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Apr 05, 2009

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Preliminary Ship Design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

93%(27)93% found this document useful (27 votes)

14K views44 pagesPreliminary Ship Design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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PARAMETER ESTIMATION

START

(ship type dwt/TEU, speed)

Define limits on L, B, D, T

Define stability constraints

Estimate freeboard

D = T+ freeboard + margin

=LBTCb (1 + s)

& form stability parameters

Estimate power

Change parameters

Estimate lightweight

& Is Capacity adequate?

Shi p desig n cal cul ati ons – Sele cti on of M ai n pa rame ters

1.0 The choice of parameters (main dimensions and coefficients) can be based on

either of the following 3 ship design categories (Watson & Gilafillon, RINA 1977)

∆ = C B × L × B × T × ρ (1 + s ) = deadweight + lightweight

where s : shell plating and appendage displacement (approx 0.5 to 0.8 % of

moulded displacement)

and ρ : density of water (= 1.025 t/m3 for sea water )

Here T is the maximum draught permitted with minimum freeboard. This is also the

design and scantling draught

Vr − Vu

Vh = C BD . L . B . D ′ = + Vm

1 − ss

where

D ′ = capacity depth in m = D + Cm + S m

2

C m = mean camber = . C [ for parabolic camber ]

3

=1 C where C : Camber at C . L .

2

S m = mean sheer = 1 (S f + Sa ) S f = ford shear

6

S = aft shear

c

= C B + (1 − C B ) [ ( 0.8 D − T ) 3T ] [1]

S s = % of moulded volume to be deducted as volume of structurals in cargo

space [normally taken as 0.05]

Here T is not the main factor though it is involved as a second order term in C BD

C. Linear Dimension Ships : The dimensions for such a ship are fixed by

consideration other than deadweight and capacity.

e.g.

Restrictions imposed by St. Lawrence seaway

6.10 m ≤ Loa ≤ 222.5 m

Bext ≤ 23.16 m

B ≤ 32.3 m; T ≤ 13 m

T ≤ 23 m

Ship types (e.g. barge carriers, container ships, etc.) whose dimensions are

determined by the unit of cargo they carry.

The first estimates of parameters and coefficients is done

which shipbuilding cost varies with main dimension generally is as follows:

The effect of various parameters on the ship performance can be as shown in the

following table [1]

Speed

Length

Breadth

Depth

Block coefficient

Table: Primary Influence of Dimension

Length resistance, capital cost, maneuverability, longitudinal strength,

hull volume, seakeeping

volume

cost, freeboard

2.1 Displacement

A preliminary estimate of displacement can be made from statistical data analysis,

dwt

as a function of deadweight capacity. The statistical ratio is given in the

∆

following table [1]

Large tankers 0.85 – 0.87 0.86 – 0.89

Product tankers 0.77 – 0.83 0.78 – 0.85

Container ships 0.56 – 0.63 0.70 – 0.78

Ro-Ro ships 0.50 – 0.59

Large bulk carriers 0.79 – 0.84 0.81 – 0.88

Small bulk carriers 0.71 – 0.77

Refrigerated cargo ships 0.50 – 0.59 0.60 – 0.69

Fishing trawlers 0.37 – 0.45

C arg o DWT or Total DWT

where C=

Displacement

2.2 Length

2

V

( ft ) = C T

1

LBP ∆ 3

2 + VT

C = 23.5 for single screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 11 to 16.5 knots

= 24 for twin screw cargo and passenger ships where V = 15.5 to 18.5 knots

= 26 for fast passenger ships with V ≥ 20 knots

B. Volker’s Statistics :

L V

13 − C = 3.5 + 4.5 , V in m s

∇ g∇

1

3

L→m

∇ → disp in m 3

results according to economic criteria, or length for lowest production cost.

CB = 0.145 Fn within the range 0.48 – 0.85

It the block coefficient differs from the value 0.145 Fn , the coefficient C can be

modified as follows

C B + 0.5

C = 3.2

(

0.145

Fn

+ 0.5 )

The value of C can be larger if one of the following conditions exists :

(b) No bulbous bow

(c) Large ratio of undadeck volume to displacement

Depending on the conditions C is only rarely outside the range 2.5 to 2.8.

Statistics from ships built in recent years show a tendency towards smaller value

of C than before.

Fn between 0.16 to 0.32

2.3 Breadth

0. 2828

Dwt

B = 10.78 m

1000

2.4 Depth

1.55 ≤ B / D ≤ 2.5

B / D = 1.65 for fishing vessels and capacity type vessels (Stability limited)

= 1.90 for dwt carries like costers, tankers, bulk carriers etc. such vessels

have adequate stability and their depth is determined from the hull

deflection point of view. (3)

B−3

D = m for bulk carriers (5)

1.5

B / D = 1.91 for large tankers

= 2.1 for Great Lakes ore carriers

= 2.5 for ULCC

= 1.88 for bulk carriers and

= 1.70 for container ships and reefer ships

2.5 Draught

2.25 ≤ B / T ≤ 3.75

However, B / T can go upto 5 in heavily draught limited vessels.

B ≤ [ 9.625 − 7.5 C B ]

T

( T / D < 0.8 for double hull tankers)

= 0.7 for type B freeboard

0. 290

dwt

T = 4.536 m

1000

Deadweight carriers have a high B / D ratio as these ships have adequate stability

and therefore, beam is independents of depth. In such case, depth is governed by

L / D ratio which is a significant term in determining the longitudinal strength.

L / D determines the hull deflection because b.m. imposed by waves and cargo

distribution.

structural arrangement.

CB = CP . CM

and C B = CVP . CWP

where Cp : Longitudinal prismatic coefficient

∇

CP =

AM . L

∇

CVP =

AWP .T

V

where Fn = : Froude Number

gL

A. Ayre’s formulae

CB = C – 1.68 Fn

where C = 1.08 for single screw ships

= 1.09 for twin screw ships

It can be rewritten using recent data as

V: Speed in Knots and

L: Length in feet

0.14 L B + 20

CB = or

Fn 26

0.14 L B + 20

CB =

Fn 3 26

2

The above formulae are valid for 0.48 ≤ CB ≤ 0.85, and 0.14 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.32

0.15 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.32 as

C B = −4.22 + 27.8 Fn − 39.1 Fn + 46.6 Fn3

[

= 1 + (1 − C B ) 3. 5 ] −1

[1]

2(1 − C M ) B .T .

R2 =

4 −π

=2.33 (1 – CM ) B.T.

(ii) Midship Section with rise of floor (r) and no flat of keel

2 BT (1 − C M ) − B . r

R2 =

0.8584

BC k

R=

( BL + 4) C B2

Ck : Varies between 0.5 and 0.6 and in extreme cases between 0.4 and 0.7

C BT

C B′ =

(T − r 2)

(iv) If there is flat of keel width K and a rise of floor F at B 2 then,

CM = 1 − F{ [( B

2 ] }

− K 2 ) − r 2 / ( B 2 − K 2 ) + 0.4292 r 2 / BT

From producibility considerations, many times the bilge radius is taken equal to

or slightly less than the double bottom height.

Table 11.V

Equation Applicability/Source

CWP = 0.444 + 0.520 CP Eames, small transom stern warships (2)

CWP = CB/(0.471 + 0.551 CB) tankers and bulk carriers (17)

CWP = 0.175+ 0.875 CP single screw, cruiser stern

CWP = 0.262 + 0.760 CP twin screw, cruiser stern

CWP = 0.262 + 0.810 CP twin screw, transom stern

CWP = CP 2/3 schneekluth 1 (17)

CWP = ( 1+2 CB/Cm ½)/3 Schneekulth 2 (17)

CWP = 0.95 CP + 0.17 (1- CP)1/3 U-forms hulls

CWP = (1+2 CB)/3 Average hulls, Riddlesworth (2)

CWP = CB ½ - 0.025 V-form hulls

KB

= ( 2.5 − CVP ) / 3 :Moorish / Normand recommend for hulls with C M ≤ 0.9

T

KB

= (1 + CVP ) :Posdumine and Lackenby recommended for hulls with 0.9<CM

−1

KB

= 0.90 – 0.36 CM

T

KB

= (0.90 – 0.30 CM – 0.10 CB)

T

KB

= 0.78 – 0.285 CVP

T

IT

CI =

LB 3

IL

CTL =

LB 3

The formula for initial estimation of CI and CIL are given below

CIL = 0.350 CWP2 – 0.405 CWP + 0.146 D’ Arcangelo longitudinal

CI = 0.0727 CWP2 + 0.0106 CWP – 0.003 Eames, small transom stern (2)

C1 = 0.04 (3CWP – 1) Murray, for trapezium reduced 4% (17)

CI = (0.096 + 0.89 CWP2 ) / 12 Normand (17)

CI = (0.0372 (2 CWP + 1)3 ) / 12 Bauer (17)

CI = 1.04 CWP2 ) / 12 McCloghrie + 4% (17)

CI = (0.13 CWP + 0.87 CWP2 ) / 12 Dudszus and Danckwardt (17)

IT

BM T =

∇

KL

BM L =

∇

= 0.83 for passenger ships

KMT = KB + BMT

GMT = KMT – KG

Correction for free surface must be applied over this. Then ,

This GM’T should satisfy IMO requirements.

3

I L CI L L B C I L L2

GM L ≅ BM L = = =

∇ LBT C B T .C B

∇GM L L. B.T . C B C I L L2 C I L L2 B

MCT 1 cm = = =

100 LBP 100.T . C B L 100

The longitudinal centre of buoyancy LCB affects the resistance and trim of the

vessel. Initial estimates are needed as input to some resistance estimating

algorithms. Like wise, initial checks of vessel trim require a sound LCB estimate.

In general, LCB will move aft with ship design speed and Froude number. At low

Froude number, the bow can be fairly blunt with cylindrical or elliptical bows

utilized on slow vessels. On these vessels it is necessary to fair the stern to

achieve effective flow into the propeller, so the run is more tapered (horizontally

or vertically in a buttock flow stern) than the bow resulting in an LCB which is

forward of amidships. As the vessel becomes faster for its length, the bow must be

faired to achieve acceptable wave resistance, resulting in a movement of the LCB

aft through amidships. At even higher speeds the bow must be faired even more

resulting in an LCB aft of amidships.

Harvald

LCB = 9.70 − 45.0 Fn ± 0.8

Here LCB is estimated as percentage of length, positive forward of amidships.

0. 64

dwt

(a) Lightship weight = 1128 (4)

1000

(b) Lightship = Steel Weight + Outfil weight + Machinery Weight +

Margin.

The estimated steel weight is normally the Net steel. To this Scrap steel weight

(10 to 18 %) is added to get gross steel weight.

Passenger Pass. ferry

(100 ∆) × Steel 20 28 30 35

weight

100

For tankers, × Steel weight = 18

∆

Hull Numeral E= L ( B + T ) + 0.85 ( D − T ) L + 0.85 ∑ l1 h1 + 0.75 ∑ l 2 h2 in

metric units where

l1 and h1 : length and height of full width erections

Ws = Ws 7 [1 + 0.5( C B1 − 0.70) ]

0.8 D − T

C B 1 = C B + (1 − C B )

3T

Where C B : Actual block at T.

Ws 7 = K . E 1.36

Chemical Tanker 0.036 – 0.037 1,900 < E < 2, 500

Bulker 0.029 – 0.032 3,000 < E < 15, 000

Open type bulk and 0.033 – 0.040 6,000 < E < 13, 000

Container ship

Cargo 0.029 – 0.037 2,000 < E < 7, 000

Refrig 0.032 – 0.035 E 5,000

Coasters 0.027 – 0.032 1,000 < E < 2, 000

Offshore Supply 0.041 – 0.051 800 < E < 1, 300

Tugs 0.044 350, E < 450

Trawler 0.041 – 0.042 250, E < 1, 300

Research Vessel 0.045 – 0.046 1, 350 < E < 1, 500

Ferries 0.024 – 0.037 2,000 < E < 5, 000

Passenger 0.037 – 0.038 5, 000 < E < 15, 000

Steeel weight from basic ship can be estimated assuming any of the

following relations :

(i) Ws ∞ L × weight per foot amidships

(ii) Ws ∞ L. B. D.

(iii) Ws ∞ L. ( B + D)

∇ D = hull volume upto main deck (m3)

∇ s = Volume increase through sheer (m3)

∇b = Volume increase through camber (m3)

s v , su = height of s hear at FP and AP

Ls = length over which sheer extends ( Ls ≤ L pp )

n = number of decks

∇L = Volume of hatchways

L ; bL and hL are length, breadth and height of hatchway

L B D C + L B ( s + s ) C + L B b C + l L bL h L

∇u = BD s u ϑ 2 3 ∑

∇D ∇s ∇b ∇L

D −T

CBD = C B + C 4 (1 − C B )

T

= 0.4 for ship forms with marked flame flare

( C BD )

2

3

C2 = ; C3 = 0.7 CBD

b

Wst ( ± ) = ∇ u C1 [1 + 0.033 ( D − 12 ) ] [1 + 0.06( n − D4 ) ]

L

[0.92 + (1 − C ) ] BD

2

[1 + 0.75 C BD ( C M − 0.98) ]

Restriction imposed on the formula :

L

< 9 , and

D

t

C1 the volumetric weight factor and dependent on ship type and measured in m3

[ ]

C1 = 0.103 1 + 17( L − 110 ) 2 10 −6 t m3 for 80 m ≤ L ≤ 180 m for normal ships

C1 = 0.113 to 0.121 t

m3 for 80 m ≤ L ≤ 150 m of passenger ships

C1 = 0.102 to 0.116 t

m3 for 100 m ≤ L ≤ 150 m of refrigerated ships

Wst = ∇ u [

0.093 1 + 0.002( L − 120 ) 10 −3

2

]

1

L 30 2

1 + 0.057 D − 12 ( D + 14 )

[ ]

2

B T

1 + 0.02 D − 0.85 0.92 + (1 − C BD )

2

1 + 0.01 − 2.1

D

Depending on the steel construction the tolerance width of the result will be

somewhat greater than that of normal cargo ships. The factor 0.093 may vary between

0.09 and 0 the under deck volume contains the volume of a short forecastle for the

volume of hatchways

L

The ratio should not be less than 10

D

Farther Corrections :

δ Ws t ( % ) = 3.5 ( ) L

L − 10 1 + 0.1 − 12

D

This correction is valid for ships between 100 m and 180 m length

(c) The formulae can be applied to container ships with trapizoidal midship sections.

These are around 5% lighter

(d) Further corrections can be added for ice-strengthening, different double bottom

height, higher latchways, higher speeds.

Container cell guides are normally included in the steel weight. Weight of container

cell guides.

(ft)

Vessel 20 0.7 t / TEU 1 t / TEU

Vessel 40 0.45 t / TEU 0.7 t / TEU

Integrated 20 0.75 t / TEU -

Integrated 40 0.48 t / TEU -

40 ft containers 0.031 t / TEU

mixed stowage 0.043 t / TEU

Wst = 0.007 L1pp. 759 . B 0. 712 . D 0. 374 [K. R. Chapman]

L pp , B, D → are in metres.

CB L

1.8

Wst = 340 ( LBD 100,000)

0. 9

0.675 + ∗ 0.00585 − 8.3 + 0.939

2 D

[D. Miller]

Wst → tonnes

L, B, D → metres

−7

Wst = 0.0832 x e −5. 73 x 10

2

L pp B

where x = 3 CB [wehkamp / kerlen]

12

LB 0. 72 L

2

Wst = C B3 + 1

2

D 0 . 002

6 D

[ Ccmyette’s formula

as represented by

watson & Gilfillan ]

Wst → tonnes

L, B, D → metres

For tankers :

L L

Wst = ∆ α L + α T 1.009 − 0.004 ∗ 0.06 ∗ 28.7 −

B D

DNV – 1972

where

L

0.054 + 0.004 ∗ 0.97

αL =

B

0. 78

100 L

0.189 ∗

D

∆

α T = 0.029 + 0.00235 ∗ for ∆ < 600000 t

100000

0. 3

∆

α T = 0.0252 ∗ for ∆ > 600000 t

100000

Range of Validity :

L

10 ≤ ≤ 14

D

L

5≤ ≤7

B

150 m ≤ L ≤ 480 m

B T ( 0.5 C B + 0.4 )

Wst = 0.1697 L1. 56 + ∗ [J. M. Hurrey]

D 2 0.8

L L L − 200

Wst = 4.274 Z 0. 62 L 1.215 − 0.035 0.73 + 0.025 1 +

B B 1800

L L

∗ 2.42 − 0.07 1.146 − 0.0163 [DNV 1972]

D D

The limits of validity for DNV formulae for bulkers are same as tankers except

that is, valid for a length upto 380 m

5.2.1 Murirosmith

This includes all weights of auxiliaries within definition of m/c weight as part of

light weight. Corrections may be made as follows:

For twin-screw ships add 10% and

0.84

i

Wm (diesel-electric) = 0.72 (M CR)0.78 Wm (gas turbine) = 0.001 (MCR)

Auxiliary weight = 0.69 (MCR)0.7 for bulk and general cargo vessel

W and G (RINA 1977): (figure taken from [1])

5.3.2. Basic Ship

Wo can be estimated from basic ship using any of the proportionalities given

below:

5.3.3. Schneekluth

Type K

(a) Cargo ships 0.40-0.45 t/m2

With length around 140 m 0.22-0.25 t/m2

With length around 250 m 0.17-0.18 t/m2

With lengths around 150 m 0.25 t/m2

With lengths around 300 m 0.17 t/m2

K = 0.036 t m 3 − 0.039 t m 3

Passenger ships with large car transporting sections and passenger ships carrying

deck passengers

W0 = K ∑ ∇ , where K = 0.04 t/m2 – 0.05 t/m2

W0 L L 2 B 2

Wo α L × B or W02 = + ×

2 L1 B1

Ship type Margin on Wt Margin on VCG

Cargo ships 1.5 to 2.5% 0.5 to ¾ %

Passenger ships 2 to 3.5% ¾ to 1 %

Naval Ships 3.5 to 7%

(i) Extra displacement due to shell plating = molded displacement x (1.005 do

1.008) where 1.005 is for ULCCS and 1.008 for small craft.

(ii) where C = 0.7 for fine and 1.4 for full bossings

d: Propeller diameter.

Dwt = WC arg o + WHFO + WDO + WLO + WFW + WC & E + WPR

Where WCargo : Cargo weight (required to be carried) which can be calculated from

cargo hold capacity

range

WHFO = SFC x MCR x × m arg in

speed

Where

SFC : specific fuel consumption which can be taken as 190gm/kw hr for DE and

215gm/kw hr for 6T (This includes 10% excess for ship board approx )

Range: distance to be covered between two bunkeriy port margin : 5 to 10%

WDO : Weight of marine diesel oil for DG Sets which is calculated similar to

above based on actual power at sea and port(s)

WLO = 20 t for medium speed DE

=15 t for slow speed DE

WFW = 0.17 t/(person x day)

WC&E : 0.17t / person

WPR : weight of provisions and stores

WPR = 0.01t / (person x day)

where

light ship weight = steel weight + wood and out fit weight + machinery weight +

margin.

The VCG of the basic hull can be estimated using an equation as follows:

+ 0.008D ( L/B – 6.5 ), L ≤ 120 m

120 m < L

This may be modified for superstructure & deck housing

The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight will typically be slightly aft of

the LCB position. Waston gives the suggestion:

Where both LCG and LCB are in percent ship length positive forward of

amidships. The vertical center of the machinery weight will depend upon the

inner bottom height hbd and the height of the engine room from heel, D. With

these known, the VCG of the machinery weight can be estimated as:

Which places the machinery VCG at 35% of the height within the engine room

space. In order to estimate the height of the inner bottom, minimum values from

classification and Cost Guard requirements can be consulted giving for example:

hdb ≥ 32B + 190 T (mm) (ABS)

or

hdb ≥ 45.7 + 0.417 L (cm) Us Coast Guard

The inner bottom height might be made greater than indicated by these minimum

requirements in order to provide greater double bottom tank capacity, meet double

hull requirements, or to allow easier structural inspection and tank maintenance.

The vertical center of the outfit weight is typically above the main deck and can

be estimated using an equation as follows:

= D + 1.25 + 0.01(L-125), 125 < L ≤ 250 m

= D + 2.50,

The longitudinal center of the outfit weight depends upon the location of the

machinery and the deckhouse since significant portions of the outfit are in those

locations. The remainder of the outfit weight is distributed along the entire hull.

LCGo = ( 25% Wo at LCGM, 37.5% at LCG dh, and 37.5% at amid ships)

The specific fractions can be adapted based upon data for similar ships. This

approach captures the influence of the machinery and deckhouse locations on the

associated outfit weight at the earliest stages of the design.

The centers of the deadweight items can be estimated based upon the preliminary

inboard profile arrangement and the intent of the designer.

7.0 Estimation of Capacity

Grain Capacity = Moulded Col. + extra vol. due to hatch (m3) coamings,edcape

hatched etc – vol. of structurals.

Tank capacity = Max. no. of containers below deck (TEU) and above dk.

1

Structurals for holds : 1 to 2% of mid vol.

2

1 1

Structurals for F. O. tanks : 2 to 2 % of mid. Vol.(without heating coils):

4 4

1 9

2 to 2 % of mid vol. (with heating coils):1% for

2 4

cargo oil tanks

1 1

Structurals for BW/FW tanks: 2 to 2 for d.b. tanks non-cemented;

4 2

1 3

2 to 2 % for d.b. tanks cemented;

2 4

1 to 1.5 % for deep tanks for FO/BW/PW.

Grain capacity can be estimated by using any one of 3 methods given below as

per ref. MSD by Munro-Smith:

1. Grain capacity for underdeck space for cargo ships including machinery

space, tunnel, bunkers etc.:

Capacity = C1 + C2 + C3

Where

C1 : Grain capacitay of space between keel and line parallel to LWL drawn at

the lowest point of deck at side.

C1 = LBP x Bml x Dmld x C

C 0.742 0.751 0.760 0.769 0.778 0.787

CB at 0.85D can be calculated for the design ship from the relationship

dcu 1

=

dT 10.T

C2 : Volume between WL at lowest point of sheer and sheer line at side.

of sheer

camber at above WL at lowest point of sheer. Both forward and aft calculations

are done separately and added. C2 and C3 are calculated on the assumption that

deck line, camber line and sheer line are parabolic.

DC = Dmld + ½ camber + 1/6 (SA + SF) – (depth of d.b. + tank top ceiling)

Grain capacity below upper deck and above tank top including non cargo spaces

is given as:

Grain Cap. (ft3 ) 2000 3000 4000 5050 6100 7150 8200

= Grain cap. of cargo spaces + under dk non-cargo spaces – hatchways.

C2: Under deck capacity of new ship.

C1

× L 2 B 2 Dc 2 − C B 2

C2= L1 B1 D1C BL

If DH : Depth of hold amidships and C9 : cintoroid of this capacity above tank top

then, for

CB = 0.76 at 0.85 D,

C9/DH 0.556 0.565 0.573 0.583

C9/DH is decreased or increased by 0.002.

From the capacity thus obtained, non cargo spaces are deducted and extra spaces

as hatchways etc. are added go get the total grain capacity.

8.0 Power Estimation

SHP

= 0.5813 [ DWT / 1000]

0.5

(a) 3

V0

(b) Admirality coefficient is same for similar ships (in size, form, Fn ).

∆ 2/3 V 9

AC =

BHP

Where AC = AdmiralityCoefficent

∆ = Displacement in tons

V = Speed in Knots

L

H ∆1 / 3 V 3 40 + 400 ( K − 1) 2 −12 C B

SHP = 200

1500 − N γ L

Where N : RPM

K :To beobtained from Alexander ' s formula

L : in ft ,V in knots, ∆ in tons.

(d) From basic ship: If basic ship EHP is known. EHP for a new ship with

similar hull form and Fr. No.- can be found out as follows:

(i) Breadth and Draught correction can be applied using Mumford indices (moor

and small, RINA, vol. 102)

X −2 / 3 Y −2/3

B Tn

Θ

new = basic n

Θ

Bb Tb

V

0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80

γL

γ 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.64

Where

EHP

Θ= andwhere ∆ : tons, V : knots

∆ V 3 × 427.1

2/3

@ L1 − @ L2 = 4( L2 − L1 ) x 10 − 4

(e) Estimation of EHP from series Data wetted surface Area S in m 2 is given as

2π

S= ∆. L, ∇ = m 3 , L = m

η

η = Wetted surface efficiency (see diagram of Telfer, Nec, Vol. 79, 1962-63).

RR

CR = = This can be estimated from services data with corrections.

1/ 2 ρ S V 2

RF

CF =

1/ 2 ρ S V 2

0.075

From ITTC, CF =

( log10 Rn − 2) 2

VL

Where Rn : Re ynold ' s No. =

v

v = Kinematic coefficient of Viscocity and

=1.188 ×10 −6 m 2 / sec for sea water and for F .W .,1.139 ×10 −6 m 2 / sec for fresh water

C A = Roughness Allowance

= 0.0004 in general

or C A = ( 0.8 − 0.004 Lw l ) ×10 − 3

where Lw l is in m

RT

CT = C F + C R + C A =

1/ 2 ρ S V 2

A bracket 5%

Twin Rudder 3%

Bow Thruster 2 to 5%

Ice Knife 0.5%

(f) EHP from statistical Data : See Holtrop and Mannen, ISP 1981/1984 (given at the

end of these notes)

EHPservice

SHP =

QPC

Nγ L

QPC =η 0 η H η R = K −

10000

Where N = RPM

L = LB P in m

K = 0.84 For fixed pitch propellers

= 0.82 For controllable pitch propellers can be estimated more accurately

later

(h) BHPs

Aft Engine 1%

Engine Semi aft 2%

Gear losses 3 to 4%

The maximum continuous rating (MCR) of a diesel engine is the power the engine

can develop for long periods. By continuous running of engine at MCR may cause

excessive wear and tear. So Engine manufactures recommend the continuous service

rating (CSR) to be slightly less than MCR. Thus CSR of NCR (Normal Continuous

Rating)

Thus

(Naked hull HP) Allowance Allowance

QPC

0.85 to 0.95 Shafting

MCR BHPs SHP

(NCR) losses

Select Engine

V

0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

γL

Fbow

0.045 0.048 0.056 0.075

L

(b) Probability of Deckwetness P for various Fbow / L values have been given in

Dynamics of Marine Vehicles, by R.Bhattacharya:

L ( m) 61 122 183 244

Fbow / L for

10% 0.032 0.026 0.020 0.015

Estimate Fbow check for deckwetness probability and see if it is acceptable. Fbow

Should also be checked from load line requirement.

9.2

Early estimates of motions natural frequencies effective estimates can often be

made for the three natural frequencies in roll, heave, and pitch based only upon

the characteristics and parameters of the vessel. Their effectiveness usually

depends upon the hull form being close to the norm.

freedom model yielding:

Tφ = 2.007 k11 / G M t

Where k11 is the roll radius of gyration, which can be related to the ship beam

using:

k11 = 0.50 KB , With 0.76 ≤ κ ≤ 0.82 for merchant hulls and 0.69 ≤ κ ≤ 1.00

generally.

Using κ 11 ≈ 0.40 B . A more complex parametric model for estimating the roll

natural period that yields the alternative result for the parameter κ is

κ = 0.724 (C B ( C B + 0.2) − 1.1 ( C B + 0.2 ) × (1.0 − C B ) ( 2.2 − D / T ) + ( D / B ) )

2

Roll is a lightly damped process so the natural period can be compared directly

with the domonant encounter period of the seaway to establish the risk of resonant

motions. The encounter period in long- crested oblique seas is given by:

( ( )

Te = 2 π / ω − Vω 2 / g cos θ w )

Where ω is the wave frequency, V is ship speed, and θ w is the wave angle relative

to the ship heading with θ w = 0 following seas, θ w = 9 0 beam seas, and

• •

θ w = 18 0 •

Head seas. For reference, the peak frequency of an ISSC spectrum is located at

4.85 T1−1 with T1 the characteristics period of the seaway. An approximate pitch

natural period can also be derived using a simple one- degree of freedom model

yielding:

Tθ = 2.007 k 22 / GM L

Where now k 22 is the pitch radius of gyration, which can be related to the ship

length by noting that 0.24 L ≤ k 22 ≤ 0.26 L.

Pitch is a heavily-damped (non resonant) mode, but early design checks typically

try to avoid critical excitation by at least 10%

An approximate heave natural period can also be derived using a simple one

degree-of-freedom model. A resulting parametric model has been reported by

Lamb:

Th = 2.007 (T C B ( B + 3T + 1.2 ) / C w p )

Like pitch, heave is a heavily damped (non resonant) mode. Early design checks

typically try to avoid having Th = Tφ , Th = Tθ , 2Th = Tθ , Tφ = Tθ , Tφ = 2Tθ , which

could lead to significant mode coupling. For many large ships, however, these

conditions often cannot be avoided.

9.3 Overall Seakeeping Ranking used Bales regression analysis to obtain a rank

estimator for vertical plane seakeeping performance of combatant monohulls.

(superior seakeeping) and has the following form:

Here the waterplane coefficient and the vertical prismatic coefficient are

expressed separately for the forward (f) and the aft (a) portions of the hull. Since

the objective for superior seakeeping is high R̂ , high C w p and low C v p ,

plane seakeeping. Note also that added waterplane forward is about 4.5 times as

effective as aft and lower vertical prismatic forward is about 1.5 times as effective

as aft in increasing R̂ . Thus, V-shaped hull sections forward provide the best way

to achieve greater wave damping in heave and pitch and improve vertical plane

seakeeping.

1. Choose basic ship such that V / γ L, ship type and are nearly same and

detailed information about the basic ship is available.

2. Choose L B T C B from empirical data and get ∆

Such that ( d w / ∆ ) basic = ( d w / ∆ ) new .

Choose L . B. T . C B etc as above to get ∆ new

= L B T C B ×1.03 to 1.033.

4. For stability assume ( KG / D) basic = ( KG / D ) new with on your deletion

5. Check capacity using basic ship method. Use inference equation wherever

necessary

These equations are frequently used to alter main dimensions for desired small

changes in out put. For example

∆ = L. B.T . C B ρ

d ∆ d L d B d T d CB

= + + +

∆ L B T CB

L, B, T , or C B can be altered so that above equation is satisfied. Similarly, to

improve the values of BM by dBM, one can write

B M α B2 /T

or B M = k × B 2 / T

or log BM = log k + 2 log B − log T

dBM dB dT

=2 −

BM B T

11.1 For two node Vertical Vibration, hull frequency is

N = φγ I [Schlick]

∆ L

(cpm) 3

Where I : Midship m . i. in in 2 ft 2

∆ : tons, L : f t

φ = 156 , 850 for ships with fine lines

= 143, 500 for large passenger lines

= 127, 900 for cargo ships

BD 3

N = βγ 3

(cpm)

∆L

B: breadth in ft and D : Depth upto strength dk in ft. This is refined to take into

account added mass and long s .s. decks as,

1/ 2

B . DE

3

N = C1 + C2 [ Todd]

(1.2 + B / 3T ) L ∆)

(cpm) 3

[

DE : ∑ D13 L1 / L ] 1/ 3

L1 : Length of s.s. dk

C1 C2

Tankers 52000 28

Cargo Vessels 46750 25

Passenger Vessels

With s.s 44000 20

1/ 2

Ι

N =φ 3 Burill

∆ L (1 + B / 2T ) (1 + rS )

rS : shear correction =

(

3.5 D 3( B / D ) + 9( B / D ) + 6( B / D ) + 1.2

3 2

)

L2 ( 3B / D + 1)

1/ 2

K T DE

N= n where [ Bunyan]

L C B ( B + 3.6 T1 )

34,000 for cargo ships

38,400 for cargo ships long framed

n= 1.23 for tankers

1.165 for cargo ships

All units are in British unit.

T1 : Mean draught for condition considered

T : Design Draught

N3V = 2. N2V

N4V = 3.N2V

Ιv

N2v = 3. 07 * 106 cpm

∆i L3

1 B

∆i = 1.2 + ∆ = displacement

3 Tm

including virtual added mass of water (tons)

L = length between perpendicular (m)

B= Breadth amidship (m)

Tm == mean draught (m)

The higher noded vibration can be estimated from the following formula by Johannessen

and skaar (1980)

N nv ≈ N 2v ( n − 1)

∝

1.0 bulk carriers

1.2 Tankers

N2V is the two noded vertical natural frequency. n should not exceed 5 or 6 in

order to remain within range validity for the above equation.

1/ 2

D. B 3

N2H = βH 3

cpm [Brown]

∆. L

N 2 H =1.5 N 2 v

N 3 H = 2. N 2 H

N 4 H = 3N 2 H

1/ 2

Ip

N T = 3 ×10 C 2

5

cpm [Horn]

B + D L. ∆

2

= 3.00 for two node, N 2 − T

= 4.07 for three node , N 3 − T

I p = 4 A2 / Σ

T

( )

ds 4

ft (This formulae is exact for hollow circular cylinder)

t= Corresponding thickness in ( ft )

L, B, D : ft , ∆ : tons.

11.5 Resonance

Engine RPM is to be so chosen that hull vibration frequency and shaft and

propeller frequency do not coincide to cause resonance.

References

3. D. G. M. Waston and A.W. Gilfillan, some ship Design Methods’ RINA, 1977.

Warship Design’, RINA, 1977.

11. Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy- H Schneekluth, 1987, Butterworth.

13. J. Holtrop- A statistical Re- analysis of Resistance and Propulsion Data ISP 1984.

Resistance Estimation Statistical Method (HOLTROP) 1984

Where:

K 1 = Form factor of bare hull

RB = Additional pressure resistance of bulbous bow near the water surface

1

Rv = ρ v 2 C F 0 (1 + K 1 ) S …………….(i)

2

Where

0.075

=

( log10 Rn − 2) 2

1 + K 1 was derived statistically as

0.3649

(

3

1 + K 1 = 0.93 + 0.4871c ( B / L ) 1.0681 . ( T / L ) 0.4611 . L / LR

L / ∇ )

. (1 − C P )

0.12 − 0.6042

C is a coefficient accounting for the specific shape of the after body and is given by

C = 1+0.011 C Stern

= -10 for v-shaped sections

= 0 for normal section shape

= +10 for U-shaped section with hones stern

LR is the length of run – can be estimated as

S is the wetted surface area and can be estimated from the following statistically derived

formula:

Where

L = Waterline length in m

B = Moulded breadth in m

LCB = LCB ford’s ( + ) or aft ( − ) of midship as a percentage of L

AB r = Cross sectional area of the bulb in the vertical plane intersecting the stern contour

at the water surface.

The resistance of appendages was also analysed and the results presented in the form of

an effective form factor, including the effect of appendages.

S app

1 + K = 1 + K 1 + [1 + K 2 − (1 + K 1 ) ]

S tot

Where

S app = Total wetted surface of appendages

The effective factor is used in conjunction with a modified form of equation (i)

Rv = 12 ρV 2 C Fo S tot (1 + K )

The effective value of K 2 when more than one appendage is to be accounted for can be

determined as follows

S (1 + k 2 ) i

(1 + k 2 ) effective = ∑ i

∑ Si

In which S i and (1 + k 2 ) i are the wetted area and appendage factor for the i th appendage

TABLE: EFFECTIVE FORM FACTOR VALUES K 2 FOR DIFFERENT APPENDAGES

Spade type rudder of twin screw ship 2.8

Skeg-rudder of twin screw ships 1.5 to 2.0

Shaft Brackets 3.0

Bossings 2.0

Bilge keels 1.4

Stabilizer fins 2.8

Shafts 2.0

Sonar dome 2.7

Was simplified as follows:

Rw

W

d

= c1 c2 c3 e m1Fn + m2 cos λ Fn−2 ( )

In this equation C1 , C 2 , C 3 , λ and m are coefficients which depend on the hull form. λL is

the wave making length. The interaction between the transverse waves, accounted for by

the cosine term, results in the typical humps and hollows in the resistance curves.

C1 = 2223105 C 43.7861 (T B ) 1.0796

( 90 − i E ) −1.3757

with:

4

( )

C = 0.2296 B 0.3333

L

for

L

≤ 0.11 B

B

C

4 = for 0.11 ≤ B ≤ 0.25

L L

C

4 = 0 . 5 − 0.0625 L for B ≥ 0.25

B L

d = -0.9

( T ) − 1.7525 ∇

( )

1

m1 = 0.01404 L − 4.7932 B − C 5

3

L L

with:

C 5 = 1.7301 − 0.7067 C p for C p ≥ 0.8

−3.24

m2 = C 6 0.4 e −0.034 Fn

with:

C = − 1.69385 → for L

3

≤ 512

6 ∇

L 3

C 6 = − 1.69385 + 1 − 8.0

/ 2.36 for 512 ≤ L ≤ 1727

∇ 3 ∇

C = 0.0 → for L

3

≥ 1727

6 ∇

B

≤ 12

B

where

i E = half angle of entrance of the load waterline in degrees

6.8(Ta − T f ) 3

i E = 125.67 B

L

( ) p

− 162.25 C + 234.32 C + 0.1551 LCB +

2

T

3

p

where Ta = moulded draught at A.P

Tf = moulded draught at F.P

C2 = 1.0 if no bulb’s fitted, otherwise

ABT ν B

C 2 = e −1.89

BT (ν B + i )

where

ν B is the effective bulb radius, equivalent to

ν B = 0.56 ABT 0.5

i = T f − hB − 0.4464 ν B

where

Tf = moulded draught at FP

hB = height of the centroid of the area ABT above the base line

C 3 = 1 − 0.8 AT / ( BTC M )

AT is the immersed area of the transom at zero speed.

For high speed range Fn ≥ 0.55 , Coefficients C1 and m1 are modified as follows

(

C1 = 6919.3 C M−1.3.346 ∇ / L.3 ) 2.0098

( L B − 2) 1.4069

m1 = −7.2035 B ( L) 0.3269

(T B ) 0.6054

For intermediate speed range ( 0.4 ≤ Fn ≤ 0.55) the following interpolation is used

RW 1

= RWFn04 +

{

(10 Fn − 0.4) RWFn0.55 − RWFn04 }

W W 1.5

C A = 0.006 ( LWL + 100 ) − 0.00205 + 0.003 ( LWL / 7.5) C C 2 ( 0.04 − TF / LWL )

− 0.16 0.5 4

B

where C2 is the coefficient adopted to account for the influence of the bulb.

Total resistance

1 R

RT = ρ ν 2 S tot [ C F (1 + k ) + C A ] + W .W

2 W

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