2 sin (q )dqdf
2

- x1 ) + ( y2 - y1 ) + ( z 2 - z1 )
2 2

2

)

3

2

[(x2 - x1 ), ( y2 - y1 ), (z2 - z1 )]

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Field at P produced by all charge elements dq is obtained by vector summation of all the field contributions from each surface charge element.
v E= v ò dE =

Surface

Surface

ò

k

((x

r s R 2 sin (q )dqdf
2

- x1 ) + ( y2 - y1 ) + ( z 2 - z1 )
2 2

2

)

3

2

[(x2 - x1 ), ( y2 - y1 ), (z2 - z1 )]

This is not an easy task. It can be done but requires a lot of work. It can best be solved by converting from (x,y,z) coordinates to (r,q,f) coordinates. We will see an easier way to obtain the electric field from surface and volume charge distributions: Gauss’s law.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Question) A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point. P

R

Uniform volume charge in cylinder.
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dV

(x1,y1,z1)

v r

P (x2,y2,z2)

R

v r =

(x2 - x1 )2 + ( y2 - y1 )2 + (z2 - z1 )2

here (x2 , y2 , z 2 ) constants and
Lecture 2 EXAMPLE

(x1 , y1 , z1 ) variables that depends on location of dV.

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dV

(x1,y1,z1)

v r
R

P (x2,y2,z2)

ˆ r

ˆ = (( x2 - x1 ), ( y2 - y1 ), ( z 2 - z1 )) v r r
variable that depends on location of dV.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

dV

(x1,y1,z1)

v r

P (x2,y2,z2)

R

dq = rV dV
variable that depends on location of dV.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

z

dq = rV dV

r

f

dq = rV rdrdfdz
variable that depends on location of dV.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

r = x12 + y12 + z12

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Field at P produced by charge element dq:

dq

v r
r

P

v dq ˆ dE = k v 2 r r

ˆ r

f
v dE = k
Lecture 2

((x

rV rdrdfdz
2 - x1 ) + ( y 2 - y1 ) + ( z 2 - z1 ) 2 2 2

)

3

2

[(x2 - x1 ), ( y2 - y1 ), (z2 - z1 )]

EXAMPLE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Example (Solution) Field at P produced by all charge elements dq is obtained by vector summation of all the field contributions from each volume charge element.
v E= v ò dE =

Volume

Volume

ò

k

((x

rV rdrdfdz
2

- x1 ) + ( y2 - y1 ) + (z 2 - z1 )
2 2

2

)

3

2

[(x2 - x1 ), ( y2 - y1 ), (z2 - z1 )]

This is not an easy task. It can be done but requires a lot of work. It can best be solved by converting from (x,y,z) coordinates to (r,f,z) coordinates. We will see an easier way to obtain the electric field from surface and volume charge distributions: Gauss’s law.

Lecture 2

EXAMPLE

END

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

ELECTRIC FIELD vector single charge charge distribution

TEST CHARGE

ELECTRIC FORCE vector on charge on charge distribution

Lecture 2

SUMMARY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD
These questions are straight forward. Plug in the numbers and get your answer. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 25% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These questions require a few manipulations of equations or numbers before the answer can be obtained. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 50% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These question are quite involved and requires a thorough understanding of the topic material. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you of at least a grade of 75% on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. These questions are the most difficult and require a thorough understanding of the topic material and also pull in topics from other lectures and disciplines. Being able to solve this type of question ensures you an A grade on a quiz or final exam containing questions related to this lecture. 100 These form excellent review questions when preparing for the quiz and final exam.
50 100

25

50

75

100

75
25

75

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

SELL EVALUATION SCALE

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

25

A 65 mC point charge is a the origin. Find the electric field at the points (a) x = 50 cm, y = 0 cm; (b) x = 50 cm, y = 50 cm; (c) x = -25 cm, y = 75 cm.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

25

The electron of a hydrogen atom is 0.0529 nm from the proton. What is the proton’s electric field strength at this distance?

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

25

A 1.0 mC charge and a 2.0 mC charge are 10 cm apart. Find a point where the electric field is zero.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

50

A 30 cm long rod carries a charge of 80 mC spread uniformly over its length. Find the electric field strength on the rod axis, 45 cm from the end of the rod.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

ans : 2.1312 ´ 10 6 V / m

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

50

(a) Find an expression for the electric field on the y axis due to the two charge q. (b) At what point does the field on the y axis have its maximum strength? Y Q
r = a2 + y2

q

y q a X

q a

ans (a ) :
Lecture 2 ASSIGNMENT

q y 2pe o y 2 + a 2

(

)

3

ˆ y
2

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

Three identical charges q form an equilateral triangle of sides a, with two charges on the x axis and one on the positive y axis. (a) Find an expression for the electric field at a point on the y axis above the uppermost charge. (b) Show that your result reduces to the field of a point charge 3q for y >> a.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

æ ö ç ÷ ç ÷ q 1 2y ˆ ç ÷y + ans (a ) : 2 3 2 2 ÷ 4pe o ç æ 3a ö æ 2 a ö 2 ÷ çy + ÷ ÷ ççy çç 2 ÷ ç 4 ÷ ÷ ø ø ø è èè

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

The figure shows four point charges fixed at the corners of a rectangle, in vacuum. (a) Compute The magnitude and direction of the electric field at the center of the rectangle. (b) Compute the electrostatic force acting on the +100 mC charge.
+ 125 mC

q3

q2

+ 36 mC

+ 32 mC

q4
Lecture 2
ASSIGNMENT

4 .0 m

+ 100 mC

q1
ˆ ˆ ans(a) : 2.42 ´10 4 x - 2.50 ´10 4 y V / m

(

)

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

A thin rod of length l carries a charge Q distributed evenly over its length. A point charge with the same charge Q lies a distance b from the end of the rod. Find a point where the electric field is zero.

b

Q

Q

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

The rods shown in the figure are both 15 cm long and both carry 1.2 mC of charge. (a) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the point P. (b) repeat the problem where the right hand rod carries 1.2 mC of charge.
P

15cm

15cm

1.2 mC

1.2 mC

45

o

45o
ˆ ans (b) : 339 ´103 xV / m

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

Two identical rods of length l lie on the x axis and carry uniform charges ± Q. (a) Find an expression for the electric field strength as a function of the position x for points to the right of the right-hand rod. (b) Show that your result has the 1/x3 dependence of a dipole field for x >> l .

-Q

+Q
x=0

x = -l

x=l

ans (a ) :

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

1 Ql æ ö ˆ ç 3 2 ÷x 2pe o è x - l x ø

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

75

A semicircular loop of radius a carries positive charge Q distributed uniformly over its length. Find the electric field at the center of the loop.

dq

q
dq
P

a

ans :
Lecture 2
ASSIGNMENT

rl 2 ˆ x 4pe o a

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

A semicircular loop of radius a carries positive charge Q non-uniformly distributed over its length. Find the electric field at the center of the loop. The charge density varies linearly with the angle q with b constant. dq

r l = bq

q
dq
P

a

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

Determine the magnitude and direction of an electric field if the electron placed in it, in vacuum, is to experience a force that will cancel its weight at the earth’s surface.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

A section of an advertising sigh consists of a long tube filled with neon gas having electrodes inside at both ends. An electric field of 20 kN/C is set up between the electrodes, and neon ions accelerate along the length of the tube. Given that the ions have a mass of 3.35 X 10-26 kg and are slightly ionized, determine (a) their acceleration and (b) terminal velocity when they reach the end of a 1 m long tube.

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

A spherical shell of radius R is uniformly charged with surface charge density rs. Find the electric field at an exterior point.

P

R

Uniform surface charge on shell.
Lecture 2
ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

A cylindrical volume of radius R is uniformly charged with volume charge density rV. Find the electric field at an exterior point. Assume cylinder is infinite in length. P

R

Uniform volume charge in cylinder.
Lecture 2
ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

(29) A shown in the figure a positive charge +Q is located at the origin and an array of equally spaced negative charges (-q) are placed along the x axis. Obtain a compact expression for the electric field at the point P due to all the other charges when: (a) N = 1, (b) N = 2, (c) N = 10, (d) N = 100, (e) N = 1000, (f) N = infinity. You may find it instructive to plot electric field versus charge number N. -q a a -q a X

P a

-q a

-q a

-q

-q a

-q

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

100

(30) A shown in the figure a positive charge +Q is located at the origin and an array of equally spaced alternating sigh charges (±q) are placed along the x axis. Obtain a compact expression for the electric field at the point P due to all the other charges when: (a) N = 1, (b) N = 2, (c) N = 10, (d) N = 100, (e) N = 1000, (f) N = infinity. You may find it instructive to plot electric field versus charge number N. +q a a -q a X

P a

-q a

+q a

-q

-q a

+q

Lecture 2

ASSIGNMENT

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

(0) Textbook: U. S. Inan, A. S. Inan “Engineering Electromagnetics” (1) J.D. Kraus, K. R. Carver “Electromagnetics” 2nd (2) Reitz, Milford, Christy “Foundations of Electromagnetic theory” 4th (3) M. Plonus “Applied Electromagnetics” (4) R. P. Winch “Electricity and Magnetism” (5) P. Lorrain, D. Corson “Electromagnetic fields and Waves” 2nd (6) Duckworth “Electricity and Magnetism” (7) J.D. Jackson “Classical Electrodynamics” 2nd (8) F. Ulaby, “Fundamentals of applied Electromagnetics”

(0) Inan p. 246 - 255
(1) Kraus p. 12 - 15 (2) Reitz p. 27 - 31 (3) Plonus p. 2 - 4 (4) Winch p. 258 - 266 (5) Lorrain p. 40 - 42 (6) Duckworth p. 5 - 8 (7) Jackson p. 27 - 28 (8) Ulaby p. 7, 143 - 144

Lecture 2

REFERENCES

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

(0) Textbook: U. S. Inan, A. S. Inan “Engineering Electromagnetics” (1) J.D. Kraus, K. R. Carver “Electromagnetics” 2nd (2) Reitz, Milford, Christy “Foundations of Electromagnetic theory” 4th (3) M. Plonus “Applied Electromagnetics” (4) R. P. Winch “Electricity and Magnetism” (5) P. Lorrain, D. Corson “Electromagnetic fields and Waves” 2nd (6) Duckworth “Electricity and Magnetism” (7) J.D. Jackson “Classical Electrodynamics” 2nd (8) F. Ulaby, “Fundamentals of applied Electromagnetics”

(0) Inan p. 255 - 269 (1) Kraus p. 15 - 20 (2) Reitz p. 31 - 33 (3) Plonus p. 4 - 6 (4) Winch p. 266 - 271 (6) Lorrain p. 42 - 43 (6) Duckworth p. 8 - 16 (7) Jackson p. 28 - 29 (8) Ulaby p.

Lecture 2

REFERENCES

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE

v ri

qi

Zrv - rv
i

q1 q2
v r

q3 P Y q4

qn X
v E
v dE

dq

ˆ r
r

v dE

r r
P

v dE

q5

v n v E = å Ei
i =1

ˆ r
dq dq

ˆ r

The electric field at the point P is the sum of the v vectors dE arising from the individual charge elements dq in the entire distribution, each calculated using the appropriate distance r and unit ) vector r .
Lecture 2
SUMMARY

97.315 Basic E&M and Power Engineering Topic: ELECTRIC FIELD

Lecture 2

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