Adverbs are words used to describe or modify verbs. Adverbs give more information about a verb. Use adverbs to make your writing more interesting. Here are some examples:

It modifies verbs, adverbs or adjectives
I walk quickly. I am not happy. He is more friendly than her. I am very hot.

He's H

working quickly. e's He's working fast. H He's working hurriedly. working carefully. e's H e's working slowly.

working hard.

"Quickly, carefully, slowly, hard, fast, hurriedly" are all adverbs. Frank worked more yesterday . (WHEN) Steve works here . (WHERE) They work well together. (HOW) ADJECTIVE ADVERB new newly quick Adverbs give information about the time, place and manner of the action. Also answers to what extent: He works HARD. quickly


happy happily careful carefully Most adverbs have -ly at the end. ADJECTIVE ADVERB hard hard ADJECTIVE ADVERB fast fast well

early early good Some adverbs are irregular. Quickly, he finished his

work. He quickly finished his work. He finished his work quickly. Adverbs have many possible positions within a sentence. Frank works more quickly than Steve. Steve works more carefully than Frank. Paul worker works worker. Which is a very goodmore efficiently? Sandy is frequently busy. Our teacher is always patient with us. Paul went to the store, then he went to the post office. I should have studied; instead, I went to a movie. I have no money; I'd go with you otherwise. I think, therefore I am. • between Adverbs can be used to join two clauses together. Adverbs can be used to modify adjectives. Adverbs can be used to compare actions.

These adverbs are called conjunctive adverbs. •most common conjunctive adverbs are: beyond Some of the • of • finally, furthermore, hence, however, also, consequently, but • off incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, • by • on nevertheless, next, concerning • nonetheless, otherwise, still, then, • onto therefore, thus • considering
• opposite • despite • outside • towards • down • over • under • during English Prepositions List past • • underne • except • per • 100 prepositions in English. Yet this is ath There are more than excepting a • plus • unlike • when you think of the thousands of other excluding very small number • regardin • until • etc). Prepositions are important words. We words (nouns, verbs following g • up • for use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual • round from words. In fact, the•prepositions of, to and in are among • upon the ten • save • more • in most frequent words in English. Here is a list of 70 of the versus • since • have common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositionsvia • inside • athan • with more than one meaning. Please refer to dictionary for precise • into • through • within • like • to • without • minus

meaning and usage. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aboard about above across after against along amid among anti around as at before behind below beneath beside besides

Come in phrases I walked [near the park]

Helping Verbs
Helping verbs appear with action verbs in a sentence. They help create the verb phrase. (Notice that some helping verbs can be linking verbs if they are all alone in a sentence.) Helping verbs list: is am are was were

bein do g did has have had coul may will shall d should might must be been
Examples: He was going to the store.

does can woul d

Pronouns List
Indefinite Pronouns:do not refer to a specific person, place or thing always singular: anybody, anyone, another, each, either, everybody,everyone, nobody, no one, neither, one, other, someone, somebody

always plural: many, both, few, several, others number plural , quantity singular: all, any, some, none Demonstrative Pronouns: point out something definite singular: this, that plural:these, those Interrogative Pronouns: used when asking questions who, whose, whom, which, that, what, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever Contractions: it's: it is who's: who is, who has

Personal Pronouns
Nominative I You He She It We They Objective me you him her it us them Possessive my your, yours his her. hers its our, ours their, their

The Linking Verb
Recognize a linking verb when you see one. Linking verbs do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information about the subject. Look at the examples below:
Keila is a shopaholic. Ising isn't something that Keila can do. Is connects the subject, Keila, to additional information about her, that she will soon have a huge MasterCard bill to pay. During the afternoon, my cats are content to nap on the couch. Areing isn't something that cats can do. Are is connecting the subject, cats, to something said about them, that they enjoy sleeping on the furniture. After drinking the old milk, Bladimiro turned green. Turned connects the subject, Bladimiro, to something said about him, that he was needing Pepto Bismol. A ten-item quiz seems impossibly long after a night of no studying. Seems connects the subject, a ten-item quiz, with something said about it, that its difficulty depends on

preparation, not length. Irene always feels sleepy after pigging out on pizza from Antonio's Ristorante. Feels connects the subject, Irene, to her state of being, sleepiness.

The following verbs are true linking verbs: any form of the verb be [am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, etc.], become, and seem. These true linking verbs are always linking verbs. Then you have a list of verbs with multiple personalities: appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, and turn. Sometimes these verbs are linking verbs; sometimes they are action verbs. Their function in every individual sentence determines what you call them. How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs? If you can substitute am, is, or are for the verb and the sentence still sounds logical, you have a linking verb on your hands. If, after the substitution, the sentence makes no sense, you are dealing with an action verb instead. Here are some examples:
Sylvia tasted the spicy squid eyeball stew. Sylvia is the stew? I don't think so! Tasted, therefore, is an action verb in this sentence. The squid eyeball stew tasted good. The stew is good? You bet. Make your own! I smell the delicious aroma of a mushroom and papaya pizza baking in the oven. I am the aroma? No way! Smell, in this sentence, is an action verb. The mushroom and papaya pizza smells heavenly. The pizza is heavenly? Definitely! Try a slice! The distressed travelers looked at their map,

wondering how the Eiffel Tower had gotten to Egypt. The distressed travelers are the map? Of course not! Here, then, looked is an action verb. The map looked hopelessly confusing. The map is confusing? Without a doubt! You try to read it. This substitution will not work for appear. With appear, you have to analyze the function of the verb. Swooping out of the clear blue sky, Superman appeared on Lois Lane's balcony. Appear is something Superman can do--especially when danger is near. Superman appeared happy to see Lois. Here, appeared is connecting the subject, Superman, to his state of mind, happiness.

Nouns 1 Common- dog, girl 2 Proper- Max, Rosie, California 3 Collective- flock, herd, gaggle, group 4 Compound- popcorn, cupcake 5 Concrete- can be touched- pencil, clothes 6 Abstract- can’t be touched- happiness, fear Pronouns 1 Personal- I, you, he, she, it 2 Reflexive- Myself, yourself, themselves 3 Indefinite- not specific- someone, all, few 4 Demonstrative- opposite of indefinite- this, that, these, those 5 Interrogative- question like- who, what, which
What did you say?

6 Relative- act as subject in dependant clauseNegotiations were not going smoothly between the two leaders, [who made no bones about not liking each other.]

Verbs 1 Action- walk, read, run 2 Linking- be, is, am, are, was, were, been- or a verb that can be replaced by them and still make sense. 3 Helping- might, could, would
First, he would invent a country.

4 Intransitive- does not have a direct object after it.
The dog is [under the table] –under the table is a prepositional phrase

5 Transitive- has a direct object after
The child broke [the plate.] wouldn’t make sense w/o the direct object.

6 Regular- the verb changes to ed in past tense: play-played 7 Irregular- the verb completely changes when in past tense: make-made

Conjunction Joins 2 words, phrases, sentences And but or yet Either or, neither nor, but also, not only but also, but and. Interjection shows emotion Ouch! Said Amy as she hit her head.

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