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Geometry

Angles

Lines

Triangle

Polygons

Circles

CATsyllabus.com | Quant: Geometry

Basics of Geometry

Angles

Based on the measurement, angles have been classified into different groups.

Complementary angles:

Two angles taken together are said to be complementary if the sum of measurement of the angles equal to

o o

90 . If ∠ A + ∠ B = 90 then ∠A is complementary of ∠B and vice – versa.

Supplementary angles:

Two angles are supplementary if sum of their measure is 180o. If ∠ A + ∠ B = 180o then ∠A is supplementary

of ∠B and vice – versa.

Linear Pair:

Two angle drawn on a same point and have one arm common. If sum of their measure equals to 180o, then

they are said to be liner pair of angles.

P

A

B

Adjacent angles:

Two angles are adjacent if and only if they have one common arm between them.

A D

B C

In the above figure, ∠ABC and ∠BCD are adjacent angles, since they have BC as their common arm.

Properties of Lines

A line consists of infinite dots. A line is drawn by joining any two different points on a plane. Two different lines

drawn can be either parallel or intersecting depending on their nature.

If two lines intersect at a point, then they form two pairs of opposite angles (as shown in the figure), which are

known as vertically opposite angles and have same measure. In the figure, ∠PRQ and ∠SRT are vertically

opposite angles. Also ∠QRS and ∠PRT are vertically opposite angles.

Do You Know?

Q S

yo

xo xo

o A right angle symbol

y

P R T in an angle of

Also, ∠x + ∠y = 180o and are Linear pair angles. intersection indicates

that the lines are

perpendicular.

Perpendicular Lines:

An angle that has a measure of 90o is a right angle. If two lines intersect at right angels, the lines are

perpendicular. For example:

L1

L2

Parallel Lines:

Two lines drawn on a plane are said to be parallel if they do not intersect each other. In figure below lines, L1

and L2 are parallel and denoted by L1⏐⏐L2

L1

L2

If a common line intersects two parallel lines L1 and L2, then that common line is known as transverse.

Transverse

3

1 L1

2

4

5

L2

6

Pair of internal alternate angles = (∠2 & ∠5)

Pair of exterior alternate angles = (∠3 & ∠6)

Vertically opposite angles = ∠3 & ∠4

For parallel lines intersected by the transversal, the pair of corresponding angles, interior alternate angles and

exterior alternate angles are equal.

Triangles

A triangle is a polygon of three sides.

Triangles are classified in two general ways: by their sides and by their angles.

Types of triangle

Based on sides, triangles have been classified into three categories.

1. Scalene triangle:

A triangle with three sides of different lengths is called a scalene triangle.

TIPS

30o, 60o, 90o triangle:

This is a special case of

2. Isosceles triangle:

a right triangle whose

An isosceles triangle has two equal sides. The third side is called the

base. The angles that are opposite to the equal sides are also equal. angles are 30o, 60o,

90o.

3. Equilateral triangle: In this triangle side

An equilateral triangle has three equal sides. In this type of triangle, the opposite to angle 300 =

angles are also equal, so it can also be called an equiangular triangle. Hyp/2.

Each angle of an equilateral triangle must measure 60o, since the sum of Side opposite to Angle

the interior angles of any triangle must equal to 180o. 60o = √3/2 x HYP.

N

A E

M O D F

B C

scalene Isosceles Equilateral

Triangles are also divided into three classes on the basis of measure of the interior angles.

Do You Know?

When the measure of the largest angle of the triangle is greater than 900 then

it is an obtuse angled triangle. If a, b, c denote the

In the figure ∆ABC is an obtuse triangle where C is an obtuse angle sides of a triangle,

then

Acute angled triangle: (i) Triangle is acute

In which all angles are less than 90o e.g. angled if c2 < a2 + b2

o

∆PQR is a acute triangle because largest angle is less than 90 . (ii) Triangle is right

angled if c2 = a2 + b2

(iii) Triangle is obtuse

Right Angled Triangle:

A triangle whose one angle is 90o is called a right (angled) Triangle.

In figure, b is the hypotenuse, and a & c the legs, called base and height respectively.

In right triangle ABC we have,

a2 + b2 = c2 When isosceles triangle

A A

right angle then that

80 c triangle is called Right-

b

angled isosceles

110o triangle.

40 60 C B

B C B C a

Obtuse angled Acute angled Right angled

Properties of Triangle

1. Sum of the three angles is 180o.

2. Sum of exterior angles of any triangle is equal to 360o.

3. An exterior angle is equal to the sum of the interior opposite angles.

4. The sum of the two sides is always greater than the third side.

5. The difference between any two sides is always less than the third side.

6. The side opposite to the greatest angle is the greatest side and the side opposite to the smallest angle

will be the shortest side.

7. If ∆ABC is a right-angled triangle then ∠B is equal to 90o unless mentioned otherwise.

o o o

8. In a right-angled triangle whose angles are 30 , 60 , 90 .

1

In this triangle side opposite to angle 300 = Hypotenuse

2

3

Side opposite to Angle 60o = Hypotenuse.

2

9. Centroid:

(a) The point of intersection of the medians of a triangle. (Median is the line joining the vertex to the

mid-point of the opposite side). A

(b) The centroid divides each median from the vertex in the ratio 2 : 1.

(c) To find the length of the median we use the theorem of Apollonius.

B D C

(d) The medians will bisect the area of the triangle.

(e) If x, y, z are the lengths of the medians through A, B, C of a triangle ABC, then

“Four times the sum of the squares of medians is equal to three times the sum of the square of

the sides of the triangle”.

4(x2 + y2 + z2) = 3(a2 + b2 + c2).

Ex.1 In ∆ABC, AB = 9, BC = 10, AC = 12. Find the length of median through A.

Sol. In the adjacent figure AD is the required median. Using

Apollonius theorem in the triangle we have, A

2

2AD2 + 50 = 225 9 12

175 7

∴AD = = 5

2 2

B C

D

A

10. Orthocentre:

This is the point of intersection of the altitudes. (Altitude is a perpendicular

drawn from a vertex of a triangle to the opposite side.) Z Y

In a right angled triangle, the orthocenter is the vertex, where the right angle is.

O

B C

X

11. Circumcentre:

It is the point of intersection of perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangle

(a) The Circumcentre of a triangle is the centre of the circle passing through the vertices of a

A

triangle.

(b) The Circumcentre is equidistant from the vertices.

(c) If a, b, c, are the sides of the triangle, ∆ is the area, then

abc = 4R ∆ where R is the radius of the circum-circle. P

B C

12. Incentre:

This is the point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle.

BL AB A

(a) =

LC AC

θ θ

AI b + c c b

(b) =

IL a

I

B C

a L

A

a+b+c

(c) ∆ = rs if r is the radius of incircle, where s = semi-perimeter =

2

and ∆ is the area of the triangle. F E

(d) BF = BD = s – b where 2s = a + b + c, •I

CE = CD = s – c

B C

AF = AD = s – a

D

(e) The angle between the internal bisector and the external bisector is 90°.

Ex.2 The sides of the triangle are 6 cm, 8 cm, ad 10 cm. Find the area, Inradius and Circumradius of

the triangle.

6 + 8 + 10

Sol. s= = 12

2

Area = ∆ = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c ) = 12 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2 = 24 sq.cm.

4R∆ = abc; 4 × R × 24 = 6 × 8 × 10

∴R = 5 cm

∆ 24

Now, r = = = 2 cm.

s 12

Equilateral triangle

In an equilateral triangle all the sides are equal and all the angles are equal.

TIPS

3 3 (i) The equilateral ∆

(a) Altitude = × side = a A

2 2

has maximum area for

3 3 2 given the perimeter,

(b) Area = × (side )2 = a a a

4 4

(ii) Of all the

1 triangles that can be

(c) Inradius = × Altitude

3 inscribed in a given

2 B C circle, an equilateral

(d) Circumradius = × Altitude a

triangle has maximum

3

area.

Congruency

Two or more figures can be said congruent if and only if they all have same size and shape. If we talk about

plane figures then they are congruent if their corresponding sides and angles are equal to the corresponding

sides and angles of the other figure. E.g.:- Two triangles ABC and DEF are said to the congruent, if they are

equal in all respects (equal in shape and size).

The notation for congruency is ≅ or ≡

Congruent triangles

If ∠A =∠D, ∠B = ∠E, ∠C = ∠F

AB = DE, BC = EF; AC = DF

Then ∆ABC ≡ ∆DEF or ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF

A D

B C E F

(a) SAS Test: Two sides and the included angle of the first triangle are respectively equal to the two

sides and included angle of the second triangle.

(b) SSS Test: Three sides of one triangle are respectively equal to the three sides of the other triangle.

(c) ASA Test: Two angles and one side of one triangle are respectively equal to the two angles and one

side of the other triangle.

(d) RHS Test: The hypotenuse and one side of a right-angled triangle are respectively equal to the

hypotenuse and one side of another right-angled triangle.

Mid-point Theorem

A line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle must be parallel to the third side and equal to half of

that (third side). A

In the adjacent triangle ABC, if D and E are the

respective mid-points of sides AB & AC, then

D E

1

DE II BC and DE = BC

2

B C

Similar triangles

Two figures are said to be similar, if they have the same shape but not necessarily

Do You Know?

the same size. If two triangles are similar, the corresponding angles are equal

and the corresponding sides are proportional. A 1. All Congruent

In the figure triangles are similar

D but similar triangles

∆ABC ∼ ∆DEF then,

∠A = ∠D, ∠B = ∠E & ∠C = ∠F need not be

congruent.

AB BC AC 2. All equilateral

= =

DE EF DF E F triangles are similar.

B C

(a) AAA Similarity Test: Three angles of one triangle are respectively equal to the three corresponding

angles of the other triangle.

(b) SAS Similarity Test: The ratio of two corresponding sides is equal and the angles containing the sides

are equal.

(c) SSS Similarity Test: The ratio of all the three corresponding side of the two triangles are equal.

In a triangle if a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle intersecting the other two sides, then it divides

the other two sides proportionally.

AD AE

If in ∆ABC, DE is drawn parallel to BC, it would divide sides AB and AC proportionally i.e. =

A DB EC

We can also use the following results:

AB AC

(i) =

AD AE D E

AD AB

(ii) =

DE BC B C

Important Result A

If in ∆ABC DE II BC, and a line is drawn

H11

passing thru A and parallel to BC.

Then we will have D R E

AD AR AE H1 DE H21

= = = =

BD PR CE H 2 BC B C

P

These results are such because of DE being parallel to BC.

The ratios of the areas of two similar triangles are equal to the ratio of the square of their corresponding sides

i.e. If ∆ABC ∼ ∆DEF then

ar( ∆ ABC) AB2 BC 2 CA 2

= = =

ar(∆ DEF) DE 2 EF 2 FD 2

(a) Ratio of the square of their corresponding medians.

(b) Ratio of the square of their corresponding Altitudes.

(c) Ratio of the square of their corresponding angle bisectors.

Properties

If two triangles are similar, the following properties are true:

(a) The ratio of the medians is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides.

(b) The ratio of the altitudes is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides.

(c) The ratio of the internal bisectors is equal to the ratio of the corresponding sides.

The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides

BA BD

containing the angle. i.e. In a ∆ ABC in which AD is the bisector of ∠A, then = .

AC DC

A

0

X

0 X

C

B D

Intercept Theorem

Intercepts made by two transversals (cutting lines) on three or more parallel lines are proportional. In the

figure, lines l and m are transversals to three parallel lines AB, CD, EF. Then, the intercepts (portions of

lengths between two parallel lines) made, AC, BD & CE, DF, are respectively proportional.

AC CE

=

BD DF

A B

C D

E F

l m

Pythagoras Theorem

The square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two

sides i.e. in a right angled triangle ABC, right angled at C,

AB2 = AC2 + BC2 Do You Know?

Or a2 + b2 = c2

. If you multiply the

A

Pythagorean Triplets: Pythagorean triplets

by constant, then

Pythagorean triplets are sets of 3

b c resultant will also be

Integers which can be taken as the three sides Pythagorean triplets

of a right-angled triangle. Few Pythagorean e.g. (6, 8, 10), (18, 24,

triplets are (3, 4, 5), (5, 12, 13), (7, 24, 25), C 30) etc.

a B

(9, 40, 41) etc.

In an acute angle triangle ABC, AD is the altitude on BC from vertex A, and ∠ABC is the greatest angle

among all the three angles. Then

A

AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 − 2 BD × BC

B D C

In an obtuse angle triangle ABC, AD is the altitude on CB produced from vertex A, and ∠ABC is the greatest

angle among all the three angles. Then

AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 + 2 BD × BC

A

D B C

Apollonius’ theorem

This theorem is the combination of above two theorems and gives the length of the median. If in ∆ABC, AD is

the median, meeting side BC at D. Then

⎡ ⎛ BC ⎞ ⎤

2

AB 2 + AC2 = 2 ⎢ AD2 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎦

B D C

Polygons

A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together is called a polygon. The sides

do not cross each other. Exactly two sides meet at every vertex.

Types of Polygons:

Regular: all angles are equal and all sides are of same length. Regular polygons are both equiangular and

equilateral.

Properties of Polygon

360 o

Each exterior angle of an n sided regular polygon is

Property 1 n

degrees

Each interior angle of an n-sided equiangular polygon is

(n − 2) × 180 o

degrees.

Property 2 n

Also as each pair of interior angle & exterior angle is linear,

Each interior angle = 180o – exterior angle.

Area of a regular polygon = (1/2) N sin(360°/N) S2

(N = No. of sides and S = length from center to a corner)

The areas of some well known regular polygons are:

Property 3

3 2

(1) Hexagon = 6 × a

4

Quadrilaterals

A polygon with 4 sides, is a quadrilateral

1. In a quadrilateral, sum of the four interior angles is equal to 360° and also the sum of exterior angles

equal to 360°.

2. On the properties, quadrilaterals have been named differently, as given below.

Trapezium

(a) When one pair of opposite sides is parallel and no condition for other pair of opposite sides, then the

quadrilateral is Trapezium.

(b) When the non – parallel sides are equal in length then

h

the trapezium formed is “isosceles trapezium”.

(c) The diagonals of isosceles trapezium are equal in

length but do not bisect.

Parallelogram

(a) Opposite sides are equals and parallel.

(b) Opposite angles are equal.

(c) Diagonals bisect each other

(d) Each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two triangles of equal area.

(e) Sum of any two adjacent angles is 180°.

Rhombus

(a) All sides are equal, opposite sides are parallel.

(b) Opposite angles are equal. d1

(c) Diagonals bisect each other at right-angled. But they are not equal. d2

(d) Each diagonal divides the rhombus into two triangles of equal area.

1

(e) Area = × d1 × d2

2

Rectangle

(a) Pair of opposite sides equal. b

(c) Diagonals are equal and bisect each other (not at right angles). L

2 2

A B

Square

(a) All sides are equal and angles equal.

(b) Diagonals equal and bisect at 90O.

(c) When it is inscribed in a circle, the diagonal of square is equal to

the diameter of the circle. But when circle is inscribed in a square, C C

the side of the square is equal to diameter of the circle.

Important Results

If we join the mid-point of a quadrilateral we get a parallelogram and the mid-point of parallelogram will give a

rectangle. If we again in join the mid-point of rectangle we get a rhombus and the mid point of rhombus will

give you a square.

Quadrilateral

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Rhombus

Square

Circles

If O is a fixed point in a given plane, the set of points in the plane which are at equal distances from O will

form a circle.

Parts of circle

In the figure below O is the centre of the circle of radius OM and diameter AB. Here diameter is always twice

the radius of the circle. CD is the secant to the circle and cut the circle at two different points. The tangent

PTR touches the circle at one and only one point. Also we have infinite number of tangent on a circle but at a

point there will be one and only one tangent that can be drawn. The chord TS in a circle is the line which

touches the circle at two different points and diameter is the longest chord.

T R

P D

C O B

A

S

M

Properties of a Circle

1. If two chords of a circle are equal, their corresponding arcs have equal measure.

2. Measurement of an arc is the angle subtended at the centre. Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the

center.

3. A line from centre and perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord.

4. Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre.

5. When two circles touch, their centres and their point of contact are collinear.

6. If the two circles touch externally, the distance between their centres is equal to sum of their radii.

7. If the two circles touch internally, the distance between the centres is equal to difference of their radii.

A

P

O

2P

B C

8. Angle at the centre made by an arc is equal to twice the angle made by the arc at any point on the

remaining part of the circumference.

Let O be the centre of the circle.

∠BOC = 2 ∠P, when ∠BAC = ∠P

9. If two chords are equal then the arc containing the chords will also be equal.

10. There can be one and only one circle that touches three non-collinear points.

11. The angle inscribed in a semicircle is 90o.

12. If two chords AB and CD intersect externally or internally at P, then

PA × PB = PC × PD

A

B

A D P

P

D

C B C

B A

14. If PAB is a secant and PT is a tangent, then

P

PT2 = PA × PB

T

15. The length of the direct common tangent (PQ)

P

Q

r1

r2

O O

O S

r1 r2

Oi

R

Cyclic Quadrilateral

If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle i.e. all the vertex lies on the circumference of the circle, it is said to be

cyclic quadrilateral.

1. In a cyclic quadrilateral, opposite angles are supplementary.

2. In a cyclic quadrilateral, if any one side is extended, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the interior

opposite angle.

Angles in the alternate segments are equal.

In the given figure, AC is a Chord touching the circle at points A and C. At point A we have a tangent PAT

making ∠CAT and ∠CAP with the chord AC. In the circle ∠ABC and ∠ADC are two angles in two different

segments.

Here for ∠CAT, the ∠ADC is in alternate segment and for ∠CAP; the ∠ABC is in alternate segment. So

according to the statement of the theorem the pair of these alternate angles are equal to each other.

Then, ∠CAT = ∠ ADC &

∠ PAC = ∠ ABC C B

T

P

A

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