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核与粒子物理导论

Introduction to Nuclear
and Particle Physics
主讲
许咨宗、伍健
2005、秋

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亚原子物理简介
’ Cosmos and Micro-cosmos
’ Sub-atom Physics—the frontier for
exploring micro-structure of matter
’ Nucleus and Particles-the Lab. For
Interaction research
’ Research Platform,Spectrometers
and Accelerators
’ The garden for growing new
thoughts and Hi-Tech
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Cosmos and Micro-cosmos

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Evolution of Cosmos

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Large Scale Structure
Out to a distance
of 150 Mpc
(pc=3.086×1016m).
Galaxy positions
are plotted as
white points.it’s
said there are 1011
galaxies in
Cosmos
From cfA USTC/Xu Z.Z
Our Milky Way

30kpc in dia. , 2×1011 stars


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Andromeda galaxy

2.9E6 lys from us.Several


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Sub-atom
the frontier for exploring
micro-structure of matter

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Structure of Matter

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Most Fundamental
Particles

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3 families of
construction blocks

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Scales
≥10 eV10

108 ~1010 eV Q+L


4 8
10 ~10 eV Particles
1 4
10 ~10 eV Nucleus ≤ 10 −18 m
10−5 ~100 eV atom
~ 10 −15 m
Condense M ~ 10 −14 m
~ 10 −10 m
≥ 10 −9 m
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4 interactions in
Cosmos

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Lab. for Interaction
research

R ~ 10−18 m( weak )

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Research Platform

’ Accelerators:
High energy particle probes

’ Spectrometers :
Record and Transfer the signals of
interactions between particles

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Why High Energy

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Create New Particles

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The more Energy
The more particles come

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Accelerators in CERN

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Largest in World

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Underground

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RHIC/BNL

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Tevatron/FNAL

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威耳荪大厦
对撞机谱仪

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L3-Largest Spectr.

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e + e → f f ( f = e, μ ,τ , qi )
+ −

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Au + Au → X + Y +"

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The Garden for
growing new
Philosophy and Hi-
Tech

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New philosophy
’ 从经典物理到量子物理
’ 建立科学的原子结构理论

’ 建立唯像的原子核结构模型

’ 中子、质子不是基本粒子

’ 相对论时空观的建立

’ 对称性的破缺

’ 相互作用力的统一
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Discover X-ray

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Discover Electron

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Discover Radioactivity

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Energy Quanta

18

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Wave-Particle Duality

A, ω = 2πν, λ

G
n, E, p
G hG
n ~ A , E = hν , p = k
2

λ
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理论物理、光电效应

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电子衍射

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Quantum Mechanics

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Atom Model

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i ψ = ΗΨ
∂t

(iγ μ∂μ − m)Ψ = 0

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Atom has a core

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Nuclear Structure

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Nucleon structure

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相对论时空观的建立

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对称性及其破缺

Space Inversion

Symmetry Broken

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^P − 破 缺
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NOV. -Revolution

J /ψ
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Electro-Weak
Unification

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High Technology
’ 原子过程的研究,激光技术的发展
’ 原子核过程的研究,核能的利用

’ 推动其他领域的技术革命和技术革新

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Maser Laser

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Fission and Fission
Energy

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Politics is harder than Physics
-- A. Einstein
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NMR and MRI

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PET

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Open Questions
’ 4种相互作用力的统一?
’ 粒子质量的来源?Higgs 粒子?

’ 部分子禁闭?

’ 对称性的破缺?

’ 粒子物理与宇宙学的交叉

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Keep Eyes On。。。
’ Belle and Barbar for CP violation
’ CDF and D0 at FNL for Top and Higgs

’ RHIC for QGP

’ LHC for Higgs and QGP 2007

’ Neutrino Experiments in the world

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授课内容
’ 实验方法(附录+1、2章);核与粒子的基
本特性(3章);核与粒子的非点结(4 章)
’ 对称性与守恒定律(5、6章)
’ 强子结构的quark 模型;粒子及其相互作用
(7章+8章?)
’ 原子核的结构模型;原子核的衰变及原子核
反应
’ 亚原子物理与其他学科的交叉

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教材和参考书
’ 核与粒子物理导论(许咨宗,讲义)
’ Introduction to High Energy Physics
D.H.Perkins
’ 粒子物理与核物理讲座 高崇寿、曾谨言

’ Subatom Physics Hans Fraunfield

’ 亚原子物理 汉斯 弗朗费尔德

’ 原子核物理进展 丁大钊等

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’ 原子核物理 卢希庭等
’ 粒子物理 章乃森

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