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ENG3069/Semester 2, 2009-10/5pp (1 handout)

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY 

Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences

Undergraduate Programmes in Mechanical, Medical and Aerospace Engineering


Level HE3 Examination

Module ENG3069; 10 Credits

DYNAMICS
Time allowed: 2 hours Semester 2 2010

Answer ALL questions

All questions carry equal marks unless otherwise stated; where appropriate the mark carried
by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets [].

Additional materials:
Formula datasheet

Calculator restrictions: Casio Models FX115MS, FX115W or FX115S, or other models


with lower functionality

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ENG3069/Semester 2, 2009-10/5pp (1 handout) 2

1. The two degree of freedom system shown in Figure Q1 consists of two masses,
m1 = 15 kg and m2 = 8 kg, and two springs of stiffness, k1 = 2 kN/m and k2 = 5 kN/m.
The first mass m1 is subjected to a harmonic force that acts in a direction parallel to
the ground surface and is given by: F(t) = 250 sin(20t), where F(t) is expressed in
Newtons and t is the time in seconds. The surface may be assumed friction free.

(a) Calculate the natural frequencies (in Hz) of the system.


[10]

(b) Determine the steady-state amplitude of motion of the first mass, m1.
[5]

(c) In order to suppress the vibration of the first mass, the spring of the secondary
system (k2) should be replaced with a new spring. Calculate the required
stiffness of the new spring to achieve this condition and, hence, determine the
resulting steady-state amplitude of motion of the second mass, m2.
[8]

(d) Summarise, briefly, how the response spectrum of the first mass (m1) would
be affected if a damper would be installed alongside the second spring, k2.
[2]

Figure Q1
ENG3069/Semester 2, 2009-10/5pp (1 handout) 3

2. (a) The steel wire shown in Figure Q2a has a length L = 3.5 m, a diameter of
2 mm and a density of 7800 kg/m3. The wire is fixed at both ends and is
stretched with a tension force of 600 N. Determine the first two natural
frequencies (in Hz) of the wire and draw the corresponding mode shapes.
[10]

Figure Q2a

(b) The 2 m long steel bar shown in Figure Q2b(i) has a Young’s modulus of
200 GPa and a density of 7800 kg/m3.

(i) The bar is initially at rest and an initial force is applied at x = a, which
causes an initial axial displacement as shown in Figure Q2b(ii). For
longitudinal vibration, show that the axial deflection of the bar at
position x and time t, using the mode superposition method, is given
by:

8U o L ∞ ( 2n − 1) π x  1 sin ( 2n − 1) π a cos ( 2n − 1) π ct 
u x ( x, t ) = 2 ∑
π a n =1
sin
2L  ( 2n − 1) 2 2L 2L 
 
[8]

(ii) If U0 = 2 mm and a = 1.1 m, calculate the axial deflection of the bar at


x = 1.3 m and t = 0.015 s, using the expression derived in part (b)(i)
and considering the first two modes.
[7]

x Ux0

U0

L = 2.0 m x
0 a L = 2.0 m

Figure Q2b(i) Figure Q2b(ii)

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ENG3069/Semester 2, 2009-10/5pp (1 handout) 4

3. (a) For a flower show, a 4 m long bridge has been designed to span across a small
pond. The bridge can be idealised as a beam with a 15 cm × 120 cm hollow
box section and a constant wall thickness of 10 mm that is fixed at one end
and simply supported at the other end, as shown in Figure Q3. The material
chosen for the bridge is aluminium which has a Young’s modulus of 72 GPa
and a density of 2800 kg/m3. For transverse vibration:

(i) State the geometric and natural boundary conditions of the beam.
[5]

(ii) Determine the first and tenth natural frequencies (in Hz) of the beam.
[The area moment of inertia of a solid beam of width, b, and height, d,
is I = bd 3 12 .]
[8]

4m
15 cm

120 cm

pond
cross-section of beam
Figure Q3

(b) A 1.2 m long shaft is supported at its ends by short bearings. The shaft has a
solid circular cross section of diameter 5 cm and is made of steel which has a
Young’s modulus of 200 GPa and a density of 7800 kg/m3.

(i) Determine the whirl speed of the solid shaft (in rev/min).
[The area moment of inertia of a solid shaft of diameter, d, is
I = π d 4 64 .]
[5]

(ii) A 15 kg rotor is attached at the midpoint of the solid shaft. Determine


the approximate critical speed of this system (in rev/min).
[The central deflection, ∆, of a simply supported beam of length, l,
under a force, F, is ∆ = Fl 3 / 48 EI .]
[7]
ENG3069/Semester 2, 2009-10/5pp (1 handout) 5

4. A 2.5 m long uniform bar is fixed at one end and free at the other end, as shown in
Figure Q4. The Young’s modulus is 210 GPa and the density is 7800 kg/m3. For axial
vibration:

(a) Use one FE bar element to determine the first natural frequency (in Hz) of the
bar.
[12]

(b) Use two FE bar elements to derive the global eigenvalue equation of free
vibration that considers the prevailing boundary conditions.
[13]

2.5 m

Figure Q4

Internal Examiner: Dr P Gruber

External Examiner: Prof M Pavier

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