21 306

Marine Design

©

Mr D. L. Smith

Universities of Glasgow & Strathclyde

2006

Marine Design

2

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

3

__________________________________________________________________________________________

TOPIC OUTLINES .............................................................................................................................................. 5 1. PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN ....................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 WHAT IS DESIGN?.................................................................................................................................... 6 THE DESIGN TEAM................................................................................................................................... 6 WHAT IS A DESIGN PHILOSOPHY?............................................................................................................ 7 MARINE DESIGN PROCESS ....................................................................................................................... 9 DETAILED DEFINITION OF PHASES OF SHIP DESIGN ............................................................................... 11 BASIC OR PRELIMINARY DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 12 CONTRACT DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 12 DETAILED DESIGN ................................................................................................................................. 13 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 14 SHIPS ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 SHIP SIZE AND DIMENSIONS ................................................................................................................... 17 CARGO CONSIDERATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 17 SIZE AND SPEED ..................................................................................................................................... 18 STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS .............................................................................................................. 18 WORKED EXAMPLE - DEADWEIGHT CARRIER ....................................................................................... 21 SECOND WORKED EXAMPLE - DEADWEIGHT CARRIER.......................................................................... 22 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 25 THE OWNER'S REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................... 25 SHIP TYPE .............................................................................................................................................. 27 DEADWEIGHT OR VOLUME?................................................................................................................... 27 DISPLACEMENT, LIGHTWEIGHT AND DEADWEIGHT ............................................................................... 29 DEADWEIGHT/DISPLACEMENT RATIO .................................................................................................... 30 LENGTH ................................................................................................................................................. 32 BREADTH, DRAUGHT AND DEPTH .......................................................................................................... 32 OVERALL LIMITS ON DIMENSIONS ......................................................................................................... 32 FORMULAE FOR LENGTH ........................................................................................................................ 33 BLOCK COEFFICIENT.............................................................................................................................. 34 LENGTH/BREADTH RATIO ...................................................................................................................... 35 BASIC APPROACH .................................................................................................................................. 42 STEEL WEIGHT ...................................................................................................................................... 42 OUTFIT WEIGHT..................................................................................................................................... 46 MACHINERY WEIGHT............................................................................................................................. 48 WEIGHTS OF CONSUMABLES .................................................................................................................. 49 CENTRE OF GRAVITY ESTIMATION ........................................................................................................ 51 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF MACHINERY WEIGHT ........................................................................................... 53 PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF OUTFIT WEIGHT.................................................................................................... 54 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 56 DEFINITIONS OF POWER ......................................................................................................................... 56 STANDARD SERIES ................................................................................................................................. 57 COMPONENTS OF RESISTANCE ............................................................................................................... 57

PRELIMINARY, CONTRACT & DETAILED DESIGN......................................................................... 9

ELEMENTS OF SHIPPING – TYPES OF SHIP .................................................................................... 14

OWNERS REQUIREMENTS & THE FORMULATION OF THE DESIGN...................................... 25

ESTIMATING PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS ........................................................................................... 29

WEIGHT ESTIMATION........................................................................................................................... 42

POWER ESTIMATION AND SERVICE MARGINS ............................................................................ 56

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design
7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 9 9.X 9.Y 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.9 11 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 15 15.1 15.2

4

__________________________________________________________________________________________ FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE....................................................................................................................... 59 RESIDUARY RESISTANCE ....................................................................................................................... 60 RAPID POWER ESTIMATES FOR NEW SHIP DESIGNS ............................................................................... 61 TRIAL AND SERVICE MARGINS .............................................................................................................. 61 SPEED MARGINS .................................................................................................................................... 62 FACTORS IN THE CHOICE OF MAIN MACHINERY..................................................................................... 66 TYPES OF DIESEL ENGINE ...................................................................................................................... 66 AUXILIARY MACHINERY........................................................................................................................ 66 PRINCIPAL MAIN ENGINE SYSTEMS ....................................................................................................... 67 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION ............................................................................................................. 67 FUEL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ..................................................................................................................... 68 PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF PROPELLER DIAMETER .......................................................................... 68 UNDAMPED ROLL MOTION IN STILL WATER ......................................................................................... 77 WORKED EXAMPLE - CAPACITY CARRIER ............................................................................................. 78 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT.............................................................................................................. 83 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 83 TRIM ...................................................................................................................................................... 83 LOCATION OF THE MACHINERY SPACE .................................................................................................. 83 LENGTH OF MACHINERY SPACE............................................................................................................. 84 STORAGE OF LIQUIDS............................................................................................................................. 84 CARGO HOLDS ....................................................................................................................................... 85 HATCHWAYS .......................................................................................................................................... 85 ACCOMMODATION ARRANGEMENT ....................................................................................................... 86 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR CREW ACCOMMODATION ..................................................................... 86 MORE COMPLEX GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PROBLEMS ........................................................................ 87 CAPACITY AND CENTRE OF VOLUME ESTIMATES ................................................................. 93 THE REGULATION OF SHIPPING ................................................................................................... 98 THE ROLE OF THE CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY ........................................................................................ 98 STATUTORY REGULATIONS ................................................................................................................. 101 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO)............................................................................ 105 TONNAGE ............................................................................................................................................ 111 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 111 PRESENT TONNAGE REGULATIONS ...................................................................................................... 111 THE MOORSOM TONNAGE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ............................................................................ 114 THE ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD ............................................................................................ 116 WHAT IS FREEBOARD?......................................................................................................................... 116 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF FREEBOARD?.............................................................................................. 116 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREEBOARD RULES ......................................................................................... 116 CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR FREEBOARD ......................................................................................... 117 DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM FREEBOARD ........................................................................................ 119 GENERAL CONDITIONS OF ASSIGNMENT OF FREEBOARD ..................................................................... 119 FURTHER READING ......................................................................................................................... 121 BOOKS ................................................................................................................................................. 121 TECHNICAL PAPERS ............................................................................................................................. 121

SELECTION OF MAIN MACHINERY .................................................................................................. 66

ESTIMATING HYDROSTATIC PROPERTIES AND INITIAL STABILITY ................................... 71

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

5

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Topic Outlines
Examinable Material 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Philosophy of Design Preliminary, Contract & Detailed Design Elements of Shipping – Types of Ship Owners Requirements Displacement, Dimensions & Form Relationships Weight Estimation Powering Calculations Machinery Selection Approximate Hydrostatics General Arrangement

For Information (Relevant to Ship Design Project)

11 12 13 14

Capacity Calculations Maritime Organisations & Regulation Tonnage Introduction to Freeboard

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

6

__________________________________________________________________________________________

1.
1.1

Philosophy of Design
What is Design?

Design and Designer tend to be overused words for which there are many definitions. However it is not always easy to agree on the right definition. Here are some candidates for the position:a) Design is the visualisation and depiction of form. b) Design is the mental process which must intervene between the conception of a specific engineering intention and the issue of drawings to the workshop. c) Design is the optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a particular set of circumstances. d) Design is a creative, iterative process serving a bounded objective. e) Mechanical Engineering Design is the use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure, machine or system to perform pre-specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency. The Designer is clearly the paragon who carries out such tasks. His/her work can be split into three areas of activity:a) Decision-making regarding the physical form and dimensions of the product. b) Communication to the builder, mainly in the form of drawings and specifications (Graphics, Text and Computer Files). c) Responsibility for the achievement of the original requirements. Often the designer must guide the original requirements to limit them to the possible.

1.2

The Design Team

In this class we are concerned with ships and other marine structures which are sufficiently large that they are unlikely to be designed by one person acting alone. The work must be shared by a team, many of whose members will be specialists in one sub-section of the work. The main duty of the chief designer is then to ensure proper co-ordination of the team members and to maintain a balanced overall view of the design. This may involve taking all important decisions and examining the associated plans. For peace of mind the successful chief designer must have an almost instinctive ability to notice errors and query impossible assumptions. In this Class and the associated Design Projects Classes you will be largely working as individual designers practising the basic technical skills. In later years of the course you can expect to work as Design Teams where some of the wider skills will be developed and tested. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

7

__________________________________________________________________________________________

It is important always to be aware of these wider skills and to remember that when you make a decision you should record it and, what is often more important, why you made it, so that you can communicate it to someone else or accept responsibility for it at a later time and be able to justify it.

1.3

What is a Design Philosophy?

Philosophy might seem a somewhat grand word to use in the context of design but, in the sense of a body of broad principles, concepts and methods which underpin a given branch of learning, it is a meaningful one to use. A philosophy does not determine the detailed action to be taken in particular applications, but it does lead to the development of theories, rules and laws and to detailed methods of applying them. These form the discipline of design. There is no single philosophy which satisfies all situations so the aim must be to develop a philosophy which leads to a consistent set of general principles on which the discipline can be based. This pragmatic approach requires that the outcome of applying the general principles in a particular situation must be evaluated against some appropriate criteria of success so that the principles and the associated discipline can, if necessary, be modified for future applications. The feed-back mechanism is an essential component of both the philosophy and the discipline. The following is a list of terms, aspects and concepts which reveal some of the general principles arising in design:a) Morphology. There is a pattern of events and activities which, by and large, are common to all projects. b) Design Process. Iteration to solve problems followed by feedback of information from a later stage to review decisions made earlier. c) Stratification. As the solution to one problem emerges, a sub-stratum of lesser problems is uncovered. Solutions to these must be found before the original problem can be solved. d) Convergence. Many possible solutions may be processed in search of the one correct solution. e) Decision-making. Choosing between alternatives. f) Analysis. Used to establish the characteristics of the product which is the subject of the design. This is a fundamental design tool because it forms the basis on which decisions can be made but it is not the starting point for a design. A first shot must have been made at what the whole product will be like. g) Synthesis. This is the truly creative part of design - putting together separate elements into a coherent whole. Probably this is the most characteristic part of design. h) Creativity. Inventiveness - obviously a highly desirable facility in a designer. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

8

__________________________________________________________________________________________

i) Practicability. What can be achieved in design is determined not only by what is technologically practicable but also by the capabilities of the design team. j) Communication. A design is a description of a product and the instructions for its manufacture. The quality of the end product depends critically on how well these two aspects are communicated. k) Dynamics. Design is not a static process, especially with a large and complex product. Change in requirements or solution is almost unavoidable. l) Need. The need for the product must be clearly established before starting design work. m) Economic Worth. The owner of the end product must feel that it is worth the true cost of its acquisition. n) Optimisation. In design terms it may not be possible to devise the optimum solution, where the optimum is determined relative to many disparate constraints and on the basis of incomplete data. The best available solution may be no more than the best compromise that can be made between conflicting qualities within the constraints. o) Criteria. The objective and quantitative measure of how successful or how near the optimum the design is. Sometimes the criteria are subjective and qualitative - the result of value judgements by those involved in the process. p) Systems Approach. When a product is part of a broader system (and very few exist in complete isolation) its design must take account of the impact of the rest of the system on it and vice versa.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

9

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2
2.1

Preliminary, Contract & Detailed Design
Marine Design Process
The life of a ship may be divided into two distinct parts: The period of Construction The period of Operation.

The owner is most concerned with the second period but the Naval Architect is more concerned with the first. The first period can be further divided into two stages: Design Build. Naval Architects are concerned in both stages but the Designer is most involved in the first stage. The actual design process is not a single activity but for most ships consists of three or four distinct phases: Basic Design

( (

Contract Design Detailed Design

Concept Design Feasibility Design Contract Design Detailed Design

The three or four phases are conveniently illustrated in the Design Spiral as an iterative process working from owner's requirements to a detailed design. Three sample design spirals are shown (Buxton, Taggart and Rawson & Tupper). Taggart shows the process starting at the outside of the spiral, where many concept designs may exist, and converging in to the single, final, detailed design. Rawson & Tupper and Buxton show the process starting at the centre of the spiral where very little information is known and proceeding outwards to represent the ever increasing amount of information generated by the design process. In either representation it is clear that a series of characteristics of the ship are guessed, estimated, calculated, checked, revised etc. on a number of occasions throughout the design process in the light of the increased knowledge the designer(s) have about the ship. The analogy of the Design Spiral can be extended to demonstrate the passage of time as the design progresses. If a time axis is constructed at the centre of one of the figures perpendicular to the plane of the paper then as time passes between successive activities so the spiral is traced out on the surface of a cone. This class deals essentially with only the basic (or preliminary) design process which is considered to be completed when the characteristics of the ship which will satisfy the requirements given by the owner have been determined.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

10

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

11

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Contract design involves the preparation of contract plans and specifications in sufficient detail to allow an accurate estimate of the cost and time of building the ship to be developed. It is at this point that the decision to go ahead and build the ship can be taken. The detailed design stage is devoted to the preparation of detailed working drawings, planning schedules, material and equipment lists etc. from which the production workforce actually build the ship. Detailed design, itself, is often broken down into three parts Functional Design where each of the systems which contribute to the operation of the vessel are designed for function and performance on a ship-wide basis, Transition Design which groups all the systems present in a single constructional zone of the ship and integrates them to develop the most efficient manufacturing approach and Detailing or Work Instruction Design which translates the design intent into clear, complete and accurate ordering or manufacturing information in the format and timescale required by the shipbuilding process.

2.2

Detailed Definition of Phases of Ship Design

Before looking at the specific features of preliminary design, it is expedient to reexamine the fundamental requirements for every ship. Every ship designer, no matter how logical and realistic they may be, needs to get back to first principles every so often in the search to make nature serve. It is not in the least beneath the designer's dignity or intelligence to write down, in a few lines, as did the renowned W J M Rankine in the middle of the 19th Century, the following simple requirements for every ship: i) To float on or in water ii) To move itself or to be moved with handiness in any manner desired iii) To transport passengers or cargo or any other useful load, from one place to another iv) To steer and to turn in all kinds of waters v) To be safe, strong and comfortable in waves vi) To travel or to be towed swiftly and economically, under control at all times vii) To remain afloat and upright when not too severely damaged. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

12

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2.3

Basic or Preliminary Design

Basic or preliminary design is the process of finding the set of principal characteristics of a ship which satisfies the requirements in the ship owner's proposal document. Several preliminary designs may be worked up, each satisfying the requirements but differing in characteristics not specifically set out in the proposal such as type of propelling machinery These alternative designs or some of them may be taken as far as the contract design stage to ascertain the difference in cost and build time or the ability of particular shipbuilders to supply ships of the given characteristics. Indeed contracts may be placed with different designers for several different designs all satisfying the same commercial or military requirements. Thus basic design includes the selection of ship dimensions, hull form, power (amount and type), preliminary arrangement of hull and machinery, and main structure. The correct selection will ensure the attainment of the owner's requirements such as deadweight, cargo capacity, speed and endurance as well as good stability (both intact and damaged), seakeeping and manoeuvrability. In addition there must be checks of, and the opportunity to modify, cargo handling capability, crew accommodation, hotel services, freeboard and tonnage measurement. All of this must be done while remembering that the ship is but part of a transportation, industrial or service system which is expected to be profitable. Basic design includes both Concept design and Feasibility design In Concept design the aim is to explore both a basic design and systematic variations of it in order to find the effect of a small change in Length, Beam etc. with the objective of finding the most effective or most economic solution. Much of the background data used will be in the form of curves and formulae which allow simple methods to be used in the evaluation of the effects of variation. A design variation which would not be economic in service or would not be profitable to build would be discarded while further variations might be applied to a design which survived this stage. In Feasibility design (Preliminary design for Taggart) the most successful concept design is developed further to ensure that it can be turned into a real ship. The effect of choosing "real" engines, "real" plate thicknesses will inevitably induce minor but significant changes to layout, weights and dimensions. The completion of this phase should provide a precise definition of a vessel that will meet the owner's requirements and hence the basis for the development of the plans and specifications necessary for the agreement of a contract.

2.4

Contract Design

This involves one or more subsequent loops around the design spiral to further refine the basic design. The work has expanded to the extent that it can no longer be progressed by one person or a handful of people. It now involves large teams representing all the main disciplines - Naval Architecture, Ship Structures, Marine Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Systems Engineering - all hopefully under the control of a Naval Architect. The hull form can be based on a faired lines plan, and powering, seakeeping and manoeuvring may be based on model test results. The structural design will have taken account of structural details, the use of different types of steel and the spacing and type of framing. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

13

__________________________________________________________________________________________

A firm and reliable estimate of the weight and position of the centre of gravity of the Lightship, taking account of major items in the ship is a clear requirement at this stage. The final General Arrangement is also developed now. It fixes the volumes given over to cargo, fuel, water and store spaces and the areas devoted to crew accommodation, machinery and cargo handling equipment. The specification of the performance of every aspect of the ship, its outfit, machinery and equipment is determined along with the necessary quality standards and the tests and trials needed to demonstrate the successful build of the ship. It is only at this stage that the prudent owner will become committed to buying the ship by the act of signing the contract

2.5

Detailed Design

The final stage of ship design is the development of detailed working drawings. These form the detailed instructions for construction and installation that will be issued to shipwrights, platers, welders, fitters, turners, plumbers, coppersmiths, electricians and all the other trades without whom the ship could not be built. This work is not really the province of the Naval Architect although a Naval Architect may well control the work of those who produce the drawings and instructions. There is of course a clear role for the Naval Architect in assuring the quality of the detailed definition of the ship and in ensuring that the design intent of the concept has been carried through to the final stage. This means for example, checking that the routes for critical piping systems do not clash or that high power electric cables do run alongside sensitive circuits carrying digital electronic control signals. Other checks would include ensuring that the correct structural detailing of cut outs, brackets and compensation have always been employed, that continuity of structure has been maintained and that doorways to accommodation do not have pillars or similar obstructions directly in front of them. In traditional shipbuilding no thought was given as to how best to build the ship until all the drawings were complete by which time it was too late to make any changes. In modern shipbuilding, partly but not exclusively, assisted by computer it is practical to consider planning the build process alongside the design process to ensure that the detailed design information is made available to match the production process both in timescale and in method. This gives rise to the Transition Design phase of Detailed Design where the manufacturing information for all the systems in a single constructional block or zone is extracted from the design information prepared or being prepared on a ship-wide basis for each individual system. With functional requirements and component positions defined by the preceding design processes, Work Instruction Design finalises details and material requirements on work instruction plans. These are organised to suit the production process by providing manufacturing (part fabrication) and fitting (assembly) instructions which match the way the work is to be carried out. This concept and the benefits it brings were more fully developed in the class Marine Manufacturing.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

14

__________________________________________________________________________________________

3
3.1

Elements of Shipping – Types of Ship
General

Ships are a sub-set of the set of transport vehicles which have the feature that they carry their cargo over water. The different characteristics of the various types of transport vehicle can be illustrated in many ways. One, rather elderly, figure “Specific Resistance of Single Vehicles” shows one such illustration - the domain of each vehicle is shown, as are the gaps between vehicles. The gaps may be caused by economic factors as well as technical ones but developments tend to remove them, either by adjustments to existing vehicles, or by producing new ones. For a new type of vehicle to prosper it must either fill a gap on such a diagram or have an economic advantage over the existing vehicle.

3.2

Ships

Ships are the main type of sea transport vehicle. The figure “World Fleet of Marine Vehicles” shows a breakdown of all seagoing self-propelled marine vehicles into a variety of categories. Ships for transport make up just under half of the world fleet by number but nearly 90% by gross tonnage. The contribution of sea transport to the world economy is clearly vast when we take gross tonnage as a measure of the relative size of ships. Care does have to be taken over what is meant by the size of a ship and some key definitions are also given. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

15

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Most ships for transport are displacement craft and support the weight of their structure and contents by displacing a volume of water of equal weight. Thus the weight carried is not a function of the speed of the ship, but none the less displacement and speed are the basic characteristics of any ship. They complement one another to produce the tonnemiles which can be moved in a given time. Speed may also be interpreted as the rapidity of turn round in port as well as the more obvious rate of crossing the sea. A Table of Particulars of Some Sea Transport Vehicles is included to indicate the size and range of size of merchant ships.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

16

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The displacement of a ship reflects its size for all ship types but a simple visual comparison of size between different types is often misleading. The Oil Tanker and Submarine, like the iceberg, when laden are mainly below the water surface; the Ferry and the Warship, in contrast, are mainly above the water surface. All cargoes (including passengers) have a certain density as does the seawater in which the ship floats. When the cargo is dense then it demands a considerable displacement for its support and most of the ship is below water. Passengers, on the other hand, like weapons on a warship, demand a lot of space and do not like it to be below the waterline.

Oil Tanker

Cruise Ship Cargo is usually assessed by its Stowage Rate - the inverse of density - in units of m3/tonne. Ore represents a dense cargo with a stowage rate of about 0.5 m3/tonne. The stowage rate for passengers is much more variable, depending as it does on the nature of the voyage, its length, its cost and so on. Typical values range between 6 and 30 m3/tonne. Thus a great deal of a passenger ship is above water. Outline General Arrangement drawings of a number of ship types are shown to illustrate the relative distribution of volume above and below the design waterline. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

17

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Safety demands that some part of the ship shall project above the water. The amount that does project must fulfil at least the minimum international standards for reserve of buoyancy. However it cannot be assumed that the more of a ship that projects above the water the safer it is because not all of the superstructure may be strong enough or well enough subdivided to provide such buoyancy. For many years a class of cargo ship – the Open Shelter Decker – deliberately avoided such subdivision to minimise its tonnage – used as a measure of its earning capacity – and this philosophy was also applied to Ro-Ro ships with the serious consequences which are now familiar to all.

3.3

Ship Size and Dimensions

The principal dimensions of a ship are Length, Breadth, Draught and Depth (L, B, T and D). Long experience, together with scientific effort and a good deal of experimental work, shows that these dimensions must bear appropriate relationships to each other if a successful ship is to emerge. Among the factors which influence the relationships are Propulsion, Stability, Seaworthiness, Cargo Considerations and Geography, including Port Development. A set of relationships between the principal dimensions for the main types of merchant ships have been derived and show significant differences between ship types - especially between “Deadweight” carriers and “Capacity” carriers Physical restrictions are important and may affect any dimension but in merchant ships draught is usually the one first affected. Older port restrictions may affect draught at about 10 metres or 15000 tonnes deadweight. Breadth and length may not indicate a significantly larger vessel before restriction is imposed on them too. No port limitation is permanent - they alter as time passes or the port goes out of business. Restrictions imposed by the Suez and Panama Canals and perhaps by such secondary channels as the St Lawrence Seaway come into effect next. At present the "Suezmax" limit is about 180,000 tonnes deadweight and the "Panamax" limit is about 75,000 tonnes deadweight. Changes to the Panama Canal would be almost prohibitively expensive and so the ships must remain within the canal limits or accept that the only way of getting from the East Coast of the American Continent to the West Coast is the long way round by Cape Horn. The ultimate limits are set by the main sea-lanes of the world. In some of them, such as the English Channel, draught restrictions begin at about 25 metres corresponding to 350,000 tonnes deadweight. These limits are hard to overcome but dredging and blasting can be used. At present this is the largest economic size of vessel built and it may be that the costs of developing all the facilities for even larger vessels, - say up to 1,000,000 tonnes deadweight - are not outweighed by the improved operating costs.

3.4

Cargo Considerations

Cargo has an important bearing on ship design, especially on the size of ships. The size of the ship must match the size of the consignment in which the cargo can be produced, collected, stored, marketed and distributed. Part loads are now seen as uneconomic. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design Only non-perishable bulk commodities can be gathered together in large enough quantities to take advantage of the economies of scale possible with very large ships. The container ship secures the economies of scale for the small consignment and provides a measure of security for those of relatively high value.

18

__________________________________________________________________________________________

3.5

Size and Speed

Total resistance to the forward motion of a ship is a complicated function of size, shape and speed among other quantities but resistance per unit of displacement remains fairly constant if the Froude Number v//gL is constant. Hence an increase in size makes possible a corresponding increase in speed without particular change in specific resistance although the total resistance will naturally rise.

3.6

Structural Arrangements

It is clear that in much of ship design “form follows Function”. Low value, nonperishable cargoes travel slowly, in large quantities in simple, almost box shaped vessels, while high value or time dependent cargoes travel much faster, in small quantities in much more complex vessels. Similar considerations apply to the structure of ships, typified by their midship sections. Representations of the most common types – General Cargo, Bulk Carrier, Oil Tanker and Container ship are given. The General Cargo ship and the Container ship both need large hatch openings in the upper deck to load/unload their cargo and also require holds of reasonably rectangular cross section to stow the cargo. Bulk carriers have similarly large hatch openings but a different hold cross section to restrain their cargoes from movement in a seaway and to ensure that most of it can be removed by grab descending through the hatchway.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

19

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The Oil Tanker needs no significant hatch opening since its cargo is pumped in and out. Shown here is a traditional “single skin” tanker. Most newly built Tankers now have a double skin (and the cross section looks like a container ship with the deck entirely plated over) to protect the environment in case of collision or grounding.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

20

__________________________________________________________________________________________

From ‘Basic Ship Theory’ by Rawson & Tupper (Note that in Col 3 (Tanker) of Table 15.3, the percentages for Crew, Fuel & Fresh Water would be more realistic if taken as 0.1; 4.8; 0.6 and not as shown.) ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

21

__________________________________________________________________________________________

3.7

Worked Example - Deadweight Carrier

Using the data in Figures 15.8, 15.9 and in Table 15.3 of this section, estimate the principal dimensions of a general cargo ship of 14,500 tonnes deadweight and 14 knots service speed. From Table A , ∴ Deadmass Ratio (D.R.) = 14500/0.675 = = 0.675 21481 tonnes Fn = 0.2

Design Displacement

From Figure A, 14 knots

Take CB = =

0.77 and corresponding = 7.2 m/sec

0.5144 * 14 L =

Fn = v/√(gL) ∴ v in m/sec; From Figure C, Hence B Similarly, Hence T

v2/g*Fn2 = 7.22/9.81*0.202 = L in m 6.2

132 m

g in m/sec2; Take L/B = =

(the middle of the range of 14500 t ships) = 2.2 = 9.68 m 21.29 m

132/6.2 =

Take B/T =

21.29/2.2 = =

Now check ∆ = ρLBTCB

1.025*132*21.29*9.68*0.77 21470 tonnes (A close result!)

If you are not so fortunate with your first choice then select two further values of CB and corresponding Fn from the figures; then find the dimensions and displacement of your two additional trial ships as above. Then plot displacement against Length and pick off the Length which gives the desired displacement.

Fn (design) =

v/√ (gLdesign)

and so the correct CB can be read from Figure A and a check made on displacement. ∆ = ρLBTCB = ρL3CB/(L/B)2(B/T)

Alternatively, displacement may be plotted against CB, in a similar way to the plot against Length shown above, and the design value found.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

22

__________________________________________________________________________________________

3.8

Second Worked Example - Deadweight Carrier

Estimate the dimensions of a dry cargo ship of 13,000 tonnes deadweight at a maximum draught of 8 metres and with a service speed of 15 knots. Assume Deadweight/Displacement Ratio (DWR) and B = 6 + (L/9) m Displacement (∆) = 13000/0.67 = = 0.67

19403 t

∆ = ρLBTCB = ∴ CB = Also, CB For

ρL(6 + (L/9))TCB = 19403/(1.025*L*(6 + (L/9))*8) = 1.08 - 1.68v/√(gL) CB (from 2) 0.705 0.718 0.729 = m 0.715 (1) (2)

∆/(ρL(6 + (L/9)T) = 1.08 - 1.68 Fn L (m) 140 150 160

CB (from 1) 0.784 0.696 0.622 and = = = CB 22.4

Hence, L B ∆

= 147.6 m = =

6 + (L/9) ρLBTCB

1.025 * 147.6 * 22.4 * 8 * 0.715 19384 tonnes Sufficiently close!

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

23

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

24

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

25

__________________________________________________________________________________________

4
4.1

Owners Requirements & the Formulation of the Design
Introduction

A design begins with the preparation of a set of "Owner's Requirements" for a merchant ship or "Staff Requirements" for a warship. In general the stages leading up to the request for a new design are the same for merchant ships as for warships with the important difference that warships are built for a government whereas merchant ships are normally built for a private owner. The preparation of these requirements, especially for merchant ships, remains an inexact science. It is based on future expectation of demand in the trade under consideration and chance is often as likely to make the forecast correct as foresight. In commercial ship design the demand for a new design usually originates with the chief executive responsible for the operation of a company's ships. From information which becomes available on such matters as the economics of operating the existing fleet, the state of their part of the shipping market, developments in international trade etc, he/she arrives at the conclusion that new ships are required either now or very shortly for the satisfactory conduct of the business. With the aid of his/her staff, sometimes supplemented by technical advice from a naval architecture consultancy, he/she arrives at the operating characteristics of the proposed ships and the number required. These characteristics will be set out in the form of a statement of requirements which will form the basis of the preliminary design. Once the Requirements are drawn up the Naval Architect can start to prepare a preliminary design which aims to fix displacement, main dimensions, powering, an outline arrangement and specification. An owner’s naval architect, a consultant or a shipbuilder may carry out this stage of the process. If the shipowner is happy with the design it may be put out to tender - offered to a number of shipbuilders - or simply given to a preferred shipbuilder for costing. Once the cost is agreed the builder will progress the design to produce a package of manufacturing information which suits his building methods.

4.2

The Owner's Requirements

The practice followed by owners in stating their requirements for a new ship varies widely and statements of requirements can range between the briefest outline and the most detailed specification (sometimes so restrictive as apparently leaving the ship designer little scope to apply his/her skills). The most forward looking owners will have based their requirements on a careful analysis of their needs or on market research but this cannot always be taken for granted. Ideally, the requirements should lay down what the owner wants in the following categories, namely, the performance, availability and utility of the ship; it would also be helpful for an opinion to be included on the aspect of cost. The Performance category includes such aspects as: Amount and type of cargo to be carried How the cargo is to be handled Turn-round times Trade Routes and Trading Pattern Ship Speed required at sea Distance between fuelling and storing ports ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

26

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The Availability category includes such aspects as: Maintenance Policy - How much afloat? How much ashore? Standard or Extended periods between Dockings? What emphasis is to be placed on reliability - is any redundancy required in machinery and systems? The evaluation of availability is a recent development in the field of shipping and requires access to a database of information on the performance of machinery, systems and equipment already at sea in ships. Although few shipowners or shipbuilders have such information, it is clear that improved reliability is an essential step in maintaining an economic and competitive fleet. The Utility category includes such aspects as: Flexibility - ability to change role as in the O.B.O. or Ro-Ro Ship Ability to load/discharge cargo using on-board equipment Ability to use canals or waterways without restriction The Cost category includes the aspects of: Initial Cost Running Costs Maintenance Costs Finance Depreciation All of these form part of the Life-cycle Cost and a common overall objective is to reduce them to a minimum consistent with meeting the Performance, Availability and Utility requirements. The fundamental explicit requirements which should be addressed in preliminary design are: Cargo Deadweight Cargo Capacity Speed at Sea Endurance The first two are related by the Cargo Stowage Factor = Cargo Capacity/Cargo Deadweight, and together they fix the type of ship that must be used. Stability and Safety are requirements which must also be addressed during preliminary design. They are traditionally regarded as being implicit to the process - whatever choice the owner makes about Deadweight or Speed he/she wants the ship to survive for a reasonable length of economic life and no-one deliberately designs an unsafe ship. However, public concern is leading to a greater pressure for these to become explicit requirements as well. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

27

__________________________________________________________________________________________

4.3

Ship Type

The best known subdivision of Ship type is by its obvious function such as Bulk Carrier, Tanker, General Cargo, Container Ship, Cruise Liner, Ferry and so on. However in Design it can also refer to the more fundamental distinction between the Deadweight Carrier and the Volume (or Capacity) Carrier. Any given ship type aims to be best in its own trade. A widely accepted measure of efficiency is that the ship should be "full and down". That means that the cargo capacity and cargo deadweight are both at their limits when the ship is at its load draught. Depending on the range of stowage factor of the cargo on offer this yardstick may be of some value but as we shall see it cannot be applied sensibly in all cases. A third fundamental ship type is the "Linear Dimension" ship where the design process proceeds directly from the linear dimensions of the cargo, an item or items of equipment, or from restrictions set by canals, ports etc. and for which the deadweight, capacity and sometimes the speed are the outcome of the design instead of the main factors which determine it. The Container Ship is an example of this kind of vessel as neither the deadweight nor the capacity are directly related to the dimensions, nor are the dimensions capable of continuous variation - rather the main dimensions must be close to discrete values related to multiples of the dimensions of the containers which are to be carried. The vehiclecarrying Ferry is another example of this type.

4.4

Deadweight or Volume?
3

Seawater has a stowage factor of 0.9754 m /tonne. A minimum reserve of buoyancy is required when laden. Hence the least overall stowage factor for a ship i.e. Total Enclosed 3 Volume/Displacement is about 1.5 m /tonne. The separate stowage factors for cargo and the remainder of the ship are close to this figure. Hence if the cargo to be carried is more dense than (stows closer than) this figure then empty space in the hold is inevitable. Many cargoes 3 3 fall into this category. They range from ore at 0.5 m /tonne to oil at about 1.25 m /tonne. The empty space can be put to some use as it allows the cargo to be distributed within the ship in such a way as to minimise problems of strength and stability and perhaps segregate cargo and ballast spaces. However convenience in working cargo may demand that it be concentrated and the strength advantages can be lost. If draught is restricted but economy of scale demands a large ship and depth remains proportional to length because of strength considerations then spare space will be automatic. In the normal manner however as the average cargo density decreases the ship will 3 become full and down with cargo stowing at about 1.6 m /tonne. If the cargo density is so low that the vessel has unused deadweight remaining then deck cargo could be carried but it would not be protected from the weather or the sea. This is where the container ship demonstrates one of its advantages - its deck cargo is reasonably well protected because it is inside a container. The modern bulk cargo ships – Dry Bulk Carrier and Oil Tanker – are designed to carry a range of cargoes with a stowage factor of less than 1.5 or 1.6 m3/tonne so that the ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

28

__________________________________________________________________________________________

amount of cargo they can carry is solely determined by their deadweight. As a consequence they are box like single deck ships with a relatively simple structural arrangement. In the case of the traditional general cargo ship or high speed cargo liner (now obsolete) erections were added - typically in the form of Poop, Bridge and Forecastle - but more commonly recently simply a shelter deck. The presence of this first tier of erections on the freeboard deck allowed the carriage of additional deadweight but enclosed volume (capacity) increased faster and the cargo stowage factor rose. The volume generated by adopting a satisfactory height of tween deck tended to cause a jump in the stowage factor to 3 about 1.9 m /tonne although an intermediate value could be obtained by covering less than the full length of the ship. The cargo liner whose trade has been extensively taken over by the container ship often carried cargoes of high value but low density (including passengers). This type of ship was designed with several tween decks above each hold to ensure that adequate volume (capacity) was available to protect from the weather all the cargo carried. If the cargo stowage factor exceeds 2.3 m /tonne an additional tier of erections is usually required. Such a cargo is rare but one example is Bananas with a factor of 4.0 3 m /tonne and another is the car - either on a ferry or on a "Bulk Car Carrier". Passengers too have a high stowage factor as is made obvious by the extensive superstructures to be found on cross-channel ferries and cruise liners. An exact estimate of cargo stowage factor is hard to make, especially as it will vary over the vessel's life due to alterations in trading patterns. However it is worth noting that cargo deadweight can always be gained in the short term at the expense of carrying less fuel and bunkering more frequently while additional covered capacity is expensive to provide.
3

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

29

__________________________________________________________________________________________

5
5.1

Estimating Principal Dimensions
Displacement, Lightweight and Deadweight

The load displacement of a ship is made up of two components - lightweight and deadweight. Each of these can in turn be subdivided for analysis and control. In naval practice the subdivisions are set out in great detail but for merchant ships there is no commonly agreed breakdown other than the large groups associated with preliminary design. The difficulty in creating clear-cut definitions of weight groups can make comparison of figures from different sources difficult and often dangerous. In this respect large groups are likely to provide better agreement than small ones but they will be less amenable to analysis and control. In Preliminary Design the following definitions and subdivisions are customarily used: Design Displacement or Full Load Displacement is the displacement of the ship at 3 its Summer Load Draught in salt water of density 1.025 tonne/m Lightweight is the weight of the vessel complete and ready for sea with fluids in systems, settling tanks and ready-use tanks at their working levels. No cargo, crew, passengers, baggage, consumable stores, water or fuel in storage tanks is on board. (The Lightweight represents the fixed part of the displacement.) Lightweight = + + Steel Weight Outfit Weight (Including Refrigeration & Insulation) Machinery Weight

(Refrigeration & Insulation Weight may be taken with Outfit, as above, or may be made a separate group) Deadweight is the difference between the Displacement at any draught and the Lightweight i.e. Deadweight is the variable part of the displacement. Design Deadweight (Total Deadweight) is the difference between the Design Displacement and the Lightweight In general, Displacement = Lightweight + Deadweight Lightweight + Design Deadweight

In particular, Design Displacement = Deadweight

= Cargo Deadweight (Payload) + Fuel Oil + Diesel Oil + Lubricating Oil + Hydraulic Fluid + Boiler Feed Water + Fresh Water + Crew & Effects + Stores ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design + + * Spare Gear Water Ballast *

30

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Water ballast is only carried if required to achieve a particular trim or draught/trim combination. It is not normally carried in the Full Load Condition. Cargo Deadweight will include passengers and their effects if they are carried. Cargo Deadweight is sometimes referred to as Payload.

5.2

Deadweight/Displacement Ratio

This ratio is a common starting point for a design although an immediate choice of main dimensions based on past practice is sometimes taken as a short cut. The Deadweight/Displacement Ratio is used to obtain the first approximation to Displacement for a given Deadweight. It is often based on total deadweight rather than the more logical choice of cargo deadweight because total deadweight is a more readily available figure being independent of the amount of fuel etc. carried. If cargo deadweight is available then it may be used but as the value will be taken from data on existing ships the designer must be sure of the figures being used. The data would normally be recorded as a graph of Deadweight Ratio against Deadweight. The Ratio will vary with the type of ship, its speed, endurance and quality. Generally speaking, the larger, slower and more basic the ship the higher the value of the ratio. DWR = Deadweight/Displacement Typical values of DWR for a range of ship types are as followReefer General Cargo Ore Carrier Bulk Carrier Tanker 0.58 - 0.60 0.62 - 0.72 0.72 - 0.77 0.78 - 0.84 0.80 - 0.86

In a preliminary design it is wise to consider how the ratio may vary from the chosen type ship and be prepared to correct the resulting displacement at a later stage of the design process if necessary. The quoted figures indicate considerable variation in the value of DWR for similar ships. Among the factors which account for this variation are: 1) Ship Speed and Block Coefficient. These factors partly account for the variation in DWR between different ship types as well as within any one ship type. For a given set of dimensions, an increase in speed will call for an increase in power. The increased power will increase the machinery weight and so decrease the available deadweight. It may decrease the Cargo Deadweight even further if there is, in addition, an increase required in the amount of fuel to be carried. If, on the other hand, the Block Coefficient is reduced to allow a slight increase in speed for no increase in power then the displacement is reduced but there is scarcely any decrease in Lightweight and again the deadweight is reduced. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

31

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Voluntary reduction of draught. The operating draught may be less than the maximum allowed by freeboard rules or by the choice of scantlings. Thus the vessel, in service, is carrying less deadweight than it might theoretically be able to 3) Variations in propulsion machinery. There can be a significant difference in machinery weight between an installation using a slow speed diesel engine and one using medium or high-speed engines. 4) Variations in construction method. For example the Ore Carrier requires to have a much heavier bottom structure than a non-ore carrying Bulk Carrier because of the local intensity of loading arising from the very dense ore. 5) Variations in Outfit Specification. A Refrigerated Cargo Ship (or Reefer) will have a greater outfit weight than the equivalent General Cargo Ship and so carry less Deadweight on a given Load Displacement. Similarly a Bulk Carrier with cargo handling gear is likely to have reduced deadweight when compared with a gearless vessel (one without cargo handling gear). Once the displacement has been derived then each of the principal dimensions can be considered in turn.

(From Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

32

__________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3

Length

Length is probably the most expensive dimension to provide and is governed in part by size and in part by speed. It is expensive in terms of steel weight and building costs and were it not for hydrodynamic considerations the ideal length might well be taken to be the cube root of the volume of displacement. However that is not the case and ship size associated with desirable characteristics for resistance and propulsion is used to fix a first approximation to the length. Adjustments are then made above or below this value to account for the relative importance of frictional and wavemaking resistance and to meet any physical restrictions imposed by canals, ports, docks and ship handling. The choice of Length and Block Coefficient (CB) are closely related and are dependent on Speed and Froude Number. A number of formulae for the initial determination of Length will be given later.

5.4

Breadth, Draught and Depth

Given the Volume of Displacement, Length (L) and CB, then the value of the product of Breadth (B) and Draught (T) is determined. Unless there are over-riding dimensional constraints such as the width of a dock entrance or the water depth at a harbour mouth then both B and T can be determined knowing a typical value of the ratio between them, B/T. Alternatively B may be determined from a typical value of L/B and hence T can be found. Depth (D) may be determined in a similar way if a requirement for total internal volume is known and an estimate is made of CBD, the Block Coefficient of the ship up to the upper deck. Depth is also constrained by the need for a minimum freeboard over the draught. A good first approximation is to take T = 0.70 D. The final choice of Breadth, Draught and Depth is also influenced by stability considerations where increasing Breadth and/or reducing Depth will lead to an increase in initial stability. On the other hand, increasing Breadth and reducing Draught may have an adverse effect on the resistance and propulsion characteristics of the vessel.

5.5

Overall Limits on Dimensions

For many ships the maximum dimensions are restricted by navigational features of the routes they must use: Depth of Channels; Size of Canals or Seaways and their associated Locks Clear Height under Bridges The limiting dimensions for some of the world's most significant canals are given in the following table: ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

33

__________________________________________________________________________________________

St Lawrence Seaway Kiel Canal Panama Canal Suez Canal

Length (m) 222.5 235.0 289.5 No Limit

Breadth (m) 23.16 32.5 32.3 71.0 (Ballast) 50.0 (Loaded)

Draught (m) 7.92 9.5 12.0 12.8 16.1

5.6

Formulae for Length

The following empirical formulae have been developed over the years to help in the initial estimation of Length. They all come with "standard" values of their constants, but each can (and should) be fine tuned to match modern design practice by using a particular prototype or basis ship to derive a new value for the constant. Posdunine LBP = C ( Vt / (Vt+2) ) 2
1/3

Where Vt is the Trial Speed of the vessel in knots and is the Volume of Displacement in cubic metres. C = 7.25 is applicable to cargo ships where 15.5 < Vt < 18.5 C can also be determined from a basis ship

Schneekluth Professor Schneekluth of Aachen University of Technology derived the following from economic considerations. LBP = ∆0.3 Vt0.3 C

Where ∆ is the Displacement in tonnes Vt is the Trial Speed in knots and C is a constant = 3.2 if the block coefficient has the approximate value of CB = 0.145/Fn within the range 0.4 < CB < 0.85 C can also be determined from a basis ship. In the course of his research, Professor Schneekluth discovered that ships which are optimum in meeting shipping company requirements are about 10% longer than those designed for minimum production cost. Ayre LBP /
1/3

= 3.33 + 1.67 Vt / √LBP

Where Vt is the Trial Speed of the vessel in knots and is the Volume of Displacement in cubic metres. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

34

__________________________________________________________________________________________

This relation must be solved iteratively. Assume a value for LBP and put it into the RHS. Hence evaluate the LHS and arrive at a value for LBP say LBP'. Put this value into the RHS and find a new value for LBP say LBP''. Compare LBP'' with LBP'. When the difference between the two values is sufficiently small then take LBP = LBP''. It must be said that it is not so easy to "fine tune" the Ayre formula to a particular basis ship because it uses two numeric coefficients and it is not obvious whether one alone should be adjusted, or both. However it appears to give initial estimates of length which are consistent with modern practice despite its age. It is therefore still quite useful to the designer.

5.7

Block Coefficient

The variation of Block Coefficient, CB, with Speed and Length is shown in a diagram taken from ‘Practical Ship Design’ by D. G. M. Watson (based on a Figure in the1977 RINA Paper by Watson & Gilfillan). Over the years segments of the curve appropriate to particular ship types have been presented as linear relationships known as "Alexander Formulae" of the form: CB = K - 0.5 V/ √Lf or CB = K - 1.68 Fn

where K varies from 1.12 to 1.03 depending on V/ √Lf or Fn and V is speed in knots, Lf is length in feet v is speed in metres/second, L is length in metres 2 g is acceleration due to gravity in metres/second The mean line shown in the diagram can be approximated by the equation:CB = 0.7 + 0.125 tan-1((23-100Fn)/4) where the term in brackets is taken in radians.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

35

__________________________________________________________________________________________

5.8

Length/Breadth Ratio

In another diagram taken from the same paper the variation of L/B ratio with length is shown. Small craft (under 30 m in length) remain reasonably directionally stable and steerable with L/B = 4.0, probably because they have little or no parallel body and generally low values of CB. The typical value of L/B increases to about 6.5 at 130 m and maintains that value as length increases further. For vessels with lengths between 30 m and 130 m the formula: L/B = 4 + 0.025 ( L - 30 )

reasonably represents the available data. A small number of the largest VLCC’s find their maximum draught limited by the need to pass through some of the shallower of the world’s “Deep Water Channels” such as the English Channel or the Malacca Straits. In consequence these ships have accepted a larger B/T ratio giving them a smaller than usual L/B ratio but they appear to run into directional stability problems at L/B slightly above 5.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

36

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(Based on Fisher, RINA 1972, Fig 4)

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

37

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

38

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

39

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

40

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

41

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

42

__________________________________________________________________________________________

6
6.1

Weight Estimation
Basic Approach

There are two basic approaches to estimating the weight of a ship. The first is to sum the weights of all the items built into the ship. The second is to employ a system of scaling or proportioning from the weights of a known basis ship to the new design based on the ratios between principal characteristics of the two vessels. The first approach will only give an answer when the ship is complete and so is too late to be of value to the designer. The second approach is thus the one we will consider here. Once the first choice of main dimensions has been made these are used to make weight estimates for each group weight of the design displacement. Naturally the total must equal the design displacement. If it does not the required cargo deadweight will not be obtained and either a larger or a smaller ship is required. Iteration may be necessary to arrive at a set of dimensions which ensure that the sum of the weights making up the ship (its design displacement) exactly * equals the buoyancy offered by the hull at its design draught. (* Exactly in preliminary design means Displacement = Buoyancy ± Error where Error is approximately ½ of the tonnes per cm immersion of the vessel at its design waterline. This is because it is practically impossible to determine the draught of a ship to better than ± 0.5 cm thus limiting the accuracy of any weight.) Initially considering the Lightship: LIGHTSHIP = + + + Steel Weight Outfit Weight Machinery Weight Margin (Ws) (Wo) (Wm)

The Margin is an essential part of the weight make up as it allows for errors and omissions in the remainder of the calculations. For a vessel whose Lightship is a relatively small part of the full load displacement a value of about 2% of Lightship is likely to be appropriate. Where the Lightship is a much greater proportion of the full load displacement and a weight over-run would be seriously embarrassing then a greater percentage may be chosen. Let us look at each Weight Group in turn.

6.2

Steel Weight
Representing principally the hull structure: -

Plates and sections forming Shell, Outer Bottom, Inner Bottom, Girders, Upper Deck, Tween Decks, Bulkheads, Superstructure(s), Seats for equipment & Appendages together with Forgings/Castings for Stem, Sternframe, Rudder Stock(s) and Shaft Brackets. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

43

__________________________________________________________________________________________

We will consider two ways to calculate the Steel Weight just now: a) Cubic Number Method The principle of this method is that Ws = Cubic Number Coefficient x LBD x Correction Factors where LBD/100 is the Cubic Number This is applied as follows Ws* = Ws x L*B*D* LBD x Correction Factors

where * denotes a dimension or property of the new design. The use of this method implies accurate knowledge of past similar ships as no account is taken of changes to major items of steelwork such as number of bulkheads or number of decks. For a good level of accuracy changes in L, B or D from the basis ship should be no more than 10% but often the method is applied outwith such limits. Correction Factors :Form Correction = 1 + ½CB* 1 + ½CB (L*/D*) ½ (L/D)
½

L/D Correction

=

b)

Rate per Metre Difference Method

This is a slightly more refined system than the Cubic Number Method being able to take account of the different effects of changes in the principal dimensions. Once again, dimensional changes of up to 10% can be allowed for. The basis of the method is that the effect on the Steel Weight of change in each of the three principal dimensions can be weighted by different amounts. An increase in Length will lead to an increase in the weight of all elements of the hull - Bottom, Side Shell, Decks, Bulkheads etc. In addition the Hull Girder Bending Moment will tend to increase at a faster rate than Length. Bending Moment ∝ ∆L = ρLBTCBL ∝ L
2

Therefore there may be an increase in the thickness of the plating used in the Bottom and the Upper Deck in order to increase the Hull Girder Section Modulus to resist the increasing Bending Moment. Overall an increase in Length will produce a greater than ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design proportionate increase in Ws.

44

__________________________________________________________________________________________

An increase in Breadth will increase the weight of Bottom, Decks and Bulkheads but will have little effect on the weight of the Side Shell. Overall an increase in Breadth will produce a roughly proportionate increase in Ws. An increase in Depth will increase the weight of Side Shell and Bulkheads but will cause little or no change to the Bottom or Decks except that plating thickness may be reduced while still providing the same Hull Girder Section Modulus. Overall this should lead to the increase in Ws being less than proportional to the increase in Depth. Typical values of the weighting factors are 1.45 for Length, 0.95 for Breadth and 0.65 for Depth. i.e. the rate of change of steel weight per one metre change in length is 1.45 Ws/L, per one metre change in breadth is 0.95 Ws/B and per one metre change in Depth is 0.65 Ws/D A Form Correction is applied for change in Block Coefficient as for the Cubic Number Method If a ship of dimensions L, B, D has a steel weight of Ws tonnes then the rates per metre for each of the dimensions are: a Ws/L, where a = 1.45, b Ws/B, b = 0.95, c Ws/D c = 0.65

For a new ship of dimensions L*, B*, D* the change in each dimension is given by: δL = L* - L δB = B* - B δD = D* - D Then Ws* = {a(Ws/L)δL + b(Ws/B)δB + c(Ws/D)δD + Ws} x Form Correction = Ws {a((L*/L) - 1) + b((B*/B) - 1) + c((D*/D) - 1) + 1} x Form Correction Example A basis ship has the following characteristics: L = 104.0 m, B = 15.71 m, D = 9.26 m, CB = 0.725 and Ws = 1521 tonnes. A new ship has the following characteristics: L* = 114.5 m, B* = 16.86 m, D* = 10.08 m and CB = 0.735 ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

45

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Find Ws* using both estimation methods Cubic Number Method Ws* = Ws x L*B*D* x CB Correction x L/D Correction LBD = 1521 x 114.5 x 16.86 x 10.08 x (1 + ½ x 0.735) x (114.5/10.08) ½ 104 x 15.71 x 9.26 (1 + ½ x 0.725) (104/9.26) = 1521 x 1.2862 x 1.0037 x 1.0057 = 1975 tonnes Rate Per Metre Difference Method L Basis Ship New Ship 104.0 114.5 B 15.71 16.86 1.073 0.073 0.95 0.069 + D 9.26 10.08 1.088 0.088 0.65 0.057 = 0.272 CB 0.725 0.735
½

Ratio of Dimensions 1.101 (Ratio) - 1 Weighting Factors Products Form Correction Ws* 0.101 1.45 0.146 +

= 1 + ½ x CB* = 1 + ½ x 0.735 = 1.0037 1 + ½ x 0.725 1 + ½ x CB = 1521 x ( 1 + 0.272) x 1.0037 = 1942 tonnes

More refined methods may be used if a better breakdown of the steel weight of the basis ship is available, e.g.: Upper Deck Tween Deck Inner Bottom Outer Bottom Side Shell Bulkheads Superstructure ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

46

__________________________________________________________________________________________

A square number approach is probably appropriate for each of the above elements of the structure, except Superstructure. For the Upper Deck WUD ∝ L x B with a form correction ideally dependent on the waterplane area coefficient but practically varying with the block coefficient and a scantling correction depending on L/D ratio. The Outer Bottom could be treated in a similar way. Tween Deck(s) and Inner Bottom will tend to vary only with L x B and block coefficient, while Side Shell will follow L x D and block coefficient. Bulkhead weight will tend to vary with B x D, block coefficient and number of bulkheads. Superstructure(s) can be treated using their own mini cubic number lsbshs, where ls,bs and hs are the mean values of length, breadth and height of the superstructure. Schneekluth quotes a number of methods for scaling steel weight and also formulae for calculating steel weight from the principal dimensions. Two of the latter, applicable to Cargo Ships are:Wehkamp/Kerlen Ws = 0.0832 X e
2 -5.73 x 10-7

where X = ( LPP B/12) √CB and Carryette Ws = CB
2/3

3

(L B /6) D

0.72

[0.002(L/D) + 1]

2

Taking the SD14 as an example where L = 137.5 m, B = 20.42 m, D = 11.75 m and CB = 0.7438, the steel weight is 2382 tonnes by Wehkamp/Kerlen or 2884 tonnes by Carryette. Shipyard data provided for use in a Ship Design Project based on the SD14 gave the ‘real’ steelweight as 2505 tonnes.

6.3

Outfit Weight
Outfit can be considered to include: Hatch covers, Cargo handling equipment, Equipment and facilities in the living quarters (such as furniture, galley equipment, heating, ventilation & air conditioning, doors, windows & sidelights, sanitary installations, deck, bulkhead & deckhead coverings & insulation and non-steel compartment boundaries) and Miscellaneous items (such as anchoring & mooring equipment, steering gear, bridge consoles, Refrigerating plant, paint, lifesaving equipment, firefighting equipment, hold ventilation and radio & radar equipment)

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

47

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The majority of outfit weight items can be considered to be proportioned between similar ships on the basis of Deck Area i.e. using a square number approach where Wo ∝ L x B. The diagram, again taken from ‘Practical Ship Design’ by D. G. M Watson (based on a Figure in the 1977 RINA Paper by Watson & Gilfillan), shows how outfit weight varies with square number for various types of ship. Note the way that the outfit weight of the passenger ships increases very sharply with length. This is probably due to the increase in the number of decks found in large passenger carrying ships. The square number method is applied as follows Wo* = Wo L*B* LB

An alternative approach holds half of the outfit weight constant and proportions the remainder by the square number. This variation is applied as follows Wo* = Wo( 1 + L*B* ) 2 LB

This approach can be further refined if a known weight item such as a heavy lift derrick is either common to both ships or is present in the basis ship but not in the new design. The known item should be deducted from the basis Wo, the revised value scaled suitably and the known item added back on if necessary. Once again if a more detailed breakdown of the outfit weight of the basis ship is available then more refined methods can be applied to each part.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

48

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(Both Diagrams from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

6.4

Machinery Weight

Representing: - Main Engine(s), Gearbox (if fitted), Bearings, Shafting, Propeller(s), Generators, Switchboards, Cabling, Pumps, Valves, Piping etc. The fundamental parameter by which machinery weight can be proportioned is the installed power of the main machinery, conventionally taken as Shaft Power, Ps. An introduction to some methods of estimating Ps will follow in a later lecture and will subsequently be further developed in the class Resistance and Propulsion. For the purpose of making the very first estimate of Ps for small changes in dimensions and speed from a basis ship we can take Ps ∝∆
2/3

V

3

Given that a value of Ps has been obtained for the new design it is possible to take Wm ∝ Ps
2/3

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design D. G. M. Watson has presented a very simple two-group breakdown of machinery weight in a range of vessels. Their two groups are made up as follows (1) (2) The main engine itself The remainder of the machinery installation

49

__________________________________________________________________________________________

By studying engine manufacturers' data he found that over a wide range of engine type he could express the bare weight of an engine in the form Weight = 12 ( MCR ) RPM
0.84

(tonnes)

where MCR = Maximum Continuous Rating (kW) RPM = Engine crankshaft revs per minute at MCR For a given MCR the higher the RPM then the lower the torque the engine must produce. The lower the torque, the smaller are the forces produced inside the engine and hence the smaller are the components and the lower is its weight. The weight of the remainder of the machinery was given by Weight = k ( MCR ) where k = 0.56 0.59 0.65
0.7

(tonnes)

for Bulk Carriers and General Cargo Ships for Tankers (due to additional weight for cargo pumping) for Passenger Ships and Ferries (additional weight devoted to power for hotel services, lighting and heating, ventilation & air conditioning (HVAC))

6.5

Weights of Consumables
Fuel Oil & Diesel Oil

The requirement for fuel is based on Engine Power, Fuel Consumption (SFC) and the duration of the voyage - i.e. Endurance / Speed. Fuel Required Fuel Carried Tank Volume Required = Power x SFC x Endurance / Service Speed = Fuel Required / 0.975 * = Fuel Carried / 0.95 x Density **

* Allows for 2.5% of the fuel carried being unpumpable at the bottom of the tanks ** Allows for tanks not being filled to more than 95% of their capacity to allow for expansion in hot climates. Take care with the units! A similar calculation should be carried out for the fuel required for electrical power generation based on a suitable number of generators running for the duration of the voyage plus a margin for the time spent in port. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

50

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(Both Diagrams from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998)

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

51

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Lubricating Oil The requirement for Lubricating Oil is based on Engine Power, Lubricating Oil Consumption and the duration of the voyage. For similar engines it is therefore proportional to the product of the power of the main engine(s) and the duration of the voyage. Fresh Water The requirement for Fresh Water can be satisfied in one of two ways. Many ships are fitted with equipment to produce Fresh Water from Sea Water on a continuous basis either by distillation or by reverse osmosis. In this case it is only necessary to store a few days supply of water in two tanks each capable of holding say two or three days consumption at a rate of about 100 litres per person per day. Ships which do not have such equipment need to carry enough water to last the duration of the voyage at the same daily rate. This would normally be split between two tanks to guard against the whole supply becoming contaminated. The tanks would then be filled in each port of call. Approximately 133 tonnes of fresh water would be required by a crew of 32 on a voyage of 16000 nautical miles at 16 knots with a consumption of 100 litres per day. Distillation plant will typically produce 10 tonnes of water from the heat input of one tonne of fuel oil so the fresh water for the above voyage could be provided from two storage tanks of 10 tonnes each plus distillation plant plus the carriage of an extra 13 tonnes of fuel oil. Stores Stores. in the sense of food, drink etc, are normally assessed on the basis of so much per person per day. The weight carried is therefore proportional to the product of the number of crew (+ passengers if appropriate) times the voyage duration in days. Spare Gear Spare gear is notoriously difficult to estimate. It is very much dependent on the advice from the manufacturers of all the various pieces of equipment on board the ship and so accurate information is unlikely until the ship is ready for sea. A fixed weight based on a similar ship is probably sufficiently accurate for preliminary design. Crew & Passengers The present allowance for an average crew member is 75 kg and if effects (personal belongings, luggage, baggage etc.) are included then the value should double. You should allow 75 kg for each passenger on a daytime commuter or excursion trip and up to 150 kg (i.e. with baggage) on a longer-term holiday or cruise.

6.6

Centre of Gravity Estimation

Weight estimates alone are not sufficient to allow ship design to progress - the position of the centre of gravity (C of G) - Vertically, Longitudinally and Transversely - of each item of weight must also be determined in order to find the overall Centre of Gravity of the ship. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

52

__________________________________________________________________________________________

This must be assessed to give reasonable assurance that the ship will be stable, float at the intended fore and aft trim and float upright. In the early stages of Design Port/Starboard symmetry is often assumed and the Transverse Centre of Gravity is thus sometimes ignored. NOTE:- In some ship types it may be important that the ship floats exactly upright. This is almost certainly the occasion when you cannot ignore TCG. Sod's Law says that if two heavy items are to be positioned on a ship, both will be placed where they have the greatest impact on TCG and both will be on the side of the ship nearest to the designer when (s)he was laying out the General Arrangement. Two methods of determining C of G can be applied to all weight groups depending on the stage of the design process and the amount of information you have on the ship. a) Scaled C of G (early design stages) The position of the LCG of the weight item relative to a suitable datum position (usually amidships or the A.P.) is proportional to the length of the vessel. LCG* = LCG x L*/L The position of the VCG above the baseline is proportional to the depth of the vessel VCG* = VCG x D*/D b) Real C of G (later design stages) The position of the LCG, VCG or TCG of an item is measured from a suitable datum on a scale drawing of the vessel or is known by definition, e.g. if the height of a tween deck above base is 7.6 m then the VCG of the plating will be 7.6 m plus one half of its thickness above base. As the VCG of the stiffening will be slightly below 7.6 m a reasonable estimate of the VCG of the deck will be 7.6 m. If the C of G of an engine is given by the manufacturer as x metres above a datum level then position the engine in the machinery space, find the height of the datum above base and the VCG can be found. The weight of an item may have a recognisable geometric distribution - rectangular, triangular, parabolic etc. The formulae for finding the centroids of such shapes may then be useful in determining the C of G of the item with respect to one or more of the usual axes. As you progress through successive iterations of weight calculations or successive stages of the design process as a whole you should always consider the use of more refined and more detailed weight/centre estimation techniques appropriate to your increasing knowledge of the design - subdivide weight groups, use “real” engine data etc. In the later stages of the ship design project you are likely to have real centres for the majority of the deadweight items although the Lightship centres will probably still be scaled.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

53

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Variations or combinations of these basic procedures may be appropriate in particular cases. You may be asked to move the engine room or superstructure from one location on the vessel to another. From the given data find the C of G of the machinery relative to one of the Engine Room boundary bulkheads. If you then move the entire engine room along the vessel the C of G will move by approximately the same distance as the datum bulkhead. If you move a superstructure you may have to estimate its weight and C of G, deduct it from the total steelweight to find a “Hull” steelweight and C of G and then add it back on, scaled for dimensional change if necessary, at a C of G corresponding to its new position.

6.7

Principal Items of Machinery Weight

PROPULSION
Main Engine(s) Gearbox(es) Propeller(s) and Shafting Pumps, Compressors & Separators Engine Room Pipework Air Intakes Exhaust uptakes

SERVICES
Fresh Water Plant Sewage Plant Cargo pumps Gratings, Ladders, Walkways, Insulation in Engine Room.

ELECTRICAL
Electrical Generators Switchboards Cabling Lighting Systems

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

54

__________________________________________________________________________________________

6.8

Principal Items of Outfit Weight

GROUP 1 -

Hatch Covers & Drive Mechanisms

GROUP 2 -

Cargo Handling Equipment
Derricks, Winches & Cranes Hold Ceilings Container Lashing Gear

GROUP 3 -

Accommodation
Divisional/Non-structural Bulkheads Deck/Bulkhead/Deckhead Coverings Doors, Windows & Sidelights (Portholes) Sanitary Installations &Piping Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) Galley and Dining Equipment Furniture & Bedding

GROUP 4 -

Miscellaneous
Anchors, Chain, Hawsers Anchor/Chain/Hawser Handling Equipment Steering Gear & Control Equipment Navigation & Communication Equipment Firefighting Equipment Life Saving Appliances (LSA) Guardrails, Ladders etc General Pipework Hold Ventilation Cargo Refrigeration Paint Deck Coverings excluding Accommodation Areas

A Weight Breakdown system with more detailed subdivision is shown below. It is based on UK Naval Practice and is taken from Watson, Practical Ship Design, 1998. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

55

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

56

__________________________________________________________________________________________

7
7.1

Power Estimation and Service Margins
General

An estimate of the power requirement forms one of the most important and critical steps in preliminary design. It is also one of the most complex processes in ship design, being influenced by a large number of design parameters. The power derived has a significant and direct effect on the deadweight which can be carried by a given ship. In days gone by (when fuel was cheap) it was important to keep both engine weight & volume and fuel weight & volume to the minimum to maximise deadweight and cargo capacity. Nowadays the shipowner seeks optimum fuel economy primarily on cost grounds and secondarily on deadweight. The choice of propelling machinery for a tanker, a bulk carrier or a general cargo vessel is now invariably restricted to the direct drive diesel which is by far the most economical prime mover. The installed power has a direct influence on another of the owner's requirements speed. Since severe penalties can be incurred for not achieving the design trial speed, the designer has to allow for a margin of uncertainty in his power requirements to give the ship a high probability of success. There is a wide selection of diesel engines available to the designer but it is rare for there to be an engine which exactly suits the power requirement of a particular ship. The designer then has to choose the best engine which develops sufficient power over a useful range.

7.2

Definitions of Power

The power needed for propulsion is the aggregate effect of a number of components which can be considered in three groups as follows: a) Those affecting Hull Resistance, that is the force which must be applied to push or pull the hull through the water at the required speed. The product of Hull Resistance (R) and speed through the water (V) is called the Effective Power (PE). b) Those affecting the conversion of torque into useful thrust which determine the power to be delivered to the propeller. The product of 2π times Shaft Torque (Q) and Revs per second is known as the Delivered Power (PD). PD is related to PE by the Quasi- Propulsive Coefficient (Q.P.C.) c) The loss of power during its transmission from the engine to the propeller. The Shaft Power (PS) of the installation is related to PD by the transmission efficiency ηt. As Shaft Power is usually measured aft of the thrust block there may be a small correction for this and for any power lost in gearing in order to arrive at the Installed Brake Power required from the engine. A further correction may be required to adjust the engine manufacturer's figure of Brake Power (Test Bed) for differences in air and water temperatures and losses in the air intake and exhaust gas systems between Test Bed and Service conditions. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design Thus PS = PE /( QPC × ηt )

57

__________________________________________________________________________________________

where PD = PE / QPC and PS = PD / ηt The following empirical relationship, known as Emerson’s formula, is often used to estimate the value of the Quasi-Propulsive Coefficient of a single screw ship: QPC = 0.85 - ( √ L × N ) / 10000 Where L is the length of the ship in metres and N is Revs per minute of the propeller. ηt takes typical values of 0.99 for aft end machinery and 0.98 for amidships machinery The losses in a the thrust block should be less than 1% of the power transmitted.

7.3

Standard Series

As an aid to design, a number of organisations have performed resistance (and propulsion tests) on methodically varied series of ship forms. By varying the main parameters of ship proportion and form which affect ship resistance, a series of resistance result are obtained which can be presented in graphical form. The designer can then interpolate within or between the graphs to establish the resistance of any form which has a valid combination of parameters. Among the best known of these series are Taylor (and the Re-Analysis by Gertler), Series 60 and the BSRA Series. Further details of these series and their uses will be provided in the class on Resistance and Propulsion.

7.4

Components of Resistance

William Froude established the fundamental principles of predicting Ship Resistance from Model Tests more than a century ago. When a ship model is towed at a steady speed in smooth, deep water, we observe: a) Resistance to motion b) A pattern of surface waves is produced (and if the model is run at a series of steady speeds then there is a unique wave pattern for each speed). c) Depending on the speed, the model experiences a change in both draught and trim by comparison with the draught and trim at rest. It is reasonable to suppose that there is friction between the hull surface and the water through which it passes. It can be inferred that the motion causes pressure between parts of the hull and the water and that it is these pressures which cause the waves to form. Moving the hull against these frictional and wavemaking forces will absorb energy and so the combined effect must be responsible for the resistance to motion. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

58

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

59

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Froude tested "geometrically similar" models and argued that the total resistance of any hull, either model or ship, must be the sum of two components which he called Frictional Resistance and Residuary Resistance RT = RF + RR He measured the resistance of a series of thin planks and, assuming that their measured resistances were due to friction alone, he derived a formula for the frictional resistance of a plank of arbitrary length and surface area moving at a specified speed. By further assuming that the frictional resistance of a model equalled that of the flat plate of the same length, area and surface finish he calculated the frictional resistance RF of each model at various speeds. By subtracting the calculated values of RF from the measured values of RT he deduced the corresponding values of the residuary resistance RR. He then discovered that plotting values of residuary resistance per ton of displacement, RR, to a base of V/ √L or speed in knots divided by the square root of length in feet, gave a unique curve for all the "geometrically similar" models. Hence from the measured resistance of a model over a range of speeds he was able to predict the resistance of a geometrically similar model or ship. Froude's basic principle still holds today although some changes in the fine detail have taken place.

7.5

Frictional Resistance

The International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) is a body which co-ordinates research into ship hydrodynamics. By studying a wide range of experiments in which the resistance of ships, ship models, planks and other objects was measured and by looking at the underlying scientific principles a consensus was reached as to the most reliable way of predicting the variation of frictional resistance of a smooth surface with Length and Speed. This is normally referred to as the 1957 ITTC Line. The modern method for calculating the frictional resistance of a ship is to use the 1957 ITTC Line with a roughness allowance (typically taken as 0.0004) added to take account of the distinctly unsmooth surface of a real ship: Cf = 0.0004 + 0.075 / (log10Rn - 2 ) where Cf is the coefficient of frictional resistance 0.0004 is a roughness allowance Rn is Reynolds Number given by Rn = vL / ν v is the ship's speed in m/s L is the ship's length in m ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005
2

and

where

Marine Design ν is the kinematic viscosity which takes the following typical values: -6 2 In Fresh Water at 15 deg C 1.139×10 m /s -6 2 In Salt Water at 15 deg C 1.188×10 m /s The frictional resistance is then given by RF = 0.5ρSv Cf ρ is the density of water in kg/m 2 S is the wetted surface area in m and may be given by S = 1.7LT + LBCB (The Denny - Mumford formula)
3 2

60

__________________________________________________________________________________________

where

7.6

Residuary Resistance

The residuary resistance of a new design is not quite so easy to calculate as its frictional resistance. The coefficient of residuary resistance (CR) of a merchant ship having the optimum position of the LCB can be approximated using the following formula developed by Schneekluth. The formula tends to smooth out the effect of the humps and hollows of the resistance curves. It is based on the published residuary resistance curves of Taylor - Gertler and Harvald - Guldhammer. 10 CR = (10Fn - 0.8) (10CP - 3.3) (10 C + 4)0.0012 + (10 C 0.05) + 0.2 + (B/T - 2.5)0.17 where CR is the coefficient of residuary resistance C = /L and the other terms have their usual meanings. The residuary resistance is then given by RR = 0.5ρSv CR The limits of validity of the formula are 0.17 2.0 0.50 CB 5.0 2.0 < < < ≤ < < Fn <
3 2 3 3 3 4 2 3

0.30

10 C < 11.0 CP < 0.80 CB (Ayre) + 0.06 L/B < 10.0 B/T < 4.5

(CB (Ayre) = 1.08 - 1.68Fn )

The formula should not be used outside the specified limits.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

61

__________________________________________________________________________________________

7.7

Rapid Power Estimates for New Ship Designs

It is useful at times for the designer to be able to find quickly the total resistance of a ship in some everyday terms such as pounds of total resistance per ton of displacement, expressed as RT/∆, at say the design speed, when only the type of ship and the approximate Speed-Length ratio or Froude Number are known. For example, the value of RT/∆ for a large, modern Great Lakes freighter at its designed speed is about 2 lb/ton and that of a fast motorboat is of the order of 600 lb/ton. Such data for a large variety of waterborne craft, both large and small, have been plotted in Fig 56.I. The Admiralty Coefficient approach can give a useful first approximation to the required power for small changes in speed, dimensions or displacement from a basis ship. It can also provide a guide to the likely power requirement of a ship at an early stage of design. The original form of the Admiralty Coefficient is given below: A.C. = (Displacement) where and Displacement is in tons, Speed is in knots I.H.P. is Indicated Horse Power.
2/3

× (Speed) / I.H.P.

3

I.H.P. was a measure of the power developed in the cylinders of a steam engine. For modern ships I.H.P. is replaced by Shaft Horse Power and Fig 2.3.1, a BSRA diagram, derives the relationship by Dimensional Analysis and gives typical values of A.C. in respect of the trial performance of a number of ship types.

7.8

Trial and Service Margins

The shipowner's normal requirement is in terms of service speed, although the contract terms will be agreed on the basis of a trial speed i.e. speed obtained under good weather conditions, in deep water, with the hull in a clean condition. The difference between Trial and Service conditions is caused by wind and wave action, fouling and increasing hull roughness. It is normal to provide an allowance of between 15% and 25% on power to cope with the difference, with the final choice being dependent on such factors as the paint system, cathodic protection, voyage patterns and hull maintenance policy. If the allowance (service margin) on power is taken as 25 % this corresponds to a Trial Speed which is approximately 6% greater than the required Service Speed since in this region of the Speed/Power curve Power varies as V4 for a well designed hull form. The graph below illustrates the application of a service margin to the speed/power curve of a new ship design. The trial speed is derived from the speed/power curve for trial conditions at 90% of the Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) of the machinery. The service speed is taken from the same curve after allowing for the service margin (here taken as an increase of 25% over the power requirement under trial conditions). That is, Service Speed is achieved under trial conditions at 80% of the Power used to achieve the Trial Speed. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

62

__________________________________________________________________________________________

A similar result would be obtained by creating a speed/power curve for service conditions 25% above that for trial conditions. Its intersection with the maximum power level for the engine would then give the same value of service speed. That is the power the engine would be expected to produce to achieve the service speed, at sea, battling against wind and waves, with the bottom covered with rough paint, weed and barnacles The practice of setting a maximum usable power of 90% of MCR is considered by the shipowner to have two beneficial effects. Firstly it gives a slight improvement in specific fuel consumption. Secondly it gives a reduction in wear and tear on the engine which has the effect of reducing maintenance costs and improving reliability.

7.9

Speed Margins

An alternative method of establishing the required margin on installed power is more subtle and involves designing in a speed margin, which implies a power margin, rather than using an explicit power margin. The effect of this approach is that the ship's hull is designed to be driven efficiently at a speed greater than the service speed when the machinery is developing its maximum power. A ship design starts with the designed sea speed or service speed, determined from the schedule which the ship must maintain, or from a study of economic or other reasons. To compensate for having to slow down in heavy weather a reserve of speed above the designed sea speed, sufficient to bring the ship back onto its schedule, is necessary. This can be achieved by either of the following approaches or a combination of both: i) Specify an increment of speed say 1.0 or 1.5 knots above the designed sea speed. ii) Specify a percentage increase of between, typically, 8 and 15 per cent on the designed sea speed.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

63

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

64

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Note:-

1 lb = 0.453592 kg Tq = V/√L

;

1 ft = 0.3048 m

where V is in knots and L is in ft

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

65

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(Taken from a BSRA Publication)

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

66

__________________________________________________________________________________________

8
8.1

Selection of Main Machinery
Factors in the choice of Main Machinery
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Burn Heavy Fuel Oil Requires Low Maintenance Suitable for Unattended Operation Low Shaft Speed Size and Weight Purchase and Installation Costs Reputation for Reliability

8.2

Types of Diesel Engine
1) 2) 3) Slow Speed Medium Speed High Speed 80 - 250 400 - 1000 1200 - 1800 RPM RPM RPM

The following attributes of the above types of engine vary as shown below (1) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) --> (2) --> (3)

Decreasing Size Decreasing Weight Increasing Fuel Consumption Increasing Maintenance Increasing Systems Complexity

8.3

Auxiliary Machinery
1) 2) 3) Electric Power Generation Systems for Main Engine(s) Ship & Crew Safety

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design 4) 5) Hotel Services Cargo/Ballast Systems

67

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(1) is carried to provide power for (2) to (5)

8.4

Principal Main Engine Systems
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fuel Lubrication Cooling Exhaust Compressed Air Monitoring and Control

Similar systems will be required to support the Auxiliary Machinery. These may be Stand-Alone systems or integrated with those for the main engine(s).

8.5

Electric Power Generation

An Ocean-going cargo merchant ship will normally have three service generator sets plus one (small) emergency set. Of the three service sets:One will be providing the Normal Sea Load One will be available as back up (It will be running in circumstances when loss of power could be dangerous). One may be under maintenance. When a ship habitually undertakes long sea voyages at constant speed then it may be practical to derive some of the electric power from a generator driven by the Main Engine via the propeller shaft or a Power Take Off (PTO) Advantages:(i) (ii) Main Engine S.F.C. is better than an Auxiliary Engine's Main Engine Fuel (Heavy Fuel) is cheaper.

Disadvantages:(i) (ii) More complex system Still needs three conventional generators plus emergency set.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

68

__________________________________________________________________________________________

8.6

Fuel System Functions
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Distribution/Transfer to & from Tanks Settling Tanks Centrifugal Separators Service Tanks Heating for Viscosity Control Filtration

8.7

Preliminary Estimation of Propeller Diameter

There are two formulae which may be helpful in making an initial assessment of Propeller Diameter. This may be needed to confirm that the draught of a ship is sufficient to ensure that its propeller(s) is(are) adequately immersed at all times. D = 16.2 * Ps 0.2 / N 0.6 metres (1)

Where D is the Propeller Diameter Ps is the Shaft Power (per shaft) in kW and N is the shaft revolutions per minute Alternatively, D = 0.2 * √ (Ps / V) metres (2)

Where V is the ship’s design speed in knots. (1) (2) above is generally quite accurate for Cargo Ships, Bulk Carriers and Container Ships. tends to underestimate the diameter for merchant ships by about 10% but may be more reliable in its own field of high-powered Naval vessels fitted with Controllable Pitch Propellers.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

69

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

70

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

71

__________________________________________________________________________________________

9

Estimating Hydrostatic Properties and Initial Stability

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

72

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

73

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

74

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

75

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

76

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

77

__________________________________________________________________________________________

9.x

Undamped Roll Motion in Still Water

Let φ be the inclination of the ship to the vertical at any instant of time. The moment acting on a stable ship will be in a sense to decrease φ. For small values of φ, Restoring Moment = - ∆ * GMT * φ

Applying Newton’s Laws of Motion, Moment i.e. - ∆ * GMT * φ = = (moment of inertia about OX) * (angular acceleration) +(∆/g) *kxx2 * d2φ/dt2 = 0

i.e. d2φ/dt2 + (g * GMT / kxx2 ) φ

This is a form of the differential equation denoting simple harmonic motion with frequency ω. Let φ = φo sin ωt

where φ o is the maximum amplitude of the motion. then and dφ/dt = d2φ/dt2 = = i.e. d2φ/dt2 + ω2φ = ω φ o cos ωt - ω2φ o sin ωt - ω2φ 0

then for a ship rolling, ω2 ∴ and Period, Tφ ω = = = g * GMT / kxx2 √ (g * GMT / kxx2 ) 2π/ω = = 2 π √ (kxx2 / ( g * GMT )) 2 π kxx / √ ( g * GMT )

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design 9.y

78

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Worked Example - Capacity Carrier

A design study has been made for a ferry and the following basic dimensions have been chosen:L = 106 m; B = 17 m; D = 19 m; T = 6 m; CB = 0.62

This achieves both the design capacity and the design displacement. A suitable hull form has been chosen from a standard series and at a draught of 6 m the following hydrostatic data is found:KB = 3.5 m; CIT = 0.71

(where CIT is the Coefficient of Transverse Inertia; IT = CIT * L * B3 /12) From a study of the loading and operating pattern of a similar ship it is estimated that KG = 0.6D in the worst operating condition. Check the initial stability of the design and modify it if necessary, keeping both capacity and displacement constant, to ensure that GMT > 0.6 m for safety while also ensuring that the rolling period Tφ is greater than 11 seconds for comfort. IT = = CIT * L * B3 /12 LBTCB BMT GMT = = IT / = = = = 0.71 * 106 * 173 / 12 = 106 * 17 * 6 * 0.62 30813 / 6703 3.5 + 4.6 - 0.6 * 19 = = = = 30813 m4 6703 m3 4.60 m 8.1 - 11.4 -3.3 m

KB + BMT - KG

Clearly unsatisfactory. Speed depends on L & CB , so it is preferable that they are left unchanged. If B is increased then BMT will be increased; if T & D are reduced in the same proportion as B is increased then displacement and capacity will remain unchanged. Try B’ = 20 m Reduce Draught, T to maintain constant displacement ∴ T’ = 6 * 17 / 20 = 5.1 m

Reduce Depth, D to maintain capacity ( ∝ L * B * D) ∴ D’ = 19 * 17 / 20 = 16.15 m 2.975 m

Hence KB’ = 3.5 * 5.1 / 6.0 =

and KG’ = 0.6 * 16.15 = 9.69 m ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

79

__________________________________________________________________________________________

IT’

=

CIT * L * B3 /12 BMT’ = IT’ /

= = =

0.71 * 106 * 203 / 12 = 50173 / 6703 =

50173 m4 7.485 m 0.77 m

GMT’ =

KB’ + BMT’ - KG’

2.975 + 7.485 - 9.69 =

This satisfies the first criterion. To check the Rolling Period, Tφ = = = = 2 *π * k / √ (g * GMT) 2 * π * 5.751/ √ (9.81 * 0.77) 36.135 / 2.748 13.15 secs where k = = = 0.32 √ (B * D) 0.32 √ (20 * 16.15) 5.751 m

This satisfies the second criterion. It is also possible to determine the maximum value of GMT which will give a Rolling Period of 11 secs Tφ = 2 *π * k / √ (g * GMT) 4 * π2 *k2 / (g * Tφ2) 4 * 9.8696 * 5.7512 / (9.81 * 112) 1.100 m and by squaring both sides and transposing,

GMT = = =

(Can you determine the maximum value of GMT which will give the desired Rolling Period before changing the dimensions? What was the value of k for the initial design?) It would be preferable to have a method of calculating the required change in dimensions directly and to be able to investigate the sensitivity of GMT to changes in L, B, T or D. Let ∆ = constant * L * B * T

Then, taking logarithms of both sides, log ∆ = log (constant) + log L + log B + log T

and differentiating d∆ / ∆ = dL / L + dB / B + dT / T that is, if the fractional changes in dimensions are small then their sum gives the fractional change in displacement. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design BMT = IT / = constant * B2 / T

80

__________________________________________________________________________________________

And by following the same approach, d BMT / BMT = Also, d BMT / BMT = Now for constant ∆ & L, Taking Capacity 2 * dB / B + dT / T ( d BG + d GM ) / (BG + GM ) dT / T = - dB / B and following the above process

= constant * L * B * D

For constant Capacity & L ( as well as constant ∆ and L) dD / D = - dB / B constant * D = dT / T and KB = constant * T

We have KG = = = ∴ BG =

constant * ( D / T ) * T constant’ * T KG - KB dT / T = = constant’’ * T - dB / B

∴ d BG / BG = But we have

( d BG + d GM ) / (BG + GM ) ∴ d BG + d GM

= 2 * dB / B + dT / T = = = =

= 3 * dB /B

3 * ( BG + GM ) * d B/ B 3 * ( BG + GM ) * dB / B ( 4 BG + 3 GM ) * dB / B d GM / ( 4 BG + 3 GM )

∴ - BG * dB / B + d GM ∴ ∴ d GM dB / B

Applying this relationship to the example, for GMT’ and BG ∴ ∴ = = dB / B dB = 0.6 m, KG - KB = d GM = = 3.3 + 0.6 = = = = 0.1797 * 17.0 = 3.055 3.9 m 7.9 m 3.9 / ( 31.6 - 9.9 ) 0.1797

11.4 - 3.5

3.9 / ( 4 * 7.9 + 3 * ( -3.3) )

∴ B’ = 20.055 m ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

81

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Noting the requirement for small changes in dimensions then this is a fair result. for GMT’’ ∴ ∴ dB / B dB = 1.1 m, d GM = 3.3 + 1.1 = = 3.055 and B’’ = 4.4 m 0.2028 20.45 m

= 4.4 / ( 31.6 - 9.9 ) = 0.2028 * 17.0 =

Returning to the example, Try B’’ = 20.45 m, then for constant ∆ T’’ = 6 * 17 / 20.45 = 4.988 m

and for constant Capacity D’’ = 19 * 17 / 20.45 = = = 15.795 m 2.910 m 9.477 m 53637 m4 8.002 m 1.435 m

Hence KB’’ = 3.5 * 4.988 / 6.0 and IT’’ KG’’ = 0.6 * 15.795 = CIT * L * B’’3 /12 BMT’’ = IT’’ / GMT’’ =

= 0.71 * 106 * 20.453 / 12 = = 53637 / 6703 2.910 + 8.002 - 9.477 = =

KB’’ + BMT’’ - KG’’ =

This is rather higher than was expected but the method is specifically for small changes in dimensions. The change in Beam is of the order of 20% which is not a small change. If we now apply the method a second time to reduce GMT’’ from 1.435 m to 1.100 m we should find an answer that is very close. d GM = BG ∴ dB / B = = -0.335 m KG - KB = 9.477 - 2.910 = 6.567 m

d GM / ( 4 BG + 3 GM ) = = -0.335 / (26.268 + 4.305 ) -0.011 B’’’ = 20.225 m

= -0.335 / ( 4 * 6.567 + 3 * 1.435 )

dB =

-0.011 * 20.45

=

-0.225

and

Then for constant ∆ ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design T’’’ = 6 * 17 / 20.225 = 5.043 m

82

__________________________________________________________________________________________

and for constant Capacity D’’’ = 19 * 17 / 20.225 3.5 * 5.043 / 6.0 0.6 * 15.970 = = = 15.970 m 2.942 m 9.582 m = = = 51886 m4 7.741 m 1.101 m

Hence KB’’’ = and IT’’’ KG’’’ = =

CIT * L * B’’’3 /12 IT’’’ /

= 0.71 * 106 * 20.2253 / 12 = 51886 / 6703 2.942 + 7.741 - 9.582

BMT’’’ = GMT’’’ =

KB’’’ + BMT’’’ - KG’’’ =

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

83

__________________________________________________________________________________________

10

General Arrangement

10.1 Introduction
Once the Main Dimensions and Hull Form have been fixed consideration can be given to the General Arrangement. Normally this will be done by means of the drawing of a small scale General Arrangement plan. A scale of 1 to 200 is quite suitable although a larger scale may be more appropriate for small ships. The only boundaries which have been fixed so far are the hull surface and any deck lines which affect freeboard. The remaining space boundaries in the ship remain to be fixed. A major decision is to determine the position of the machinery space. In a light condition the density of the machinery space and the accommodation, taken together, is greater that the rest of the ship's length. In a loaded condition the reverse is truer. This is important when considering trim.

10.2 Trim
A level keel trim is usually specified for the full load condition with homogeneous cargo. This is mainly to make the best use of the available depth of water in port - usually a restrictive item. Of course the cargo distribution may never quite produce such a trim but it must be possible without ridiculous cargo stowage and the homogeneous condition usually is quoted t‹ ensure this. Some designs either specify a design trim or must accept one. There are ships in which the weight distribution is so extreme that balance between the LCG and LCB can only be achieved by using trim to make a radical adjustment to the sectional area curve. Tugs and fishing vessels are common examples where the need for propeller immersion also plays its part and warships often have this feature. As ships tend to trim by the bow relative to their static trim when running at normal speeds, no bow trim at all can be permitted at rest. Usually cargo is disposed to ensure some stern trim in most sea-going conditions. Steering and directional stability can be upset by bow trim. In the initial design stages trim is mainly controlled by the location of the machinery space relative to the cargo holds. Provision of ballast spaces including the peak tanks gives some control over trim but carrying ballast is a waste of deadweight and may impose undesirable stresses. Reasonable trim must also be maintained during cargo working at intermediate ports. In the case of the traditional general cargo vessel this was no easy thing to do unless the machinery space was amidships.

10.3 Location of the Machinery Space
The most common position for the machinery space in modern cargo ships is completely aft. Trim problems are severe in general cargo vessels and cannot be solved without ballast tanks forward to use in the light condition. Sometimes it is difficult to avoid bow trim when loaded. This location is suitable for, and typical of, ships which carry homogeneous cargoes such as tankers and bulk carriers, especially when the cargo is denser than seawater since their weight distribution can be controlled to solve trim problems. While the best part of the ship is given to the cargo holds the machinery space may require more length than expected in order to accommodate the auxiliary machinery. The use of segregated ballast tanks in tankers or a floodable hold in bulk carriers provides control of draught, trim and bending moment if carefully sized and located. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

84

__________________________________________________________________________________________

In large high-speed and high-powered container ships the machinery space is often situated in the three-quarters aft position. Although this splits the container stowage area into two parts it allows the machinery to be installed in a fairly full part of the ship. Trim can be kept under control with only a modest requirement for water ballast and bending of the hull girder between loaded and light condition may be minimised.

10.4 Length of Machinery Space
Assuming that diesel propulsion is to be adopted (and it usually is) then the length of the machinery space is governed either by or 1) 2) The Main Engine, Gearbox (if fitted) and Thrust Block The Generators

An end clearance of one or two frame spaces should be added to the neat length. Care must be taken to ensure that there is sufficient space for the auxiliary machinery. Ideally these should be sited on the tank top, particularly those requiring a solid foundation to minimise vibration e.g. Generators and Compressors. Flats can be fitted to provide additional area but often cannot be made stiff enough to support major auxiliaries. Technological change tends to make the machinery grow in complexity but to shrink in size and so machinery spaces tend to become smaller over time. However engine maintenance is an important consideration for the effective operation of the ship. Too compact an engine room may make maintenance more difficult and even more expensive. Access to the equipment and removal routes for parts from them should be adequate.

10.5 Storage of Liquids
Once the Position and size of the machinery space has been decided then attention can be turned to tank spaces. Normally these are confined to double bottoms but deep tanks may be arranged for additional water ballast in the Fore and After Peaks for trim or near amidships to control hull girder bending. Engine Room double bottoms will first be allocated to Lubricating Oil storage, drain and sump tanks together with cofferdams to ensure there is no Lub. Oil/Salt Water interface which could leak and cause contamination. While main propulsion engines will be happy running on fairly heavy fuel oil, diesel generators normally require the lighter Diesel Oil. This should be stowed reasonably close to the generators. Ideally, the tanks for fuel oil can then be allocated with a view to ensuring that the LCG of the fuel is forward of the LCG of the loaded ship so that as fuel is consumed the ship will not tend to trim by the bow. Modern practice, driven by pollution control requirements, discourages the use of double bottom tanks for fuel storage. Thus the only way to have control over fuel LCG is to fit deep tanks forward and aft of the cargo holds and accept long filling and supply lines to/from the forward tanks. The alternative of only having fuel tanks aft has the consequence that a significant stern trim in the Departure condition will be followed by a significant bow trim in the arrival condition. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

85

__________________________________________________________________________________________

In addition to the storage tanks, space also needs to be found for settling tanks and daily service tanks to satisfy the needs of the main and auxiliary machinery. These are usually located within the boundaries of the machinery space. Actually finding the space for them may not be a task for the Naval Architect but the Weight & centre of gravity of their contents is a legitimate concern. Water ballast is required to give adequate propeller immersion in the lightest seagoing condition and to ensure that the minimum draught forward is sufficient to avoid excessive slamming. While many ships now distil their own Fresh Water from sea water a limited storage capacity is necessary for use when the ship is in polluted or coastal waters where distillation is not possible. Holding tanks for sewage and waste water are necessary to avoid marine pollution. They are small in a cargo ship but of significant size in passenger ships.

10.6 Cargo Holds
The number of holds is dictated largely by the size of the ship and the type of cargo. Requirements, which came into force in February 1994 for the damage stability and survivability of cargo ships, have brought flooding into consideration. Holds in container ships will have lengths which are multiples of the container length (plus an allowance for the cell guides). A hold around 40 ft long can take either one 40 ft container or two 20 ft containers; a hold 60 feet long can take 3 at 20 ft or two at 30 ft or one at 40 ft and one at 20 ft depending on how the cell guides are set up. In dry bulk carriers the usual of number of holds is a choice from 5, 7 or 9. Five holds are common in Handy Size vessels of around 25,000 tonnes deadweight; seven holds are the usual choice for a 75,000 tonnes deadweight Panamax vesssel; while nine holds are often found in the largest Capesize vessels of 150,000 tonnes and over. The height from the double bottom to the upper deck will be divided by tween decks in accordance with the requirements of the trade. Thus none will be found in Bulk Carriers while Fruit Carriers and Banana Carriers will have the total depth of the hold divided into tween decks. The height of the tween deck may vary between 2.4m and 3.0m. The clear height in the hold varies immensely but it should be noted that some cargoes will crush if loaded too deeply.

10.7 Hatchways
Large hatchways assist easy cargo working but hatch widths are restricted by the need to maintain not only the cross sectional area of deck material for structural reasons but also the shelf space at the tween deck levels. The ingenious use of twin hatches, side by side, can facilitate both good cargo working and the containment of grain cargoes in a general cargo ship. The length of hatches is constrained by the length of deck taken up by cargo gear and hatch cover stowage. General cargo ships usually have the capability of carrying some ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design containers within the line of hatches and this will lead to hatch dimensions tending to be a multiple of container lengths and widths with an allowance for clearance between them.

86

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Flush hatches are clearly desirable for ease of cargo working but in general load line requirements will prohibit or severely penalise the ship for their use on a weather deck.

10.8 Accommodation Arrangement
Usually the accommodation is sited above the machinery space and around the engine casing to minimise interference with cargo operations. The result is a short, high superstructure giving good forward visibility but possibly compromising stability. A good arrangement is largely a matter of common sense, experience and foresight. Any difficulties which arise in service should be noted and avoided in the next design. Minimum manning scales and minimum standards for accommodation are laid down in regulations. Virtually every crew member nowadays will have a single cabin and officers may well have suites with dayroom, sleeping cabin, bathroom etc. Automation has a continuing influence, gradually reducing crew numbers and further significant changes may take place in the coming decades. Remember that the accommodation is where the seafarer lives out his/her life. It is his/her home for long periods as well as his/her place of work. There must be public space to socialise in and private space as a retreat from work.

10.9 Minimum Requirements for Crew Accommodation
Segregation into Officers, Petty Officers and Ratings is still common in the Merchant Navy although it becomes harder to sustain as crews become smaller. A ship which had 30 of a crew thirty years ago would be designed to run with half that number now. Justifying separate facilities for each grade becomes very difficult. a) Deck and Engineer Officers. In single or double cabins (Master and Chief Engineer should each have an individual cabin). Bathroom with one bath or shower and one wash basin for every six persons. Separate dining saloon and smoke room. Petty Officers. Cabins and washing facilities as for officers. Separate messroom (1m2 per person) Engine Room Hands. Separate sleeping and dining accommodation (but numbers sharing cabins not specified). Bathrooms as for Officers. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommends minimum floor areas per person in sleeping rooms as: 3.75 m2 in ships of 1000-3000 tons, 4.25 m2 in ships of 3000-10000 tons and 4.75 m2 in ships over 10000 tons. (Tons are gross tons; a volumetric measure.) Where two ratings share a cabin the above figures are reduced by 1 m2 per person ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

b) c)

Marine Design

87

__________________________________________________________________________________________

d)

Deck Hands. Cabins, dining accommodation and bathrooms as for Engine Room Hands. Crew’s smoke room shared with Engine Room Hands.

Many ships offer higher standards than these such that all crew have single cabins with ensuite bathrooms and perhaps double beds so that wives can travel on some voyages. An officer’s single cabin could reach 21 m2 with bathroom and a crew’s single cabin 16 m2, also with bathroom. The combination of tall superstructures and double beds can be a problem though. The Master and the Chief Officer of a ship so fitted both fell asleep on watch because they could not sleep comfortably alone in their double beds near the top of a tall superstructure on a rolling ship.

10.9 More Complex General Arrangement Problems
The preceding notes relate specifically to cargo carrying ships where a comparatively small number of compartment and functions have to be considered in preparing an arrangement. In Passenger Ships and Warships the problems are more complex and much more specialised. There are more compartments of many different types which can be arranged in a multitude of different ways. Consideration must be given to passenger flow at meal times; potentially noisy areas such as cinemas or discos must be separated from sleeping areas and a host of other problems must be solved. In warships the arrangement of accommodation has all the problems of the passenger ship together with the additional difficulties of ensuring protection for weapon magazines, separating radar and radio antennae, providing clear arcs of fire for guns and missiles and avoiding noise paths to sensitive sonar equipment to name but a few. Finding the solutions to these problems is something which must be left to your ongoing professional development should you choose to work in these fields. The FINNCLIPPER is designed as a Ro-Ro Freight Ferry with a significant passenger capacity. She can carry 454 passengers in 192 two- and four- berth cabins. For vehicles she has 2450 lanes-metres arranged over three decks. Fixed and hinged ramps allow access from the main vehicle deck to the upper and to the lower vehicle decks. Four diesel engines each rated at 5760 kW @ 510 rpm drive twin controllable pitch propellers through double input/single output gearboxes to give a speed of 22 knots. There are three diesel alternators each rated at 1088 kW and two shaft driven alternators each rated at 1648 kW. LBP 170.00 m; B mld 26.70 m; Design Draught 6.00 m

The VOYAGER OF THE SEAS at a gross tonnage of 137,300 was, at the time she was built, the largest cruise liner in the world. She can accommodate 3840 passengers in 1557 cabins and in addition carries a crew of 1180 in 667 cabins. Six diesel alternator sets each produce 17,600 kVA (electrical) from 12,600 kW @ 514 rpm (mechanical) and drive three electric motors in Azipods each of which can absorb 14,000 kW @ 140 rpm. This gives her a service speed of 22 knots. LBP 274.70 m; B mld 38.60 m (Bmax 47.40 m); Design Draught 8.60 m

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

88

__________________________________________________________________________________________

From Chapman, The Optimum Machinery Position in Dry Cargo Vessels, NECIES

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

89

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

90

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

91

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

92

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

93

__________________________________________________________________________________________

11

Capacity and Centre of Volume Estimates

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

94

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

95

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

96

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

97

__________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

98

__________________________________________________________________________________________

12

The Regulation of Shipping

The history of regulation of shipping starts with taxation. Rules were devised to measure the amount of cargo a ship could carry - its "Tonnage" so that Kings and port owners could charge tax or dues on that cargo. The next development was "Registration" - the determination of ownership which was necessary to enforce the collection of dues or taxes and to decide in time of war whether a ship belonged to friend or foe. The last area to develop was setting up rules for the construction of ships to ensure their strength and safety at sea. The rules were required to classify in terms of quality of the ships which were carrying commercial cargoes for private owners who wished to insure the ship, the cargo or both against the risk of being lost at sea. These three activities are representative of the three main subdivisions of regulation International, National/Governmental i.e. Statutory and Private/ Commercial i.e. Classification. While, historically, they have developed in the above order, the Naval Architect's interest in these areas increases in the reverse order and so that is how they will be approached in this section.

12.1 The Role of the Classification Society
There can be little doubt that the classification societies have a profound influence on shipping, ship design and ship safety. The fundamental purpose of classification is to ensure that all classed ships are seaworthy when admitted to class and remain so throughout their working lives. The principal maritime nations have the undernoted classification societies: United Kingdom U.S.A. France Germany Norway Italy Russia Japan Poland - Lloyd's Register of Shipping - American Bureau of Shipping - Bureau Veritas - Germanischer Lloyd - Det Norske Veritas - Registro Italiano - Register of Shipping of the USSR - Nippon Kaiji Kyokai - Polish Register of Shipping

Lloyd's Register of Shipping is the world's oldest classification society and its origins go back more than two hundred years. In the latter part of the eighteenth century, cargo owners, ship owners and ship builders met in Mr Lloyd's Coffee House in London to discuss and arrange their business. The cargo owners knew that many ships were lost at sea taking their cargoes down with them. An insurance market developed in the Coffee House whereby the owners paid so much a voyage as premium and if their cargo was lost they were repaid its value. Neither the cargo owners nor the insurers entirely trusted the ship owners who might be inclined to lie about how seaworthy their ship might be. The people who supported the insurance schemes, called underwriters, decided to keep a register with details of all the ships ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

99

__________________________________________________________________________________________

they knew about and how good they were. Eventually they were able to classify just how good any ship would be by looking at it and knowing who built it. When the underwriters began to say how ships should be built both the ship owners and the ship builders became very worried. After much argument and unpleasantness it was decided to form a new society with representatives from all three groups to supervise ship construction and maintenance and to put ships into classes depending on their quality. Because of its place of origin it was called Lloyd's Register of Shipping and it was the forerunner of similar societies set up in many of the major shipbuilding nations. The insurance market developed separately into the Corporation of Lloyd's and set about insuring all sorts of things as well as ships. The classification societies operate on a world-wide basis and publish rules and regulations governing the structural strength of the ship and the reliability of its propelling machinery. Classification implies that the ship and its machinery conform to the standards published in the rules of the Society. Classification is voluntary on the part of the ship owner and the only penalty that can be imposed for non-compliance with the rules is suspension of class. In general, a ship will have difficulty in gaining insurance unless it is classed by a recognised classification society. Classification of a new ship with, for example, Lloyd's Register, entails approval of constructional drawings, testing of materials, special survey while the vessel is under construction and a recommendation for class from the surveyor by report to the committee. Following acceptance of the report by the committee, the certificate of class is issued and the appropriate entry made in the Register book. The highest class given by Lloyd's Register is +100A1. New ships built under Special Survey are given the Maltese Cross (+) before the character figure in the register book. The character figure 100 indicates that the vessel is suitable for sea-going service, while the character letter A indicates that the vessel accords with the Society's Rules and Regulations and is maintained in good and efficient condition. The figure 1 following the character letter indicates that the mooring equipment comprising anchors, cables and hawsers, is in good condition. When the class +100A1 is assigned it may be followed by a descriptive notation such as Oil Tanker, Bulk Carrier etc. plus a service restriction notation such as Ice Class 2 or Strengthened for Heavy Cargoes. Additional Class notations may be added for the condition of Propulsion Machinery and/or Refrigerating Machinery. +LMC indicates that the Propulsion Machinery and essential Auxiliary Machinery has been constructed, installed and tested under Special Survey and in accordance with the Rules and Regulations. UMS indicates that the control arrangements of the ship allow the machinery spaces to be unmanned during normal operations. Maintenance of standards is an important function of any classification society. Periodical surveys are required and failure to conform may result in removal of the ship from class and a reduction in its value as well as an increase in its insurance premium, assuming cover can be obtained. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

100

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Some aspects of Classification work are: a) Annual Surveys All steel ships should be surveyed at intervals of approximately one year in accordance with the rules. These annual surveys should, where practicable, be held concurrently with Load Line or other statutory annual surveys. b) Docking Surveys A ship should be examined in dry dock at intervals of about 12 months. The maximum interval is 24 months. c) Special Surveys All steel vessels are subjected to special surveys in accordance with the rules. These surveys become due at five-yearly intervals, the first being five years from the date of build or date of special survey for classification and thereafter five years from the date of the last special survey. The date of build of a ship built under a society's inspection is normally taken as the date of completion of the special survey during construction. For Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the standards to which the ship must be built and maintained are laid down in the publication "Rules and Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Ships". This is regularly revised and updated to meet new demands. The Register Book itself is published annually and now extends to three volumes. It is a splendid work of reference containing as complete a list as possible of all sea-going merchant ships in the world of 100 gross tons or more whether classed by Lloyd's or not. The number of ships included exceeds 80,000. Many societies are empowered to assign Load Lines to ships and issue the Load Line certificates on behalf of many Governments provided they are satisfied that all the necessary conditions have been met. They may also be empowered to perform the same function in respect of Tonnage Measurement. In addition to ships, most Societies are also active in the fields of High Speed and Light Craft, Yachts and Small Craft, Mobile Offshore Units, Floating Docks, and Submersibles. Therefore they publish Registers of such craft and Rules and Regulations for their construction. They are even involved in the design of warship structures. It is apparent that the classification societies are not only able to assist to an enormous extent in making ships safe to travel the seas, but also are able to accumulate a vast amount of information on the behaviour of ship-structures under sea-going conditions. This information leads to improvements to the Rules and improvements in the structural design of ships. Individually and collectively through IACS (the International Association of Classification Societies) the societies carry out extensive research to investigate failures in particular types of ship and to recommend areas of structure where improvement is needed. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

101

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Having started out as organisations promoting Quality long before the term was recognised by shipbuilders, many of the societies now offer a wide range of services far from the sea to industries which recognise their expertise in Quality Control, Quality Assurance and all other aspects of Quality Management. They are also heavily involved in the implementation of the International Safety Management Code (the ISM Code) both in advising companies how to set up Safety Management Systems and in auditing their success in doing so. Once again this is a logical development from their origins in promoting Safety.

12.2 Statutory Regulations
Historically, Registration preceded Safety as a concern of Government and the subject of statutory regulation. However, Naval Architects are professionally concerned with safety and only have a passing interest in registration. This section therefore starts with Safety. a) Safety Almost all merchant ships are built in accordance with the rules of a classification society. In addition, all must comply with statutory regulations enacted by the government of the state whose flag they fly and in which they are registered. In Britain, Parliament passes Acts which affect merchant shipping and, under the Acts, Regulations are prepared by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) which is the government department responsible for the standards of safety of British merchant ships. In 1994, executive authority for marine safety in the UK was vested in the Marine Safety Agency (MSA), - now called the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) - an agency of the DETR. The investigation of accidents and disasters at sea is organised by the Marine Accidents Investigation Branch (MAIB). The regulations are published as Statutory Instruments approved by Parliament and relate to such matters as damage, subdivision, life-saving equipment, loading & stability, crew & accommodation, fishing vessels, hovercraft, fire protection, navigation & collision, carriage of dangerous cargoes, tonnage measurement and other allied subjects. Many of these regulations derive from international agreements and the MCA represents Britain at the conferences and on the committees which discuss these matters. The MCA also publishes a series of Merchant Shipping Notices (M Notices) which provide advice, information and guidance on many matters related to the construction and operation of ships. The primary objectives of statutory regulations are to promote safety of life and property at sea and to minimise environmental damage. The rules and regulations administered by the MCA are compulsory and are enforced by the MCA with penalties for non-compliance set out in the relevant Acts of Parliament. The international scope of ship operations means there is a considerable need for conformity between the regulations imposed by different states. Uniformity is sought by means of international conferences at which conventions are formulated. Typical examples of these are the International Load Line Convention (ILLC), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

102

__________________________________________________________________________________________

An indication of the work of the MCA may be obtained from the following list of their main activities. i) Load Line Rules The MCA administer the British interpretation of the International Load Line Convention and assigns freeboards according to the geometric properties of the ship and its structural strength, in conjunction with the strength and security of covers to deck and superstructure openings among other considerations. ii) Survey of Passenger Ships A ship intended to carry more than 12 passengers must conform to the regulations for passenger ships and be issued with a Passenger Certificate appropriate to the number of passengers and the place of operation. Every passenger ship and every cargo ship must be inclined in the presence of a MCA surveyor, on completion, to determine its Lightship Weight and C.G. position for the assessment of stability. Based on these results the ship's master must be supplied with information for guidance on the safe loading and ballasting of the ship. iii) Life Saving Appliances (LSA) In general, passenger ships are required to carry lifeboats under davits for all persons on aboard and life rafts for an additional percentage of the number on aboard. Passenger ships operating in river and coastal waters may be permitted to reduce the number of lifeboats and rely on life rafts for the safe evacuation in emergency of all on board. Cargo ships, generally, are required to be provided with, on each side of the ship, life boats under davits which will accommodate all persons on board and life rafts which will similarly accommodate all persons on board. All lifeboats must be built to conform to the requirements of the LSA rules and are inspected during construction. All persons on board must be provided with an approved life jacket. iv) Masters and Seamen (Crew Accommodation) The Merchant Shipping Acts lay down minimum standards for crew spaces in terms of floor area, construction, lighting, heating, ventilation etc. Plans and details of accommodation areas must be submitted to the MCA at an early stage of design for approval. The actual accommodation is subsequently inspected and measured at the ship. v) Tonnage Measurement Ships must be measured for tonnage to establish the Gross and Net tonnages on which port, canal and navigation dues are levied.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design vi) Grain Cargoes

103

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Regulations are laid down for the stowage of grain cargoes in order to limit the risk of a transverse shift of the cargo which could cause a serious loss of stability. Additional information must be supplied to the ship's master on the effect of these cargoes. vii) Light and Sound Signals International regulations for preventing collisions at sea require than all ships display proper navigation and other lights to indicate their size and course. They should also have the means for producing certain sound signals such as bells or sirens. The lights are screened so than they are only visible from particular directions. viii) Fire Appliances The provision of arrangements for the prevention, detection and extinguishing of fire on board ship are most extensive. The means adopted to achieve these aims can be divided into three parts, namely a) Fire-proofing the ship's structure as far as possible b) Providing equipment for detecting a fire whenever and wherever it starts. c) Providing equipment for extinguishing fires. In passenger ships, fire patrols must be maintained and an alarm and detecting system fitted. Extinguishing is performed by jets of water or foam from fixed hoses and portable fire extinguishers. Fires in cargo spaces are extinguished by smothering with gas or steam distributed by permanently installed piping systems. Special arrangements such as inert gas systems or foam discharged through a system of fixed nozzles are required in propelling machinery spaces. b) Registration The other main area covered by statutory regulation is that concerned with proof of ownership - Registration. The compulsory registration of British ships was brought about initially under the Navigation Acts from 1660 onwards. The Registry Act of 1786 made it compulsory for every ship to display its name and the port to which it belonged (port of registry) on the astern. In addition the certificate of registry had to contain details of the ship's dimensions. The Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 reinforced the requirements of previous Acts and put in place a system of Registry documents, Registrars in Ports around both the British Isles and British Possessions overseas. The organisation which maintained these records was based in Cardiff and headed by the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

104

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The provisions of a number of amending Acts were consolidated in the Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 which required that every British ship, with certain minor exceptions, must be registered. A vessel coming within the terms of the Act and not so registered is not considered to be a British ship. The ship's master must always have the certificate of registry in his possession on board - in default of this the ship is liable to be detained in port. Before such a vessel proceeds to sea the draughts must be recorded in the official log-book and reported to the Customs Authority. Prior to Registration the ship must be surveyed, measured for tonnage, and the draught marks cut in, or welded on, each side of the stem and of the sternpost. For metric ships, the draught marks are numerals 1 dm high placed at every 2 dm interval. At 10 dm intervals the full 10, 20 or 30 dm etc. appears while at the other intervals only the last digit of the draught appears. . On completion of the registration survey, a Certificate of Registry is prepared by the surveyor and forwarded to the Registrar of Shipping and Seamen at the intended port of registry. This Certificate sets out particulars of the build of the ship and its dimensions by which the ship may be identified, also particulars of tonnage, and details of the propelling machinery. Application for registration must be made by the owner of the ship and be accompanied by a formal declaration of ownership. If a new ship is being registered then a Builder's Certificate must also be submitted to the registrar. He enters the particulars in the official Register Book, allocates the next available Official Number to the ship and enters it on the Certificate of Registry. Prior to the delivery of the Certificate the registrar issues a carving note giving details of the markings required on the ship, these being: i) ii) The ship's name to be marked each side of the bow, and the name and port of registry to be marked on the stern. The Official Number and Net Tonnage to be marked on the main beam.

When these items are satisfactorily marked the surveyor certifies the carving note and returns it to the registrar who can now sign the Certificate of Registry and hand it over to the owner on receipt of the appropriate fee. A ship may change its name or port of registry under certain regulated circumstances (and the choice of name is subject to official approval) but the Official Number allocates on its first registry is never changed. If a ship ceases to be a British ship by reason of sale or other circumstance then the Certificate of Registry must be returned to the Registrar at its port of registry and its registration is cancelled. If the vessel later returns to British ownership then it may be re-registered after survey and will be known by its original Official Number. The Merchant Shipping (Registration etc.) Act 1993 introduced changes to the detail of the process of registration during 1994 so that all the recording of data is centralised under the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen. There are no longer Registrars in the ports handling registration. Thus there are no longer "Ports of Registry"; instead the port named on the stern of a ship will be a "Port of Choice". ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

105

__________________________________________________________________________________________

12.3 International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
In 1948 the United Nations Maritime Conference at Geneva drew up the convention which created the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) as an Agency of the United Nations. The purpose of the organisation was to provide for cooperation between governments on the whole field of sea transport with particular reference to technical matters affecting international merchant shipping, especially the Safety of Life at Sea and the efficiency of navigation. The IMCO Convention required the formal approval of 21 states before the organisation could begin to function This was achieved in March 1958 and on 6th January 1959 the IMCO Assembly met in London where the headquarters were set up. The first permanent international maritime body had come into being. In 1982 the name was changed to International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Before detailing the activities of IMO over the past decade or so, it may be of interest to examine the background to sea transport - one of mankind's oldest callings. Due to its essentially international character, sea transport has for ages demanded a high standard of cooperation between the maritime countries of the world, but lacked a central organisation to coordinate activities. In spite of the extensive practical co-operation of governments where the saving of life was concerned, it was not until 1881 that the first international conference on maritime affairs took place. This conference, held in Washington discussed such matters as: - Regulations for Preventing Collisions a Sea - Saving of Life and Property from Shipwreck - Qualifications for Officers and Seamen - Lanes for Vessels on Frequented Routes - Establishment of a Permanent International Maritime Commission In 1897 the International Maritime Committee was formed to cope with the legal aspects of Merchant Shipping. This body also assisted in the work of several International conferences, including that called in 1914 as a direct result of the loss of the Titanic in 1912. A draft document was prepared - The 1914 Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - but never came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World War. After that war the British Government saw the need to prepare up-to-date requirements and as a result a conference was held in London in 1929 leading to the 1929 Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1930 a further International Conference drew up regulations for determining the freeboard of merchant ships engaged in international trade the 1930 International Load Line Convention. Following the Second World War, the founding of the United Nations in 1945 marked a significant advance in Inter-governmental co-operation and led to the formation of IMCO. The principal role of IMO is the preparation and maintenance of international conventions related to maritime affairs. Naval Architects are normally most interested in those conventions with an impact on the technical aspects of ship design but much valuable work is also done in the area of legal liability. IMO is the international forum in which problems are aired and solutions thrashed out. Once a new convention has been agreed by IMO it must be ratified by the member states and then embodied in national law. Only then can the new requirements be enforced. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

106

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Originally, the same procedure had to be followed for amendments to Conventions but this was later modified to allow amendments approved by IMO to be implemented a fixed period of time after their approval. Given that it took 25 years for the full implementation of the 1969 Convention on Tonnage Measurement the change of approach for amendments was clearly much needed! The governing body of IMO is the Assembly, which meets once every two years and comprises all the member states. In the period between sessions of the Assembly a Council runs the affairs of the Organisation. The Council consists of 32 member states elected by the Assembly for two-year terms. The organisation’s technical work is carried out by a number of committees, the most senior of which is the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC). This has ten sub-committees whose titles reflect their areas of interest (See figure). The other committees are the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which has two sub-committees (one is shared with MSC), the Legal Committee, the Facilitation Committee and the Committee on Technical Co-operation. International Conventions The IMO has been responsible for instigating and introducing the following International Conventions: - For the Safety of Life at Sea 1960 (SOLAS 1960) - For the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 (SOLAS 1974) - SOLAS Protocol 1978 - SOLAS Protocol 1988 - For the Safety of Life at Sea 1990 (SOLAS 1990) - For the Safety of Life at Sea 1995 (SOLAS 1995) - For the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1973 (MARPOL 1973) - MARPOL Protocol 1978 - On Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic 1965 - International Load Line Convention 1966 (LL 1966) - Load Line Protocol 1988 - On Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969 - On Intervention on the High Seas in cases of Oil Pollution Casualties 1969 - On Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage 1969 - On Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material 1971 - Establishment of an International Fund for compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1971 - Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement 1971 - Safe Containers 1972 - On Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG 1972) - International Maritime Satellite Organisation 1976 (INMARSAT 1976) - Safety of Fishing Vessels 1977 - Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 (STCW78) - Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1995 (STCW95) ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design - Maritime Search and Rescue 1979 - Salvage 1989

107

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(Note: - A Convention on the Carriage of Passengers and Their Luggage by Sea was agreed in 1974 but has not yet come into force - again demonstrating one of the weaknesses of IMO the length of time it can take for a sufficient number of governments to ratify a convention.) While the Conventions are negotiated and approved at specially convened Conferences, the Assembly approves Codes and Resolutions which provide guidance and technical criteria on a wide range of topics, some of which are mentioned briefly below. Safety of Navigation IMO has put in a great deal of effort into introducing measures and policies designed to improve the safety of navigation. Among the most important are those which concern the compulsory carriage of navigational equipment and the principle of ship routing and separation of traffic at sea. Navigational equipment such as: - Radar - Echo Sounder - Gyro Compass - Radio Direction Finder - Satellite Navigation which until recently were carried at the discretion of the owner are now mandatory in ships above a certain size. Considerable effort has been concentrated on two further aspects of safety of navigation: - Measures for regulating traffic in confined waters - Revised International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea Radio Communications A wide range of operational initiatives designed to improve or reshape the existing Maritime Distress System was studied. By making use of the INMARSAT network of orbiting satellites in space to give global surveillance of the maritime broadcast bands a Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) was introduced in 1992 and takes full effect from February 1999 for ships of over 300 tons. Life Saving Appliances IMCO & IMO in turn have developed standards for the testing and approval of lifejackets and requirements concerning the life-saving appliances to be carried on air cushion vehicles and on mobile offshore units engaged in exploration for hydrocarbons, as well as those traditionally associated with ships. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

108

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Search and Rescue Manual As a guide for masters and others involved in incidents of distress at sea, IMO has prepared the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR). This contains specific instructions on the actions to be taken by the vessel in distress, by those participating in the search and general guidelines on the organisation and conduct of such search and rescue operations. Guidance on Training The training of masters, officers and seamen is an integral part of assuring safety at sea. In 1983 the IMO Committee on Training issued a "Document for Guidance", proposing syllabi on various topics which should be included in maritime training programmes. Subdivision and Stability of Ships This is an area of constant interest to both the maritime community and the general public in the light of the loss of vessels such as Herald of Free Enterprise and Estonia. Proposals for new subdivision regulations for Passenger Ships based on the probability of the ship surviving a variety of damage conditions were developed many years ago but had to await the development of computer power before the calculations involved could be tackled on a regular basis. These proposals took into account the longitudinal subdivision commonly found in passenger ships and were alternatives to the existing requirements in SOLAS 1960. From 1992 these proposals apply to cargo ships of over 100 m in length which are not required to comply with any other subdivision and damage stability requirements. Considerably enhanced requirements for the stability and subdivision of passenger ships were introduced by SOLAS 1995 following the loss of the Estonia. Safety of Fishing Vessels IMO has developed simplified Stability Criteria for fishing vessels from 12 m registered length upwards. It has also co-operated with two other UN Agencies - the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) - to develop a Code covering the Health and Safety of Fishermen. Tanker Construction and Equipment Studies into the construction and equipment of oil tankers from the point of view of preventing or minimising pollution by oil in the event of stranding or collision were begun in 1968 following the catastrophic effects of the grounding and break-up of the Torrey Canyon. These studies not only considered the problem of oil outflow in the event of damage but also embraced comprehensive investigations into the economic implications of tank size limitation. The technical factors involved in outflow limitation include the use of double bottom or double skin construction, the arrangement of tanks and the use of segregated ballast tanks. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

109

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The IMO Maritime Safety Committee has recommended that the maximum¡ size of tank in the largest tankers should be limited to 50000 m3 for centre tanks and 30000 m3 for wing tanks. This would limit the hypothetical oil outflow in the event of collision or stranding to 30000 m3. In the case of normal tankers with two longitudinal bulkheads, the capacity of a centre tank and of a wing tank will be limited to 30000 m3 and 15000 m3 respectively. Further international debate on tanker safety followed the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on the coast of Alaska in 1989 and the resulting oil spill. The United States of America unilaterally imposed its Oil Pollution Act 1990, demanding double skin construction for all tankers trading to U.S. ports. IMO has conducted a wide-ranging enquiry into alternative means but has not settled on one ideal arrangement. The Carriage of Chemicals in Bulk In view of the increase in the sea transportation of hazardous or noxious chemicals in bulk it became apparent that there was a need for international measures to ensure their safe carriage. The Maritime Safety Committee approved an interim recommendation for existing ships of the tanker type carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk liquid form. Fire Safety in Ships Fire is one of the most serious hazards facing ships at sea, especially passenger ships. IMO has recommended a series of amendments to the 1960 SOLAS convention for existing passenger ships and a further series which would apply to new ships only. Marine Pollution The British government convened an International Conference which resulted in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954. Responsibility for this convention was transferred to IMCO when it came into being. The 1954 convention dealt only with the deliberate or operational discharge of oil from ships and did not relate to pollution arising from maritime accidents. The 1954 convention was extensively amended in 1969 to cover the following topics: - Prohibition of deliberate discharge - Prevention of accidental discharge - Powers given to states for dealing with pollution - Provisions for redress for damage caused - Methods for dealing with spillages At the 1973 IMO Conference on Marine Pollution the main objective was the complete elimination of wilful and intentional marine pollution by oil and other noxious pollutants coupled with the minimisation of accidental spills.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

110

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Administration and Enforcement While it is clear that IMO does a tremendous amount of good work it is also clear that obtaining agreement to all its decisions from all its member governments is a major problem. In addition, even when agreement is reached, implementation of the decisions is a matter for legislation by the individual governments and may be delayed in many ways. IMO has no executive authority to police the operation of its conventions. Again it is in the hands of the individual governments and their maritime administrators to provide the determination and the financial and human resources to inspect ships and detain the unsatisfactory ones until they are made seaworthy. The most effective means of enforcing the conventions is for ships to be systematically inspected before they leave port by a representative of the national authority - Port State Control. This has, however, been made less effective because of the lack of a mechanism for the ready international exchange of the outcomes of Port State Inspections. Thus if defects are noted at one port it is not easy for another port to find out (a) that they exist and (b) if they have been remedied. The shipowner can easily deny that any faults existed in his ship and it is difficult to prove that a defect may have been present for a long period of time. International action to enforce standards of ship safety is presently heading in two different directions: i) ii) Increasing survey activity by individual cargo owners and ship charterers to allow them to select the ships they are prepared to employ. The formation of regional or continental groupings of maritime administrations to make a concerted effort to find and detain sub-standard ships through efficient Port State Inspections coupled with an internationally organised database detailing when and where a ship was last inspected, what defects were found (if any) and what action (if any) the shipowner promised. Such groupings now exist over a wide area of Western Europe and around the Pacific Rim.

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

111

__________________________________________________________________________________________

13

Tonnage

13.1 Introduction
Tonnage is a measure of the internal volume of a ship and was originally introduced to represent its size or its earning capacity in assessing port or harbour dues and the charges for certain services rendered to the ship. It then became convenient to use a scale of tonnage to set requirements for manning levels, provision of safety and lifesaving equipment, etc. Shipowners usually consider it an advantage to obtain the minimum tonnage for a given ship. The word ton originally came from tun which was a wine cask and, in some cases, the cargo capacity of a ship was measured by the number of wine casks it could carry. In the 13th Century when tonnage measurement first arose the most valuable cargo and the most profitable trade for England was wine shipment across the Channel from France. The system of tonnage measurement used in the UK until 1982 derived from that enacted in the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 and is associated with the name of George Moorsom. The rest of the world then based their schemes for tonnage measurement to a greater or lesser extent on the Moorsom system. Initially the Moorsom system was quite simple. Gross tonnage based on the total enclosed volume of the ship represented its size and Net or Register tonnage based on the volume of the cargo and/or passenger spaces represented its earning capacity. The unit of tonnage was a volume of 100 cubic feet and although called a ton bore no direct relationship to the weight of cargo which would occupy that volume. However, through time, it lost its simplicity. Complex rules developed to determine whether particular spaces were included in the gross tonnage or exempt (not included) or deductable (in the gross but not in the net). Some of these rules encouraged the building of inherently unsafe ships – the “Open” Shelter Decker – which had no permanent means of making watertight the transverse bulkheads above the tonnage deck. The spaces bounded by these bulkheads were “open” and thus “exempt” and not included in the gross tonnage. Unfortunately they were unlikely to contribute to keeping the ship afloat after it was damaged.

13.2 Present Tonnage Regulations
The Moorsom system was superseded by the Universal Measurement System agreed at the 1969 Conference organised by IMCO. This system came into force for new or rebuilt ships (and for existing ships by request of the owner) in July 1982. It was not until July 1994, twenty-five years after the conference that the new system applied to all existing ships. In the UK the system is described and enforced by The Merchant Shipping (Tonnage) Regulations 1997, S.I. 1997 No 1510. We will first consider these regulations and study them in detail. The previous system will then be discussed in outline because an appreciation of its working is helpful in understanding design decisions made in many existing ship types. 1969 Tonnage Convention (Universal Measurement System) The conference aimed to find simple ways of providing the two measurements which tonnage was supposed to provide - Gross Tonnage, representing by its size the demand a ship made on Port or Harbour Resources, and Net Tonnage, representing by its cargo or passenger ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

112

__________________________________________________________________________________________

capacity its ability to pay for services rendered. The resulting measures were not to result in too great a change to existing ships and were not to act to distort the criteria of the ship design process. When the new rules were established it was intended that in general the existing tonnages should be unchanged. However two types of ship, small open shelter deck cargo ships and Ro-Ro ships did suffer a significant increase in both gross tonnage and net tonnage. Passenger ships (without Ro-Ro capability), Bulk Carriers and Ore Carriers were awarded a significant reduction in net tonnage. The provisions of the Convention came into force on 18th July 1982 for new ships, converted ships and ships changing registry and on 18th July 1994 for all ships. The two parameters used for the measurement of tonnage are still called Gross Tonnage and Net Tonnage but are dimensionless numbers and so bear no units. Gross Tonnage is based on the Volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship. Net Tonnage is generally based on the Volume of the cargo spaces. In passenger ships account is also taken of the Number of passengers carried in two categories – those in cabins with up to 8 berths and those carried in larger cabins or without cabins. All volumes included in the calculation of Gross and Net Tonnages are measured to the inner side of the shell plating, i.e. moulded dimensions are used. Volumes of appendages are included in the total volume; volumes of spaces open to the sea are excluded from the total volume. The Gross Tonnage (GT) of a ship is determined by the formula: GT = K1*V where V is the total volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship in cubic metres and K1 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(V) The Net Tonnage (NT) of a ship is determined by the formula: NT = K2Vc(4T/3D)2 + K3(N1 + N2/10) where Vc is the total volume of cargo spaces in the ship in cubic metres K2 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(Vc) K3 = 1.25((GT + 10000)/10000) D = Moulded Depth amidships in metres T = Moulded Draught amidships in metres N1 = Number of Passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths N2 = Number of other Passengers Now the factor (4T/3D)2 must not be taken greater than 1.0000 the term K2Vc(4T/3D)2 shall not be taken less than 0.25*GT N1 and N2 shall be taken as zero when N1 + N2 < 13 NT shall not be taken less than 0.30*GT These rules now apply to virtually all ships. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

113

__________________________________________________________________________________________

(However you should be aware that different Regulations may apply to Fishing Vessels and to vessels under 24 m in length.) Excluded spaces are defined as those open to the sea and not suitable for the carriage of cargo. Cargo spaces are defined as compartments for the carriage of cargo which is to be discharged from the ship and are to be permanently marked with the letters CC. Alteration to the parameters of the net tonnage formula that would result in a reduction of net tonnage is restricted to once a year. Segregated Ballast Oil Tankers Tankers with segregated ballast tanks complying with MARPOL 1973 may have the tonnage of these tanks entered in the tonnage certificate. The tonnage of these tanks is to be calculated according to the formula: TSB = K1*Vb where TSB = Tonnage of Segregated Ballast Tanks Vb = Total volume of segregated ballast tanks in cubic metres K1 = 0.2 + 0.02*log10(V) and V is the total volume of all enclosed spaces in the ship in cubic metres Deck Cargoes Where cargo is carried in any uncovered space on deck the tonnage of the space occupied to be taken into account for the payment of dues where goods are carried in spaces not forming part of the gross or net tonnages shall be determined by the formula: TDK =0.535(mean length*mean breadth*mean height) where TDK is deck cargo tonnage and the mean length, mean breadth and mean height are measured in metres Definitions In the context of the Tonnage Regulations, the following definitions apply: Length is the greater of (a) the distance between the fore side of the stem and the axis of the rudder stock or (b) the distance measured from the fore side of the stem being 96% of the distance between that point and the aft side of the stern, both measurements being taken at a waterline corresponding to 85% of the least moulded depth of the ship. In the case of a ship having rake of keel the waterline shall be parallel to the designed waterline. Moulded Depth is the vertical distance from the top of the keel to the underside of the upper deck at side. In a ship with a rounded gunwale the moulded depth shall be measured to the point of intersection of the moulded lines of the deck and side shell, the lines extending as though the gunwale was angular. Where the upper deck is stepped and the raised part of the deck extends over the point where the depth is to be determined then the moulded depth shall ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

114

__________________________________________________________________________________________

be measured to a reference line extending from the lower part of the deck parallel to the raised part. Moulded Draught is the draught corresponding to the Summer Load Line, or the deepest subdivision load line assigned to a passenger ship. These notes provide an extract from the Regulations sufficient for the work of this class. For professional work you should be in possession of a copy of the full Regulations and any amendments.

13.3 The Moorsom Tonnage Measurement System
The old tonnage measurement system required the calculation of the gross tonnage defined as the tonnage of spaces below the tonnage deck (the second deck or deck below the upper deck) plus the tonnage of spaces between the tonnage deck and the upper deck plus the tonnage of closed in spaces above the upper deck plus the tonnage of hatchways. As the underdeck tonnage (that of spaces below the tonnage deck) was measured above the inner bottom (if fitted) then double bottom spaces were excluded from tonnage. The net or register tonnage was then derived from the gross tonnage by making certain deductions. An allowance was made for the propelling machinery space, master’s and crew accommodation and working spaces such as wheelhouse, chartroom, chain lockers, anchor stowage, steering gear, donkey engine, pump room, boiler room, etc. The deduction for the machinery space was intended to include space occupied by coal bunkers (now superseded by fuel oil) and was the subject of a sliding scale calculated as follows: 1) If the tonnage of the machinery space was greater than 13% of the gross tonnage but less than 20% then the allowance was 32% of the gross tonnage. 2) If the tonnage of the machinery space was less than 13% of the gross tonnage then the allowance was the actual tonnage of the machinery space multiplied by 32/13. It was possible to have certain spaces below the upper deck exempt from tonnage measurement, such as the space between the upper deck and the second deck. This exemption followed from a court case in 1875 involving the S.S. Bear. The ship’s owner claimed that by having a small opening in the uppermost or weather deck, the space below the weather deck was not closed in and should therefore not be included in the gross tonnage. Ships which satisfied this requirement were known as open shelter deck ships. The resulting internal arrangements were not conducive to safety in a damaged condition. Although the upper deck or shelter deck above the tonnage deck was regarded as the strength deck of the ship, the space it enclosed was regarded as being open if a tonnage hatch or opening which was not capable of being made watertight was provided in the shelter deck. Bulkheads were stopped at the second deck or if they continued to the upper deck they also had openings not capable of being made watertight. These shelter deck ships had a very small freeboard measured to the tonnage deck and in the event of damage they had very little reserve of buoyancy, risking sinking with only one compartment damaged. Should an owner decide to carry the bulkheads watertight to the upper ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design deck then the exemption in the tonnage rules did not apply. Thus the tonnage rules encouraged a design of ship which was not as safe as it might be. Many ships with nonwatertight bulkheads in the tween decks were in existence in 1939 and during the Second World War their increased vulnerability was recognised. As a temporary measure the bulkheads were made watertight to improve their subdivision.

115

__________________________________________________________________________________________

In the years following 1945 steps were taken to amend the existing regulations in order to eliminate open shelter deck ships without removing from them the benefit of reduced tonnage. Eventually ships were measured for tonnage in both the open and the closed condition and the decision as to which applied depended on the draught of the ship. A tonnage mark was set on either side of the ship at amidships to correspond to the draught which would be obtained if the second deck were the freeboard deck. If the mark was immersed then the closed (higher) tonnage applied and if the mark was not immersed then the open (lower) tonnage applied. Paragraph ships were designed to gain an advantage from certain paragraphs in the tonnage regulations and their impact on other statutory requirements. For example a ship exceeding 500 gross tons was required to carry a fully qualified radio officer. To avoid such requirements, many ships were designed to be 499 gross tons. Over a period of time designers became very adept at interpreting the regulations so that a ship of increasing cargo deadweight still remained under 500 gross tons. These observations principally apply to the British tonnage regulations but similar anomalies were found in the rules of most other nations. All of these rules (except for the special rules used by the authorities of the Suez and Panama Canals) were superseded by the 1969 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement. Bibliography The Merchant Shipping (Tonnage) Regulations 1997, S.I. 1997 No 1510 The 1969 International Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Ships by E. Wilson, Transactions RINA Volume 112, 1970 pp357-390

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

116

__________________________________________________________________________________________

14

The Assignment of Freeboard

14.1 What is Freeboard?
Freeboard locates the load line on a ship. It is the vertical distance below the freeboard deck at side to the load line mark. It represents the minimum amount of the ship which must project above the water in its deepest operating draught in order for the ship to remain safe.

14.2 What is the Purpose of Freeboard?
National and International control of the loading of ships by the assignment of a load line guaranteeing a minimum freeboard is intended to “provide overall protection against the sea.” When the last (and current) International Convention on Load Lines assembled in 1966, the following criteria for satisfactory freeboard were in the minds of the delegates: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Prevent entry of water into the hull Possess adequate reserve of buoyancy Provide protection to the crew Have adequate hull strength & stability Limit deck wetness

These can be placed into three categories as far as regulation is concerned: 1 & 3 can be satisfied by go/no go decisions under the heading of conditions of assignment. 4 is normally achieved by ensuring that the structure complies with the rules of a recognised classification society plus some simple stability criteria. 2 & 5 are left to be dependent on the geometry of the ship. The purpose of the freeboard calculations to be discussed later is to assess the geometry of the ship’s hull so that the minimum freeboard can be determined.

14.3 The Development of Freeboard Rules
Freeboard was first considered rationally about 1830 when Lloyd's Register evolved a rule of thumb relating freeboard to depth which gave a reasonable measure of safety. At this time, of course, it was the safety of the cargo which was the matter of concern rather than the crew or passengers. However overloading remained commonplace and continued to be viewed as an increased risk to the cargo. Eventually concern over the safety of the crew led to the British Government passing the Merchant Shipping Act of 1876 which required that all ships be marked with a Load Line but did not specify how to determine its position. This was the Act that we now associate with Samuel Plimsoll. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

117

__________________________________________________________________________________________

In the mean time Lloyd's had evolved a calculation for freeboard based on the tonnage coefficient (Underdeck Tonnage in cubic feet divided by the product of Length, Breadth and Depth). In 1886 the Board of Trade stated that ships marked in accordance with this calculation would not be detained for overloading. The calculation was brought into the law in 1890. The rules were revised in 1906 when freeboards were reduced. A committee investigated Load Lines in 1913-15 following the loss of the Titanic and considered that the reduction of 1906 was justified. The first international conference on Load Lines was held in 1930 and the views of the 1913-15 committee and two others, which had met in 1925 and 1929, were the basis for its consideration. Hitherto the purpose of freeboard was simply to ensure a reserve of buoyancy and that was all that the rules sought to impose. Under the International Convention agreed in 1930 the assignment of freeboard was to be dependent on the ship having adequate strength and being well constructed and maintained. In addition passenger ships had to satisfy requirements on subdivision and intact stability.

14.4 Current requirements for freeboard
The rules were once again thoroughly revised at an International Conference in 1966 when subdivision and stability requirements for cargo ships were introduced. The rules embody basic freeboards which depend on the length and type of vessel. There are two types of ship - Type A and Type B. Type A ships are designed only for the carriage of bulk liquid cargoes in tanks with small access openings closed by watertight gasketed covers of steel or an equivalent material. These ships are entitled to the minimum assignable freeboard. All other ships which do not meet the definition of a Type A ship are considered as Type B ships. (Passenger carrying ships are assessed separately with the minimum freeboard always dependent on the final waterline after damage – a so called “subdivision load line”. The determination of the subdivision load line of a passenger ship is governed by regulations made under the SOLAS (Safety Of Life At Sea) Conventions.) Clearly a wide variety of ship types come within the category of Type B. The freeboards assigned to Type B ships are based on a tabular freeboard which is greater than that assigned to Type A ships and there are corrections applied to increase or reduce these freeboards depending on the watertight integrity and subdivision standards appropriate to individual ships. Ships whose watertightness and subdivision are particularly good may qualify for a reduction of the basic freeboard set out for a Type B ship which effectively grants the ship a Type A freeboard. This is referred to as a Type B-100 ship (The basic freeboard of a Type B minus 100% of the difference between the basic freeboards of Type A and Type B). Other Type B ships which cannot comply with the most severe subdivision requirements can be assigned a basic freeboard reduced by up to 60% of the difference between the basic A and B values (Type B–60). Having decided on the type of ship, the computation of the freeboard is relatively straightforward with a number of corrections being applied to the basic rule freeboard for the length of the ship. For the full details it is necessary to refer to the official version of the rules In the UK these are presented in a Statutory Instrument (S.I.) supported by a Merchant Shipping Notice (MSN). Only the Principles of the corrections are discussed here. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

118

__________________________________________________________________________________________

a) Flush Deck Correction The freeboard of a Type B ship of less than 100 metres in length and having superstructure of less than 35% of that length will have its freeboard increased. This is because small ships without superstructures are thought to be more vulnerable than similar ships with superstructures and so should have a greater freeboard. b) Block Coefficient Correction Where the block coefficient CB exceeds 0.68 the basic freeboard (as modified by a) above, if appropriate) is increased. CB is calculated at a draught which is 85% of the least moulded depth of the ship. The reserve buoyancy above the load line should increase if the displaced volume below the load line increases. c) Depth Correction The depth (D) for freeboard is defined in the rules. Where D exceeds L/15 the freeboard is increased. Where D is less than L/15 a reduction in freeboard may be granted if the ship has an enclosed superstructure covering at least 0.6L amidships. This is also concerned with maintaining adequate reserve buoyancy above the load line. d) Superstructure Correction A reduction may be made in the freeboard if the effective length of the superstructure is 1.0L. A percentage of this reduction is available when the total effective length is less than 1.0L. These are set out in the rules, together with corrections for the length of forecastles for Type B ships. If the superstructure can be considered strong enough and large enough to contribute some reserve buoyancy then the contribution demanded from the hull above the load line may be reduced. e) Sheer Correction The area under the actual sheer curve is compared with that under a standard parabolic sheer curve whose forward ordinate is twice the height of its aft ordinate given by a standard formula. Where the height of a poop or forecastle is greater than the standard height then an addition to the sheer of the freeboard deck may be made. Where the sheer so calculated is less than the standard then an addition is made to the freeboard. Once again this is to maintain adequate reserve buoyancy. Where the sheer is greater than the standard a reduction in freeboard may be permitted if the ship has a superstructure covering 0.1L abaft and 0.1L forward of amidships. A percentage of this reduction is available if the superstructure covers less than 0.1L abaft and forward of amidships. f) Minimum Bow Height The bow height is the vertical distance at the forward perpendicular between the waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the top of the exposed deck at side. A minimum bow height is quoted in the rules. ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

119

__________________________________________________________________________________________

14.5 Determination of Minimum Freeboard
When all the above corrections have been made to the basic tabular freeboard, the calculated freeboard will set the maximum summer draught for the vessel. However if the resulting bow height is insufficient, or if the owners request a draught less than the maximum possible then the freeboard will be increased again. The requirement for a minimum bow height is meant to help keep water off the deck and improve the working conditions of the crew.

14.6 General Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard
Having established the geometry of the freeboard the following aspects of the ships construction must be in accordance with the rules in order that the calculated freeboard can be assigned to the ship: 1) Structural Strength and Stability 2) Construction of and Openings in Superstructure End Bulkheads 3) Hatchways closed by Portable Covers with Tarpaulins 4) Hatchways closed by Weathertight Steel Covers 5) Machinery Space Openings 6) Other Openings in Freeboard and Superstructure Decks 7) Ventilators 8) Air Pipes 9) Cargo Ports and similar Side Openings 10) Scuppers, Inlets and Discharges 11) Side Scuttles 12) Freeing Ports 13) Protection of Crew Type A ships require that special attention be given to further aspects of their construction:1) Machinery Casings - To ensure their watertightness. 2) Gangway and Access - To ensure the crew can safely get to all parts of the ship. 3) Hatchways To ensure their watertightness. 4) Freeing Arrangements - To ensure that water does not build up on deck. A Summary of the Subdivision Requirements for the Assigning of Type A, Type B, Type B – 60 & Type B – 100 Freeboards Type A A Length Subdivision requirements

Less than 150 m None Greater than 150 m To withstand the flooding of any compartment within but Less than 225 m the cargo tank length which is designed to be empty when the ship is loaded to the summer water line at an assumed permeability of 0 95 A Greater than 225 m As above, but the machinery space is also to be treated as a floodable compartment at an assumed permeability of 0 85 ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

120

__________________________________________________________________________________________

B+ B B-60 B-60

— — 100 m to 225 m Greater than 225 m

B-100 100 m to 225 m B-100 Greater than 225 m

None None To withstand the flooding of any single damaged compartment within the cargo hold length at an assumed permeability of 0 95 As above, but the machinery space also to be treated as a floodable compartment at an assumed permeability of 0 85 To withstand the flooding of any two adjacent fore and aft compartments within the cargo hold length at an assumed permeability of 0 95 As above, but the machinery space, taken alone, also to be treated as a floodable compartment at an assumed permeability of 0 85

Damage is assumed as being for the full depth of the ship, with a penetration of 1/5 the beam clear of main transverse bulkheads. After flooding the final water-line is to be below the lower edge of any opening through which progressive flooding may take place. The maximum angle of heel is to be 15°, and the metacentric height in the flooded condition should be positive. Bibliography The Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations 1998, S.I. 1998 No 2241 as amended by, The Merchant Shipping (Load Line)(Amendment) Regulations 2000, S.I. 2000 No 1335 Merchant Shipping Notice MSN 1752 (M) The 1966 International Conference on Load Lines by D. R. Murray Smith, Transactions RINA Volume 111, 1969 pp 1-20

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

121

__________________________________________________________________________________________

15

Further Reading

15.1 Books
Practical Ship Design, by D. G. M. Watson, Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford 1998 Elements of Ship Design, by R Munro-Smith, Institute of Marine Engineers, London 1975 reprinted Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy, by H Schneekluth, Butterworth, London 1987 (First Edition) (There is now a Second Edition - 1998 - but it is rather less useful than the First Edition) Ship Design and Construction, by T. Lamb (Ed.), SNAME, Jersey City, NJ 2003 Basic Ship Theory (Volume 2), by K J Rawson & E C Tupper, 5th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford 2001

15.2 Technical Papers
Some Ship Design Methods, by D G M Watson & A W Gilfillan Trans. R.I.N.A. Volume 119, 1977 pp 279-324 (Also The Naval Architect, July 1977) Economic Optimisation Procedures in Preliminary Ship Design (Applied to the Australian Ore Trade), by K W Fisher Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 114, 1972 pp 293-317 (Also The Naval Architect, April 1972) Engineering Economics Applied to Ship Design, by I L Buxton Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 114, 1972 pp 409-428 (Also The Naval Architect, October 1972) Computer Representation of Numerical Expertise for Preliminary Ship Design, by A H B Duffy & K J MacCallum Marine Technology, Volume 26 No 4 October 1989 pp 289-302 Ethics and Fashion in Design, by K J Rawson Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 132, 1990 pp1-27 The Evolution of the Modern Cruise Liner,by S M Payne Trans R.I.N.A.Volume 132, 1990 pp 163-188 A Comparative Study of US and UK Frigate Design, by L D Ferreiro & M H Stonehouse Trans SNAME Volume 99, 1991 pp 147-175 ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

122

__________________________________________________________________________________________

The Application of an Expert System to Ship Concept Design Investigations, by M Welsh, I L Buxton & W Hills Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 133, 1991 pp 99-122 Optimisation Techniques in Ship Concept Design, by A J Keane, W G Price & R D Schachter Trans R.I.N.A. Volume 133, 1991 pp 123-143 FRV Corystes: A Purpose built Fisheries Research Vessel by B. J. Kay, D. K. Jones & R. B. Mitson Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 33-52 A New Danish Fishery Inspection Ship Type, by D. G. M. Watson & A. M. Friis Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 53-72 Marine Design: The Multiple Criteria Approach, by P. Sen Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 261-276 On the Variety of Monohull Warship Geometry, by W. J. van Griethuysen Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 277-298 The Management of Warship Design – The MoD Warship Project Manager’s Perspective, by D. J. Andrews Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 1-24 History as a Design Tool, by David K. Brown, RCNC Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 41-60 Preliminary Warship Design, by D. J. Andrews Transactions RINA Volume 136, 1994 pp 37-56 On the Choice of Monohull Warship Geometry, by W. J. van Griethuysen Transactions RINA Volume 136, 1997 pp 57-78 Advanced Warship Design, Limited Resources - A Personal Perspective by David K. Brown, RCNC Transactions RINA Volume 137, 1995 pp 163-188 From Tropicale to Fantasy: A Decade of Cruiseship Development, by S. M. Payne Transactions RINA Volume 135, 1993 pp 25-40 An Engineering Approach to Predicting the Hydrodynamic Performance of Planing Craft using Computer Techniques, by D. Radojcic Transactions RINA Volume 133, 1991 pp 251-268 An Investigation into the Resistance Components of High Speed Displacement Catamarans, by M. Insel & A. F. Molland Transactions RINA Volume 134, 1992 pp 1-20 ___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Marine Design

123

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Resistance Experiments on a Systematic Series of High Speed Displacement Catamaran Forms: Variation of Length/Displacement Ratio and Breadth/Draught Ratio, by A. F. Molland, J. F. Wellicome & P. Couser Transactions RINA Volume 138, 1996 pp 55-72 An Investigation into the Effect of Prismatic Coefficient on Catamaran Resistance by A. F. Molland & A. R. Lee Transactions RINA Volume 139, 1997 pp 157-165

___________________________________________________________________________ September 2005

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful