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News analysis Health Business

East Africa’s Teeth brushing Domestic marine cargo covers


abnormal rainfall keeps heart healthy? could boost insurance market

Issue No. 602 Dec. 13 - 19 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Uganda after
Museveni
Pundits weigh in on transition

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Dec. 13 - 19 2019 1
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Issue No. 602 Dec. 13 - 19 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Uganda after Museveni
Pundits weigh in on transition

5 The Week
30 Comments
Government to release Shs20bn for
emergency response to floods Why African cultural
restitution matters : It is about
more than confronting the
9 The Last Word
legacy of colonialism and its
Atubo’s disappointing lamentations: effect on global power dynamics
Why African elites are deluded to
think the “international community”
32 Health
has our best interests at heart
Teeth brushing keeps heart
14 Analysis healthy?: Strange link shows
up in yet another study
East Africa’s abnormal
rainfall: Meteorologists warn
of more rains in coming weeks
35 Arts & Culture
27 Business Art creates water :An
exhibition of contrasts at
Domestic marine cargo covers could the musuem
boost insurance market: Presently
importers insure their cargo in the
country of origin through their suppliers

MANAGING DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Ian Katusiime, Patricia Akankwatsa, Julius Businge.
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were DESIGN: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: editor@independent.co.ug | advertising@independent.co.ug
circulation@independent.co.ug | Website: www.independent.co.ug

2 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
inbox

“I don’t support gays but I respect


their rights.” Kyadondo East MP Bobi
Wine in an interview in South Africa

The head of Anesthesia Mulago Hospital Dr John Mark Kasumba, explains how the modern Peadiatric
theatre works as Dr Jane Ruth Aceng, the Minister of Health, Dr. Charles Olaro Director Clinical and
Community Dr Byarugaba Baterana Mulago Hospital Executive Director and others look on. This was
during official launching of the three modern Pediatric theatres on Dec 5.

President Yuweri
Museveni holds a shield
and spire after a Church
fund raising faction given
by the West Budama North
SACCO in support of his “All of us here are corrupt. After
candidature 2021. Looking
on are; the Arch-Bishop of here, we are all going back to our
Tororo Diocese Emmanuel corruption.”Jacob Oulanyah, Deputy
Obbo (L) as area MP Speaker at the Anti-Corruption Walk
Othieno Okoth claps. The
president contributed
shs30 million cash and
pledged 70 million towards
the completion of St Maria
Gorreti Church on Dec
3.  INDEPENDENT ALFRED
OCHWO

Deputy Resident District


Commissioner for Kira
Municipality Joseph
Muhoozi Ssekasamba “Putting Police on notice, when
addresses local leaders and I come home on leave, I will be
residents of Kikonko zone
in Kirinya, Bweyogerere demanding compensation for
division over a road damage of my beloved garden.
closure by Victor Treading, Our home must not become a
a Chinese company under
construction on Dec battleground. No joke!”Winnie
9.   INDEPENDENT ALFRED Byanyima, UNAIDS boss after Police raided
OCHWO
the home of her husband Dr Kizza Besigye,
opposition leader

Factories President Residents of Masindi Recruits UPDF


9 Museveni commissioned in
Nakaseke district last week
1200 a UPDF General is
accused of evicting
4000 is targeting in the
next one month

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 3
week

Government to release Shs20bn for emergency response to floods


In the wake of floods and landslides that bridges under the lifesaving and rescue in many villages causing huge post-harvest
have left many parts of Uganda vulnerable, phase of the flooding and landslides situa- destruction. Affected population of over
the government has set aside Shs20billion to tion. Minister of state for disaster prepared- eight million requires immediate shelter and
deal with emergency response. The worst ness Musa Ecweru in a statement said there relief food. Twenty districts are most prone
affected areas are Bundibugyo Bududa and is need for an urgent response to 38,000km to waterborne diseases,” said Ecweru. He
West Nile where death toll is expected to of district roads, 98,000km of urban roads added that the impact of flooding is high-
hit 30 in total. The emergency procurement and 79,000km of village access roads which est in the regions of Bugisu, Teso, Bukedi,
will be in form of inflatable boats, tarpaulins, have been destroyed by floods. He added Kigezi and Rwenzori as well as the districts
blankets, relief food, drugs for water borne that 20 bridges require overhaul.  “The of Ntoroko, Bundibugyo and Kasese.
diseases and culverts for fixing washed away above normal rain has caused water logging

KCCA names Changes at Supreme Court, Flavian Zeija appointed DPP


deadly city spots Justices; Mike Chibita Justice Alphonse Owiny-Dollo
(Pictured), Percy Tuhaise, and has asked government to raise
Old Taxi Park, Mini Price, Ezekiel Muhanguzi have been the retirement age of judges.
Owino Market, Nakivubo appointed by President Yoweri Owiny-Dollo wants each
from Owino, Kisenyi II, Museveni to the Supreme position to get an extension of
Court of Uganda to replace five years; magistrates to retire
Kagugube and Kamwokya
their retiring colleagues; at 65, high court judges to
are seven spots in Kampala
Jotham Tumwesigye, Eldard retire at 65 while judges at the
that girls and women
Mwangusya and Augustine Court of Appeal and Supreme
should watch for. According
Nshimye. The latter were sent Court to leave at 75. The
to Kampala Capital City
off in a farewell ceremony deputy chief justice aired his
Authority (KCCA), these are held at the headquarters of remarks at the same ceremony.
nooks women should avoid the Judiciary on Dec.6. The Owiny-Dollo says Uganda
because of rampant kidnaps, the new Principal Judge. Zeije
judges also saw off Yorokamu loses seasoned judges to early
murders and rape. The spots has been head of the Mbarara
Bamwine whose term as retirement and as a result, the
came to light when activists High Court, the largest high
Principal Judge ends on judges get employed by other
took part in a walk against court circuit in the country.
Christmas day. Museveni countries.
Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Meanwhile Deputy Chief
appointed Flavian Zeije as
last week in Kampala. The
activists told KCCA “You
must act to guarantee the Oxfam calls for gender equality
safety of girls and women
in the identified spots”. Oxfam, the international event, that took place at Royal
The black spots are dark, development and Suites in Bugoloobi, was aimed
bushy, dilapidated buildings, humanitarian organization at providing a platform for
trenches and open drains. has re-emphasized the need to different players to join the rest
Some of the victims told the have men, women, boys and of the world to commemorate
girls treated equally in an effort the 16 days of activism against
activists that it is common to
to achieve socio-economic gender-based violence.
find bodies of women who
transformation. This call was Officials used the same event
have been murdered dumped
made by Jane Ocaya Irama, to showcase the Gender Action
there. The spots are dwelling
the acting country director Learning System (GALS)
places for robbers, abusive
for Oxfam at an event held methodology.
boda boda riders, rapists and in Kampala on Dec.09. The
drug addicts.

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4 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
week
Court paves way for clearing of Bugoma Forest Reserve
sought to temporarily block
implementation of orders of
the High Court. “The applicant
National Forestry Authority
has failed to demonstrate that
there is an imminent threat of
alienating, selling, transferring,
developing, executing or in any
way dealing, interfering with the
status quo of the disputed land,”
Justice Ntende ruled. Critics of
the move decried the obsession Finance in last
with sugarcane growing and
construction of infrastructure meet with South
Environmental activists
and other Ugandans are up
Hoima District. The razing of
the forest reserve is to pave way
projects like dams. There is
controversy already with the Sudan traders over
in arms over a ruling by the
Court of Appeal allowing
for sugarcane growing. Justice
Frederick Egonda Ntende
much talked about giveaway of
Murchison Falls to an investor to
compensation
the destruction of 22 Square dismissed an application in put up a power dam where the The unending search for
miles of the disputed Bugoma which the National Forestry falls are located. compensation by Ugandan
Central Forest Reserve land in Authority (NFA) had traders in South Sudan had
another episode after the Min-
istry of Finance held a meeting
Why UBL supported Acholi cultural fete with Ernst & Young, the firm
in charge of verification of the
As part of its corporate traders’ claims, and the trad-
social responsibility, beer ers themselves at the ministry
maker, Uganda Breweries headquarters in Kampala on
Limited facilitated the Dec. 13. In a letter signed by
organizing and final Keith Muhakanizi (Pictured),
celebration of this year’s the Permanent Secretary of the
Acholi Cultural Festival with ministry, the meeting was strictly
Shs60 million. Speaking ahead for Ugandan South Sudan trad-
of the celebrations (held on ers that had already submitted
Dec.12-14), the company’s their documentation for verifi-
Edgar Kihumuro, who serves cation. Controversy emerged
as the brand manager for mid this year when it emerged
Pilsner Larger, said that apart that a group of companies called
from selling alcohol to the ‘Super Ten’ were receiving
community of Acholi, it is preferential treatment and had
critical for them to support received compensation of over
events such as this one that was ideal because it is a Pilsner’s support towards Shs10billion while another group
are geared towards celebrating true Ugandan beer made the event was critical as the of traders who were mostly ven-
culture, life and heritage. using locally sourced raw cultural institution continues dors and with small businesses
The sponsorship was made materials and deeply rooted to promote local culture struggled to get even a penny
by Pilsner Larger, one of the in the tradition. Dan Kidega, which is being threatened ever since they were put out of
brands for the company. He the special envoy of the by modernity and western business when war broke out in
also said Pilsner’s sponsorship Acholi Cultural leader, said civilisation. South Sudan.

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Dec. 13 - 19 2019 5
week
Parliament scorecard back
The African Leadership Institute
revealed plans to revamp the Parliamenta-
ry scorecard after abandoning the initiative
of assessing the performance of MPs in
both Parliament and at their constituencies.
The African Leadership Institute last pub-
lished the Parliamentary scorecard eight
years ago with the annual report used to
inform citizens of the performance of their
representatives at Parliament as well as
demand for accountability from their elect-
ed MPs in Parliament. The performance
evaluation report by the African Leader-
ship Institute came under serious criticism
by MPs in the 7th and 8th Parliament with
many stating that the findings in the report
were exposing them to their voters over
underperformance, absenteeism from the
NATO’s 70th anniversary exposes differences plenary and committee meetings. The last
nail in the coffin for the report release was
when the report highlighted First Lady
Differences among leading members Elizabeth welcomed NATO Secretary Janet Museveni as one of the worst-per-
of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation General Jens Stoltenberg and the forming MPs in her then Ruhama County,
(NATO) were exposed as the bloc leaders of the Alliance’s 29 member a seat she left after leaving active politics in
gathered to mark its 70 th anniversary countries to London at a Buckingham the 9th Parliament. David Pulkol, Director
in the UK. French President Emmanuel Palace reception last week. There of the African Leadership Institute said that
Macron referred to NATO as “brain were even more awkward moments they are not witch-hunting any member of
dead” while US President Donald when Canadian Prime Minister Justin parliament but helping in improving MPs
Trump has always pressured other Trudeau, his British counterpart Boris performance on parliamentary work as
members like Germany to increase Johnson and Macron were seen in a well as improve on Uganda’s democracy.
their defence spending. Queen video taunting Trump.

6 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
Humour Did you know?
The average mammal
takes 21 seconds to empty
its bladder?

President Museveni led an anti-corruption walk in the country. No one will blame you if you’ve
never bothered to time yourself on
the toilet. But you may be interested
to know that researchers from the
Georgia Institute of Technology found
that most mammals weighing more
than six pounds take 21 seconds to
pee. According to Live Science, this
oddly consistent time is due to the
fact that the urethra is “appropriately
scaled” to be a “flow-enhancing
device.” And apparently, the perfectly
enhanced flow takes 21 seconds to
complete. It’s one of the perfect did
you know facts to try at home!

Heavy rains across the country has left roads and homes flooded and several lives lost.

Japan is suffering from Ninja


shortage. That if you ever dreamed of
being a ninja, now might be the time to
make it a reality. The Japanese city of
Iga, which has a rich history of martial
arts masters and claims to be the
birthplace of the ninja, is suffering from
a ninja shortage, despite the fact that
they’re willing to pay salaries as high
as $85,000 for the performative ninjas
willing to take on the job of staffing
Museveni revealed that his massive weight loss is a deliberate move to shed off fat. their annual ninja festival.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 7
News analysis Health Business
China unlocks Handling holiday Cipla sinks into
Uganda agriculture season stress Shs14.5bn loss

Issue No. 601 Dec. 06 - 12 2019


Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Besigye

Inbox
marking his 30
Follow us on Twitter @ year fight with
http://twitter.com/#!/ugandatalks Museveni
Ahead of 2021

Follow us on Facebook @
www.facebook.com/TheIndependentMagazineUganda
www.independent.co.ug

Irresponsible journalism on firepower


Letters are Refer to: “Who’s buying the and conflict among societies or in this article feel it is safe but if
welcome ! biggest guns in East Africa? states and it is the arms mer- one looks at conflicts and their
Latest in Uganda, Rwanda, chants in the relative safety of progression, tactics play a sig-
The Editor welcomes short and Kenya, Burundi firepower” the European capitals who cel- nificant role in any eventuality.
concise letters from our esteemed
(The Independent Nov.29). ebrate all the way to the bank. For that reason, for a country,
readers on topical issues. Please
send them to: Sincerely I would call this In the remote jungles of conflict it makes sense to have friends
The Editor, The Independent irresponsible journalism. the arena, your war drums can only as neighbours or at least avoid
Publications Ltd, un ending confilict in the great presage those sinister motives conflict with neighbours at all
P.O Box 3304, lakes region with Uganda at the of the smooth talking leaders of costs. Guns of whatever make
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St, centre should not be amplifed the nations that are involved. are made for the sole purpose
Kamwokya.
Kampala,Uganda.
by any responsible citizens. Bankrupt would in my words of killing and that is not one
The Independent should rise describe these leaders who thing any country should be
Email: editor@independent.co.ug above this. Most people don’t think firepower is all that is proud of.
underestimate the role of the required. And I know most
mass media during tension Ugandans who read the figures Godfrey Kambere

Empower women to vote Social insecurity drives corruption


We need to involve capable leaders, the more Refer to: “Understanding for. The fundamentals of
women more in elections. we see our country heading Kajura’s woes: Why many corruption in Uganda are the
Many women are left out to the middle income of our politicians go broke social insecurity, which was
because probably they status. Empowering the girl after leaving cabinet even planted through Structural
lack knowledge. One of child during this era is for though we think they are Adjustment Policy (mass
the things this current the benefit of the country rich” (The Independent Dec. retrenchment/unemployment)
government has tackled and the future generation. 02). Mwenda, Mahatma of civil servants. Since then,
seriously is empowering the , I strongly urge every Gandhi cautioned us about social insecurity due to
female child. This means we Ugandan, most especially some of the things that will dramatic and exponential
are empowering the nation the males, to allow women destroy us being: Politics unemployment (87%) feeds
because those women are to vote. There are stories of without principles; Pleasure corruption and grabbing
the mothers of this nation. women either being denied
without conscience, and whatever is in sight. In other
So it’s high time we let them the vote or being forced to
Wealth without work. The words, including President
shine. Women make up the vote on the side of the males,
perception that our politicians Yoweri Museveni, all
biggest percentage of our be it related or not. Men
are obscenely rich (corrupt) Ugandans suffer from serious
population. Symbolically, should let women make
and therefore coveted is a social, economic and political
the more their empowered their own choices.
the better it is for our paradox. It is also a natural insecurity.
country. And when they Kevin Seguya law that one easily loses
make right choices, choosing kelvinsegz@gmail.com what he/she didn’t work Anonymous

BUNDLES IN TOWN
DATA

* T&C apply * Regulated by Uganda Communications Commission. CONNECTING COMMUNITIES

8 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
The Last Word opinion

Atubo’s disappointing lamentations


By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why African elites are deluded to think the “international
community” has our best interests at heart

L
ast week, I read with sadness, dis- devil worship; Commerce to liberate us from our responsibility as Ugandans. Foreigners
appointment, disillusionment and our poverty and misery; and Civilization to can never know the internal accommoda-
frustration an article in Daily Monitor emancipate us from the tyranny of our cus- tions, compromises and concessions that
by former minister Omara Atubo. He toms and the despotism of our chiefs. What are necessary for us to build our country.
was explaining why he signed a petition to Africa got instead was land alienation, extor- Neither can we trust that their interests are
ask the International Criminal Court (ICC) tionate taxation, forced labor, mass murder our interests. Atubo seems to think these
to indict President Yoweri Museveni. I have and racial discrimination. Africa’s struggles foreigners would be altruistic, devoid of
known Atubo for decades and have always for independence was thus born. their own pecuniary interests that may con-
held him in high esteem as among the most It is true that many post independence flict with our own. This naivety led many
thoughtful politicians in Uganda. His article governments have repeated many of the pre-colonial African chiefs to sign off their
is widely quoted below to provide perspec- abuses of colonialism and in some cases in independence with disastrous results.
tive. worse fashion. But it is our responsibility to But even if the international community
“The long story of Museveni in power for improve the quality of governance in our were sincere and altruistic, the results would
33 years now has been characterised by mil- countries through continued political and not be any different. Atubo knows or should
itarism, corruption, abuse of human rights economic struggles. We cannot surrender know how the most genuine foreign effort
and freedoms, rigging of elections, nepo- such a responsibility to the international to liberate Uganda, that by Tanzania’s illus-
tism, tribalism, power greed, amendment community. To say we have no capacity trious leader, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere to
of the 1995 Constitution, disrespect of and to liberate ourselves is to say we have no remove Idi Amin, led to disaster. In spite of
weakening of Parliament, undermining mul- capacity to govern our countries. The picture his good and altruistic intentions combined
tiparty democracy, and violently repressing Atubo presents above is of Ugandans as with his lack of imperial ambitions over our
Opposition. I am very worried about the helpless victims of Museveni’s misrule and country, Nyerere’s removal of Idi Amin led
future of Uganda which should be rooted whose efforts cannot overcome one man. to state collapse. Anarchy spread. It was not
in strong institutions that can guarantee Atubo does all this in spite of abundant until we had our own internal civil war and
stability, peace, unity, development and evidence of the disasters that have visited one side secured a decisive military victory
humanity. What we have under Museveni is those countries that have sought liberation that Uganda was re-launched on the process
a strong personal rule, which is not sustain- from the international community. The first of state and economic reconstruction.
able.” Atubo wrote and went on. African country to seek international help Whatever his weaknesses, Museveni has
“The ICC Petition is a desperate appeal for internal governance was the Democratic presided over a prolonged period of political
to an external international body to assist Republic of Congo in 1960. The “interna- stability and economic growth that has led
Uganda solve its problem since there are tional community” has been engaged in to significant democratisation and poverty
now no available internal options. Par- that country, having its troops there for the reduction. To ignore this reality especially by
liament is very weak and works like an last 28 out of its 59 years of independence. Atubo would be an act of overt hypocrisy.
extension of President Museveni and the It is perhaps the most mismanaged country He served in Museveni’s cabinet in the late
Executive. The Judiciary has failed to deliver in Africa. Only recently the so-called inter- 1980s and returned in the early to mid 2000s.
justice in all the presidential election and national community intervened in Libya Certainly Atubo could not have served in a
age limit cases. The ordinary citizen and the to liberate it from its psychopathic ruler, government that was of such criminal nature
voters are terrified and politically blind. The Col. Muammar Gadaffi. Consequently the as he describes. Otherwise the principle of
churches are divided, compromised and Libyan state collapsed. Today that country collective responsibility should put him in
lack courage to speak for the voiceless. The is a mosaic of small fiefdoms ruled by the dock as well.
elections are militarised, commercialised and extremely violent and belligerent warlords. There are many governance problems in
rigged. In the circumstance, the only viable In Somalia the process of state consoli- Uganda: state sponsored violence against
option is the ICC and the international com- dation was undermined by external inter- the opposition, corruption and intimida-
munity.” ventions of a humanitarian variety leading tion, etc. However, these problems will not
Atubo’s lamentation is neither new nor to prolonged anarchy. The Central African be solved by one government and in one
unique. It is supported by many Ugandan Republic, which today is under management generation but through continuous struggle
(and African) elites who think there are kind by international community, is a disaster. over decades. Atubo admires America and
and generous people in the international In Rwanda, the worst and swiftest genocide he should take a leaf from it. They have
community who care deeply about our in history happened under the watchful had problems of slavery, apartheid, mass
destiny and would save us from ourselves. eye of the international community with its incarceration etc. The American system has
Many people in the Western world see peacekeepers. It took the bold action of Paul improved over the last 250 years through
themselves as saviors of Africa and therefore Kagame and his RPF to end the carnage and small but steady improvements without
share this view. The problem is that all these launch a highly successful project of state seeking foreign interference. Atubo should
people suffer from historical and even con- reconfiguration and economic reconstruc- borrow a leaf from America for under-
temporary amnesia. tion. What more can’t Atubo see? standing our journey.
Let us recall that colonialism was justified The liberation of Uganda from Museveni’s
on exactly the same basis. It claimed to pro- (or anyone else’s) misrule cannot be surren- amwenda@independent.co.ug
mote 3Cs: Christianity to save our souls from dered to the international community. It is

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 9
cover story

Uganda after
Museveni
Pundits weigh in on transition

By Ian Katusiime and Patricia Akankwatsa

10 Dec. 13 - 19 2019 Opposition politicians Dr Kizza Besigye and Bobi Wine at a meeting
cover story

President Museveni

P
resident Yoweri Museveni, the person who comes after Museveni will change once Museveni is out of the way.
75, will be making 34 years likely not wield as much control as his prede- “If we don’t have structures to manage
in power next month. He cessor. change, then it will be a wasted effort.
once again plan to contest This seems to be a widely held view Museveni is not the issue,” he has always
for another term – the sixth due to a possible vacuum of power after said.
term in the 2021 presidential Museveni. Whether this means Uganda Joel Senyonyi, the spokesperson of Peo-
elections amidst calls from members of will be more democratic as a nation is ple Power says the movement is working
the opposition and a section of the public hard to tell. to ensure that it is not a matter of chang-
that he retires. Analysts say there is likely opening up ing the head of state currently under
His party, the National Resistance of political space and a stronger civil soci- Museveni.
Movement (NRM) endorsed him as the ety and more empowered institutions like “We do not want mere change of fig-
sole party flag bearer February, two years it is in Kenya following the exit of Daniel ureheads. We want change in systems, a
before the 2021 polls. Arap Moi. change in form of governance. We want
However, one of the issues that a sec- “No matter who becomes president, Museveni to leave, and we are working
tion of political leaders and experts agree they will not have as much control of hard for that to happen.”
is that at one point, Museveni, will leave state and non-state institutions”, he says. Senyonyi tells The Independent that ser-
power. On the possible democratic gains for vant leadership is key for a post-Museve-
However, one question that lingers in Uganda with Museveni out, Tumushabe ni era to thrive.
the minds of many is how the presidency says this will depend on “how the process “We want servant leaders. Many times
will look like after the long serving leader of his exit managed.” Mr Museveni has told you that he is not
is out of the picture. “How it plays itself out, say for exam- your servant,” he said.
The emergence of Robert Kyagulanyi ple sudden death will bring its own He also weighs in on the fears of uncer-
aka Bobi Wine on the political scene has challenges. It could be worse as the new tainty that many have talked about in the
fuelled the clamour for a new era of polit- leader tries to exert control.” wake of a Museveni exit.
ical leaders in Uganda particularly those According to Tumushabe, a negotiated “That propaganda is spread by Musev-
that do not have a military background. transition where there is a peaceful and eni himself. That there will be chaos and
Bobi Wine, Kyadondo East MP, has dignified retirement for Museveni could so on. I mean this country does not start
called time on Museveni’s reign and is smoothen the transition. and end with him.” He says, adding that
hoping to ride on the wave of a youth “Anything should not be ruled out. the fear is spread by Museveni and his
vote to trump Museveni at the ballot There may be lots of people flexing mus- people.
with his People Power movement. He has cles but these things usually come as sur- FDC Deputy Secretary General, Harold
already declared his intention to stand for prises,” he adds. Kaija, told The Independent in October this
president. Gen. Mugisha Muntu, the leader of year that FDC has an unusual plan. “We
Godber Tumushabe, the Associate Direc- the Alliance for National Transformation are looking at a way of ensuring Museve-
tor at the Great Lakes Institute for Strategic (ANT) has been the foremost voice in ni does not appear on the ballot,” he said.
Studies (GLISS), a Kampala think tank, says advocating for preparation to manage

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 11
cover story

The FDC delegates conference in November 2017. The opposition party, FDC has presented the toughest challenge to Museveni and NRM.

Future of NRM different charisma. The question is; would min Mkapa and Jakaya Kikwete through
Political pundits have often wondered it be advantageous or not?” various structures. They are all a product
whether NRM can have the same strength Using the example of the Conservative of the leadership training and charisma
and numbers without its founder and Party in Britain which has shuffled three of Nyerere.” However, this appears to be
leader. leaders in as many years, when it is in seen in Uganda under the reign of Presi-
Museveni usually gets his way in par- power, Babu says different leaders can dent Museveni.
liament by summoning the NRM caucus emerge at different times depending on
whose numbers dwarf the opposition. the circumstances. Fighting corruption
Critics say Museveni’s towering over He says the NRM has had leaders like On the priorities of the next Head of
the party has made emergence of other James Wapakhabulo, Eriya Kategaya, State, Cissy Kagaba, the executive direc-
leaders in the NRM difficult. who have passed on and others like tor of the Anti-Corruption Coalition
When Museveni fell out with his for- Mathew Rukikaire and much younger Uganda (ACCU), says fighting corruption
mer right hand man Amama Mbabazi, ones could take up the reins. should be on top of the agenda during the
who was NRM secretary general, the par- “It is presumptuous for anyone to say post Museveni era.
ty amended its rules to have an appointed that the party will not exist or will not “When Museveni was coming into
secretary general as opposed to an elected have leaders once Museveni is no longer power, he came up with a programme
one. In the end, Mbabazi was purged. there,” Babu tells The Independent. hoping to do things differently. He came
As an elected secretary general, Mbaba- “How the subsequent leaders would up with a 10-point programme and no.7
zi had considerable influence in the party use their charisma is difficult to tell, you was to fight corruption but he hasn’t been
and also rose to the position of Prime cannot judge.” Babu also refutes the claim successful,” Kagaba says.
Minister. that succession is a taboo topic in the rul- “I believe any new leader that comes
However, Francis Babu, an NRM his- ing party. up after him, will try to take action
torical and former minister, disputes the “Party organs discuss it (succession), because of public outcry,” she says.
narrative that NRM may disintegrate or they just don’t do it radically. Do not Museveni’s latest attempt at dealing
even become weak as a party due to a underestimate quiet discussions,” he says. with corruption was leading an anti-cor-
supposed vacuum once Museveni is no That aside, Babu says Uganda should ruption walk in Kampala on Dec.4. The
longer in the picture. learn from Tanzania where the first pres- walk was heavily criticised as yet another
“Is FDC stronger or weaker with- ident, Julius Nyerere, groomed leaders in passive attempt by Museveni at dealing
out Besigye?” Babu asks. “I think that the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). with graft.
answers the question. Leaders come with “He trained Ali Hassan Mwinyi, Benja- Edward Mwebaze, the acting country

12 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
cover story
director for Oxfam told The Independent reign of former Kenyan president, Daniel
on Dec.10 that the anti-corruption walk Arap Moi, came to an end in 2002 as a
and the talk about the anti-graft bill that result of local and international pressure,
is yet to be processed are actions that he picked on Uhuru Kenyatta, the son
are merely aimed at showing the people of the country’s founding president,
that Museveni is serious about fighting Jomo Kenyatta, to take over. Uhuru
corruption. was defeated in the 2002 election but he
He said the opposition has used contested in subsequent elections and
corruption scandals in their political won.
work to undermine Museveni’s regime Although tapping Uhuru, now Kenya’s
which is why many people are saying fourth president, as his successor was
the President has to keep threatening scorned by some as sowing seeds of a
those he thinks are corrupt. political dynasty, others argue that a
Kagaba states that the other issue on named successor makes the process of
the next leader’s to-do-list should be a managing transition a less murky one.
reform of public administration which Former Angolan president José Eduardo
has spiraled out of control in Museveni’s dos Santos named his right man and
reign. former defence minister, Joao Lorenco, as
“I think what the new leader should successor who won the election and took
do is reduce on the number of very many over in 2017. The two, however, have
districts created because cresting new fallen out.
districts means having more Members of Francis Babu In other instances, the aftermath of
Parliament, means increasing on money regime changes has proved a difficult
spent on salaries.” time which makes the time after
She says the money to cater for the cost Museveni a strange affair to envisage.
of public administration can be used to When former Zimbabwean vice
improve other services. president Emmerson Mnangagwa took
“There is a lot of impunity within the over from Robert Mugabe after a coup
system and I believe if we bring in a new in 2017, Zimbabweans and analysts say
breed with a new momentum, things can he has become a worse dictator than the
change.” man he ousted.
President Museveni took over power Supporters and opponents of
and swore in on Jan.29, 1986, declaring President Museveni also draw on events
a new dawn of “a fundamental change” like happened in Sudan this year in
in a country that had been ruined by war discussions on Museveni’s exit from
and tussle for power. A lot has happened power. Omar-el-Bashir was ousted from
in his 33-year reign with calculated power by his military after months of
moves to consolidate his power, co-opt protests in the capital Khartoum made
opponents and a mix of different moves his position increasingly untenable.
to win elections. Like Museveni, the military was a key
In his speeches, Museveni has constituency for Bashir.
displayed an obsession with the future Museveni made remarks in that regard
often saying: “We are here to solve to warn opponents at an event in Naguru,
Africa’s problems.” He speaks with the Kampala, while commissioning a CCTV
conviction of a man with time on his Godber Tumushabe National Command and Control Centre.
side. “Security is my area, my constituency.
Speaking at the African Union meeting That is my battle ground. If you want
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in February eventuality, it is rolled out. to challenge Uganda, you should look
this year, Museveni, took a swipe at Spire Sentongo, a columnist at The for another constituency. We are going
African chiefs whom he blamed for Observer recently has been one of those to defeat these criminals. This is just the
easy spread of colonialism. He advised writing about a post Museveni era in a beginning,” he said.
his fellow leaders to focus on strategic series titled “Things to do after Museveni Bashir was detained in April by his
security to defend Africa from foreign goes”. He wrote in one of his columns, top Generals after protests became
aggression. “There are many Ugandans (who have) uncontrollable. Currently, Sudan has a
However, Museveni’s thirst for power resigned to their dread and almost Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok who was
and deep entrenchment in various convinced against nature and history that chosen by the protest movement and he
spheres of Uganda society has not Museveni is here to stay forever.” rules in concert with a sovereign council
stopped aspiring contenders to challenge “And this is understandable in which has military and civilian members.
his hold on power and by extension, our circumstances where many state In other worst-case scenarios like
planning for a possible near future when institutions appear to be acting for his in Gambia, former president Yahya
he is not in charge. perpetuity; where dissent and freedom of Jahmmeh held his country at ransom
Sources who have claimed to be association are increasingly criminalised, as he refused to give up power when
actively campaigning for Muhoozi ”he added. he was defeated in an election. It was
Kainerugaba, the First Son, to take over after a combined force of West African
the presidency have told The Independent Power exits in Africa troops intervened that Jammeh was
in the past that there is an underground Exits from power of long serving forced out and he sought refuge in
movement to pave way for Muhoozi, a African leaders tends to lead to Equatorial Guinea.
Lieutenant General, so that in case of an unpredictable events. In Kenya, as the

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 13
NEWS ANALYSIS

East Africa’s abnormal rainfall


Meteorologists warn of more rains in coming weeks

By Ronald Musoke of the ocean goes through periodic warm- of West Nile to use alternative routes

T
ing bringing with it what meteorologists when the River Nile burst its banks cut-
housands of people continue to be call the positive Indian Ocean Dipole. A ting off the road at Pakwach. The road
displaced in eastern and western positive Dipole is said to cause a rise in connects Uganda to South Sudan and the
Uganda due to heavy rains that water temperatures in the ocean by up Democratic Republic of Congo.
are also wreaking havoc across the to 2°C leading to an increase in water The rains have caused destructive
East African region. vapour in the atmosphere that later falls flooding in several low-lying areas and
More than 30 people in Uganda have as rain. landslides in the mountainous regions of
died in the past two weeks as result of “A positive IOD (in the western por- Bundibugyo in the West and the Bududa
flooding and landslides and the govern- tion of the ocean) normally favours the areas in the eastern region. Bundibugyo
ment says tens of thousands of people whole East African hinterland bringing has so far registered over 20 deaths fol-
have been displaced from their homes. a lot of rain and when it does not favour lowing devastating landslides on Dec. 07.
Weather experts say the rains have been the region, it causes drought conditions,” Diana Tumuhimbise, the Red Cross
enhanced by a phenomenon known as the Mujuni says. branch manager for Rwenzori region said
Indian Ocean Dipole and it appears there Mujuni explains that it is this event that the humanitarian agency had on Dec.
will be no let-off in the coming weeks. has caused ‘above normal’ rains through- 08 recovered 12 bodies from the deluge
The term ‘Indian Ocean Dipole’ refers to out eastern Africa including Uganda since while one person was rushed to hospi-
the difference in sea surface temperature October this year. Ethiopia, northern and tal with serious injuries. However, the
between the western and eastern poles of southern parts of Somalia, eastern South humanitarian agency later updated its
the ocean. Sudan, central and northeastern Kenya, fatality count to 22 on Dec.09.
Godfrey Mujuni, the Manager Data and parts of northwestern and eastern “Our team continues to recover more
Centre at the Uganda National Meteoro- Tanzania have also been affected. bodies including some that are trapped
logical Authority (UNMA) told The Inde- The rains have also caused several riv- by cocoa trees in the Bundibugyo hills. It
pendent on Dec. 09 that the Indian Ocean ers to flood blocking major highways and is a very devastating moment,” the Red
stretches from the East African Coast other important roads. Early this month, Cross said, adding that other affected areas
(western part of the ocean) to the eastern the Uganda National Roads Authority include; Bulambuli, Butaleja, Manafwa,
side (Australia and Indonesia). (UNRA) issued a travel advisory to peo- Namisindwa, Mbale, Sironko, Amuru,
And, occasionally, either pole or region ple travelling to the northwestern region Kasese, Nakapiripirit and Otuke Districts.

River Nile burst its banks in West Nile recently cutting off the region from the rest of the country.

14 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
news analysis
Musa Ecweru, the Minister and culverts for fixing washed Cross launched a fundraising the ongoing above-average
of State for Disaster Prepared- away bridges. campaign of up to Shs1bn in rainfall, with well-above nor-
ness said a swift assessment anticipation of adverse weath- mal cropping and rangeland
conducted by the government Disaster management er events. conditions and replenishment
in the most affected moun- needs to be prioritized “We cannot wait to see of surface and groundwater
tainous districts of Bududa, experiences like Cyclone Idai resources.
Sironko, Manafwa, Namisind- Looking at the devastation that Mozambique experi- As such, crop and livestock
wa and Mbale has placed the that the floods and landslides enced in March this year with production are generally
number of displaced persons have put on the country, Dr. over 1000 lives lost,” he said, expected to be above-average,
at 25,000 while some 85,000 William Olupot, the Director “Uganda needs to take on though agricultural produc-
households were affected and of Nature and Livelihoods preparedness as opposed to tion reduced in areas that
21,500 hectares of crop and told The Independent on Dec.08 struggling when unprecedent- were severely flooded or have
plantation damaged. that it is high time disaster ed disasters hit.” been affected by locusts.
Still, in the low-lying east- management was prioritised This is not the first time that In Uganda, cropping condi-
ern Uganda regions of Teso and mainstreamed into gov- Uganda is experiencing flood- tions over much of northern,
and Bukedi, at least 55,000 ernment programmes. ing and landslides leading southern and eastern regions
people have been displaced He told The Independent to death of dozens of people are currently very good with
and over 120,000 hectares of that since the warning of and thousands displaced. Last much of the early planted
crop destroyed by floods. The heavy rains was published as year, at least 34 people were maize, beans and other puls-
northern part of the country way back as September, the killed when a landslide rolled es currently available in the
has also suffered losses of crop response in terms of putting down the slopes of Mount eastern, central, northwestern
and home destruction due to on notice the people in both Elgon in eastern Uganda, regions.
flooding.
This period of the year is
supposed to be the “rainy
season” in Uganda and much
of East Africa, according to
weather experts, but the rains
which are falling this year
have been described as ‘above
average.’
The rains have also left dev-
astation in several countries
in the region with close to
one million South Sudanese
affected, according to the
United Nations Office for the
Coordination of Humanitari-
an Affairs (OCHA).
Central African Republic
has seen more than 100,000
affected, Burundi (3,800 with
2 deaths), Democratic Repub-
lic of Congo (200,000 with 40
deaths), Tanzania (1,100, 44
deaths) and Kenya (160,000,
125 deaths).
Somalia has seen more
than 547,000 people affected The Uganda Red Cross staff braved the floods to rescue landslide victims on Dec.08.   COURTESY PHOTO
with 17 people dead, Ethiopia
(570,000, 23 deaths), Djibouti low lying zones and highlands wrecking homes and burying Meanwhile, crops in the
(150,000, 9 deaths) and Sudan should have been robust and people and animals. southwest are currently in
(426,000). The experts say the allocation of resources for In 2012, landslides advanced reproductive stages
the current rainfall season is emergency relief should have destroyed three villages in the and in better-than-average
expected to be one of the wet- been swifter, Olupot said. region while at least 100 peo- conditions. These crops are
test on record since the 1980s. Robert Kwesiga, the Secre- ple were killed in a landslide likely to be harvested in late
Ecweru said the govern- tary General of the Uganda in Bududa in March 2010. December.
ment had released Shs 20bn Red Cross Society concurs However, Joachim Ocan, a
(US$5.5 million) under the life with Dr. Olupot noting that Bumper harvest local leader in Lamwo District
saving and rescue phase to climate change should be a On a positive note, seasonal in northern Uganda told Ugan-
address the landslides situa- concern for Uganda. forecasts by the USAID-spon- da Radio Network, a local news
tion in the mountainous and “It is becoming our reality sored Famine Early Warning agency recently that there is
in flooding areas. as we have had challenges Systems Network (FEWS- looming hunger in his area.
The minister said the funds of un-anticipated weather NET) say that inspite of the Ocan said crops such as
will be used for procurement changes despite guidance recent second-wave of floods maize and beans planted in
of relief food, tarpaulins, and and predictions from the and landslides, much of the this second season have not
blankets, drugs for water weather experts,” Kwesiga eastern Africa region has survived the harsh weather, as
borne diseases, inflatable boats said in November as the Red significantly benefitted from a result of heavy rains.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 15
NEWS ANALYSIS

Refugees in Bidi Bidi settlement in Yumbe district in 2017.   (FILE PHOTO)

More money spent on Uganda’s


humanitarian crisis-Oxfam
Local NGOs face challenges of financial management,
fundraising personnel and governance
By Julius Businge approx.1.4million refugees according to data 2017 but fell further behind international

A
from government. agencies in terms of the proportion of overall
new report published by Oxfam in- Anita Kattakuzhy, the humanitarian poli- IHA received. Although volumes of indirect
dicates that Uganda received more cy advisor on localisation at Oxfam present- funding to LNHAs increased from $20.6mil-
funds for humanitarian support for ed the findings of the study. lion in 2016 to $29.3million in 2017, they
the year 2017 compared to 2016. She said in a bid to support the significant received a lower percentage of total annual
Dubbed “Money Talks II” Assessing increase in humanitarian need, the amount IHA due to the large growth in total aid
Humanitarian Funding flows to local and of International Humanitarian Assistance from 2016 to 2017.
national actors in Uganda from 2016-2017”, (IHA) flowing to Uganda more than dou- United Nations agencies and other multi-
the report was unveiled on Dec.10 at Mestil bled over the two years from $154million to laterals passed increasing volumes of fund-
Hotel in Kampala by Minister for Relief, $348.6million. Out of this figure, the share of ing to the government of Uganda (up from
Disaster Preparedness and Refugees Hilary this provided to Local and National Human- $12.8million in 2016 to $16.3million in 2017)
Onek, who applauded donors for support- itarian Actors (LNHAs) fell, however, from but not at a level commensurate with the
ing efforts by government to improve liveli- 13% in 2016 to 8% in 2017. overall growth of IHA to the country.
hoods for the poor. The government of Uganda was the UN funding levels to the Uganda Red
The two years that are covered by the largest recipient in both years in line with Cross Society stayed the same from 2016 to
report show an unprecedented and contin- signposted transition planning through 2017 at $1.8million, despite a doubling of
uous influx of refugees into Uganda, which UNHCR’s Comprehensive Refugee IHA over the period.
put enormous pressure on communities, the Response Framework (CRRF) in Uganda, On the other hand, funding to national
land and the capacities of humanitarian and but the proportion of total annual IHA NGOs by UN agencies fell from $3million in
development actors. received by the government fell from 8.3% in 2016 to $1.9million in 2017.
Large scale humanitarian responses were 2016 to 4.7% in 2017. This was attributed to the struggle by UN
required to meet the breadth and scale of LNHAs benefited from increases in vol- agencies to commit fully to the localisation
need, the report says. Uganda currently has umes of direct funding between 2016 and agenda due to increased compliance require-

16 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
NEWS ANALYSIS
ments either internally or from donors. also engage in coordinated dialogue with was aimed at identifying and eliminating
In addition, the report indicates that inter- donors, harmonise relevant laws to strength- NGOs operating illegally.
national NGOs showed a growing trend to en the role of local actors in humanitarian A total of 12, 089 were ordered by Internal
pass funds down to National NGOs (such preparedness and response work including Affairs State Minister Obiga Kania to stop
funding increased from $1m in 2016 to the NGO Act, the Local Government Act operations until they are validated. Kania
$4.1million in 2017) but they provided min- and the Refugees Act and ensure that all directed the Police, Financial Intelligence
imal levels of funding to local NGOs – just harmonisation protect humanitarian and Authority (FIA), banks, hotels, districts,
$0.2 million in 2017. civic space. sub-county authorities and other actors to
This, according to the report, perhaps It also recommends that government pub- crosscheck the status of any organisation
reflects both poor visibility beyond known lishes and disseminate regular updates to before dealing with them.
actors and the fact that the increased com- the mapping of national agencies that deliv- The Government had earlier in August,
pliance standards that NGOs are required to er humanitarian action. 2019 given all NGOs without valid permits
pass onto the transaction chain are bringing For donors, the report encourages infor- an ultimatum of a month to validate their
caution in passing funds down. mation sharing channels; either existing or credentials or be de-registered.
new that are fully inclusive of national and According to the validated National NGO
Improved partnerships international responders which can be used Register (UNNR) dated September 07, 2019,
The report says that the quality of part- to promote the transparency of humanitari- Uganda has a total of 2,118 NGOs.
nerships between international intermediary an funding flows.
agencies (UN and INGO) and LNHAs has Donors must ensure that UN and 90% cash for the poor
improved in the two years of this study peri- INGO-funded partners transparently state Minister for Relief Hilary Onek, said
od and there are is growing sense of trust and deliver against concrete milestones; that 90% of funding to the Ugandan NGOs
and a greater desire for reciprocity in such ring-fence funds targeting local actors, who should be invested in programmes that
relationships. have strong institutional capacity-strength- directly touch the lives of the poor.
However, the report says donors’ reduced ening components that include overhead He said, the balance (10%) should be for
appetite for risk and the effect of more rigor- costs. Donors are also encouraged to har- administration work for the NGOs. His
ous compliance requirements are apparent. monise and simplify financial reporting view, he said, is informed by reports that
The INGO personnel acknowledge a gap requirements. most NGOs spend more than 50% of the
between the spirit of intended partnerships Local and national agencies, are urged to funds meant to do humanitarian and devel-
and the realities forced upon them due to use a collective voice to define with inter- opment-related work on administration
short-term funding, short-lead-in times for national agencies, standard policies in areas (including heavy paychecks) which does not
requests for proposals and increasing com- transform lives of the poor.
pliance requirements. He also called upon NGOs and their
As a result, international agencies selec- funders to demonstrate high levels of
tively share funding opportunities and thus He said there accountability and transparency for the
limit the access of national agencies to infor-
mation on funding.
should be a money they get from donors.
Onek added that all NGOs must declare
Local actors perceive this filtering to be special fund the amount of money received by showing
driven by international agencies’ business
models which require them to strengthen
created to the source, how it is spent and the results
achieved.
their respective funding portfolios, the report boost internal “That is how we will know that you are
says.
It adds that national and local NGOs face
capabilities doing a good job,” he said and added “as
government we are accountable and we
challenges related to financial management, for NGOs to go want everyone to be accountable.”
fundraising. These include personnel and about their work Denis Alyela, from Humane Africa Mis-
governance which makes it difficult for them sion – an entity that houses local and nation-
to access funding directly. al actors, said that transparency, accountabil-
Participants at the report launch unani- ity and achieving results in poor commu-
mously agreed that should be strict mon- such as pay scales, organizational capacity nities requires money but also internal risk
itoring and evaluation of projects that are assessments, and reporting requirements; management systems within the NGOs.
donor funded to prevent a repeat of reported expand on diversification of the funding He said there should be a special fund cre-
misuse of funds for the past projects by both base and invest in learning activities. ated to boost internal capabilities for NGOs
government and NGO workers. For international agencies, the recom- to go about their work.
mendations are that, under the leadership of Alyela said the special fund can be
Recommendations United Nations High Commission for Refu- managed by an international agency like
The report has recommendations for the gees (UNHCR), they should work with the UNHCR or the Office of the Prime Minister
government of Uganda, donor governments, Office of the Prime Minister and donors to to ensure it is not abused.
local, national agencies and international strengthen a strategic vision and mapping of He also said international agencies can
agencies. For the government, it suggests the division of labour between international support operations of national and local
there should be strengthening of the minis- and national agencies towards the refugee NGOs through training and mentorship
try of finance’s capacity and commitment to response over time. using their experienced staff.
the provisions of the Public Finance Man- It also urges them to strengthen equitable “With partnerships of this nature, we
agement Act. It urges the ministry to pro- partnership approaches with other actors; can do much to change lives,” Alyela
gressively use its existing contingency fund, encourage dialogue with donors on matters said. He added that local and national
established to provide funding for responses funding and commit to practical methods for NGOs should be involved at district level
to natural disasters and other unforeseen building mutual accountability mechanisms. whenever there is a project that has fund-
circumstances, to support local actors to This development comes after two ing from donors to ensure that it achieves
respond. months when the government announced the anticipated results.
The report says the government should results of the NGOs validation exercise that

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 17
NEWS ANALYSIS

Tullow Oil plunges into period


of uncertainty as McDade quits
It is still unclear how the London departures
will impact on Uganda’s oil project

By Ronald Musoke West Africa to Guyana in South

O
America.
n Dec. 09, Paul Mc- Analysts say Tullow has been
Dade, Tullow Oil plagued by technical problems
Plc’s Chief Executive at its Jubilee field in Ghana
Officer, and Angus while a delay in completing
McCoss, the company’s Explo- a well at the TEN offshore
ration Director stepped down fields still in Ghana worsened
from their positions by “mutual Tullow’s woes.
agreement and with immediate But the Irish wildcatter has
effect,” sending the company’s also suffered setbacks in East
shares on the London Stock Ex- Africa as final investment deci-
change on a downward spiral. sions for its projects in Uganda
Dorothy Thompson imme- and Kenya have dragged on.
diately replaced McDade in In August this year, Tullow Oil
an acting capacity while Mark Plc announced the collapse of
MacFarlane, the executive a US$ 900 million farm down
vice-president, East Africa, was to its local partners Total E&P
appointed as Tullow’s Chief Uganda and China National
Operating Officer. Thompson Offshore Oil Corporation
thanked McDade and McCoss (CNOOC) and the local indus-
“for all their hard work and try has been in disarray.
dedication to Tullow over many It is still unclear how the Lon-
years.” don departures will impact on
“They leave behind a busi- Uganda’s oil commercialization
ness that has delivered two project which has been drag-
major offshore developments ging on for over a decade.
in Ghana, made significant oil Tullow which had a market
discoveries in Kenya and Ugan- cap of around US$ 2.6bn after
da,” Thompson said, “These the slump in it share on Dec.
remain the key building blocks 09, expects its net debt to stand
of our business today.” at around US$ 2.8bn at the end
The oil firm, however, said of 2019, and US$ 2.6bn at the
in a statement that the board Tullow’s new CEO Dorothy Thompson end of 2020. The group also
“has been disappointed by slashed its capital expenditure
the performance of Tullow’s after failing to meet production taking decisive action to restore programme and cut costs at its
business and now needs time to targets due to what analysts performance, reduce our cost operating fields. Tullow has US$
complete its thorough review of say is weak performance by base and deliver sustainable free 300 million in debt due in 2021
operations.” the company’s flagship assets cash flow.” and a further US$ 650 million
“Whilst financial performance in Ghana. Following a pile of McDade and McCoss’ res- in 2022.
has been solid, production per- debt, Tullow had since 2015 sus- ignations marked the exit of Going forward, Tullow said
formance has been significantly pended paying dividends to its Tullow’s old guard after the in light of these new produc-
below expectations from the shareholders only reinstating it company’s founder Aidan tion forecasts, there will be a
group’s main producing assets, this year. Heavey departed last year. thorough re-assessment of the
the TEN and Jubilee fields in “Despite today’s (Dec. 09) McDade replaced Heavey as Group’s cost base and future
Ghana,” added the statement announcement, the Board Tullow Oil Plc’s chief executive investment plans in order to
issued on the same day. strongly believes that Tullow in April, 2017. Both men were allocate appropriate capital to
Tullow which has a strong has good assets and excellent at the forefront of the compa- the Group’s core production
presence on the African conti- people capable of delivering ny’s rapid expansion in Africa assets, development projects and
nent also scrapped its dividend value for shareholders. We are overseeing discoveries from continued exploration. 

18 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
news analysis

The dark side of


plant-based food
There’s more behind that vegan burger than you think
By Agencies meats” (fake dairy, fake eggs) in the US and micronutrients worldwide, animal source

I
Europe, oft celebrated for aiding the rise of foods remain fundamental. But livestock
f you were to believe newspapers and the vegan movement. Such trends entrench also plays a critical role in reducing poverty,
dietary advice leaflets, you would prob- the shift of political power away from tradi- increasing gender equity, and improving
ably think that doctors and nutritionists tional farms and local markets towards bio- livelihoods.
are the people guiding us through the tech companies and multinationals. Animal husbandry cannot be taken out
thicket of what to believe when it comes to Estimates for the global vegan food mar- of the equation in many parts of the world
food. But food trends are far more political – ket now expect it to grow each year by near- where plant agriculture involves manure,
and economically motivated – than it seems. ly 10% and to reach around US$24.3 billion traction, and waste recycling – that is, if the
From ancient Rome, where Cura Annonae by 2026. Figures like this have encouraged land allows sustainable crop growth in the
– the provision of bread to the citizens – was the megaliths of the agricultural industry first place. Traditional livestock gets people
the central measure of good government, to step in, having realised that the “plant- through difficult seasons, prevents malnu-
to 18th-century Britain, where the econo- trition in impoverished communities, and
mist Adam Smith identified a link between provides economic security.
wages and the price of corn, food has been Often, those championing vegan diets in
at the centre of the economy. Politicians the west are unaware of such nuances. In
have long had their eye on food policy as a April 2019, for example, Canadian conserva-
way to shape society. That’s why tariffs and tion scientist, Brent Loken, addressed India’s
other trade restrictions on imported food Food Standards Authority on behalf of
and grain were enforced in Britain between EAT-Lancet’s “Great Food Transformation”
1815 and 1846. These “corn laws” enhanced campaign, describing India as “a great exam-
the profits and political power of the land- ple” because “a lot of the protein sources
owners, at the cost of raising food prices and come from plants”. Yet such talk in India is
hampering growth in other economic sec- far from uncontroversial.
tors.Over in Ireland, the ease of growing the The country ranks 102nd out of 117
recently imported potato plant led to most qualifying countries on the Global Hunger
people living off a narrow and repetitive diet Index, and only 10% of infants between 6–23
of homegrown potato with a dash of milk. months are adequately fed. While the World
When potato blight arrived, a million people Health Organization recommends animal
starved to death, even as the country contin- source foods as sources of high-quality nutri-
ued to produce large amounts of food – for based” lifestyle generates large profit mar- ents for infants, food policy there spearheads
export to England. gins, adding value to cheap raw materials an aggressive new Hindu nationalism that
Such episodes well illustrate that food (such as protein extracts, starches, and oils) has led to many of India’s minority commu-
policy has often been a fight between the through ultra-processing. Unilever is par- nities being treated as outsiders. Even eggs
interests of the rich and the poor. No wonder ticularly active, offering nearly 700 vegan in school meals have become politicised.
Marx declared that food lay at the heart of all products in Europe. Here, calls to consume less animal products
political structures and warned of an alliance Researchers at the US thinktank RethinkX are part of a deeply vexed political context.
of industry and capital intent on both con- predict that “we are on the cusp of the fast- Likewise, in Africa, food wars are seen in
trolling and distorting food production. est, deepest, most consequential disruption” sharp relief as industrial scale farming by
of agriculture in history. They say that by transnationals for crops and vegetables takes
Vegan wars 2030, the entire US dairy and cattle industry fertile land away from mixed family farms
Many of today’s food debates can also be
will have collapsed, as “precision fermen- (including cattle and dairy), and exacerbates
usefully reinterpreted when seen as part of a
tation” – producing animal proteins more social inequality.
wider economic picture. For example, recent
efficiently via microbes – “disrupts food pro- The result is that today, private interest
years have seen the co-option of the vege-
duction as we know it.” and political prejudices often hide behind
tarian movement in a political programme
Westerners might think that this is a price the grandest talk of “ethical” diets and plan-
that can have the effect of perversely disad-
worth paying. But elsewhere it’s a different etary sustainability even as the consequences
vantaging small-scale, traditional farming in
story. While there is much to be said for may be nutritional deficiencies, biodiversi-
favour of large-scale industrial farming.
rebalancing western diets away from meat ty-destroying monocultures and the erosion
This is part of a wider trend away from
and towards fresh fruits and vegetables, in of food sovereignty.
small and mid-size producers towards
India and much of Africa, animal sourced For all the warm talk, global food policy
industrial-scale farming and a global food
foods are an indispensable part of main- is really an alliance of industry and capital
market in which food is manufactured
taining health and obtaining food security, intent on both controlling and distorting
from cheap ingredients bought in a global
particularly for women and children and food production. We should recall Marx’s
bulk commodities market that is subject to
the 800 million poor that subsist on starchy warnings against allowing the interests of
fierce competition. Consider the launch of a
foods. To meet the 2050 challenges for quali- corporations and private profit to decide
whole new range of laboratory created “fake
ty protein and some of the most problematic what we should eat.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 19
news analysis

Happier times: South African Airways receives its first leased A350, currently deployed on the Johannesburg –
New York route. Can this fuel-efficient type turn around a heavily loss-making long-haul operation?

South African Airways:


Will it survive?
By agencies

A
Route performance: declining yields as load factors fall
fter writing, South African Airways
has entered bankruptcy protection. The airline has been steadily reducing mainline capacity at Johannesburg since
As yet, it’s unclear what this means 2013, in a bid to cut losses as part of its ‘Long Term Turnaround Strategy’.
for the long-term future of the air-
line, but the airline must show appointed
financial practitioners it can secure the funds
to avoid liquidation according to South Af-
rican law.
The trials and tribulations for South Afri-
ca’s national carrier have been documented
for years. It has not been agile due to politi-
cal interference in commercial decisions – a
challenge for state-owned carriers across the
world. And it has been damaged interna-
tionally by a number of factors. It now seems
a rescue loan may be a bridge too far for the
South African government.

South African Airways fleet: A340s not


suited to hot-and-high Johannesburg
A key pitfall in recent years was the air-
line’s decision to order A340s. These aren’t
well-suited for the challenges of long-range
operations from its hot-and-high hub, Johan-
nesburg (5,500ft). In addition, as fuel prices
rose from 2007, the four-engine type was less
capable than rival twins or higher-capacity Source: OAG Traffic Analyser
quads used by Emirates, among others.

20 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
news analysis
The majority of long-haul capacity to/from the African
continent is served by non-African carriers. This market
is saturated, yet we see startups attempt to serve such
routes and ultimately fail to make a profit. South African
Airways, even being a legacy carrier of over 80 years’
standing, is no exception.

Source: South African Airways annual reports

Despite the lack of published statements, the trend is


clear. Liabilities have been increasing steadily at 20% p.a.
on average since 2013, from $1.1bn in 2013 to a projected
Source: OAG Traffic Analyser
$3.3bn in 2019 based on this rate. Meanwhile, shareholder
equity has been steadily declining, and unit cost rising.
This can be seen in deteriorating fare performance, as
rivals gain market share and poor load factors (with 76%
the highest in a five year period for South African) force
the carrier to loss-lead to attempt to fill aircraft. This is
particularly telling on its three longest routes – Hong Kong,
New York JFK, and Washington Dulles – with each posting
at least 9% drops. Indeed, the carrier has announced the
suspension of Hong Kong flights, with fares significantly
below the trend curve. Guangzhou will be served instead,
but Johannesburg – Guangzhou has even lower average
fares across all airlines.

Source: South African Airways annual reports

After a promising 2016, losses almost quadrupled in


2017 as costs surged against stagnant revenue. Could the
answer for South African Airways be to park its loss-making
long-haul fleet, and refocus around a simplified short-haul
Source: South African Airways annual reports operation? Until the last reported statement at least, this
side of the business posted small but vital operating profits.
The carrier could also benefit from the long-awaited Single
Lower competition in Southern African markets African Air Transport Market, which 27 nations have signed
historically meant the airline could enjoy healthy profits on an initial commitment to join.
such routes. However, results from the airline’s short-haul
profit lifelines have been steadily declining. Source: Airline Network News

Cash runs out as debt set to reach $3bn


Ultimately, amidst the network difficulties and strategic
missteps, the crux of the issue crippling South African
Airways is relatively simple: rising costs, debt, and
revenues failing to match. Tellingly, since 2017, the airline
has opted to stop releasing annual statements; a year in
which net losses quadrupled.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 21
news analysis

Can Africa industrialise


in its present form?
Lessons from Europe
By Dr. Eng. Kant Ateenyi Kanyarusoke: anywhere else. Here, we will focus on those Relevant to most countries in sub-Saharan
M-ASHRAE; M-SASEE which could be more helpful in today’s Africa today, is the observation that prior to

T
sub-Sahara Africa. These can be grouped England’s industrial revolution, historians
his is Part 2 of Dr. Eng. Kant Ateenyi under 4 areas: Geography, Governance, report one in agriculture. To the authors
Kanyarusoke’s four part series titled: Intellectual Scientific freedom, and Commer- however, both revolutions seem to have
` Can Africa industrialise in its pres- cialisation. been intersecting parts of a creativity and
ent form? – Lessons from elsewhere’. Geography availed the inhabitants with innovation continuum running through
Here he discusses what he calls “enabling an island separated and protected from England in the eighteenth century. Jethro
factors for industrialisation”. Wherever the attacks and instability of continental Europe Tull’s 1701 efforts to improve a seed drill and
industrial revolution found root, in form at the time. It availed many navigable rivers Joseph Foljambe’s 1730 ones on the plough
of manufacturing, there were predisposing and plenty of fresh water for both trans- are quite similar to those of 1709 Abraham
conditions for it. Some conditions repeated port and future process industries. The sea Derby on making Pig Iron using coke
themselves in different countries but others provided the island with deep water river instead of charcoal or of Thomas Newcomen
were unique to specific societies. In this estuaries, allowing easy and cheap connec- on the 1712 steam power and later, of 1769
article, we explore these factors in England tion of the hinterland to the rest of the world James Watt;s innovations on Newcomen’s
and in continental Western Europe - the pre- for commerce. London city, for example, engine. The point is that these and other
sumed original areas of today’s modernity. developed because of its location on the innovations took place in an era of great
Thames-North sea estuary. Huge deposits of desire - and in a country giving the freedom
Conditions in England at onset of the best quality coal and rich iron ore all over the - to apply the then existing scientific knowl-
revolution island were the key raw material precursors edge in solving Man’s problems. Similar and
to the revolution. Later, crude oil deposits in concurrent innovations existed in non-me-
Many reasons have been given by history the North Sea were to spark developments chanical sciences applications as well. Thus,
researchers as to why the revolution we in controlled combustion and chemical pro- Robert Bakewell’s and Thomas Coke’s work
are discussing started in England and not cesses. on selective breeding of domestic animals,

22 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
news analysis
adoption and refinement of crop rotation, sive rural-urban migration. In fact, the more us how nations could industrialise in peace
along with land reclamation methods learnt urbanised north even lagged the rural south. times, France shows us how war can lay
from the Dutch were effectively used in This is an important lesson for many African seeds for industrialisation. Lacking sufficient
a purely British system of legislated land countries. Yet many other lessons can be quantities of iron and coal, burdened by a
enclosures to produce large quantities of drawn from Germany’s industrialisation. In reactionary conservative aristocratic mon-
food. These in turn led to a rapid population spite of having large deposits of iron, coal archy ruling over a low fertility but largely
growth on shrinking ‘free’ land, and thus and being fairly ahead of Britain in chemical rural subsisting population on limited land,
drove people to cities, where they could then processes, Germany industrialisation lagged France lagged her neighbours in industri-
provide low cost labour for industrialisation because of disunity occasioned by a multi- alisation. They tried to steal British textile
to meaningfully take off. tude of more than 30 states, each trying to technology during King Louis VI’s reign but
Geography and Science aside, histori- protect its own little market. Some states had failed. Even after the 1789 violent overthrow
ans point to peace and political stability allowed free migration of English craftsmen of the monarchy, take-off was slow, with
provided by a progressive monarchy since like the Cockerill brothers in 1782/84 and many businessmen fleeing to neighbour-
1689 as an important precursor to the rev- Irishman William Thomas Mulvay in 1866. ing Britain. That was to become a blessing
olution. The overthrow of the autocratic The former copied and built a British – like because, there, they and their families learnt
English catholic monarch, King James II textile factory in Ratingen in 1784 while the skills that would accelerate railway and loco-
and replacement by his daughter, Mary II latter was to be instrumental in establishing motives building such that by 1850, France
and her protestant Dutch husband William Iron mining in the Ruhr region. Thousands had built the biggest number of locomotives
III as joint rulers ushered in a golden era of of British workers were recruited to mine in Europe. That is lesson number one from
intellectual and commercial freedom. Prot- coal, start and run coke-based blast furnaces, France: Africa’s diaspora who run away
estantism encouraged hard work, scientific manufacture steel for railways and cannons. from either economic or political hardships
enquiry, technological progress, entrepre- It was, however, not until after Chancel- on the continent need to be acquiring engi-
neurship, and intellectualism. It challenged lor Otto Von Bismark’s 1871 unification of neering and technical skills wherever they
and overcame Catholicism’s conservatism
of the previous era. With the new mon-
arch’s agreement to submit to parliament,
and pronouncement of the English bill of
rights, it was easier to convince Scotland
to merge its parliament with England’s in
1707, thus forming a most powerful single
political and economic nation, Great Britain
then. The new monarchy eliminated feudal
tolls all over the island, actively supported
entrepreneurs and developed a national
free market system. It set up a formal British
royal intellectual society. Because of the new
found liberty, intellectualism went beyond
formal British nationhood. Informal intellec-
tual societies centred in England, covering
continental Europe and European- settled
Americas were formed. They enabled quick
transmission and cross fertilisation of ideas
and scientific thoughts in Britain. More-
over, intellectuals harassed in countries
still under the yokes of catholic monarchs in the German states that the country began are, so that when times improve back home,
Europe then, found welcoming refuge in free to make huge strides in industrialisation, they, or their offspring can come back and
England. Karl Marx – from Germany - was establishing itself as the leader of the second deploy the skills to industrialise.
one such intellectual. These developments, Industrial revolution. Following unification, Chaos and war financing troubles not-
therefore, gave England an important head the country focused on Technical Education, withstanding, the 1803-1815 Napoleonic
start in use of science to develop technolo- Chemical, Mechanical and Electrical Engi- wars and the earlier ones since 1792 availed
gies that would set off and sustain the first neering development, quickly overtaking coal and iron from conquered Belgium,
industrial revolution. Britain to acquire world leadership in these helped build rail, road and canal infrastruc-
areas and in production and exports of fer- ture. Additionally, necessity to clothe and
The 2nd phase: Industrialisation of tilisers, chemicals and automobiles. feed large numbers of front line soldiers
Europe The key lessons for today’s Africa provid- helped to establish and grow the textiles
ed by Germany are therefore: Discard the and food canning industries. The sewing
Industrialisation in continental Europe borders and/or tariff and non-tariff barriers; machine was invented by the French in
lagged Britain’s by about 50 years, or two eliminate any form of economic discrimi- this era. Later cooperation with Germa-
generations. It took off first in Belgium after nation based on places of origin or on other ny’s Daimler, produced the Peugeot and
an English migrant, John Cockerill set up a irrational sectarian criteria; focus on technical Renault cars. Clearly the lesson for African
series of factories in the coal and mineral-rich and engineering education; actively seek and countries in conflict is that heightened
Wallonia region in the socialist South of the source willing highly skilled persons from defence and security requirements in such
country in mid 1820s. Thus, raw materials wherever else, and facilitate their migration situations, should be used to develop local
availability and permissiveness to allow and integration within the local communi- long term capacity to manufacture related
settlement of non-indigenes were the two ties. Proactively support and protect bud- products, and hence, to industrialise. In
key factors responsible for initiating indus- ding technical enterprises irrespective of Part 3, we will look at lessons for Africa
trialisation in Belgium. Unlike in Britain, it ownership. from USA, USSR, and Japan.
was not pushed by capitalism nor by mas- If Britain, Belgium and Germany teach

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 23
Domestic marine cargo covers
could boost insurance market
Presently importers insure their cargo in
the country of origin through their suppliers

F
By Isaac Khisa Executive Officer at the Insurance Regu- insurance from domestic insurers will
latory Authority (IRA) of Uganda (IRA) also not only benefit domestic insurers
or many decades, Uganda’s told The Independent in an interview but mostly benefit importers.
insurers and reinsurers never that they are rolling out the mandato- “Buying insurance from domestic
imagined that they could ry domestic purchase of marine cargo insurers will create convenience to the
cash in on marine cargo in- insurance service in partnership with the importers in lodging claim(s) in the
surance business amid the Uganda Revenue Authority (URA) effec- event of a loss or damage to property.
large volume of business in- tive January 2020. This is because the importer will be
volved in international trade. Importers will be required to submit dealing with domestic insurer(s) who are
This is due to the fact that importers, their customs clearance documents easy to access,” he said.
for unknown reasons, insured their together with the Marine Cargo Insur- “Secondly, there will be faster cover
cargo on transit via sea, air or land, ance Certificate on the URA Single Win- placement and compensation of claims,
with foreign insurers, denying domestic dow during cargo clearance at the coun- and thirdly; the importer(s) and export-
insurers of millions of dollars, and hurt- try’s border points. er(s) will have control on the insurance
ing their growth. “Implementation of the initiative will placed, scope and terms and conditions,”
However the trend is facing a rapid be optional for importers during the first he added.
change, thanks to the government’s six months of the year,” said Kaddunabi. Kaddunabi said buying insurance
change of tactic insisting that importers “However, starting July 2020, all import- from domestic insurers will facilitate
purchase marine cargo insurance from ers will have to buy Marine Cargo Insur- growth of domestic insurers as they will
domestic insurers. ance from domestic insurers. Non-com- have more business and more revenue to
This fulfils the ambition of United pliant importers will face penalties.” facilitate research and development for
Nations Conference on Trade and Devel- Currently, importers insure their cargo the benefit of customers.
opment’s (UNCTAD) mooted more in the country of origin, through their Though it is difficult to ascertain the
than 40 years ago, which advocated for suppliers, a situation industry executives amount of money that insurers in Ugan-
domestic insurers to tap into marine car- say makes the country lose millions of da lose as a result of importers using
go insurance like is the case in Sweden, dollars in foreign insurance business as their foreign counterparts, data from the
Germany and France, for their growth. well as foreign exchange. Intergovernmental Standing Committee
Ibrahim Kaddunabi Lubega, the Chief Kaddunabi said purchasing marine on Shipping based in Zambia, shows that

24 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
business
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia in their sixth siting in Nairobi, Kenya, in ing into account their national eco-
send out a minimum of US$500million 1979, states that domestic insurers lose a nomic interests as well as the insured
annually in insurance premiums. This is substantial amount of business to foreign interests – the insurance operations
through importing on Cost Insurance & insurers because the volume of foreign generated by their economic activities,
Freight (CIF) and exporting on Free on trade insurance business tends to be including their foreign trade as far as it
Board (FOB). very large in most developing countries is technically feasible.
Statistics from IRA shows that domes- compared with the volume of business
tic insurers have recorded a minimal generated by other classes of insurance Insurers’ reaction
growth in marine and aviation premi- in their domestic market. Allan Mafabi, CEO of Britam, and
ums from Shs 24.5bn (US$6.6million) in “It is no secret that in developing the chairperson of Uganda Insurers
2013 to Shs 33.2bn (US$9million) in 2018. countries (such as Uganda), out of all Association said the new development
Yet the value of the country’s exports insurance classes, marine cargo, premi- is welcome as it will facilitate growth
and imports have increased from um wise, is the most promising class of of the country’s insurance sector whose
US$2.8bn and US$6bn to US$3.6bn and business,” the paper states. penetration has remained low.
US$7.4bn during the same period under “Its close connection with import Uganda’s insurance penetration
review, according to Bank of Uganda. and export trade, which represents the stands at less than 1%, making it one of
fastest exporting sector of the national the lowest in the East African region.
Other countries making similar move economy, makes marine cargo particu- Kenya’s insurance penetration stands
Several African countries including larly important.” at approximately 2.7%, Tanzania’s at
Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia under their 2.3% and Rwanda at 1%.
umbrella organisation, Intergovernmen- On the other hand, Uganda’s gross
tal Standing Committee on Shipping underwritten premiums have increased
(Iscos) are also pursuing similar initia- Educating from Shs463bn (US$125.8million) in
tives to end repatriation of millions of 2013 to Shs856bn (US$232.6million) in
dollars in marine insurance premiums. customers 2018.
The Tanzania Insurance Regulatory
Authority (TIRA) in collaboration with will minimise Alex Mbonye, the CEO at the Ugan-
da Shippers Council said they welcome
Insurance Institute of Tanzania (IIT)
has unveiled a digital platform portal
incidences the new initiative due to the fact that it
will ease importers trouble of chasing
that helps Tanzania importers to buy of insurance for claims abroad.
insurance covers from domestic insurers
for all imported goods in the country firms claiming “We are also optimistic that the pre-
miums will remain within our econ-
as required by the amendment of Arti-
cle No. 133 of the Insurance Act of 2009.
that their omy and thus help boost the value of
our local currency,” he said.
The Tanzania Imports Insurance Portal customer did Meanwhile, Protazio Sande, the
(TIIP) (www.tiip.co.tz) is currently active
and available for use by all importers, not understand Director Research and Market Devel-
opment at the IRA told The Indepen-
clearing agents, insurance agents, insur-
ance brokers and companies. The plat-
their dent that the insurance industry has to
educate prospective customers prior
form covers imports either by road, rail, obligations to selling them any insurance services
sea or air. including Marine Cargo Insurance ser-
Tanzania Revenue Authority now vices so that they purchase their pre-
requires proof of purchase of Tanzanian ferred products and services based on
marine insurance prior to issuance of clear knowledge.
import clearance. He said educating customers will
Neighboring Kenya approved the The paper further states that while minimise incidences of insurance firms
Marine Cargo Insurance Policy in 2016 domestic insurers tend to rely on claiming that their customers did not
to ensure that importers and exporters domestic businesses for growth, their understand their obligations and thus
insure their goods with domestic insur- performance is usually minimal owing deny them compensation in the unex-
ers instead of using foreign insurers. to the fact that majority of the popu- pected loss.
Like in Tanzania, Kenya Revenue lation is in rural areas, have low per “If we continue doing the same thing
Authority requires importers to use capital income and have limited aware- and expect different results, then, defi-
domestic insurers for marine insurance ness. nitely, there’s something wrong with
and it is used as one of the preconditions Another argument in favour of insur- that. We must do things differently,”
during cargo clearance. ing marine cargo locally, is the savings Sande said. “We need to be innovative
Section 20, Subsection (1) of the in foreign exchange which domestic along the entire insurance value chain
Insurance Act, CAP 287 states that “No cover of foreign trade risks might bring – from product development to claims
insurer, broker, agent or other person about, the paper adds. payment.”
shall directly or indirectly place any However, the paper states develop- He added, “The customers that the
Kenya business other than re-insurance ing countries need to be cautious in industry is dealing with are not interest-
business with an insurer not registered dealing with exports as importers may ed in listening to anything else except
in Kenya without the prior approval, prefer to deal with their local insurers fast claims payment.”
whether individually or generally, in back home. Sande stressed that coming up with
writing of the Commissioner.” UNCTAD at its third session, various innovations such as micro insur-
A paper presented by L.P Buol, the affirmed that developing countries ance, bancassurance, and tech-enabled
then chief special programme on insur- should take steps to enable their insurance products without educating
ance at UNCTAD, during the Federation domestic insurance markets to cover the masses on how to go about it will not
of Afro-Asian insurers and re-insurers, marine cargo insurance markets – tak- boost the country’s insurance industry.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 25
business

Jumia expansion hits snag


The company quits Rwanda, Tanzania and Cameroon markets
By Julius Businge shoppers, surpassing the 2018

E
numbers by over 50%.
-commerce has been ICT players say Jumia
slowly gaining traction Uganda business is well run
in Africa in recent years. internally but say, external
As a result, the popular factors relating to the economy
talk has been that e-commerce and government tax policies
firms are making money off and incentives will determine
people’s obsession with surfing its future operations.
and shopping on the internet. “I believe the internal struc-
That assertion seems to be ture is solid,” Albert Mucun-
untrue as evidenced by Jumia’s guzi, the chairperson of the
announcements on quitting the ICT Association of Uganda
Rwanda, Tanzania and Camer- told The Independent on
oon markets. Dec.09. He added:
However, the company’s “… The shutdown in
executives at Jumia Uganda Tanzania and Cameroon are
told The Independent on Nov.08 based on merit and I applaud
that the local subsidiary is executives said that as part of in the short-term in the other them for taking that strong
doing well. their ongoing portfolio optimi- countries where they continue decision…if something is not
Jumia listed on the New zation effort, they had come to operating. working, there is no need to
York Stock Exchange in April, the difficult decision to cease It is currently in Nigeria, keep pushing it.”
becoming the first Africa-fo- their operations in Tanzania Egypt, Morocco, Kenya, Côte However, he said, different
cused start-up worth more effective Nov.27. D’Ivoire, South Africa, Tunisia, players have to encourage
than $1bn, according to the “It is more important now Algeria, Ghana, Senegal and people to get online other than
Financial Times. than ever to put our focus Uganda. stopping them to get online.
Though the shares peaked and resources where they can “There is need for internet
$49.77 weeks after its listing, bring the best value and help Uganda’s subsidiary on solid access incentives, incentives for
they [shares] have fallen to us thrive,” the group statement ground computers and smartphones,”
$5.96, giving it a market capi- reads in part. he said.
talisation of just $458.3million. It adds that while their oper- Meanwhile, Ron Kawamala He said the unfair taxation
This is about a tenth of its all- ations in Tanzania provided told The Independent on Nov.8 regimes such as the one on
time high. many opportunities for cus- that their business model in the Over- the-Top and related
Jumia said the decision to tomers and vendors, this deci- Uganda is built on a solid regulations should be made
quit the markets relates to fail- sion would help the company ground that delivers on qual- fair to aid people to join the
ure by the online company to to achieve greater success in ity, speed and good customer internet eco-system that sup-
make money to sustain oper- the future. care. port growth of businesses like
ations. However, it said that it He said Uganda’s online that of Jumia instead of having
The company said they are would continue to support market remains small when them move physically to mar-
engaged in taking e-commerce customers to transact through compared with developed kets to do shopping.
to profitability and drive pene- its classifieds portal, previously markets like the United King- He said, internet usage has
tration of JumiaPay, an online called Jumia Deals. dom and America but was not grown beyond 15% in the
payment platform. For Cameroon, group offi- optimistic that the country’s last 12 months in Uganda part-
“Sometimes we make deci- cials said its transactional young population hold the ly because of OTT regime and
sions to change the scope of portal was not suitable to the future for online transactions related high costs.
countries or categories. . . but current environment in the given that they are active inter- Mucunguzi said that Jumia
it is in the normal life of a country which forced group net users. is the most popular online site
company to adjust the focus, executives to effect a difficult He also said that innovations in Uganda and is employing
but the strategy remains very decision to suspend its e-com- is one component driving their many people including those
much the same,” said Sacha merce operations effective on business. who are selling goods online
Poignonnec, the firm’s co-chief Nov.18. The company has since 2014 and contributing to adoption of
executive. After these developments, it been running promotional digital and financial inclusion.
Jumia makes money from remains unclear whether more Black Friday – a window that “It is in everyone’s interest
sales made by vendors that operations will be closed in sees vendors sell their goods that it should not leave,” he
use their online platform to other markets. at discounted prices to online said. He said Jumia officials
sell goods to online shoppers. However, Abdesslam Ben- shoppers. should deliver on quality
The goods include electronics, zitouni, the group head of The company said in a state- similar to what other popular
home appliances, fashion and communication told Quartz ment shared on Dec.09 that the world players like Amazon do
more. Africa – a news entity – that just concluded Black Friday if they are to remain a darling
In a statement, Jumia group Jumia has no closure plans attracted large volumes of for online shoppers.

26 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
Executive Style

Liquid Telecom sees potential in


bundled technology services
It is nearly nine months ing the adoption of ICT
since you become CEO for Liquid Telecom for businesses as well as
Liquid Telecom Uganda.  is a leading government?
What is your assessment In 2017 Liquid Telecom
of data usage compared
Pan-African launched its Innovation
with other countries in the communications Partnerships aimed at sup-
region? solutions porting the growth of dig-
The fixed Internet service provider with ital technology innovation
market has been growing presence in over across Africa. By bringing
year on year over the last 13 countries. together key players from
five years, making this Liquid Telecom’s within the region’s inno-
market close to200, 000 CEO in Uganda, vation ecosystem, Liquid
subscribers. There is a good Telecom is helping technol-
Dennis Kahindi,
growth, and there’s room ogy companies originated
for more. On the other hand, spoke to The and founded in Africa to
the mobile internet usage Independent’s scale through mutually
is seeing a reverse trend for Isaac Khisa beneficial partnerships.
reasons I would not like to about how the To drive the uptake and
delve in now. Compared to company is adoption of ICT, we are
other countries in the region, helping to build working with Incubation
Uganda’s internet penetra- Africa’s digital and Acceleration programs
tion pales in comparison to future. such as the Innovation Vil-
Kenya. We have more room lage in empowering youth
for growth, not our neigh- to create ICT businesses
bours. we bring adaptive solutions that Liquid Telecom has now con- and exploring how technology
simplify this digital transition. nected Cape to Cairo, East and can impact our society in a pos-
 What is Liquid Telecom’s tar- In November 2019, we extended West of the African continent. itive way.
get customers? our collaboration with Microsoft What does this mean to the
Liquid Telecom serves carrier, as a launch partner in Africa for company and the customers? Where do we see Liquid Tele-
enterprise and retail customers the new Azure Peering Service. Bringing major continents com in the next 10 years?
with high-speed, reliable con- This modern enterprise cloud closer together via the most Access to high-speed broad-
nectivity and digital services. networking service uses Liquid direct fibre link connecting East band is providing the founda-
We have built Africa’s largest Telecom’s unrivalled fibre net- to West Africa via DRC is history tions for digital growth and
independent fibre network, work, strategically located data in the making. In 2018 Liquid innovation across the continent.
approaching 70,000km, and centres and cloud architecture to Telecom launched a direct land- Start-ups and businesses in
cover four Wholesale Data, provide organisations with opti- based fibre link between Cape Africa are experimenting with
Enterprise, Retail and Wholesale mised, reliable Internet connec- Town and Cairo and in July emerging technologies, such as
Voice. tivity to Microsoft services, such this year, we started work on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Inter-
as Microsoft Office 365. connecting South Sudan to the net of Things (IoT), Big Data
I also understand that you rest of the continent. By con- Analytics and Blockchain, that
offer cloud services. How is Over the past years, provid- necting East to West Africa via have the potential to solve Afri-
your assessment of the market ers of internet services have DRC with a direct land-based can problems and improve lives.
uptake so far? What is your increased but the cost has fibre link, more African cities, We are improving cloud capabil-
pricing like? remained high. What is the rea- more communities and more ities across the region – provid-
Cloud services rely heavily on sons behind this trend? businesses will have access to ing both the infrastructure and
connectivity and that is why we On the contrary, the cost of reliable and faster internet con- tools to accelerate digital innova-
have combined our expansive Internet has fallen significantly nections than ever, and many tion. Approximately 20% of Afri-
reach, innovative digital services over the last 10 years, partly for the first time. This will bring ca’s population is aged between
and premium partners to drive informed by the entry of many proven economic and social 15 and 24, making the region as
the African Cloud revolution. Internet Service Providers into benefits throughout the coun- the youngest in the world. We
Together we work towards the the market, but mostly influ- try, including vastly improved recognise that the development
advancement of cloud services enced by the entry into the mar- healthcare, education, social wel- of digital skills will be critical to
to help drive our customers’ ket by Undersea Cable provid- fare and trade as we continue to both their future and a success-
digital transformation. Liquid ers. The price will continue to go expand Liquid Telecom’s ‘One ful digital economy. Over the
Telecom brings local billing, down, customers will demand Africa’ Broadband Network. next 10 years, Liquid Telecom
on-the-ground support, man- value more than connectivity, will be that much close to build-
aged services and assistance. and this is the place for Liquid What plans does Liquid Tele- ing Africa’s digital future.
Moving to the cloud is a journey, to play. com have in as far as encourag-

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 27
business
CSR TOURISM

Airtel Uganda renews Buganda Sponsorship Government unveils


Dec.05. graced by Buganda Tulambule X-mas promotion

S
Kingdom officials led by
the Katikkiro, Charles Peter tate Minister for Tourism, Wildlife
Mayiga and Airtel Uganda and Antiquities, Godfrey Kiwanda
officials led by Mr. V.G. has unveiled the Tulambule Christ-
Somasekhar, the Company’s mas promotion 2019.
Managing Director. Tulambule will this year traverse south
western Uganda in areas of Kigezi includ-
During the event,
ing; Lake Bunyonyi, Lake Mutanda and
Somasekhar thanked the
Mgahinga National Park.  Speaking at
Buganda Kingdom for
Ndere Culture Center in Kampala, Kiwanda
once again giving Airtel an
said Uganda is ready for the festive season
opportunity to take part in
and that Ugandans sharing their experienc-
their activities for another es online will open the country to the world.
Airtel Uganda MD, V.G Somasekhar (3rd R), Buganda Kingdom
Katikiro, Charles Peter Mayiga (2R) and executives from both three years. He said the tourism ministry has entered
entities during the review of the ongoing partnership and The Katikkiro of Bugan- into agreements with top hotels and other
sponsorship of various activities. da, Charles Peter Mayiga institutions to reward Ugandans during the

A
appreciated Airtel Uganda campaign which will run until January 2020.
irtel Uganda Dinner/ Mass Celebrations, for their commitment to the Additionally, the campaign encourages
has reiterated its Coronation Celebrations, people of Uganda by con- travelers to widely post about their
commitment to Eid and Masaza Cup for 3 tinuing to sponsor activities experiences on Facebook, Twitter, and
Buganda Kingdom years, 2020-2022. such as the Kabaka Run that Instagram in a way that inspires others to
initiatives by renewing their The announcement was have shade light onto com- make the same trips and stand chances to
ongoing partnership and made at a press conference munity health concerns such win prizes. The digital campaign will be
sponsorship of the Kabaka held at the Buganda King- as fistula, Sickle Cell Disease run through the Uganda Tourism Board
Birthday Run, The Birthday dom offices in Mengo on and now AIDS. social media channels.

BANKING
CSR
GCR upgrades Afreximbank dfcu Bank official sponsors of Kabaka Birthday Run

G
lobal Credit Rating (GCR) has announced
an upgrade of the African Export-Import fcu Bank in

d
Bank’s (Afreximbank) long-term interna- partnership
tional scale rating from BBB+ to A-. GCR also with the Bugan-
affirmed the Bank’s short-term rating at A2 and the da Kingdom has
outlook as stable. announced a three-
In the announcement released in Johannesburg, year partnership that
South Africa, on Dec.05, the rating agency said that, sees the bank become
in granting the upgrade, it acknowledged Afrexim- the official bank spon-
bank’s tenacity and resilience in managing risks in sor for the Annual Ka-
its operating environment, which was generally per- baka Birthday Run.
ceived to be high risk. “The ratings on Afreximbank The sponsorship
balances its significant exposure to high risk operating unveiling happened at
environments, fairly strong and diverse membership the Buganda Kingdom
base, demonstrated preferential creditor treatment, offices in Bulange, dfcu’s CEO Mathias Katamba (R) exchanges the signed
strong status within the region and good track record Mengo on Dec.04 partnership contract with his Majestic Brands counterpart,
of fulfilling mandate, beyond adequate current levels where dfcu Bank was Ronald Kawaddwa as Buganda Kingdom Katikiro, Charles
of capitalisation, strong risk position, stable funding represented by its Peter Mayiga (C) looks on. 
and good liquidity position,” GCR said. According CEO, Mathias Kat-
to agency, the new rating also captures the Bank’s amba who signed an and ultimately protect new infections, there is
key strength in structured trade finance which agreement and handed women against infec- a need for more collab-
demonstrates its ability to de-risk its lending portfolio over a Shs 562.7million tion. This partnership orative effort to drive
through high quality collateral comprising cash, insur- cheque. is in line with dfcu’s awareness and test-
ance from highly-rated insurers, sovereign backed For the next three Corporate Social ing,” Katamba said.
securities, assignment of receivables (which transfers years, the Kabaka’s Investment interven- The Katikkiro of
repayment risk to OECD countries), amongst others. Birthday Run will be tion area of maternal & Buganda, Charles
“This upgrade confirms stakeholders’ deep con- championed under the child health in the con- Peter Mayiga applaud-
fidence in Afreximbank’s compelling credit story, cause; ‘Men against text of HIV/AIDS. ed dfcu Bank for its
which is punctuated by hard work and an innovation AIDS to save the girl “Despite the signif- continued support and
culture,” said Afreximbank President Prof. Benedict child’, which is aimed icant progress in the commended it’s com-
Oramah, in reaction to the announcement. “Afrex- to drive awareness last decade resulting mitment to joining the
imbank is committed to continuing to develop and
about HIV/AIDS and in a 58% decrease in Kingdom in the fight
implement innovative risk management approaches
encouraging men to AIDS-related deaths against HIV/AIDS.
in the management of its lending book and capital.”
get tested, get treated and 57% decrease in

28 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
business

Uganda Airlines to fly to Zanzibar


By The Independent the launch of Mombasa a

U
month ago.
ganda Airlines has Zanzibar has in recent
added yet another years established herself
key destination as a premier 5-star
in East Africa – destination with a number
Zanzibar starting Dec.16. of internationally branded
The airline already flies resorts operating across the
from Entebbe to Nairobi, so called ‘Spice Island‘ but
Mombasa, Juba, Bujumbura, also offers affordable smaller
Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro hotels suitable for family
and Mogadishu with vacations on a budget.
Zanzibar becoming the Guided tours through
carrier’s 9th destination. ‘Stone Town‘ and visits to
The new development spice farms and the slave
Uganda Breweries Managing Director Alvin Mbugua (Right) and Edith Kagoya, tightens competition for the caves are just some of the
Head of Programs at Sight Savers Uganda exchange documents after signing a destination that is already activities which visitors can
memorandum of Understanding to promote equal employment opportunities for
differently abled people in the company and the labour market system. Looking served with other regional enjoy while on the island.
on is Ambrose Murangira, Disability inclusion adviser from Light your world, airlines such as Kenya The airline also plans
Netherlands.  INDEPENDENT ALFRED OCHWO Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, to fly to the Democratic
RwandAir and Tanzanian Republic of Congo, South
airlines through their hubs. Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia,
The flight UR320/1 Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan.
combines with Dar es By the end of 2020 or in
Salaam, which is served early 2021 will the airline
daily already out of Entebbe take delivery of two ordered
and three weekly flights, Airbus A330-800Neo aircraft
on Monday, Wednesday to then enter the long haul
and Friday, will as of market with flights to
the December.16 th route India, China and the United
on to Zanzibar before Kingdom.
then returning to Entebbe Uganda Airlines was
nonstop. reived in August this year to
The new service further tap into the growing number
opens up the Swahili coast of tourist arrivals and the
for leisure, but also business business community in the
travellers from Uganda, after East African nation.
The Director of Traffic and Road safety, Dr. Stephen Kasiima (L), Vivo Energy
Gilbert Assi (3rd L) and State Minister for Works in the Ministry of Works
& Transport, General Katumba Wamala flag off the 2019 Tweddeko Caravan
in Kampala on Dec.05. This initiative, which is part of Vivo Energy Uganda’s
on-going Tweddeko campaign, will relay practical road safety messages and
training to the communities located in accident prone areas along Kampala-
Luwero-Gulu Highway.   Share price movement (Nov. 25)
Security Nov. 25 Sep.03 Movement
BATU 30,000 300 00
BOBU 125 130 3.8
CENT 1,075 1,037 3.6
QCL 127 130 2.3
DFCU 650 650 00
EABL 7,352 6,985 5.2
EBL 1,752 1,422 23.2
JHL 12,922 13,177 1.9
KA 104 89 16
KCB 1,790 1,430 25
NIC 11 12 8.3
NMG 1,450 1,356 6.9
NVL 321 325 1.2
SBU 24 24 00
Mbabali Natasha (2nd R), MADS company fashion director announces UCHM 12 10 20
shs10 million to be worn by youth. MADS youth talent fashion and UCL 10 14 28
design will celebrate third years on Dec.14 at the Miracle Centre Cathedral.  UMEME 297 297 00
INDEPENDENT ALFRED OCHWO ALSI -- -- --

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 29
Teeth brushing
A
By agencies

study in Korea has once


again found that brushing

keeps heart healthy?


your teeth is linked to a
lower risk of atrial fibrillation
(a type of arrhythmia) and
heart failure. The study
was published in` European Journal of
Preventive Cardiology’.
Time and time again, researchers keep
Strange link shows up in yet another study
finding a strange link between oral hygiene
and the health of a person’s heart.
It could simply be a coincidence, or it such a mechanism even exists. But already relationship was impossible.
could indicate that gum disease and tooth there are several thoughts on what could be Nevertheless, the conclusions match
loss are closely tied to our cardiovascular the cause. results from last year, which found that
system. Right now, we don’t have enough While it might sound crazy, what goes those who brushed their teeth less than
evidence to say for sure - but there’s a new on in your mouth can have a strong impact twice a day had a 3-fold increase in the risk
study shedding some light on the issue. on your overall health, and it’s something of having - or dying from - a heart attack.
While many studies have shown a we’re only just coming to realise. For At the time, cardiologist Ann Bolger
link between oral hygiene and heart example, recent studies have indicated that warned that such results do not prove
issues, research from 2017 analysing the cause of Alzheimer’s disease could be causation, and it’s entirely possible that
data from nearly a million people found linked to bacteria involved in gum disease. those who are attentive to their dental
no relationship between tooth loss and When it comes to the plaque in our health are also careful about health in
cardiovascular disease. arteries, the plaque on our teeth also seems other parts of their body, including
Obviously, one study isn’t enough to to matter. One theory is that bacteria living making lifestyle choices that benefit their
topple the entire idea, but further research in between the teeth and the gums can cardiovascular fitness.
is required before we can say anything enter the bloodstream and change the gut Even now, an editorial on this latest
for sure, especially given recent intriguing microbiome. This can then trigger systemic study from two independent experts warns
results. inflammation, which is known to facilitate that it’s still too early to draw any more
The large new study in Korea involved valve injury, myocardial damage, and even inferences.
161,286 people. It once again found that heart failure. “The causality of these associations
brushing your teeth is linked to a lower risk But just as one study cannot topple is unclear, and it is certainly too early
of atrial fibrillation (a type of arrhythmia) these ideas, neither can one prove them. to recommend tooth brushing for the
and heart failure. While the research from Korea follows a prevention of [atrial fibrillation] and [heart
During a 10.5 year follow-up, adults large group over a long period of time, failure],” they write.
between the ages of 40 and 79 who brushed these strengths are diminished by several “While the role of inflammation in
their teeth three or more times a day had a limitations. the occurrence of cardiovascular disease
10 percent lower risk of atrial fibrillation and Subjects were asked to report their own is becoming more and more evident,
a 12 percent lower risk of heart failure. brushing patterns; only individuals in intervention studies are needed to define
What’s more, these findings were the Asian population were considered; strategies of public health importance.”
independent of age, sex, socioeconomic no actual electrocardiography or As of now, there’s no proof that treating
status, regular exercise, alcohol echocardiographic findings were used; and gum disease will prevent cardiovascular
consumption, body mass index, and similar the presence of periodontal diseases was disease, but given these compelling
health issues such as hypertension. never confirmed. results, experts say the potential link is just
To be clear, the researchers did not Plus, while the study was done over a another reason to be vigilant about your
explore the exact mechanism underlying long period of time, it was retrospectively oral health.
tooth brushing and cardiovascular issues, if analysed, which means identifying a causal

30 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
HEALTH

Fat is good for older people


As we get older, too few pounds can be just as harmful
By Agencies illness or falls, or sustain an individual training in your exercise regimen to help

A
during hospitalisations. Being too lean may build muscle.
ccording to the National Center for decrease your physiologic reserve, Eastman
Health Statistics, about 43 percent says. “If something happens, like you get Who needs to lose?
of women and 38 percent of men 60 pneumonia or fracture a hip, you don’t have Whether excess weight is harming your
and older are obese. as much energy stores to draw on, so you health depends on a few things. First,
However, some evidence suggests that in get depleted and can’t recover,” she says. although BMI is not always the best mea-
older people, defining overweight and obe- sure, it can guide you to have a discussion
sity is tricky, and a few extra pounds may be Who needs to gain? with your doctor.
healthy. While researchers continue to study the Next, where you carry your weight is
“It’s kind of a controversial area in terms effects of a few extra pounds on older adults, important. Visceral fat—the kind around
of where the cutoff points for overweight it’s clear that being very thin—a BMI below your midsection—is the most dangerous
and obesity should be in older adults,” says 18.5—is risky, and those people should try to because it surrounds and sometimes accu-
Denise Houston, Ph.D., R.D., associate pro-
fessor of internal medicine at the Wake For-
est School of Medicine. Here’s the lowdown
on weight as we age.

Weighty issues
There’s no doubt that being too heavy is
harmful to health. “In the older population,
carrying too much extra weight makes
many chronic conditions worse, including
heart and liver disease, osteo­arthritis, and
sleep apnea,” says Alexis Eastman, M.D.,
medical director for the division of geriatrics
at the University of Wisconsin School of
Medicine and Public Health.
And the higher your weight, the greater
the risk of concerns such as type 2 diabetes
and high blood pressure.
But the way overweight is typically mea-
sured—BMI, or body mass index—may not
be the best indicator of health risks in older
people.
A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered over-
weight, while a BMI of 30 or higher is obese.
However, BMI can be misleading.
“BMI is correlated with how much fat
a person has, but it’s an imperfect mea-
sure,” Houston says. For example, it doesn’t put on weight. mulates inside the arteries and organs, such
account for related factors, such as muscle Appetite loss is common with age, but as the liver, heart, and pancreas.
mass, where fat is located, gender, ethnici- there are a few ways to combat that. Eat “There are studies showing waist cir-
ty—or age. smaller meals more often and choose high- cumference may predict chronic conditions
Houston says that an older adult perhaps er-calorie, nutritionally dense foods, such as better than BMI,” Houston says. For men it
shouldn’t be considered overweight unless avocado, nut butters, or whole milk yogurt. should be 40 inches or less and for women
BMI is 27 or 28. In fact, a 2014 analysis of 32 You can also drizzle healthy oils, such as 35 inches or less; measure just above the hip
studies in the American Journal of Clinical olive oil, on vegetables, meats, fish, or bread. bones.
Nutrition found that the lowest mortality In addition, make sure you’re getting Last, if you’re short of breath or have pain
risk for people ages 65 and older was seen in enough protein—it will help you maintain or discomfort when you’re moving around
those with a BMI of 27 to 27.9. muscle mass. By some estimates, close to or doing normal daily activities, your weight
Other studies have had similar findings. A one-third of older adults living independent- may be an issue. Talk to your doctor, who
2017 research review published in the jour- ly have sarcopenia—age-related muscle loss. will review your health and family history
nal `Medicine’ found that obese older adults Muscles help give your body structural to determine whether you should drop
had a 6 percent decreased risk of dying integrity, protect joints, and maintain bal- pounds.
early from any cause. And a 2015 study of ance. Having too little muscle can lead to
more than 19,000 nursing home patients, abnormal movement patterns and poor Healthy weight-loss rules to follow
published in `Obesity Reviews’, also linked posture, which can cause aches and pains If you’re too heavy, losing as little as 5 to
overweight and obesity to a longer life. and increase fall risk. Even as you try to gain 10 percent of your weight can have a healthy
Extra weight may help protect against weight, stay active and include resistance impact on blood pressure, blood sugar, and

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 31
HEALTH
cholesterol levels, Houston says. Before you
try a fad diet, though, keep these essentials
in mind:
Augmented bed nets cut
malaria cases by 25 %
Opt for real food. For most people, diet is
the key to weight loss. Eating whole foods
vs. processed and avoiding empty calories
(such as crackers or sugary beverages or
snacks) will help ensure that you’re getting
plenty of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other But the contribution of
nutrients.
Consider adding more protein. It may conventional bed nets to malaria
help keep you fuller longer. Current guide-
lines recommend 0.36 gram of protein per control should not be ignored
pound of weight, but older adults may need
0.6 gram per pound to prevent sarcopenia By Esther Nakkazi conventional nets.

I
and 0.7 gram for weight loss. (That’s 96 to “Less female Anopheles mosquitoes mean
112 grams daily for a 160-pound person. A nsecticide-treated bed nets combined less infective bites to community members,
4-ounce chicken breast has 32 grams.) with a new chemical could cut malaria which in turn leads to reduced transmission
Eastman recommends working with a cases by about 25 per cent, a study in of malaria infection,” Donnelly explains.
doctor or dietitian to find your right protein Uganda shows. Researchers say that According to Donnelly, the number of chil-
intake. Have protein—lean meats, poultry, despite widespread use of long-lasting in- dren testing positive for malaria parasites in
fish, yogurt, tofu, nuts, or beans—at every secticidal nets in Sub-Saharan Africa, their a 12-month period after the nets were dis-
meal; spreading it out makes it easier for the impact on malaria control is lower than ex- tributed was 25 per cent lower than for those
body to build muscle. pected because mosquitoes are increasingly under nets treated with PBO.
Get some exercise. “You have to preserve becoming resistant to insecticides called py-  Researchers randomly selected about 23,000
your muscle mass,” Eastman says. “Every rethroids used to treat the bed nets. children between two and ten years old in
older person should engage in some sort of The WHO has endorsed the new chemical 5,200 households in Uganda, and divided
strength and endurance exercise.” called piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in the inter- them into two groups, with one group sleep-
im to augment ing under bed
Unexplained weight loss existing treated nets augment-
If you’ve lost more than 5 percent of your bed nets in ed with the
weight over the last six months to a year— areas where new chemical
without trying to—always check with your resistance is while the oth-
doctor to rule out underlying conditions. common, the er group are
Cancer, diabetes, dementia, and thyroid researchers sleeping under
issues can all lead to unintended weight loss. add. In a large- nets treated
If there’s no obvious cause, your doctor will scale trial in solely with
explore other factors. Uganda that pyrethroid
“The body is programmed to seek out was launched insecticides.
food, so if someone’s losing weight, there in February The find-
must be something else happening,” says 2017 and is ex- ings after 12
Cary Kreutzer, M.P.H., R.D.N., with the USC pected to end months show
Leonard Davis School of Gerontology. in April 2020, that malaria
“In that case, we look at a few things: Are the researchers parasite re-
they not eating properly because they lost are comparing the effectiveness of bed nets sistance was 10.7 per cent in the PBO arm
their sense of smell or taste? Do they have with the standard chemical and those with compared to 14.5 per cent in the group not
the ability to shop and cook, and have com- the new chemical in reducing malaria cases. having the new chemical.
pany at mealtime? Maybe they’re depressed “PBO long-lasting insecticidal nets were Medard Rukaari, the officer in charge of
or it’s a side effect of medications, or maybe more effective than conventional nets in universal bed net distribution at the Uganda
alcoholism is involved.” Uganda, where resistance to pyrethroid National Malaria Control Programme, tells
Depending on the cause, consider work- insecticides is high,” says Martin Donnelly SciDev.Net that when “PBO-impregnated nets
ing with a dietitian, who can help you plan an expert in the genetics of insecticide resis- were distributed massively in February 2017,
meals that have adequate calories and nutri- tance at the UK-based Liverpool School of a drastic malaria reduction was achieved
ents. Tropical Medicine and a co-leader of the trial within six months of its distribution”.
“It may be more palatable to eat frequent in Uganda. Rukaari adds that the government is
but smaller meals and snacks,” says Wake Researchers presented the preliminary already distributing PBO-impregnated bed
Forest School of Medicine’s Denise Houston. findings of the study last month at the 68th nets as part of the Uganda’s malaria control
Just remember that food quality is still annual meeting of the American Society of strategy. Donelly says that the contribution
important. Instead of loading up on junk Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in the Unit- of conventional bed nets to malaria control
food to add calories, opt for whole foods. ed States. should not be ignored.
Include fruits and vegetables—especially Researchers say that the new chemical “The results highlight that conventional [bed
berries and leafy greens, which in addition to blocks the resistance of mosquitoes to the nets] provide protection and may still have a
being rich in vitamins are also high in com- insecticide in the bed net. role in vector control programmes in settings
pounds that may help fight inflammation According to the researchers, households where insecticide resistance and malaria
and preserve brain health. supplied with the PBO-treated bed nets had transmission are low,” Donnelly explains.
80 per cent fewer malaria-carrying female  
Source: Consumer Reports On Health. mosquitoes compared to households using Adapted from Scidev

32 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
comment
By Valentine Namakula
Uganda’s War against Corruption
Accounting officers should be on the frontline

T
o say that corruption is wide spread changed for the better under the respec- If the spirit of enterprise, bold inno-
in our society is an understatement. tive leaderships of Silver Mugisha and vation and transformation is to survive
It touches everything and everyone William Muhairwe. and spread leading to leaps in service
but the poor and marginalised have Companies can be registered in one delivery, leaders of institutions like NSSF,
the most to lose since wealthier citizens can day now at the Uganda Registration Ser- URA, UNRA, URSB, NWSC in which
privately source the services that corruption vices Bureau, thanks to the leadership of a culture of service delivery has most
denies all of us. For the poor, those alterna- Bemanya Twebaze, who turned it from prospered, must champion it elsewhere
tives are out of reach. maladministration into a service delivery within the public sector.
Over the last two decades, a lot of institution. Working with other service delivery
innovation and experimentation has This is what the entire public service institutions to reveal and address their
happened in response to corruption but needs to study, adapt and emulate. The fraud/waste and mismanagement vulner-
even with these efforts, Uganda sits in lesson is that being clear that no one size abilities will be a good start.
150th position out of 180, according to fits all is important in this struggle. Robust partnerships focused on these
Transparency International’s Corruption If properly incentivised, supported and vulnerabilities could stimulate new forms
Perception Index. The response can and called to account, institutional heads/ of fraud-elimination innovations and
should be vastly improved. accounting officers, can do more than any service delivery enhancers that we can all
For some reformers, this may require other system to reduce opportunities for not imagine now.
uprooting the current regime. After all, corruption, waste and mismanagement. At the same time, treating all accounting
the regime had “fighting corruption” on Presently, accounting officers wait for officers as equals by the anti-corruption
its 10-point programme and has so far the fraud to be detected and sanctioned efforts misses the fact that three quarters
done too little from their perspective. externally by the so called “accountability of the national budget delivering 65% of
For others, it is a call to roll back reforms institutions”: the Inspectorate of Govern- the services come from just a handful of
including decentralisation and estab- ment, Auditor General’s Office and the institutions.
lished special purpose agencies. PPDA or some whistle-blower. Starting off with intense packages of
For sure, reforms in responding to Others stress the need for speedy inves- support and incentives to selected service
corruption in today’s Uganda should be tigations into misconduct by public offi- delivery agencies, would leave many
more than an addition of legislation, an cials in their institutions. All these actions excluded, but might break the impasse of
institution or a lobby group, or support constitute shirking one’s duties. no/low action, and might push enough
to one part of government. It requires a Thinking about a service value chain is of the institutions onto a steeper service
near-complete concerted overhaul. How- similarly essential –service delivery and delivery trajectory to benefit all – and that
ever, we should also be careful not to corruption perceptions alike respond can be widely replicated.
throw the baby out with the bathwater. often not to a single institution’s contri- Just as accountability institutions have
There is immense value to harness from bution, but to the overall levels across the to think differently about the role of
the innovation and experimentation that public sector. accounting officers in the response to
has happened over the past two decades. If URA drastically reduced fraud corruption, so too must service users, civil
These reforms teach us a lot about within its ranks, and Ministry of Lands society, media, political leaders, private
crafting the response that corruption did not, a service beneficiary seeking for sector and academia.We all must support
requires. registration of the land title may not feel the accounting officers to up their game
What is needed and has worked before the effect. in accountability.
is, institutional transformative change Media, academia, private sector and
spearheaded by the accounting officers of NGOs efforts should contribute to a more
public institutions. granular understanding of the magnitude
A number of public institutions have Media, academia, of corruption and accountability issues,
been transformed when their accounting private sector and bring their wisdom to bear on poten-
officers/heads have driven the fight
against corruption and maladministra-
and NGOs tial solutions.
Sanctions, the most widespread response
tion, creating a service delivery culture efforts should currently, should be left for what they can
from within.
They shaped, constrained and influ-
contribute to a definitely achieve- signal, obtain general
deterrence, and reinforce the measures
enced people’s behaviour and choice of more granular introduced by accounting officer.
actions. Uganda Revenue Authority tran- understanding of
sitioned from very high to low levels of Valentine Namakula is the Director of the
corruption under Commissioner General, the magnitude of Strengthening Uganda’s Anti-Corruption
Allen Kagina. corruption Response-Technical Advisory Facility
Water and related services can now be (SUGAR-TAF), a UK and EU-funded
delivered more efficiently and the pro- programme
vider-consumer interaction has entirely

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 33
comment
By Patrick Gaspard
Why African cultural restitution matters
It is about more than confronting the legacy of
colonialism and its effect on global power dynamics

F
rench Prime Minister Édouard historical wrongs. Sarr-Savoy Report, commissioned by
Philippe recently presented an an- Colonialism rested on the disavowal the French government, has launched a
tique saber to Senegalese President of African art, music, and architecture. global conversation about the return of
Macky Sall at the presidential palace Brutal leaders such as Ian Smith, the items looted from Africa. The report’s
in Dakar. But it was not a gift. The saber was prime minister of Rhodesia (now Zim- authors, French art historian Bénédicte
coming home, more than a century after it babwe) in the 1960s and 1970s, legiti- Savoy and Senegalese writer Felwine
had been stolen. mised horrific abuse and injustices by Sarr, recommended the immediate,
The repatriation of an item with deep undermining the culture of African unconditional return of any cultural
historical, spiritual, and cultural signif- people, thereby erasing their humanity. objects gained through theft, plunder,
icance might seem like a mere gesture For decades, the Open Society Founda- pillage, despoiling, or unequal exchange
of colonial redress. But this ceremony tions have supported those at the front during colonial times.
was different, and it was about much lines of societal transformation. We rec- Since the report was released in
more than a single physical object. In ognise the power of art and culture to November 2018, the global movement
fact, it was a watershed moment in the call into question structural inequalities, for art restitution has strengthened con-
West’s recognition of the cultural damage challenge prejudice, and foster the imag- siderably. Official claims have been filed
inflicted by colonialism. ination of a new generation of leaders. for the restitution of historical artifacts
The saber in question belonged to El Our cultural heritage forms the bedrock and human remains to Ethiopia, Senegal,
Hajj Omar Tall, founder of the Tou- of the stories that we share to make sense Benin, and Nigeria. But a lot of work
couleur Empire, which once extended of our place in history – and in the world. needs to be done to turn hopes of cultural
from present-day Senegal into Mali and And at its core, the creation of cultural restitution into reality.
Guinea. Tall was a respected religious artifacts is fundamentally a manifestation The number of artifacts missing from
leader and anti-colonial resistance fighter. of human hope. Africa is staggering. The Royal Museum
His weapon, along with tens of thousands Recognising this, the Open Society for Central Africa in Belgium currently
of other pieces of looted African heritage, Foundations are launching a new $15 holds 180,000 pieces of Sub-Saharan
had been in French hands since the 1890s. million initiative to strengthen efforts to African heritage. The British Museum in
Exhibited in French museums, the saber ensure the restitution and re-appropria- London and the Musée du Quai Branly
ceased to symbolise the military prowess tion of artifacts looted from the African in Paris each hold about 70,000 African
of a once-powerful dynasty, and instead continent. Over the next four years, historical artifacts. This is in stark contrast
told the tale of an African empire’s dec- we will be supporting citizens, artists, to the size of the holdings of museums in
imation, thereby legitimising the racism educators, indigenous communities, Africa. Alain Godonou, a historian and
and prejudice that underpinned the colo- civil-society organisations, museums, uni- curator from Benin, estimates that the
nial period. versities, and other institutions working inventories of most national museums in
Tall’s family had been campaigning for to return Africa’s heritage to its rightful Africa do not surpass 3,000 objects. The
the saber’s return since 1944, and they home, and to nurture in future genera- Open Society Foundations, working with
finally won their fight last month. Descen- tions of Africans a sense of ownership of our African partners and others around
dants traveled to Dakar from towns in their history, culture, and identity. the world, are working to change that.
Guinea, Mali, and Senegal to witness its Africa’s young people, in particular, Restitution is about more than con-
homecoming. The saber will remain in have been demanding control over their fronting the violent legacy of colonialism
Senegal for five years while the French own destinies, recently ushering in – a legacy that continues to affect power
parliament determines whether it – and sweeping change in Ethiopia and Sudan. dynamics in Africa and around the world.
other objects – will be permanently resti- They recognise the importance of their It is about supporting the work that young
tuted. cultural heritage, and have been cam- Africans are doing to transform the dated,
This moment would have been unimag- paigning for the return of African arti- racist narratives about their diverse cul-
inable just a few years ago. European facts. Having realised that young people tural heritage and rich history. It is about
governments, ministries of culture, are a critical force on a continent where giving current generations the means to
museums, and universities have long the population is expected to grow by shape a better future for themselves. It is,
refused to recognise the immorality of more than one billion, to 2.5 billion, by at its core, about restituting agency to a
the circumstances in which Africa’s cul- 2050, many former colonial powers have continent defining its path forward.
tural patrimony was removed from the begun to listen.
continent. The handover of the saber was In a 2017 speech delivered to a full audi- Patrick Gaspard, former United States
thus highly symbolic, auguring a shift in torium at a university in Burkina Faso, Ambassador to South Africa, is President of
power dynamics and a renewed respect French President Emmanuel Macron the Open Society Foundations.
for Africa’s vibrant history. It also attests pledged to make the return of African
to the persistence of Africans – young artifacts a priority. “African cultural Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
and old, both on the continent and in the heritage,” he argued, “can no longer be
diaspora – in mobilising to demand that held captive in European museums.”
leaders of former colonial powers right And since then, the groundbreaking

34 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
comment
By Larry Hatheway
Restoring central banks’ credibility
When the playbook of slashing interest rates
to spur the economy no longer works as well

R
ecent jumps in equity prices and Such differences could matter in the event ever it takes” to save the euro. Yet he never
bond yields suggest that recession of a severe slump that requires extraordinary mustered the same resolve to ensure that
fears are receding. But the global measures. To take an extreme example, the inflation would reach the bank’s mandated
economic expansion cannot last Fed cannot unilaterally create “helicopter target.
forever, and when the next recession comes, money” – a metaphor invoked by Milton Economists agree that credibility reinforces
central banks may not be adequately pre- Friedman to describe how a central bank monetary-policy effectiveness. If consumers,
pared to respond. Enhancing central-bank might distribute cash directly to individuals workers, and businesses don’t believe that
credibility to bolster the effectiveness of in order to stimulate consumption. To create a central bank is committed to achieving
monetary policy is thus an urgent priority. cash (a central-bank liability), the Fed must its mandate, they will adjust their behavior
Before the 2008 financial crisis, central purchase an asset. Yet because private-sector accordingly. Low inflation expectations will
bankers could rely on slashing interest IOUs are not eligible assets, the Fed cannot lead to low inflation outcomes.
rates to spur consumption, investment, and distribute cash directly to the bank accounts Those outcomes are not costless. When
employment. But that playbook no longer of ordinary Americans (nor could it drop $20 inflation is too low, it is harder to push down
works as well as it once did. One reason bills from the sky, even if it had the helicop- real interest rates, particularly if citizens
is elevated uncertainty, owing to globali- ters). oppose negative nominal rates. In such cir-
sation, societal aging, changing consumer So, in the U.S. case, helicopter money cumstances, a central bank that is unwilling
preferences, growing income and wealth would actually have to be a fiscal transfer to commit to its inflation target partly sur-
inequality, rising health-care costs, rapid from the federal government to its citizens, renders its most important policy tool: the
technological change, and other factors. underwritten by Fed purchases of Treasury ability to cut real interest rates in the event of
Even in the absence of recession, for many securities. As such, it is a policy that only a downturn.
households and businesses, the future seems Congress and the president can enact. The Forfeiting policy tools is especially prob-
daunting and unpredictable. problem is that legislating such measures lematic now that the traditional transmission
This uncertainty will exacerbate the down- would take considerable time, whereas the channels for monetary policy are proving
turn when it comes. When uncertainty next economic or financial crisis will prob- less effective. Easing policy is less likely
spikes, low or even negative real (infla- ably require swift and decisive action. to depreciate the currency and boost net
tion-adjusted) interest rates may not induce To be sure, helicopter money is typically exports if other central banks are doing the
higher spending. Rather, savings may rise viewed as a last resort. But even less het- same. And while loose monetary policies
and investment may falter even as interest erodox policies may be hamstrung by policy may boost asset prices, consumption won’t
rates plunge. If governments are unwilling norms. For example, the Fed has been reluc- increase much if the benefits are accruing
or unable to boost demand with fiscal policy, tant to endorse the option of breaching the only to the wealthy.
the result will be a prolonged and deep eco- “zero lower bound” (ZLB) and introducing Whenever the next downturn comes, it
nomic slump. negative policy rates. Yet if the equilibrium will be too late to remedy central banks’
Few would doubt that monetary policy real interest rate falls below zero, as seems shortcomings. But by making changes before
should be eased in such circumstances. In likely in the next recession, that self-imposed they are necessary, central banks can restore
theory, central banks have extraordinary ZLB limitation could pose problems. their credibility. For example, the ECB could
means to respond, through negative interest In fact, the Fed’s own staff has estimated immediately announce a “whatever it takes”
rates, asset purchases, “forward guidance,” that the ZLB floor could prevent it from commitment to a symmetric inflation target,
and the like. Yet, in practice, central banks delivering an appropriately low real interest and then back it up with a round of easing.
face tight constraints, which means that their rate as often as 40% of the time, given plau- Doing this when confidence in growth is
response to the next recession may prove sible estimates of the neutral real policy rate returning would send a powerful signal that
insufficient. and the odds of below-trend growth. Such the policy change is structural and not just
Broadly, these constraints fall into two failures could threaten the next recovery, another belated cyclical Band-Aid.
categories: laws or established policies that and even the Fed’s independence. Central bankers should also revisit legal
define what monetary policy can do; and Central bankers also face political and and self-imposed policy constraints, with
political and institutional limits that hem in institutional constraints. In Europe, financial an eye toward amending or removing those
central banks’ decision-making. The legal institutions (particularly the Bundesbank), that could hinder policy flexibility in “tail
limitations vary according to the political pensioners, and savers dislike negative risk” scenarios. Demonstrating a willingness
and institutional environment and history of interest rates. Whether these constituencies’ to act before the crisis arrives is a costless
a central bank’s jurisdiction. In conducting opposition to monetary-policy easing has way for central banks to safeguard their
open market operations, for example, the prevented the European Central Bank from most important asset: the belief that they
U.S. Federal Reserve may purchase only acting as forcefully as it might otherwise know what they’re doing.
debt securities issued or guaranteed by the have done is an open question. But, clearly,
U.S. federal government. In contrast, the an air of timidity has damaged the ECB’s
Bank of Japan may purchase private-sector credibility. Larry Hatheway is Group Head of Investment
securities such as equities or corporate The ECB staunchly opposes high infla- Solutions and Group Chief Economist at GAM.
bonds, giving it potentially greater latitude tion, but has been tolerant of below-target
to expand its balance sheet and stimulate inflation. In 2012, then-ECB President Mario Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
corporate finance. Draghi famously committed to do “what-

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 35
comment
By Yoga Adhola
What is ideology?
Why Museveni’s efforts to artificially imbue the NRM with
some sort of ideology in Kyankwanzi has so far failed

W
hen Mugisha Muntu left FDC, logical realisation of where your funda- From this statement they go on to con-
he argued that he had had mental interests lie is crucial if the mission clude that ideology was a false conscious-
differences with his colleagues is to succeed.” The use of the word “ideo- ness. They arrived at this because the
over ideology. Journalist logical” is totally meaningless. The concept working class was getting imbued with
Ivan Okuda disagreed. He wrote on his needs a serious look into. Since Ivan Okuda the ideology of the bourgeoisie and inter-
Facebook wall: “I am perplexed at why mentioned my name, I feel obligated to preting the world from a bourgeois per-
journalists and commentator in Uganda jump in and define this concept. spective. And this was giving them a false
confidently say the FDC fall out was on I need to point out at the outset that ide- picture of life.
ideological differences. In fact even General ology, the concept, evolved. It first made This was to change when Marx and
Muntu, a university graduate, says the two appearance in the later part of the 18th Engels got more mature. The `German Ide-
ideologies couldn’t be reconciled. Mzee century in France. The very word ideology ology’ was written when Marx and Engels
Yoga Adhola must be gnashing his teeth was the brainchild of a French nobleman; were still developing ideologically. The
each time he hears this. Antoine Louis Claude Comte Destutt de mature Marx and Engels were to revise this
Defiance can’t be an ideology. Building Tracy. He was part of a group of French and embrace the view that the dominated
party structures can’t be an ideology. Tac- intellectuals who called themselves ideo- classes also have ideologies.
tics, methods? Yes. Ideology? That’s an logues. In their maturity, Marx and Engels came
insult. The group became very critical of Napo- to the view that every social class has an
We could even ask if FDC was actually leon’s imperial policies. To this opposition, ideology. Further, that the ideology is a
ever founded and run on ideology and Napoleon reacted with very intense hos- reflection of the collective experience of the
what that ideology was. The same question tility. He called them names and labelled members as a social class. Also, that while
is relevant for NRM. I am not sure those them dreamers or people living in illusions. the ideology of the bourgeoisie can be false,
who fell out with General Museveni ever Thereafter, for over 50 years there was no that of the proletariat is not.
did so on ideological grounds. development on the concept. In later time, ideology theorists came to
Sometimes it is a difference of opinion, A watershed in the development of the realise that collectives like social identities
the prevailing sentiment over actions concept was reached when Marx and too can evolve ideologies.
like amending the constitution, failure to Engels came on the intellectual scene. The In modern times ideology has come to
resolve personal difference, egos becoming two argued in their book, `The German Ide- mean “...(1)the basic conceptualisation, that
too fat or just posturing. Ideology has a ology’ thus: “Men are the producers of their is, the conceptual prism through which one
long time to come in our peasant politics. conceptions, ideas, etc. - real active men, as views and analyses the world; the image of
We aren’t there yet.” they are conditioned by a definite develop- the future society to which one aspires; and
Yet Mugisha Muntu is not the only one ment of their productive forces and of the (3) the objectives set for achieving such a
who has problems understanding the con- intercourse corresponding to these, up to its society.”
cept, ideology. President Museveni prob- furthest forms. Consciousness can never be Contrary to this, Museveni views ide-
ably has even a more serious problem. He anything else than conscious existence, and ology as some sort of left-wing silver bullet
makes erroneous statements about ideology the existence of men is their actual life pro- or magic wand which can solve all prob-
in his book, “The Mustard Seed 1”. cess. If in ideology men and their circum- lems. All you need to do is imbue people
On page 47, he wrote: “The whole of stances appear up-side down as in a camera with it.
the 1960s decade in Uganda’s political obscura, this phenomenon arises just as Yet nothing could be further from the
life was a period of intrigue, culminating much from their historical life process as truth. Ideology arises from the historical
in Obote virtually abandoning power to the inversion of objects on the retina does experiences a collective goes through. It is
Amin. These intrigues among politicians from their physical life process.” that experience which gets reflected in the
had so weakened mass movements such as This complicated argument can be simply mind as an ideology.
DP and UPC that Amin just picked up the translated that it is our common experience It is, therefore, not possible to artificially
mantle of power from a political leadership which gets reflected in our minds as ide- imbue a collective with an ideology. The
emasculated by its own ideological narrow- ology. most one can do is lead a people to find an
ness….” The phrase “ideological narrow- Our own Mahmood Mamdani has put ideology within themselves i.e. from their
ness” is absolutely meaningless. it thus: “Common conditions (experience) experiences. Having done that, you can
He also wrote on page 120: “Yet again, the beget a common consciousness and when then help them refine or develop it.
unprincipled alliance between UPC and these are conditions of oppression and It is for this reason that I argue that the
KY proved tragic for our country and was exploitation, they beget a consciousness of NRM has no ideology and cannot evolve
a testimony to UPC’s treachery, political struggle.” one as some NRMs think. There is no
incompetence and ideological bankruptcy.” Marx and Engels also went on to argue: common historical experience which brings
I do not need to point out that there is abso- “The ideas of the ruling class are in every NRMs together.
lutely no meaning in the adjective ‘ideolog- epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is
ical’ here. the ruling material force of society, is at the Yoga Adhola is a leading ideologue of UPC.
He further wrote on page 175: “The ideo- same time its ruling intellectual force.”

36 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

A
By Dominic Muwanguzi

rt is increasingly being
adopted as a medium
for institutions to
advocate social change in
communities. Art is seen
to have potential to shape
or influence everyday perceptions by
mirroring the social condition and behavior
of communities.
An art exhibition that fits this mold is
ongoing at the Car Gallery of the Uganda
Museum in Kampala. Dubbed `Art creates
Water 2019’ the multi-disciplinary exhibit
showcases works by several artists in one
space. Experienced artists and pupil- artists
are together in a setting that suits their
varied works in production techniques,
medium or material used, nature of theme
and concept navigated, and dimension and
type of art (realistic, conceptual or abstract).
Pupils from the French School and
Ambrossoli International School, for
example, are exhibiting works that
are unique in medium and nature of
expression. In general, the pupils’ artworks

Art
are direct and accurate responses to the
theme. On the other hand, experienced between the two groups. The established
artists like Ronex, Ibrahim Muwanga and artists have few artworks directly reacting
Kintu Paul approach the theme with more to the theme of the exhibition, whereas the
studio deftness, abstraction, and symbolism. learners have art that resonates with the

creates
Combined, the different approaches appeal theme to the letter.
to the diverse audience. “It is rare that the established artist will
This combined exhibition is an annual react to the theme of the exhibition unless
event that is in its third year. This they’re commissioned. This is unlike the

water
year, the focus is on provision of clean kids who will follow the theme faithfully,”
water to the community. The issue is observes Balimunsi.
framed as a social justice struggle with The disparity matches the contrast
lack of clean water seen as a form of between the motive of the artist who creates
disenfranchisement for communities, not the works and the audience intended to
only in Uganda but throughout Africa. embrace the work. In this context, it is
The exhibition has a very interesting clear that the established artist is largely
curatorial practice. Instead of putting
together a perfect art display in linear form,
An exhibition motivated to produce art to sell rather than
engage the public. The audience appreciates
complete with brilliant curatorial text as a
form of promotional material, the curator
of contrasts at that as much as art is used to advocate for
social change, casting a critical gaze on
focuses on the “processes of art-making and
display.”
the musuem the processes of art making and display
improves the perception of exhibitions
The approach is deliberate - to follow in contemporary art. The curator also
how the artists respond to the idea of an technically nudges the audience to always
exhibition which still is- unfortunately- another set of questions: how much attention think of alternatives in order to interrupt
regarded within many art circles as the did the former presidents who rode in the their everyday normal.
sole destination for art. The curator, Phillip limousines give to the issue of social justice?
Balimunsi, to this end does not alter the In an almost similar trick, the curator
identity of the exhibition space. The antique divides the art into two parts. In the foyer of The exhibition is a brainchild of Viva Con
limousines of Uganda’s former heads of state the gallery are the artworks of experienced Agua, Uganda; a community based initiative.
provide a startling background to the art in artists and on the dais are the works of the The exhibit is ongoing at the Car Gallery,
the foreground. This obvious incongruity pupils from International schools. According Uganda Museum.
adds to the power of the exhibition. It raises to the curator, there is a clear distinction

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 37
Banana duct-taped to white Man has been recording his everyday life for 10 years
wall sells for Shs45m Morris Villarroel, a
Spanish scientist at the
met, every 15 to 30 minutes
of every day.
often get upset about small
incidents, like someone
Polytechnic University of In an interview with the cutting in front of him or
Madrid, wanted to have a BBC, Morris Villarroel said being stuck in traffic. So he
more detailed and complete that keeping a record of his started using the train or
record of his everyday life, day-to-day life over such walking to work. He says
so he could figure out how a long period of time has this relieved some stress and
to live more effectively. helped him improve his improved his health. It also
Nine years and nine months life. For example, he used improved his performance
later, the scientist says that to drive to work, but soon in class or at conferences
he was right. He writes all after he started writing because he is able to notice
the experiences, the places everything in his log books, small details and implement
he was in, the people he he noticed that he would solutions.

Art collectors are going bananas over


an artwork that essentially consists of a
Farmer paints his dog like a tiger to scare monkeys
real banana duct-taped to a white wall at Desperate to reclaim his farm-
an art gallery, with some paying as much land from a gang of invading
as $120,000 (Approx.Shs45 million) for it. monkeys, a farmer in Karnataka,
Titled “Comedian”, the original artwork by India decided to paint his dog
Italian artist Maurizio Cattelan was on sale to look like a tiger in the hopes
this week from Parisian gallery Perrotin, that it would scare the monkeys
at the Art Basel festival in Miami. The first away. The dog already had a
edition of the artwork was snatched up by reddish hair color, so all Srikant
a French art collector for the mind-blowing Gowda of Karnataka’s Shiva-
price of $120,000, and according to gallery mogga region had to do was
owner Emmanuel Perrotin a second edition add the black stripes and some
white to give it the tiger look. He
of Comedian was already sold for the
also placed large posters of real
same dizzying price. After successfully
tigers and his own fake tiger all
selling two bananas for a total of $240,000,
over his farmland. According
the artist and the Perrotin gallery owner
to media reports, his trick ruse
decided to up the price of the third edition
was so successful that it inspired
to $150,000. They sold that too. other Indian farmers to copy.

Airline to open inflight food restaurants Fathers and spoilt sons


so much that they’d be willing A 22-year-old man was recently deliberately scratched a BMW
to pay for it at restaurants on saloon at a car bond in Jiangxi City for a very bizarre reason – so
the ground. AirAsia, the larg- his father would be forced to buy it for him according to the
est budget carrier in Asia, has “you break it you buy it” principle. The 22-year-old Ji Moubing,
announced plans to open over reportedly visited the BMW dealership on Nov. 25 and expressed
100 restaurants globally within interest in buying the dark blue saloon. He acted normally and
the next five years. The restau- actually seemed really excited, telling one salesman that his father
rants will be offering the same had promised to buy him a nice car as reward for getting his driv-
menu AirAsia sells on flights. er’s license. Unfortunately, things took a turn for the worse after Ji
The move is part of AirAsia’s called his father to tell him what car he wanted. It’s unclear what Ji
plans to become a lifestyle Moubing’s father told him during their short phone conversation,
Airplane food isn’t exactly brand, and the company hopes but dealership staff told police that after hanging up his phone, the
considered “haute cuisine”, but that its Asia dishes will make 22-year-old went into a rage, grabbed a pair of car keys and pro-
one budget airline is betting that people choose it over Western ceeded to make a long, deep scratch on the back of the saloon. He
people love its airplane food competitors. was arrested and it’s unclear whether Ji’s father eventually bought
the car to get his son off the hook.

Man arrested for calling telecom provider 24,000 times to complain


A 71-year-old pensioner from Saitama, last two years, to complain about the service gle week. He called an average of 33 times a
Japan, was recently arrested and charged and demand apologies. In October alone, day for two years. The corporation had been
with obstruction of business after allegedly Akitoshi Okamoto from Kasukabe City, reluctant to press charges until last week,
calling the toll-free number of his telecom allegedly called the toll-free number of Japa- when the frequency of complaints became
provider a whopping 24,000 times over the nese telecom giant KDDI 411 times in a sin- too much to bear.

38 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
Driving in a flood
Avoid it if you can, be careful if you can’t
By Motoring Guru surface below. Two feet of moving water including sharp objects or dead cows.

T
(about your waist level) can sweet away If you are unfamiliar with the road, test
he rain these days is throwing up the most vehicles. It does not matter that you the depth of the water with a stick. Remem-
unexpected. A road that you have drive an SUV. Avoid flooded roads. ber, the road is highest in the middle, so use
driven on for years without incident This caution is made for several reasons: that to gauge how deep it is on the sides.
will easily become flooded. That Water beyond the mid-tyre level can easily When driving, plan your driving to avoid
is why it is important to recall the tips you enter the exhaust and kill off your engine having to come to a complete stop in the
picked up during your defensive driving leaving you stranded. Do not try to restart water if you can; for example if there is a
school. We share a few here. engine in water. It will be wrecked. Only jam. Follow the path of the drivers before
First and most importantly, avoid driving 6 inches of water on the road is enough to you who have crossed successfully. Drive
on a flooded road. By flooded road we mean cause you to lose control of the vehicle, often slowly and steadily. This helps you avoid
a road with at least 4 inches of water (your with dire consequences. Water under the car stirring up the water into a wave that makes
average car tyre is about 6.5 inches). That can easily splash into the electrical wiring it more difficult to drive.
means if the water goes beyond half of your and wreak havoc. So, avoid flooded roads. If you do get stuck in flood water, espe-
tyre avoid it. Remember the engine’s air But what if you cannot? Then you need cially if it is moving water; stay in the car
intake on many cars is down at the front yet to drive with extra caution. Here are some because it is safer. Moving water is very
it takes just a fraction of a tea-cup of water tips. They are in two parts; part one: decid- powerful, it can sweep you off your feet
sucked into your engine to damage it. ing whether to drive through or not and and away. Also, if you feel the car starting
If you see water and figure it is too deep two, how to drive through safely (possibly). to float, open a door to let water in. It will
for you to walk through, then it possibly Before driving through any flooded road, make the car heavier and possibly enable
not a good idea to attempt to drive through never assume you know the road. Flood you to regain your grip.
either. Take extra caution if the water is water does strange thing to roads. It can After crossing a flooded patch of road,
moving. If moving water reaches the win- easily sweep away a whole section or move test your brakes before speeding off. If you
dow level of your car, it is possibly enough manhole covers. It can also hide stuff it has are not comfortable, allow the brake pads to
to leave the car floating without grip on the found in path and deposited on the road, dry a bit and test again before driving off.

Dec. 13 - 19 2019 39
global comment
By Andrés Cañizález
Presidents versus the press
Populist leaders love the mass media to spread their
ideas but hate journalism which holds them accountable

U
.S. President Donald Trump has and buy a copy – “I hope they don’t accuse events and creating a hostile environment
labeled news outlets the “enemy me of censorship” – but no public funds for independent news media, he achieved
of the people.” Brazilian President would be spent on it. “And,” he concluded “communication hegemony.”
Jair Bolsonaro has called journalists threateningly, “who advertises in Folha de Chávez’s successor, Nicolás Maduro,
“putrid” and “immoral,” and accused São Paulo pays attention, right?” has followed the same playbook. In recent
them of mounting “sensationalist attacks” Meanwhile in Mexico, AMLO has slashed years, more than 50 newspapers stopped
against him. Mexican President Andrés the government’s media advertising budget, publishing print editions, lowered their
Manuel López Obrador (known as AMLO) directing the cuts at papers critical of the publication frequency (from daily to
has labeled them “nobodies, conservatives, government, such as Reforma. AMLO weekly), or drastically reduced their page
know-it-alls, hypocrites,” as well as “fifí” has leveled unsubstantiated accusations counts and print runs, partly because
(bourgeois, pretentious) and “chayoteros” (a against Reforma that it favoured previous exchange controls have blocked imports of
term implying that they take bribes). administrations and is working for secret newsprint. Add to that direct government
Populist leaders love the mass media, interests. The move’s implications are pressure (such as lawsuits) and economic
which enable them to spread their own particularly significant in Mexico, where collapse (including hyperinflation), and
ideas. But they hate journalism, which asks media are often dependent on government Venezuela’s free media have been all but
challenging questions and aims to hold them ads. decimated.
accountable. That is precisely why we must Mexico is also among the world’s most It is no coincidence that Venezuela under
defend it. dangerous countries for journalists. It is Chávez and Maduro has suffered from
Trump, Bolsonaro, and AMLO – who, unlikely to be made safer by a president who catastrophic economic policies, large-scale
despite their differences, share nationalist regards them as adversaries. corruption, and pervasive cronyism. Today,
views, populist tactics, and anti-democratic Using the state to punish specific Venezuela is a full-fledged dictatorship,
inclinations – have hardly limited media outlets for taking an unflattering where the government’s political opponents
themselves to rhetorical attacks. The Trump editorial line is the purview of dictators. are detained and protesters face brutal
administration has severely curtailed press Turning newspaper subscriptions, media repression.
access to the White House. It has also advertising, and journalist access into a Venezuela is thus an object lesson in why
revoked or suspended the press credentials weapon amounts to an assault on freedom attacks on media by Trump, Bolsonaro, and
of many journalists, based on reasoning so of the press, expression, and information, AMLO must be taken seriously. All media,
faulty or opaque that judges have ordered which obviously poses a serious threat to both targeted and favoured, should fight
them restored. democracy. back, including by seeking injunctions in
Now, Trump has made another ominous For example, Hugo Chávez, who ruled national and international courts. Journalists
break from tradition. Copies of a diverse Venezuela for 14 years, relentlessly attacked and others, such as academic associations,
array of magazines and newspapers, from the press, attempting to undermine its can pursue local-level initiatives aimed
the Financial Times to The New York Post, credibility and paint it as an enemy of the at defending the rights and freedoms of
have long been delivered to the White House people. By pushing his own version of citizens and media.
daily. This is standard operating procedure NGOs can also help, not only by
in a democracy: hubs of power must be well unequivocally expressing their
informed, and that means subscribing to all opposition, but also by collecting and
kinds of media, regardless of their editorial publicising data on media freedom.
lines. All media, Civil society should contribute its own
Trump, however, decided in October
that neither the The Washington Post nor
both targeted full-throated defense of media, with
citizens engaging in joint initiatives
The New York Times – both of which he and favoured, with media and their defenders.
has often accused of bias and dishonesty –
will be delivered to the White House any
should fight An enemy of the free press is an
enemy of democracy. We can’t say they
longer. “They’re fake,” he asserted in the back, including didn’t warn us.
Fox News interview where he announced
his intentions. The Trump administration is
by seeking Andrés Cañizález, a Venezuelan political scientist
urging other federal agencies also to cancel injunctions in and researcher at Universidad Católica Andrés
their subscriptions. national and Bello (UCAB), is the founder of Venezuela’s first
A week after Trump’s decision, Bolsonaro fact-checking organization, Cotejo.info. Twitter:
followed suit, canceling all government international @infocracia
subscriptions to Folha de São Paulo, one of courts
Brazil’s most respected newspapers. “I don’t Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
want to know about Folha de São Paulo,”
Bolsonaro declared, because reading that
paper “poisons my government.” Advisers,
he added, could always go to the newsstand

40 Dec. 13 - 19 2019
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