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# UNIFIED ENGINEERING Fall 2003

Lecture Outlines Ian A. Waitz

UNIFIED LECTURE #2:

THE BREGUET RANGE EQUATION

I. Learning Goals
At the end of this lecture you will:
A. Be able to answer the question “How far can an airplane fly, and why?”;

B. Be able to answer the question “How do the disciplines of structures &
materials, aerodynamics and propulsion jointly set the performance of
aircraft, and what are the important performance parameters?”;

C. Be able to use empirical evidence to estimate the performance of aircraft and
thus begin to develop intuition regarding important aerodynamic, structural
and propulsion system performance parameters;

D. Have had your first exposure to active learning in Unified Engineering

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and why? We will begin by developing a mathematical model of the physical system. for that matter) fly? OR: What is the farthest that an airplane can fly on earth.1 Force balance for an aircraft in steady level flight. It is important for you to understand these approximations and assumptions so that you understand the limits of applicability of the model and the estimates derived from it. L L T T DD W W Figure 1. Question: How far can an airplane (or a duck. Like most models. 2 . this one will have many approximations and assumptions that underlie it.II.

For steady. at t=0 W = Winitial ∴ const. = T  L L T = D. = ln Winitial −L h W ∴t = ηoverall ln D gu 0 Winitial 3 . L = W or W=L=D D D The weight of the aircraft changes in response to the fuel that is burned (rate at which weight changes equals negative fuel mass flow rate times gravitational constant) dW = −m ˙ f ⋅g dt Now we will define an overall propulsion system efficiency: what you get propulsive power overall efficiency = = what you pay for fuel power propulsive power = thrust ⋅ flight velocity = Tu o (J/s) fuel power = fuel mass flow rate ⋅ fuel energy per unit mass = m ˙ fh (J/s) Thus Tu o ηoverall = ˙ fh m We can now write the expression for the change in weight of the vehicle in terms of important aerodynamic (L/D) and propulsion system (ηoverall) parameters: dW −W −Wu 0 −Wu 0 = −m ˙ f ⋅g = = = dt   L T h   L Tu 0 h  η L  D m  ˙ f ⋅g g D m  ˙ f ⋅h g D  overall We can rewrite and integrate dW −u 0 dt tu 0 = ⇒ ln W = constant − W h  η L h  L ηoverall g  D g  D overall applying the initial conditions. level flight.

SFC is defined as the mass flow rate of fuel per unit of thrust (lbm/s/lbf or kg/s/N). h L Winitial Range = ηoverall ln g D Wfinal Fluids Propulsion Structures + (Aero) Materials Note that this expression is sometimes rewritten in terms of an alternate measure of efficiency.the time the aircraft has flown corresponds to the amount of fuel burned. V is the flight velocity and g is the acceleration of gravity. the specific fuel consumption or SFC. V(L D)  Winitial  Range = ln  g ⋅ SFC  Wfinal  4 . L/D. In the following expression. and flight velocity are constant over the flight. therefore −L h W t final = ηoverall ln final D gu 0 Winitial then multiplying by the flight velocity we arrive at the Breguet Range Equation which applies for situations where overall efficiency.

and propulsion lets us describe how to use this energy to propel a vehicle. The materials and structures lectures you will teach you how to estimate the performance of aerospace structures. During the fluids lectures you will learn how to develop and use models to estimate lift and drag. Thermodynamics helps us describe and estimate the efficiency of various energy conversion processes. How aerodynamically efficient it is (the ratio of the production of lift to the production of drag).Thus we see that the answer to the question “How far can an airplane fly?” depends on: 1. 3. 5 . 4. How efficiently energy from the fuel/oxidizer is turned into useful work (thrust times distance traveled) which is used to oppose the drag force. How much energy is contained in the fuel it carries. 2. How light weight the structure is relative to the amount of fuel and payload it can carry.

14 Corn Flakes 15 3. 1 meter / second.40 Bacon 29 4 0. w.32 600 cal/quart Honey 14 4 0. Rate of descent.8 kg/m3 Figure 1.50 0. Tennekes) 0.06 240 cal/ounce Kerosene 42 0. by H.010 0.0 20 5 Beef 4.005 0.15 180 cal/ounce Butter 32 4. Figure 1.24 0.0 8 2 Whole Milk 2.29 Sugar 15 1 0.85 kg/liter Gasoline 42 0. from The Simple Science of Flight. by H.010 0. Tennekes) 6 .40 0.2 Heating values for various fuels (from The Simple Science of Flight.23 100 cal/ounce Peanut Butter 27 4 0. is plotted downward along the vertical axis.40 0.82 kg/liter Diesel Oil 42 0.3 Gliding performance as a function of L/D (where L/D=F.8 0.07 100 cal/ounce Cheese 15 6 0.90 0. The horizontal line represents the practical soaring limit.40 0. V. Airspeed.14 Vegetable Oil 36 2 0. MJ/Kg \$/Kg \$/MJ Comments Prime Beef 4. The diagonals are lines of constant finesse.50 0.Below are some data to allow you to make estimates for various aircraft and birds.010 0. is plotted on the horizontal axis.75 kg/liter Natural Gas 45 0.1 F= 40 F= 25 human-powered airplane cabbage F= white 10 w [meters / second] 1 sailplane F= albatross 4 budgie ultralight Fokker Friendship pheasant 10 Boeing 747 1 10 100 V [meters / second] The Great Gliding Diagram.

25 F28-1000 F28-4000/6000 20 S360 A320-100/200 A310-300 RJ200/ER B777 B757-200 B747-400 B747-100/200/300 F100 F27 BAC111-200/400 B767-200/ER ATR72 S340A DHC8-300 MD11 15 B707-100B/300 B707-300B B737-100/200 DC10-30 L1011-500 B767-300/ER A300-600 ATR42 BAE-ATP L1011-1/100/200 L/Dmax B737-300 D328 DC9-30 EMB120 DC10-10 MD80 & DC9-80 B737-500/600 DC10-40 B737-400 BAE146-100/200/RJ70 B727-200/231A BAE-146-300 SA227 J41 J31 10 Data Unavailable For: 5 EMB-145 FH-227 CV-880 Nihon YS-11 Turboprops BAE RJ85 SA-226 Regional Jets Beech 1900 DHC-8-100 Large Aircraft CV-580 L-188 CV-600 DHC-7 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Figure 1.83 12 12 Kestrel (Sparrow Hawk) 1.40 19 20 Hang Glider 1000 15 10 7 8 Parawing 1000 25 8 2. SM Thesis.009 0.06 0.74 9 9 Carrion Crow 5.42 11 10 Common Tern 1.00 8 10 Wandering Albatross 85 0.36 1. Operational.62 3.6 4 Powered Parawing 1700 35 10 2.016 0.22 1.5 Weight and geometry for aircraft and birds (where L/D=F.23 6 4 Swift 0.2 0. Tennekes) 7 .13 1.4 Aerodynamic data for commercial aircraft: L/D for cruise (Babikian.5 0.78 5 5 Common Buzzard 8.0 0.50 2.36 0.73 8 9 White Stork 34 0.5 15 21 40 Open Class 5500 16.3 25 38 60 Fokker F-50 19 x104 70 29 12 16 Boeing 747 36 x 105 511 60 7 15 Figure 1.06 9 10 Herring Gull 12 0. MIT.8 0.28 0. The Historical Fuel Efficiency Characteristics of Regional Aircraft From Technological.7 4 Ultralight (microlight) 2000 15 10 7 8 Sailplanes Standard Class 3500 10.12 0. and Cost Perspectives.1 0. June 2001) W S b (N) (m2) (m) A F House Sparrow 0.43 10 11 Heron 14 0. R. by H. from The Simple Science of Flight..25 7 10 Peregrine Falcon 8.056 0.21 1.

6 Structural efficiency data for commercial aircraft: Operating empty weight over maximum take-off weight (Babikian. 1987) 0. R. 80 70 C-7A C-12A C-123 757 767 60 UV C-9A WE / WTO [%] -18 A310 C-21A L-1011 C-140 50 C-130 747 C-20A C-17 C-5A C-5B Concorde C-141B KC-10A 40 KC-135A 30 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 WTO [1.000 lbs] Weight Fractions of Cargo and Passenger Aircraft Figure 1. The Historical Fuel Efficiency Characteristics of Regional Aircraft From Technological. June 2001) 8 .70 DHC8-100 J31 SA227 EMB120 S340A D328 DHC8-300 B727-200/231A DHC7 S360 ATR72 J41 RJ200/ER CV600 BAE146-100/RJ70 BAE-ATP 0. SM Thesis.60 BAC111-200 F28-1000 SA226 BAE146-200 B1900 ATR42 B737-500/600 F100 BAC111-400 MD80 & DC9-80 EMB145 L1011-1/100/200 B737-300 BAE-146-300 DC9-10 F28-4000/6000 B757-200 FH227 DC10-10 A320-100/200 RJ85 F27 B767-200/ER B737-100/200 B737-400 A300-600 0.40 B707-300B 0. Aircraft Engine Design.. and Cost Perspectives. MIT. Operational.00 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Figure 1.20 Turboprops 0.5 Weight fractions for transport aircraft in terms of empty weight over max take-off weight (Mattingly. Heiser & Daley.10 Regional Jets Large Aircraft 0.50 DC9-40 B747-200/300 DC9-50 A310-300 B747-400 L188A-08/188C DC10-40 B767-300/ER B777 CV880 L1011-500 OEW / MTOW DC9-30 DC10-30 MD11 B747-100 0.30 0.

3 13900 900 9500 387 Douglas Dc-10-30 256 368 50 3 x 23.1 2700 800 4200 124 Fokker F-100 43 94 28 2 x 6.6 will give you a rough idea for the conversion efficiencies of various modern aircraft engines. Tennekes) For aircraft engines it is often convenient to break the overall efficiency into two parts: thermal efficiency and propulsive efficiency where the subscripts e and o refer to exit and inlet: m˙ e u 2e m ˙ o u o2   − rate of production of propellant k.e.8 13600 900 10500 400 Boeing 747-200 352 511 60 4 x 21.1 10400 900 9900 248 Airbus A310 139 219 44 2 x 22.  m 2 ˙ e ue m ˙ o u 2o   2 −  2  such that ηoverall = ηthermal ⋅ ηprop During the first semester thermodynamics lectures we will focus largely on thermal efficiency.  2 2  ηthermal = = fuel power ˙ fh m propulsive power Tu o ηprop = = rate of production of propellant k.7 12300 900 12200 421 Boeing 747-300 378 511 60 4 x 23. 9 . by H.7 5500 860 6400 200 Boeing 737-300 57 105 29 2 x 9. In next semester’s propulsion lectures we will combine thermodynamics with fluid mechanics to obtain estimates for propulsive and thus overall efficiency.7 Aircraft performance (from The Simple Science of Flight.5 2500 680 1700 80 Figure 1. Takeoff Sea-level Fuel Cruising weight thrust consumption speed Range W (tons) S (m2) b (m) T (tons) (liters/hour) V (km/hour) (km) Seats Boeing 747-400 395 530 65 4 x 25. The data shown in Figure 1.7 2400 720 1800 101 Fokker F-28 33 79 25 2 x 4.e.

SM Thesis.6 0.1 0. MIT.6 0.2 0.6 UDF CF6-80C2 0. R.8 0.3 0.5 0.7 0. and Cost Perspectives. June 2001) 10 .8 Propulsive x Transmission Efficiency Figure 1.4 0.4 0.9 Engine efficiency for commercial aircraft: specific fuel consumption (Babikian.3 0. Operational.7 0.3 Whittle 0. Overall Efficiency 0.2 0.6 0.7 '777' Core Thermal Efficiency Engines Advanced 0.3 SFC Future Trend 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.4 0..5 Low BPR UDF Engine Turbojets Current High BPR 0.8 Trends in aircraft engine efficiency (after Pratt & Whitney) 30 B707-300 B720-000 25 B727-200/231A BAC111-400 DC9-40 F28-4000/6000 BAE146-100/200/RJ70 CV880 DC9-10 F28-1000 DC9-50 B737-300 DC9-30 B737-100/200 BAE-146-300 20 MD80 & DC9-80 RJ85 TSFC (mg/Ns) F100 D328 EM170 B767-300/ER EMB145 DC10-30 L1011-500 B737-400 B737-500/600 B747-100 B757-200 F27 B747-200/300 RJ200/ER RJ700 L1011-1/100/200 B747-400 EMB135 CV600 DC10-40 B767-200/ER MD11 DC10-10 A300-600 L188A-08/188C A310-300 A320-100/200 B777 J31 15 SA226 DHC7 B1900 SA227 J41 CV580 S360 EMB120 ATR42 ATR72 D328 DHC8-100 BAE-ATP DHC8-300 DHC8-400 S340A 10 Turboprops 5 Regional Jets Large Jets New Regional Jet Engines New Turboprop Engines 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Figure 1. The Historical Fuel Efficiency Characteristics of Regional Aircraft From Technological.5 0.

The difference between the actual stage length flown and the estimated stage length is shown in Figure 1. climbing. taxiing. J.11. Operational data for fuel burned and payload (passengers and cargo) carried was extracted from Form 41 and combined with the technological data shown in Figures 1. fleet in something called DOT Form 41. etc. In Figure 1.9 to estimate range.4. are a relatively large fraction of the overall flight time. However. descending.6 and 1. MIT Masters Thesis. (16 short.10 these estimates are compared to the actual stage length flown (range) as reported in Form 41.The accuracy of the range equation in predicting performance for commercial transport aircraft is quite good.10 Performance of Breguet range equation for estimating commercial aircraft operations (J. for short-haul flights.and long-haul aircraft) 6000 Calculated Stage Length (miles) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Actual Stage Length Flown (miles) Figure 1. the assumptions of constant velocity. For long-haul flights.S. 2000) 11 . 1. so the steady-state cruise assumptions of the range equation are less valid. and SFC are good. Figure 1. The Department of Transportation collects and reports a variety of operational and financial data for the U.11 shows that the percent deviation between the Breguet range equation estimates and the actual stage lengths flown is a function of the stage length. Lee. L/D.

Fuel Density (kg/m3) Heating Value (kJ/kg) Jet-A 800.0 45000 H2 (gaseous.T.0824 120900 H2 (liquid.1km/hr = 9 days to circle the earth) D. MIT Masters Thesis. 1 atm) 70. What are the assumptions and approximations that underlie the Breguet Range Equation? 12 .8 120900 C. How far can a duck fly? B. Questions: A. J.) 0. S. flight speed 186.000mi? (Voyager: 3181kg of fuel is 72% of maximum take-off weight. Lee. 2000) III. Why don’t we fly on hydrogen-powered airplanes? Fuel properties are listed below. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Stage Length Figure 1.P. Why is the maximum range for an aircraft on earth approximately 25.11 Deviation (%) of Breguet range equation estimates from actual stage length flown is a function of the stage length (J.