1
Porosity
Porosity (total and effective)
Density (grain and bulk)
Mineral densities
Densityporosity relations
Composite grain density
Grains and pores
Packing and sorting
2
Porosity and Density
Porosity, o, is a measure of void space in a rock. Void space can
contain hydrocarbons!
Porosity:
( )
p b g
b b
V V V
V V
o
÷
= =
For most sedimentary rocks o < 50%
m
V
p =
Density:
bulk density, p
b
grain density, p
g
Porosity units?
3
Porosity and Density
p p
o
p
÷
=
( )
g b
g
PorosityDensity relationship:
( )
p op o p = + ÷ 1
b f g
( )
p o p = ÷
_
1
b dry g
Grain density:
1
n
g i i
i
c p p
=
=
¯
Where c
i
and p
i
are the volume fraction and densities of minerals
present.
4
quartz 2.65
calcite 2.71
dolomite 2.87
siderite 3.96
muscovite 3.84
kaolinite 1.58
clay_aver. 2.57
feldspars 2.502.67
anhydrite 2.98
gypsum 2.35
salt 2.17
Selected mineral densities (gm/cc)
5
Illite 2.62.9 2.7
Montmorillonite 22.7 2.35
Glauconite 2.42.95 2.67
Muscovite 2.772.88 2.82
Biotite 2.83.4 3.09
Kaolinite 2.6 2.6
Vermiculite 2.32.7 2.5
Chlorite 2.63.3 2.9
Clays and Micas grain densities
6
We have multiple means by which we can estimate pore volume (V
p
).
Some have implicit assumptions. The true way of measuring V
p
is by
1. measuring the bulk volume (V
b
)
2. crushing the sample to measure grain volume (V
g
)
3. use the formula: V
p
= V
b
V
g
This pore volume divided by the bulk volume yields a porosity value called
the “total” porosity.
Using other measurement approaches (measuring volumes of injected gas,
water, mercury, etc.) assumes total connectivity between the pores. Thus
estimates based on these approaches typically produce smaller values
of porosity and are referred to as “effective” porosities.
Why should you measure porosity both ways?
Porosity
7
Fountainebleau Sandstone
Bourbie et al. 1987
8
Porosity: Free Porosity
The total pore space is the red + white area. The concept of “free porosity”
refers to only the white portion. The red triangular sections are considered
areas where it is more difficult to move fluids; these are adjacent to the
grains (blue).
9
Berea Sandstone
Scanning Electron Microscope
10
Pore
throat
Grain boundaries Pores
11
Berea Sandstone
Grain boundaries==cracks?
12
Tight Sandstone
13
Tight Sandstone
Chlorite
14
Illite
Sandstone
15
Gas Shale
Organics
kerogen
Clays
Quartz
16
Diatoms
living
Skeletal material is pure SiO
2
!
Single cell algae
17
Miocene Monterey Fm. , Ca.
Diatoms
SiO
2
18
Ekofisk Reservoir, Paleocene
chalk made from coccoliths, Ca CO
3
single cell algae
Deposit 60,000,000,000 /m
2
/yr
Bering Sea today
19
Limestones
Macro and Micro
porosity
20
2. Calculate the bulk density of a rock which has 20% porosity.
The bulk mineralogy of the rock is 80% quartz, 15% calcite and 5% clay.
The pore fluid is composed of 20% brine and 80% hydrocarbon.
Density values for quartz, calcite, clay, brine and hydrocarbons are:
2.65, 2.71, 2.75, 1.0, 0.7 gm/cc, respectively.
3. A dry core sample weighing 450 gm was saturated with brine (p
brine
= 1.05 g/cc).
The saturated weight is 475 gm. The cylindrical core sample is 12 cm long
and 4 cm in diameter. Calculate the core porosity?
4. What is the porosity of a rock which is composed of 70% quartz, 20% calcite
and 10% clay and has a dry bulk density of 2.31 gm/cc? On saturating the core with
brine of density 1.02 gm/cc the saturated density was determined to be 2.48 gm/cc.
Using this value calculate the porosity. Why does it differ from the value calculated
using dry density? Assume no errors in measurements.
1. Write expressions for (1) grain density of a rock composed of
three minerals quartz, calcite, and clay, and (2) density of pore fluid
containing brine and hydrocarbon.
Homework:
21
5. A Dean Stark experiment yields 0.862 cc of water and 1.294 cc of oil.
The water density is 1.02 g/cc and the oil density is 0.72 g/cc. Assume the
core was 100% staturated when received. A The arkosic
sandstone is 72% quartz , 15% Kfeldspar and 13 % clay. The original core weight
was 30.507 gm, the length is 25.5mm and diameter is 25.55 mm. Compute the
porosity, saturated and dry bulk density, pore volume and water and oil saturations.
6. The dry weight of a core is 28.20 gm. When saturated with a brine having a
density of 1.15 gm/cc the weight increases to 31.50 gm. Calculate the apparent
porosities if the matrix is 1) quartz and 2) calcite.
7. A 1” diameter core by 1.5” long had a dry weight 56.61 gm. What is the lithology?
8. Calculate the weight in lbs of 90 feet of wet 4” diameter sandstone core.
Assume an average porosity of 15% and a grain density of 2.65 gm/cc.
Assume the saturating fluid has a density of 1.05 gm/cc. This is a typical core
acquired on a drill rig during a coring program.
22
0.084576 2.460547
0.24969 2.100788
0.179891 2.227571
0.282789 1.940692
0.249521 1.975408
0.035086 2.55842
0.178439 2.269011
0.077004 2.576182
0.287553 1.967119
0.011593 2.808226
0.212595 2.219497
0.238577 2.017549
0.27567 1.987079
0.290814 1.937283
0.117977 2.350455
0.225802 2.192369
0.17739 2.303381
0.121253 2.448843
0.287829 1.928111
0.069798 2.455823
9. Given the measured porosities and dry densities, compute the grain density
Porosity dry density
gm/cc
23
Factors controlling porosity
Graton and Fraser, 1935
 Grain size, shape, packing and
distribution
 Cementation
 Compaction
24
Factors controlling porosity: Unit cells
Graton and Fraser, 1935
25
Factors controlling porosity: Pore space
Graton and Fraser, 1935
26
Homework:
10. Compute the porosity for simple cubic packing of identical spheres.
27
28
2
throat
k d ·
5 10
grain
throat
d
d ~
÷
,
throat
d m u
29
Note the order of magnitude
relation between grain and
pore size!
Porosity and Packing
30
Beard and Weyl, 1973
31
the area is the fraction of
measurements falling between
x and x + dx
f(x) dx = probability that any one measurement
will give an answer between x and x + dx
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Continuous function
23 25 28 22 24 26 27
Bin size A
k
0.4
f(x)
x x+dx
1 ( ) f x dx
+·
÷·
=
í
N = ·
f(x)
( )
2
2
2
1
2
ˆ
( )
x x
f x e
o
o t
÷
÷
=
Grain size distributions
32
Distributions:
( )
3
3
1
÷
=
÷
¯
ˆ
( )
x x
Skewness
N o
+

( )
4
4
1
÷
=
÷
¯
ˆ
( )
x x
kurtosis
N o
mean
mode
median
Where o is the standard deviation.
33 Tickell et al. 1933
Controls on porosity also include the sorting of the grains.
( )
3
3
1
÷
=
÷
¯
ˆ
( )
x x
Skewness
N o
34
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
Mixing sphere sizes
Note minimum shifts with increasing differences in sphere sizes!
diameter ratios
% volume of small spheres
PorositySortingPacking
35
PorosityGrain size
36
Reservoir Volumetrics:
N = C A
s
h o S
oi
where: N  initial oil in place at reservoir conditions, bbl
A
s
 surface area of the reservoir, acres (43,560 ft
2
)
h  thickness of the formation, ft
o  porosity, fraction
S
oi 
initial oil saturation, fraction
C  constant (7758)
Classification
Geological : Primary
Secondary
Engineering: Effective
Total
Porosity
37
Thinsection image of a sandstone. Blue dye defines pore space.
Pores
38
Grubb Formation
California, Miocene
Turbidite
Angular
Grains
39
Grimmett_613
Oklahoma
Pores
40
D11H
D9V
R4H
D1V
Limestones, UAE
100um
100um
100um
100um
41
DIRECT METHODS:
 By measurement of bulk and grain volume.
 Optical method. Use of petrographic thin section analysis.
 Imbibition method. Imbibing wetting fluid into the pore space.
 Mercury injection method. Forcing nonwetting liquid into the
pore space.
 Gas expansion method (He, N
2
)
 Density method.
 NMR (proton density)
Log Based Methods :
 Formation Factor
 Microresistivity logs
 Neutron logs
 Gammagamma logs
 Acoustic logs
 NMR logs
Porosity Measurements Methods
42
Calculated versus core porosity
(assuming constant p
g
= 2.65 gm/cc)
Calculated versus core porosity
(using measured grain density)
43
Beard, D. C. and Weyl, P. K., 1973, Influence of texture on porosity and
permeability of unconsolidated sand: AAPG Bull., 57, 349369.
Graton , L. C. and Fraser, H. J., 1935, Systematic Packing of Spheres: With
Particular Relation to Porosity and Permeability, The Journal of Geology, Vol. 43,
No. 8, Part I, pp. 785909
References:
44
Miocence Monterey Fm. , Ca.
Diatoms
SiO
2
Porosity and Density
Porosity: Porosity, f, is a measure of void space in a rock. Void space can contain hydrocarbons!
f
Vp Vb
(V b V g ) Vb
f < 50%
Porosity units?
For most sedimentary rocks Density:
m V
b grain density, g
bulk density,
2
Porosity and Density PorosityDensity relationship:
f
( g b )
g
b ff 1 f g
b _ dry 1 f g
Grain density:
g
present.
c
i 1
n
i
i
3
Where ci and i are the volume fraction and densities of minerals
Selected mineral densities (gm/cc) quartz 2.65
calcite 2.71
dolomite
siderite muscovite kaolinite clay_aver. feldspars anhydrite
2.87
3.96 3.84 1.58 2.57 2.502.67 2.98
gypsum
salt
2.35
2.17
4
772.7
Glauconite Muscovite Biotite Kaolinite Vermiculite Chlorite 2.09 2.88 2.7
Montmorillonite 22.Clays and Micas grain densities
Illite 2.83.9
5
.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.63.7 2.82 3.95 2.42.35
2.3
2.67 2.9 2.32.62.
Thus estimates based on these approaches typically produce smaller values of porosity and are referred to as “effective” porosities. mercury. crushing the sample to measure grain volume (Vg) 3. The true way of measuring Vp is by 1. Why should you measure porosity both ways?
6
. water. measuring the bulk volume (Vb) 2.) assumes total connectivity between the pores. Using other measurement approaches (measuring volumes of injected gas.Porosity
We have multiple means by which we can estimate pore volume (Vp). use the formula: Vp = Vb Vg This pore volume divided by the bulk volume yields a porosity value called the “total” porosity. Some have implicit assumptions. etc.
Fountainebleau Sandstone
Bourbie et al. 1987
7
.
8
. The red triangular sections are considered areas where it is more difficult to move fluids. The concept of “free porosity” refers to only the white portion.Porosity: Free Porosity
The total pore space is the red + white area. these are adjacent to the grains (blue).
Scanning Electron Microscope
9
Berea Sandstone
.
Pores
Grain boundaries
Pore throat
10
.
Grain boundaries==cracks?
Berea Sandstone
11
.
Tight Sandstone
12
.
Tight Sandstone
Chlorite
13
.
Illite
Sandstone
14
.
Gas Shale
Organics kerogen Quartz
Clays
15
.
Diatoms
Single cell algae
living
Skeletal material is pure SiO2!
16
.
Diatoms SiO2
17
. . Ca.Miocene Monterey Fm.
Ca CO3 single cell algae
Deposit 60.Ekofisk Reservoir.000. Paleocene chalk made from coccoliths.000 /m2/yr
Bering Sea today
18
.000.
Limestones
Macro and Micro porosity
19
.
31 gm/cc? On saturating the core with brine of density 1. calcite. 1. clay. A dry core sample weighing 450 gm was saturated with brine (brine = 1.71. 0. 3.75. 2. The bulk mineralogy of the rock is 80% quartz. 15% calcite and 5% clay. The pore fluid is composed of 20% brine and 80% hydrocarbon. 2. 20% calcite and 10% clay and has a dry bulk density of 2. The cylindrical core sample is 12 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. Write expressions for (1) grain density of a rock composed of three minerals quartz. Density values for quartz.7 gm/cc. and (2) density of pore fluid containing brine and hydrocarbon. Calculate the bulk density of a rock which has 20% porosity. Calculate the core porosity? 4.02 gm/cc the saturated density was determined to be 2.05 g/cc).
20
. and clay.0.65. calcite. The saturated weight is 475 gm. 2. Why does it differ from the value calculated using dry density? Assume no errors in measurements. Using this value calculate the porosity.Homework: 1. brine and hydrocarbons are: 2. What is the porosity of a rock which is composed of 70% quartz.48 gm/cc. respectively.
61 gm. 15% Kfeldspar and 13 % clay.294 cc of oil. When saturated with a brine having a density of 1. pore volume and water and oil saturations.55 mm. The dry weight of a core is 28. This is a typical core acquired on a drill rig during a coring program.5.65 gm/cc.72 g/cc.5” long had a dry weight 56. the length is 25.15 gm/cc the weight increases to 31. Compute the porosity. saturated and dry bulk density.507 gm. What is the lithology?
8.50 gm. Assume an average porosity of 15% and a grain density of 2.05 gm/cc. Assume the core was 100% staturated when received.
6.02 g/cc and the oil density is 0. Calculate the apparent porosities if the matrix is 1) quartz and 2) calcite.862 cc of water and 1. A Dean Stark experiment yields 0.
21
. A The arkosic sandstone is 72% quartz . 7. The original core weight was 30. Calculate the weight in lbs of 90 feet of wet 4” diameter sandstone core.5mm and diameter is 25. A 1” diameter core by 1. The water density is 1.20 gm. Assume the saturating fluid has a density of 1.
227571 1.460547 2.9.808226 2.212595 0.987079 1.455823 22
.069798 dry density gm/cc 2.576182 1.035086 0.303381 2.017549 1.24969 0.967119 2.269011 2.287829 0. Given the measured porosities and dry densities.975408 2.287553 0.928111 2.179891 0.100788 2.290814 0.121253 0.350455 2.225802 0.011593 0.219497 2.282789 0.077004 0.940692 1.238577 0.249521 0.937283 2.448843 1.17739 0.192369 2.27567 0.55842 2.084576 0.117977 0. compute the grain density
Porosity 0.178439 0.
Factors controlling porosity
. 1935
23
.Cementation
. shape.Compaction
Graton and Fraser.Grain size. packing and distribution
.
1935
24
.Factors controlling porosity: Unit cells
Graton and Fraser.
1935
25
.Factors controlling porosity: Pore space
Graton and Fraser.
26
.Homework: 10. Compute the porosity for simple cubic packing of identical spheres.
27
.
2 k dthroat
d grain 5 10
d throat
dthroat . m
28
.
Porosity and Packing
Note the order of magnitude relation between grain and pore size!
29
.
Beard and Weyl. 1973
30
.
4
f(x) Continuous function
f ( x )dx 1
0.3
f( x )
0.1
0 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
x Bin size Dk
f(x) dx = probability that any one measurement will give an answer between x and x + dx
x+dx
31
.2
1
2
e
ˆ x x 2 2 2
N
f(x)
the area is the fraction of measurements falling between x and x + dx
0.Grain size distributions
0.
32
.Distributions:
mean mode median
ˆ x x Skewness
3
( N 1) 3
+
kurtosis ˆ x x
4

( N 1) 4
Where is the standard deviation.
Skewness
ˆ x x
3
( N 1) 3
Tickell et al.Controls on porosity also include the sorting of the grains. 1933
33
.
PorositySortingPacking Mixing sphere sizes
diameter ratios
Porosity
% volume of small spheres
Note minimum shifts with increasing differences in sphere sizes!
34
.
PorosityGrain size
35
.
acres (43. bbl As .constant (7758)
36
.porosity. fraction C .initial oil saturation.560 ft2) h .thickness of the formation.Porosity Classification
Geological : Primary Secondary Engineering: Effective Total
Reservoir Volumetrics: N = C As h f Soi
where: N .initial oil in place at reservoir conditions. ft f .surface area of the reservoir. fraction Soi .
Pores
37
Thinsection image of a sandstone.
. Blue dye defines pore space.
Grubb Formation California. Miocene Turbidite
Angular Grains
38
.
Grimmett_613 Oklahoma Pores
39
.
100m 100m
D9V
D11H
D1V 100m
R4H
Limestones. UAE
100m
40
.
Gammagamma logs .Neutron logs .Formation Factor .Imbibition method. Use of petrographic thin section analysis.Porosity Measurements Methods
DIRECT METHODS: . Imbibing wetting fluid into the pore space. N2) .Acoustic logs . .Optical method.NMR (proton density)
Log Based Methods : . . .Mercury injection method.Microresistivity logs .Density method. .NMR logs
41
. . Forcing nonwetting liquid into the pore space.Gas expansion method (He.By measurement of bulk and grain volume.
Calculated versus core porosity (assuming constant g = 2.65 gm/cc)
Calculated versus core porosity (using measured grain density)
42
.
.. C. J. K. 8. Influence of texture on porosity and permeability of unconsolidated sand: AAPG Bull. 57. 1935. No. Part I. C. The Journal of Geology. 349369. and Fraser. 43. L. and Weyl.. Vol. P. D. H. 785909
43
.References:
Beard. 1973. pp.
Graton . Systematic Packing of Spheres: With Particular Relation to Porosity and Permeability.
Diatoms 44 SiO2
. .Miocence Monterey Fm. Ca.