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Flrst pubtisl1ed ,2002 Fifth reprint 2006 tSBN 13 ISBN 10 978-S81 "235-795-3 981-235-795-5

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Urheberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes M ate,i a

Introduction Additional Mathematics Syllabus

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

s.ets

Functions Quadratic Functions

Indices and Surds Factors of Polynomials Simultaneous Equations Functions

6.

7.

8.

L.ogorlthmlc and Exponenlial Straight Une Graphs

2-Circul.a.r__Meosute

10. Trigonometry 11. 12. 13 14 15 16. Permulations and Combinations

Binomial Expansion Vectors in Two Dimensions Matrices Differentiation Integration Kinematics Specimen Specimen Paper A Paper B

J7

lrlt<tCi~_!JS;ITi7:'EH schut.t

1111!11~IIIII~nllllllll

s M ,cli"

tile syllabus. be fresh and mentarty alert. rt is odvlsoble 011 thot you sit down will oilihe materials you need lor on exorrmotlon - question papers. guide books as well as Ihe Cambridge questions. and Matrices are Included and given greater ernphcss. It is insufficient to just revise and practise. Remember Nt line papers. groph papers. You will need to sit tor mock exorrmotlons too! After revising 011 the toplcs. Remember to hove on early night the doy before the examinations luck and happy revision. a crucial factor is time. By simulating the examination conditions. the lirst things you need to know In general. You find that you will be better and fasler after procj~[ng a few complete papers. colculator.In this second edition. stationery and 0 watch. for examinations. Permulations and CombinallorlS. It will' be advantageous to check your so tnot you will crswers.vou moy wont to move on ond solve otner questions and attempllhe unsolved question later. you be more confident and know exactly what to do during the actual examination. formula list. lndlces and Surds. post year In preparing for additional mathematics examinations. For a more Indeplh coverage. questlons from your textbooks. to put up a '00 not dlstulb" sign too. new topics: sets. make sure you cover all the content specified In.the content required In the syllabus for each topic is outlined at Ihe beginl1ing 01 each chapter. Attempt entire paper wEthln tl1e given time limit. The amount of lime you should spend on each ques1ion is deterrnlnedby the number of rncrks allocated to It. For ease of referel1ce. when you prepare will be the syllabus end the exorninctions structure. II you have time after answering ailihe questlons. II Is advisable 10 cover a toplc at one time and attempt questlons related 10 Ihe topic. Kinematics Is now a chapter on lts own. In Ihe event Ihat you are 'stuck' at a questlon. It will also be better if you revise related topics consecutively. When you revise your work. WelL good ~~--------------------------------------------------------- .

Additional Matb.ematics Syllabus Secondary GeE '0' Level y Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS G.C. 4. formulate Examination Structure There will be two papers. for Paper 1 Each paper will consist of approximately 10-12 questions of various lengths.E. 3. Detailed Syllabus Knowledge of the content of the Syndicate'. symbols and terminology. comprehend numerical. awareness. 5. students mathematical skJlIsand use these In the context In otner subjects. 3. particularly of more ta extend their elementary advanced techniques. on ability to apply mathema~cs science and to develop mathematical skills In appropriate to extend specifiC applications. to develop technology. only one of which must be answered. 0 LEVEL ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS Syllabus Alms The course should enable 1. (or an equivalent Syllabus) is assumed. Interpret and use mathematical dolo. Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" . 2. algebraic andspotlal concepts and relationships: recognise the appropriate mathematical procedure for a given sltuotlor» problems Into mathematical terms and select and apply appropriate techn Iques of solution. Ordinary level material which is not repeated in the syllabus below will not be tested directly but it may be required indirectly in response to questions on other topics. each of 2 hours and each carries 80 marks. and the conrldence and appreciate to apply their moltlematlcol situations: their interest in mathematics its power as a basis for Assessment Objectives The examination will test the ability of candidates to 1. 4. There will be no choice of question except that the lost question In each paper will consist of two alternatives. Content and Paper 2 will not be dissected. 2. recall and use manipulative techniques. Ordinary level Syllabus D.. The mark allocation for the last question will be In the range of 10-12 marks.

." B nCA) E .between A function Is a function or Why and form Use sketch graphs to show lt1e relationship function and lts Inverse.iQ = slnx" I~x -> Igx. Understand Y'" the terms function. C•. (x> 0).. y): y = mx + a} C .. Aq:B A <t B range (image and composition Inverse function f(. is not an element Complement of set A The empty set Urllversal set of . . one-ane of functions. . Funcllono Understand set).Ix : A ::.x s bl D = la. Find the Inverse of a one-one composite functions. Explain In words why a given function rt does not have an Inverse. . quadratic trigonometric. is an element of . function. b... Ii!: A' 0 E A is a subset of B A is a proper subset of B A is a not a subset af B A\:B AC B A is a not a proper subset of B 2. . domain. Use the notation fex) (= f(lex»).J x Is A natural number) Understono and use the following notation: AuB Union of A and B Intersection of A and BAn Number of elements In set A ". and Venn diagrams between ta sets and represent relallonshlps sets B = lex. rlO¢ and 1f(!()I.. where the relationship t(ll) between y = fOO and or may be linear. Set language natation and Use set language describe as follows: A = (x: and notation.THEME OR TOPIC CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES 1. Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" .

Including ratlonallslng the denominator. for f(l() ~ 0 to hove (i) two reol roots. Simultaneous equCltions Logarithmic exponennoi and functions Solve simultaneous equations leost one lineo. b. Use the maximum graph or determine or minimum value of tOO to sketch the the range for a given domain. equation. y . Solve equations of the form o' . for two lines to be pora~el Know and use the condition ~~----------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htlich gesc hutztes M ateri a . (III) no feol roots. Straight line graphs Interpret the equation form y. Transform given relationships.ax" and v= Ab'. ond the for a given line to (I) Intersect a given Know the conditions roots..THEME OR TOPIC CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES 3. Solve cubic eouonore. (iI) be a tangent to a given curve.. at 7. solufton set for quadratic 4. (iii) not intersect a given curve. (Including change Know and use the laws of logarithms of base ot logarithms). (il) two equal related conditions curve. Factors of polynomials 6. Quadratic functions Find the maximum or minimum value of the quadratic function f': x . 5. Solve quadrcrlic equations tor reol roots and find the Inequolitles. Know simple properties and graphs of the logarithmic and exponential tuncllonslncluding Inx and eX (series expansions ole not required). to straight line form and hence determine unknown ccnstonts by calculating the gradient or Intercept at the tronstormed graph. Indices and surds Perform simple operottons with Indices and with surds. OX2 + b« + C by any method.. In two unknowns with and foctor theorems. Know and use the remainder Find factors of polynomials. mx+ c. Solve questions involving end perpendicular. of a straight line graph including In the 8.. mid· point and length of line.

0 <: r s n (knowledge of the greatest term and properties of the coefficients Is not required). + c. Blnomlol expansions Use the Binomial Theorem for expansion positive Integral n. or with objects permutations arranged In a circle or involving comblnallons. a permutation case Prove .THEME OR TOPIC CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES 9.and the and combinations of n items r at a time. Trigonometry Know tile six trigonometric magnitude cofangenl) Understand relallonshlp . on arrangement botll and selec~on and Answer simple problems (cases with repetition of objects. (with O! . cosec' A = 1 + cot'A and solve simple Irlgonometr1c equations Involving the six trigonometric functions and the above relationships (not Including general solution of trigonometric equations). ------------------------------------------------~"~ Urheberrec htlich gesc hutztes M ateri a . conslne. + c. and a combinafion Know and use tile notation expressions for permutations taken nl. sin'A cos A SlnA " tan A.cfr'tf. + cos' A " 1. are excluded). Draw and use the graphs of y " a sin(b)j y " 0 cos(bx) pasltlve + C. cosecant. y = 0 ton(bx) Integers and c Is on integer. Involving the arc length and sector area and use of radian of a circle.g. ·0. Circular measure Solve problems measure.. sec' A " 1 + tan2A. of (0 + b)" lor Know and use the general termnC. 12.1). wIlere bare Know and use the relationships cosA slnA =colA. (sine. amplitude and periodicity and tile between graphs of e. Sin x and sin 2)(.slmple trigonometric 11. Including knowledge 10. identities. tangent. functions of angles of any secant. Permutations combinations and Recognise and distinguish between case..

connected rates of change. and approximations problems. together multiples" sums and comoosite funcfions Apply differentiation to gradients. of the sum and Involvl'ng the calculooon appro prate) of two rnotrlces and the result. Add and subtrae! by scalars. sin x. product Interpret Calculate (where the dolo rncmx. the zero use Ihe algebra of 2 by 2 matrices and Identity malllx). stationary pOints. 15. M. Dlfferenfiate products and quotients ot functions and Understand the Idea of a derived function. velodly Including solving problems on (but not closest approach). tangents and normals. p..THEME OR TOPIC CURRICULUM OBJEcnYfS 13. Inx. ~:~ "[d~(~~)l functions r».g. the product of a scalar quantity and a matrix. cos of the standard x" (for any with of x. Differentiation Integration Use the notations Use the derlvattves rational constant these. tan x. of a vector. e". (~} AB.bl. 01 + . and rnultlplv vectors Compose Use relative Interception 14" MatTices and resolve velccltles. '(x). between maximo and minima by any and practical maxima Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! ateri a . e. Vectors In 2 dimensions Use vectors In any form. (Including Calculate the determinant ond Inverse of a non-singular matrix and sotve simultaneous linear equations. In the form of matrix of any order in a given Display Information and interpret Solve problem. small increments and minima Dlscrimlnale memoo. Know and use position vectors Find the magnitude vectors and unit vectors.

. ern' 0. ___________________________ .. of particles acceleration. $inCox + b).THEME OR TOPIC CURRICUWM OBJECTIVES Understand dffferentiatlon. Integrate integration as the reverse process of sums of terms In powers of x excluding 1 x' Integrate functions 01 the form (ox+ b)" (excluding n ~ ~1).I:xl U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a . cos(ax + b). and Integration moving to kinematics velocity and to tine of plane differentiation problems that Involve displacement. acceleration in a straight line (with and tine use of x~f variable or constant and v~ f graphs). Evaluate evaluation Applv definite Integrals and applv Integration areas.

(x EQ .MATHEMATICAL The [[st which follows summarizes Ihe notation NOTATION used in the Syndicate's Mathemotlcs also applies... (0. 0 level. {Q. 10. l.. IL 2. Mathematical L e . number of elements in set A ern ply set Ix: . .. x « bl the Interval Ixe ~: 0< xo. to examinations at other levels. . ±I.1 the set of Integers. examinations. Ix e R : x .t» [x ~ R : Q < x <. ±2. u n (0.. x » 0) the set of positive real numbers and zero.e. 10... 1 nLA) lX" "2. x '" bl to. '.... 3..bl the open Interval numbers c ct c g. x> 01 0) the set of positive rallonal numbers and zero. "I 0 e Z A' N universal set the complement of the set A the set of positive Integers and zero. Although primarily directed towards Advanced level. (XG III . 2.. {XEO: R+ RQ 'R"' C the set of rea) numbers the set of positive real numbers. . the interval {xsR: a. thelisl where relevant. 1. n - 11 X~ O· Q~ 1\1 numbers rational numbers. . 3. (0... bl 2. M~ce/IQneous Symbols Is equal to Is not equal to is identical to or Is congruent to ~~i~ ___ Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" ." 1 the set of poslflve Integers. 1 the set of integers the set of rational the set of positive modulo z+ in 0 n. L 2. AO level. Notation set Notation is an element the the the the of of Is not an element set WitIl elements x" X2' sat of all x such that". ±3. . 01 the real n tuples the set of complex Is a subset of Is a proper subset of Is not a subset of is not Q proper subset of union intersection b) b) b) the closed interval Ix e III : a".

.Ir~ the Inverse of tile function f the composite function 01 1 ond 9 which (g'I)(..:) or gi(x) " g(I('<:) the limit of I(x) 01 x tends to a an Increment the derivative 01 Is defined 4)'.o. gf lirn I(x) . .)I for n... is much less than >..)_-<... ls much greater than ls greater infinity than or equal to or Is not less than ._(n_-_I. r'" n _n. nx) . .... 0"..<:) with respect to ---')d!f U rheberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri" .. nth derivatives x x of 1(.> equal to to Is proportional to is less than. fCn)oo ____________________________ dx" the nth cenvonve the first second..l. of y with respect _. Operations o+b o-b o x b.is approximately is Isomorphic <. 3.!(n-..<Il . olb b o:b a plus b by b by b a minus b a multiplied a divided the ratio 01 a 10 b LOI 101 nl f) ..5x dy x to x to dx d"y of y with respect roo...b a o+b. re I\J lor n" . Q.t e N.ra 1-1 the positive squore root 01 the reol number the modulus at the reol number a n lactoriol lor 0 (~J Functions n" N (01 " 1) the binomial coefficient _n_!_.n_-_'_+-O-I). ob..I 4.< . function f 01 set A has on the value of the function f at x f Is a function under which each element f:XHY Imoge In sel B the function 1maps the element x to the element y by 1""' g.> is less than or equal to or Is not greater than is greater than...

ijl a. events union of the events A and 8 Intersection of the events A and 8 AUB AnB ~. k I. Probability and Statistics the magnitude the magn~ude of a of A8 the scalar product of a and b the vector product of a and b A B.~--------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ate. . exp logax In x Ig x 6. cot .b axb 9. Ion } cosec. x base of natural logarithms exponentlol function of x logar~hm natural logarithm to the base of x of a of x logarithm x to bose 10 Circular Functions and Relations the Circular functions } the Inverse circular relations &In.Indefinite Integral of y with respect ofy to x to x for values of x to x respect to lime. cos.IMI 8. sec-'. . • cosec'".i" .COS -. I. sec. sIn -. VectolS the vector the vector directed a represented line segment In magnitude AS of the vector a of the cartesian coordinate and direction by the iii i. dertvatlves x w~h e e'. ton -.. cct-' Molrlces a matrix M the Inverse of the square mr:mbc M the determinant of the scuoro motrix M M M-' del M. second.al a unit vector in the direction unit vectors in the directlons axes l. C. etc. 7. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions . 5. the definite between Integral wttI1 respect a and b 01 y with respect of the partial dertvallve the first..

8) (A U8)' (e) Ausu C u n C nC SoluNon (a) AnB (c) (d) AuG' AU (e) au C B (AuB)nc ____________________________________________ (AuB).Example 2 Make copies of the Venn diagram shown and shade the ssts representee by each 01 the followingo: (0) (b) (d) (e) An B AU C' (A .nc ~i~ .

12. 19] C"" 13.i" .8.. 30 like to ploy computer games and 20 like to surf the net. 2. 11. 12. n(A u B u C) = 18 (A n 8' n C) = {l21 11. C..3.4. 3. :. 5.e x is 0.9.. C "" {x : x 15 a multiple of 31 (0) (b) Ust the elements of sets A Band Find n{A U B u C). 18. It Is given that ~ "" {students In the classl C = {students who like to play computer N gomesl = {students who like to surf the naf} Let x be the number net. IS. Smallest posslbla value at Solution r--------------------. 13. 19. 7. (0) So/urian A = 14. 16. 17.5. Ix: x is a multiple of 41. XE II.7. 13. [x : x is a prime nurnoerl.9. B . 6 Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ate.201 B"" n. (el Listthe elements of A n 8' n C. 181 (b) (e) Example 4 (A u Bu C) = 11.6. surf the Using Venn diagrams.EXCImpte3 Given thai ~ '"' !1 s x s 20.201 In 0 closs of 40 students. find (a) the smallest possible value of x.2. 17. (b) the largest possible value of (0) x. or otherwise. 16. ot students wI'1o neither IIketa plov computer games no. 15.8. A.6. 12.

XEZ'].------------------.: 14. Venn diagrams.10 = 10.< 300L (c) (d) 2. I.30 = 10 when N C C.e. shade the sets A and B are two sets in the unlversol set. (0) A = Ix: x is on odd number and x < 10). _______________________________________________ ~~v Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . An B.Insaporote represented by each of the following: (a) (b) (c) (eil (e) AuB. It is impossible lor x to be negative. A' n fl. (b) B = Ix: x Is multiple of 5 and i'. :. 3O-y+y+20-y+x=4O 5O-y+x=4O x=y-lO (d) (bl The smallest possible volua ctx is 0 when y = 10. Au 8'.(b) r-------------------~< 10 Largest possible value at x Is 40 . XE rl. Alternatively.~ x = n (en /Il) Let y = n (C u N). The largest pOSSble value 01 )( occurs when y Is maximum. List the elements of each 01 the lollowing sets.. when y=20. Revision Exercises 1. An 8'.. . D = Ix: 1 <2x. C=ix: 1<x<5. largest possible value of x = 20 .

Given that nit) " 20. (0) (b) 5. The number shown In the Venn diagram. (A U Bu C)'. a Venn diagram. given that neAl " n(C). It is given that e= {1. 3. n(A n 8'). 8. 6.3. 91 such that A = 0r: x Is on even number). (c) (eI) AnBnC. at elements In each subset is 4. n(BnCt ntA' n B n C). find the value of y. 5. B = (x: x is a multiple of 3) and C" (x: X is a mul1iple of 4). Band C are such that r" A U B u C. find (a) (b) (c) the value of x. Find x and n(e). list the elements of the following sets: By drawing (a) AuB. 2. (dl U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M aleri" . A Band C are such that e» Au B u C The number of elements in each subset of is represented in the Venn diagram. (b) AnB. 7. A. Given that niB no" niB' n 0. 4.

x ond z. (b) Given that there is a total of 70 club members. 13 members participate ln kayaklrlg arldwirld-surfirlg.kayaklng or wind-surfing. 36 members participate in wind-surfing. n(1) . (jll) find the number of members who participated In water-skiing but not koyal<ing.. 2x members participate In wofer-skllrlg arid kayaklrlg. Given that n(1) " 55. (0) Copy the Venn diagram and irldicote the number of people in each subset.6.. 9 U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a . x + 7 members porftclpate In water-skiing and wlnd-surflng. find the maximum possible values of w.60. 33 members participate in kayaking. It Is compulsory that every member parftclpote In alleasl one activity. The outcome 01 the InteIYlew Is represented by the Venn diagram below: e Is the set of members Intervlewed. 7. (i) find the value of x: (jl) find the number of members who participated In wind-surfirlg anly. A hundred members of a health club were inteIYiewedto find out whether they use free weights or treadmills more frequently. Tis the set of members who choose treadmills. F Is the set of members who choose free weights. lCD] Members of a sea sports club may choose to participote in water·skJing. 31 members participate In water-Skiing. x members parlcipate In alllhree actMt1es.

girls who neither sing In the choir nor play the (e) (II) 9. (i) Find the smallest possible value of n(Sn Pi. The Venn diagram of these subjects that shows the combinations are possible.neAl. It Is given that e- Igirls In the closs]. (b) There are 28 gi~s In a class. A. (e) ~~----------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M aleri" . The universal set e= AU B u C. Express in set notation piano. S ~ Igirls who sing in the chor]. (a) On the Venn diagram below. (0) Given thot the number of students faking (b) Physics is 123. calculate the value of x. 17 sing in the choir and 15 play the plano. (a) state the value of n«B U C). n C. Additional Mathematics and Physics. 01 these. and the numbers and letters represent the number 01 students In each subset.a. shade the set A u (9 n C'). find the two possible values ~k ~ 10. (b) (c) If XE (A U 8) xEA. In a school. some 01 the subjects that students can take are Mathematics. p ~ jgirls who ploy the plcnol. Given that one sixth of those laking Mathematics also toke Additional Mathemofics. ftnd the probability that If n(C) . calculate the value at y and hence find the total number of students taking Mathematics.). Band elements C are three sets and the numbers or are os shown in the Venn diagram.

) I. I from domain X to codomain y. related to a unique elemenlln pair where by the runcnon the set Y. Functions Consider mapped set X and set Y. X ~ Yor X__!_" Y denotes a function r : XH f(. f.5). of the function x------_y Notatlo!! f . 5.) Ul1derstal1d the relationship between be Ill1ear. range (Image set). 6).Chapter 2 Functions Curriculum Objecflve&: Understand the terms function. one fl(x) (= f(f(x)) Inverse function and . 1. tl(>. Is set Y = II.3. 1 Is the image 012. where lex) may or why it does not have functions 'is a tunctlon and form composite between to show the relotionshlp a function and its Inverse.lO denotes a runctlon y = f(x) Itl the codomain. t: x ~ Igx.lc Explall1ln words why '0 given function an lnverse Find the inverse of a one-one Use sketchgrophs function y= I(x) and' y = If(>. 2. 4. 1 linking x. 12. one-one function. 4. 1)ls on ordered The domain The codomoln 01 rhe lunction is the set X". an element of the domain. every element in the set X is (2. (x> 0).cornoosilion of functions Use the notation fOi) = sinx. domain. to Its Image ~11 _____________________________________________________ . quadratic or trigonometr. J.

0$ x$4.~ and g .flned 0 s xs 4 o s axs 12 o sroos 12 by f: XH 3x Rnd the range of 1 for the dornolr. 3.. Example 1 A nmcnonr Is d". Urhcberrec htlich gesc hutztes M ateri" . x ~ 1 the (OI'Ige 01 I. l11e set of ImClge$ Is caied For example.. Solution 2. Exomple2 II f.Considering 1(2) = 1 1(3) ~ 2 each element In domain X. 2..41.. .:<) = g(f(x» by anotheriunction g. ~I S x Find the range of gf for the domain Find an expression for f2. Composite FuncHons When a function f isfollowed gl(.x .c A is the domain and C is the codomain of the composite function gf.. Elements like 5 and 6 in codomain Yare not images of any elemen! in domain X and therefore are not in the range 01 f. the range 01 I(xl" x~ 1 is {I... tOO. (i) (II) x .. we get a composite funcHon gf. 1(4)" 3 1(5) '" 4. :.x~ 2. s 2.

Maximum and minimum values of quadratic function y" ai2 + bx +c When a" 0. Q and the related (II) (III) not Intersect Solve the quadratic quadrQ!lc given curve equations lor reol roots and find the solution sottor Inequalities. 2. depending ~~----------------------------------------------UrrCD rrechtl: I schutztos ~\ prio . x ~ + C by any method Use the maximum or minimum value 01 lex) to sketch the graph or determine the range tor a given domain Know the conditions for 100 " 0 to have (I) two real roots. of power 1. II a " O.Curriculum ObJecllves: Find the maximum f. then we have a linear luncllon whiCh involves variables Quadratic nmcftons 'Invoive vonobles of highest power 2. a.. using two methods: similor forms) ls given by q The maximum and minimum values can ba found (I) "Completing the squareExpress the function where and the corresponding (Note: You may need quad ratic function. the function When 0 < 0. '00 . (or other The maximum or minimum value of xis _E:. conditions for 0' given line to Inlersect a given curve. (II) (Iii) (i) ax< + bx or minimum value of the quadratic function two equal roots. Note. 1. o on the given to use other similar forms. p and q are constants. The shope otlts curve Is ("\. no real roots.gx> + bx + c a.) in a form. The shops of Its CUNe is v' has 0 maximum value. General The general or form of a quadratic form 01 a quadratic where function funcMon I. the function has a minimum value. like ± (ox + PJ< + q..+ bx + c. be a tangent to a given curve. band c ore constants and a ¢ O. y" oil.

00

Ditferentletlon Differen~ote the function

y~ ail .. bJ<.. c with respect to J<,to get dY. Equate dx

dy to zero and solve to get the

ax

x

coordinate

of the mClldmum/mlnlmum lor the function to get the

value.

Substitute

this volue

Into the axpresslon

corresponding

value of y,

:. J<=--

dy ~20J< .. b~0 dJl b

20

J<-

SubsllMe EXample 1

-!?...

20

into y - w+

t»: + C

Given fhot the curve whose equation (1. 0) and (3. 0). lioo

is y ~ o- (x- '1)2 crosses the x-oxls ot the points

to

(U)

the volue 01 p and 'I, the mCllClmum value of y. (i) For the point (1. 0). v= 0 ~ p> (1- q)2

(e)

SOlution

P - (1 - 2'1 .. cfl = 0 p - 1 .. 2'1 - cf ~ 0

For the point (3, 0). y=0~p_(3-q)2

_

(l)

P - (9 - 6'1"

p-9+6q-cf=0 (2) - (1)

cfl = 0

(2)

4'1 - 8 ~ 0 .'. '1- 2

Substitute q"' 2 Into (1). p-l .. 2(2)_(2)2 ~ 0 p-l .'. p= .. 4-4=0 1

.', P = 1. 'I ~2

(ii) Use the "completing the square" method (this Is a better and' foster method to use in this question, especially so as the function is o~eod'y expressed In the" squored" form) SubstitUting the values of pond yo 1 -(J<-2)2 By Inspection, qlnlo the functon.

rncodmurn velue of y = 1.

______________________________

...!.21~

Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M aleri"

Alternatively

. using the differentiation

method (not recommended

but Is shown to Illustrate the method) Y ~ 1 ~ (x ~ 2)' ~ I ~ i" ..Ax ~ 4 ~ -Xl + 4x ~ 3 dy = ~2x .. 4 = 0 dx

:. x - 2

Substitute

**x ~ 2 into function. y-l~(2~2)< y=1
**

value of y is 1

The maximum

Example 2

Express y = ~ I(x + 5)2+ (x ~ 7)<) In the torm y,. vdlue of y and the corresponding Solution value of

x.

ex + qY-

+ f. Hence

**find the least
**

(e)

y = ~(Xi .. 10x+ 25 + Xi ~ 14x .. 49)

= 1(2Xi ~ 4x .. 74) = Xl ~ 2x .. 37

c

ex ~

1)2 .. 36 value of y ~ 36 when x ~ 1.

Maximum

3.

**Graphs of quadratic funcHons
**

Shope of quadratic function given by t;; ~ 4cre. (i) When a> O.

y= m?- .. b« .. cdepends

(Ii)

on o ond D.lts dlsc~mlnanl.

When 0'" O.

D.,.O

y

D.,.O

The curves cut the x-cxes at 2 different curves.

points A and B. I.e .. the x-oxes Intersecttha

22 Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

Solulion

W

gf(.>O" 9«(.>0) " g(iI) '" iI - 2 gfH)"1-2"-T gf(O) " 0 - 2 " -2 gf(2) "4-2,, 2

(1100

-2

-I

-,

The range of gf Is -2 S glOO" 2. (ii)

f2(>() " f(f(x» " f(il) :. f2: x .... X"

" )(I

3.

.Inverse Function

A B A B

To find the Inverse of a function. leI f(x) " Y. Ihen x " Example 3 f Is defined by I . X H 2£ - 1. And ltie expression for

r-'(Y).

The nmcnon

r-' .

--------------------------------------------------------~~~

U rheberrec htl ich ge5c h "Illes M ateri"

graph.rely below the x-nxes. the x·axes do To sketch a quadrolic (i) o > 0 or (] < O.e. 0 (vi) 0<0 y 0<0 0<0 y o --~ot-------------~x The curves are either entirely above not intersect the curves. y a (the value(s) of x when 0). 0 ~ 0 or 0 < O.(iii) 0>0 (iv) O~O 0<0 0".. band c are constants Urheberrcc htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" . the x-axes are tangents (v) 0> to the curves. orland minimum points. of y when the y·lntercept(s) the x·intercept(s) (the value(s) x '" 0)..0 Y 0 X o The curves touch the x-cxes at one point. 4. O. General form of a quadratic equation The general form of a quadratic equation Is and a .. ax' + bx + c = 0 where a.e. consider the following: or enll. (i0 (ill) (iv) (vl !he maximum 0 > 0. i. l.

Mr. ro have ex" the same sign Either ()( + A) > 0 and (x + Bl > O. bx + c > 0 or V"' ail + t»: + C < O.) D ~ /:)2 when has two real and unequal roots. the equation I & Ii. satisfy both (x + A) < 0 and (x + 8) < O. Factorize inaqualltles: the expression and consider the signs (x. b)( . one root A (See trgures has no real roots.. the equallon has two real and equal roots. 8px . bx + C"' O. 8 = 0 p= -~ 5. 8p) = 0 to have equal D "' C8p)2 .2p)il . or A) < 0 and 8) < 0 Draw two number lines and determine the range of )( that sallsfy both conditlons x + A > 0 and )( + B> 0 as well as that which. = D.e... A and 8.(2 + 8p» "' O... 8p)"' D Solution Recall for an equallon oil . c z 0 or y = ai' + bx + c s O. (See trgures 4=....Jb2-4oc )("'------'--- D > D. For the equation (1 -.4(1 . the discriminant of the equation (I) (il) -b±. 8px.t. A)()( .il + (4 . c '" D 10 have equal roots. (e) (1 . equonon are given by the following formula (which 20 D. Soluton Method (a) of quadratic 1. we gal a quadratic equation Y'" oi' . QuadraHc Inequalities tuncnon » When a quadratic O..) (iii) D < D..2p)(. t»: ... 64r..8p)(2 . (See figures v & vl. Bl > 0 Both ()( . Quadratic Inequalities are oblalned when yO' ail .. roots. tns equation Example 3 Find the value of o for which the equation has two equol roots. D=tY-4ac=O. 8p) "' 0 Mr...2p)il .. ex" Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! ateri a . Partial Inequalities are obtained when V"' ail .il = 0 16p .) III & iv.(2 .SoluHons/roots to a quadratic Is glvan In Ihe formula list). A) and ()( .16p + 32p .il + 8 .(2 .

A) end (x + B) have ditfererlt Etlher (x + A) > 0 and (x + slgm: Draw two number lines and determine the range of x that satisfy both condtfions x + A> 0 and x+ 8 <0 as well as that Which satisfy bath (x+ A) <0 and.(b) (x + A)(x + B) < 0 (x .-@ U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a .l) > 2 x2-x-2>O (x . :-:<-A pO&' af!hec.1) > 2 (I) x(x.x < -A or x > -8 (x + A)(x + B) < 0 -a So/uNon -A " x " -8 <.{"Jo-s for Ih~ port ot tl"le curve.. 2.2) and (x+ I) have the some sign (arrows in number Ilrles point In the same dlrec~on). or (x + A) < 0 and (x + 8) > 0 2: Factorize the expression and sketch the curve (x + A)(x + B) > 0 ror th~part .2)(x + I) > 0 Method 1: Consider signs For (x. ~e~ -. (x + B) > O. So/uNon (i) X(X .4. Method (a) 8> < 0.0( ~~ x<.I)'. pO&' So/ution (p) . ------------------------------------~.-8 't the Example 4 Determine the range 01 the values 01 x lor which (i) x(x.2){x+ 1) > 0.""e. (x.

The rOl"\ge lor which x(x - ~. :.etch curves 2)(x + 1) > 0 pO pO x<-lorx>2 ai) x2-x-2s0 ex -2)(x + 1) so Method 1: Consider signs 2) and (I( + 1) have different directions).2andxs-l --I 2) 2: 0 and (x + 1) s 0 2) s 0 and (x + D .2)(x + 1) s arrows poinlln (I( - o. . x > 2 :. that Include the inequalities 2: Sk. opposite x.e. 0 xs20ndxi':-1 -I ---- Both conditions (x s 2 and x". Note: Use hollow dots """' for strIctlnequalifles Use bold dots ..... . or or (I( - For (x ..e. for partial points (l. -1 s x s 2.e..(x-2»Oand(x+l»O x > 2 and x » -1 or or x (x-2)<Oand(x+l)<O < 2 and x -c -1 -1 2 -1 To satisfy both conditions (x< 2 &'x<-1). 1) SOls -1 S x S 2.To satisfy both cond itions (I( s 2 and x i': -D. > or <).-I) cannol be sotistled.?.. The range otx for which xCx -1) > 2 is x > 2 orx < -1. or $).)«-1 To sat1sfy both conditions (x> 2 &. (x - signs (l..~----------------------------------------------------Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . Method (I( - (I. x > -1).

20) > 0 160:::2.:2 <: 400 c2 < 100 tc + lO)(c .4(5)(c" ..2x+c .4oc:> 0 (4ci' . i.Method 2: Sketch curves y (x.the range of volues of c for which the slrolghtllne x2 + v"' = 20 y~ 2x + c Intersects the curve In two distinct points.20 20" 0 x"+4x"+4xc+ 5x" + 4cx+ c"- In order for the points of .Intersection of the line and the curve to be two dlstlnct points.2)(x + 1):5:.200:. At the points of Intersection.. its dlscrlmlnont 0 > O. the range of values of c Is -10 < c < 10.e. v"'= x2+ (2x + C)2" 20 c". 0" tr. ------------------------------------------------~~j Urheberrcc htl lch gcsc hutztes M ateri a . 5x" + 4xc + c" .2+ 400 > 0 4.20 " 0 has two real and distinct roots.0 y~O b:ample 5 Flnd. slmultoneously y.10) < 0 (c+ lQ)(C-10l < 0 From the graph. (I) the two equotlons must both be50listled Solution x2+ 20 (2) Substitute (l) Into (2).

k-3x. l..k) ~ 0 k~ 9-2O+4k-O . Solution At points of Intersection. the two equations must be satisfied simultaneously.6x .ci'.4(1)(5 . I. the two equcrlons (1) (. Find the range 21i' .4ce ~ (-{Jj2 ...6x-3" 0 When the line does not meet the curve. y + 3x ~ k => Y ~ k ..e.!.. (1) (2) to the curve...2. D < O.XV ~ 3.ci'-.3x y ~ i'. D " Ii' .2) 2i'.k to have D ~ ti. y=cx+6.+ 5 " " Substitute (l) Into (2). for Ii' + 3x + 5 .x(cx + 6) " 3 2..3 " 0 has no real roots..Example 6 the curve y ~ Rnd the value of kfar which the line y + 3x ~ kis a tangentto Ii' + S.4(236+24-120<0 12c> c>5 c)(-3) < 0 60 Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" .. (C) Solution At the point of Intersection.2 4 Example 7 of values of c for which y" ex + 6 does not meet the curve (C) are simultaneously satisfied. 2i'.e. its 0 ~ O. 2i'--XV=3 Substitute (l) into (2).>f-+5 >f-+3x+5-k~O For the line to be a tangent one real root.4ac D ~ (W ..

4.... (0) i' + px 4 " 0 (b) i' .30 (c) (p .1~11))( 2 (d) (e) 2i' + 2x s i' ..19 (e) 16 .. I< Is positive lor all real values of x. The quadratic ecucnon pi' .. Ie i. X" q " 0 has roots 3 and -4.. (2x + 3)(x . Sketch the graph y" -2i' ..snever positive 9... U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a . state the maximum value of yond the corresponding value of x. 2(21< + 2)x . 9 " 0 has real roots.x) .5x + 8. 7.. Find the maximum or minimum value of each of the following quadratic functions by e)(pressng them in the form ±(ax + p)2+ q..l)i' + 4px + P + 20" O.. 5x . (II) the range of values of r for which the equction pi' +x + q + t » 0 hos no real roots. Hence. ftnd the range of values olklol for all real values of x. (0) 9i' + :ulx + 14 (b) 40x . Ftnd the range of values of k for Wh'lchthe eouonon loP..(p l)x" 5p . 2) > 0 8 i' . Find the value of p.16i' ...x1 (d) 3i' .3x.. Ftnd the range of values of /(for which the expression 2i' . where a.4) -c 0 ><'!(x . 5. State the corresponding value of x In each case....ax + 9 ExpressY"-2i' +4x+ 191nthe form Y" (x+ pj> + a...pond qare constants.4x + 19. 6. + 64 Is posnive for all values lex of x and deduce the corresponding range of values of tc The following equations have equal roots. Find the range of x Which satisfy each of the following Inequalities: (0) (b) (c) (7 - 2. which the expression21(1.lslon Exercises 1. Find 0) the values of pond a. 3. 4k . Write i' + kx + 64 In the form ex + pi' + q and obtain expressionsfor pond q In terms of Ie Hence find the range of values of ksuch that i' .Rev.

(0) Calculate Calculate the range of values of x for which i'." 24... (a) (b) Find the range of values of x for which ~ 10 .k Is a tangent to the curve V' + 4x..3 Intersects the curve i'.. If the line y ~ between 12. 2V' .K for which the line kx ..10. find the relationship Find tM range at values of p for which the graph y = pi'- + 9x + P + 12 crosses the to the curve.25 for all values ~x 14.+ V' '" 1O.5 :> 5x . State also the values of p for whiCh the x-oxls is a tangent 13. Find the range of values of .20.- 9x + c» 2.8 at II.J() . (C) Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M aleri" .+ 4x . to the curve mend mx . Find the value of k for which 2y . two real anddlstincl points.i'. Y . x-oxls. c is a c tangent .3 the range of values (b) at c tor which 3i'. ~ x .

(~r .=. number = 1 (Ef cP" 1 Q"m .n number of limes can expressed In Ihe form alan Index a Is the base and n is the Index. 2'" 2 x 2x 2x2 = 16 2.d'" d""" (d")n .luding rotionolising 1.n (0 d" . Lawsof Indices Laws 01 Indices d" x Noles d' = d"...".. i I • Perform simple operations the denominator. wi. d" where where a«0 c»0 (Ef' =(~r 0."Jdi (d" X b")1 " d'" x b'" ________________________________________________________ ~31 . of 0 by Iiself ...Chapter 4 Indices and Surds Currlcuhrm ObJectives. 0 and Is a T90I. and wili1 surds. inc. rzyo ~ . Indices Multiplication as cI' where For example.tl1 indice.cI"" d" x b'"= d" + b'" x b)'" where where b" 0 a .1...

. 3' _ 3 ~ . ~ Is foster and less cumbersome to use the Law of Indices. 3' =35-2 " 33 (II) Example 3 Simplify m (il) (34)' (2")" (3')' " (3 x 3 x 3 x 3) x (3 x 3 x 3 x 3) x (3 x 3 x 3 x 3) " 3" Using Solution 0) I (d")n " d""1 (34)J = 344 " 312 ~~----------------------------------------------Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" . 1 SimplifY (I) (II) (I) J2 x 3° 3>+Y x 3"""Y Soluffon Method I: 3~ x3° " (3 x 3) x (3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3) " 3~ Method 2: Uslng Ird"-~-X-d'-"-~ 3~x 30" 32'''" -d"'-n'l 3B Note: Method I Is used to verifylhe Low.bamp ..3". '0- I ci" if .3~ 3~3'x3x3x3 3~3 5 "3~3~3 "3 3 Alternativety Uslng . (ii) Example 2 SimplifY (i) Oil Solution OJ 35.d'F" I .

aJ+a3"'~_1 and d' " d"""" axaxa a3+a3"a"-'l"r:/' Hence.. Using I an x t:I" '" (0 x b)'" I 2'x 3"' " Q x 3)5 (il) Example Simplify 5 (i) 32xx<=(3xXJ2 (iQ Solution 3' .(2 x 3)5 Alternalivety. for example.Example Simplify . we get the zero index law: I d' '" 1 I U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a .. 2' '" 3x3x3x3x3 2x2x2x2x2 3333 '" 2x2~2x2x2 3 Altsrnatir-'v_s_:ly Using I an + t:I"" (~rl ---. (I) (11) (i) 2' x 32x 35 x< Solution 2' x 35 '" (2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2) x (3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3) -Qx~xQx~xQxmxQx~xQx~ ". + Consider a special case of the Iowan when m ~ n.

XO =1 case of the law d" + d' = d""" m <: n.l ~ Solution ~ng (il) I o-m = o~1 1 3-2 = 3~=~ Next. for example.r I r:P ~1 Solullon Using (i) I 1000 = 1 oo Consider where another C~J Ox'O.Example 6 Simplify (I) (jj) lQO'l (X. we get the negative C-::ll ~ Simplify Example 7 (i) (ii) 3-:.. 1 d' '= a"" = 0-) Index law Hence. consider 3)~2 ('4 (_34)2 = Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M aleri" . Oil + d' = __ o_'_x_o_'x_o__ OXOXOXOXOXO or and Ol .

ol~ra Ukewlse.)'" = o.xm ~ a Toke m'" root on both sides 01 the equallon Io~=~1 ~--------------------------------------------~.Exomple Slmplffy 8 (i) (ii) (%f (if Solullon Consider on expression = Q~X2 = a (J)< Toke squore roots on both sides at the equotlon. (J.~ Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .!.

27 =3~ EXCImpie 11 Sim pllfy (l) OJ) (j) (3' x 23)2 (4'x&")" (3 ..=8 4LW)~".~ Hence (ii) the low 81i" I af/. .2J =8 -.1d'1 ($l)~ .f6J... x 23]2 " 340:2 x .(J4f . Using I (d" x tf')' " d" x tf"1 (3.ExClmple 9 Find the value of (i) (II) 125! (~Jj So/u/Ion Using (I) 10k" ra I 12SLms"...('zyQf .tM " 38 x 2' (II) (4~ x 5')3 " 42<lx sJ>: .x 3 x 3 x 3 x 2 x 2 x 2) x (3 x 3 x 3 x3 x 2 ·X 2 x 2) Solution " 3" x 2' Alternatively.5 (Ii) ExClmpJe I 0 Find the volue 01 (I) (II) Solution 4' 811 W 4f" (4! or r . ~~--------------------------------------------Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! ateri" ..40 x S"..

= cTa)n ) (using d" x d' ~ d""~ 3-2.2 =32-2+2 ...EXQmple 12 SImplify (i) 6' x (22)3 . = M(i+!) x3' = M~ x32 ..d"") (using d" x d' ~ d"''') ~ 2' x 26 ~ 2a =256 (II) = c 64! x32 xM! 64~ x 641 xJ' (using d" x d" " d"''') (Using a C.2 (using d' c 1) ='2 1 ______________________________________________ ~cn Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" .3° ..16{ x 3~ Sl:Jlulion (il ~ x (22)3.("::tCi )n) (~164f x3' 42 x 3' (uslng d" x b'" " (a x b)"') " (4 x 3)2 -1z2 ~ 144 (III) 27' • 16~ x 3-2 ~ 27~ +m x3~2 = (m)' +2:<3-' " 3' X (uSing am "To) (using af/. 32 (If) (iii) Ut x32 x:Mj27J . 2 = 1.32 ~fir + = 6' J' x (22)3 x (22)3 (using (d")n ..

Example 13 the conjugate surd of 2.[3 -2) = ./3 is 2-r5 -.e.n -r5 4 /3' + 2 Solution (a) i./3+2 13+2 13-2 = =2 (b) ---r:=-4 4.*(~J JlO _4_ _4_(.e denominators: (cl :. (a) by rallonallsing (b) th./3. Simplify the followlng.2(3) .13 (2.[3 -8 = 8-4.[3 213+-/2 . Ratlonollslng (i) (Ii) the denominator can be done by: and denominator and denominator multiplying multiplying both the numerator both the numerator by the surd itself..3+ -J5 In r.[3 _ 3-/2 . change the denominator which contains surd to a rononol number./3 (e) 3. . 2~3.ff and "J3' l.3(2) + .2:J3+h ~ -./2 -.. or by Its conjugate surd.[6 .. A surd is an Irrational 'lumber.J2_) 6.(5 +. For example. Surds A surd is Ihe square rool of a 'lumber and It cermet be evaluated exacHy. Examples of surds are be expressed in the form ~ where a and v~.3. Recall: An irrational number is one that cannot b are integers and b ~ 0.[6 4(3)-2 = -1-0716-12 ~~-----------------------Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" . to Fractions involving surds can be simplified by rotionalislng the denominator.

/3 ../8 (b) (d) .. Simplify the following by ratlonolislng the denominators: 4 (0) (2 - -.J5 (d) -. 4. find the volue 6.:_'Sc71' ' '-'C-1 =I 3..61.. Simplify the following: (a) (e) (b) (d) J5 2...2)(4-/3 -1) -/6 (1+. Sollie the following equolions: (a) (cl 8' .fJ .4 and when x- 3.} 125~ (e) 2.J3) 3~-. x = 2. when of a ond b. y = .5.-2 .j't)(3 +.Revision exercises 1. Without using 0 calculator. 1031'22 (2 x4 X..b.JV + 3. (a) (c) simplify the following: (b) 52 .j32'·2' (bl Cd) 2./3)2 (5-. y ..J5 (b)3.f!) (3.2 4Jx=. 27t (d) (I) ~xm 51 x 2.J5)(3+ 7. If y = 3x• express 9-' + 32x-I .Ji2 ·m 1'-/6 (3.3¢ Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .2 = 42x-2 32>+1 x 27. GJven thct y = ax> .81< In terms of y. Simplify the following: (a) (e) ..J243.J2 3-J5 (el 4 (J2+3)2 3-J5 Jj+:n+JJ-J2 ________________________________________________________ ~.2.4-lr A 0 (16'x4)! 2Tl 1'27'1.JV +.J5) 8.

The Factor Theorem If a polynomial f(x') (the dividend) 01 r(x). 1.2 = -i ot the dividend. fix') "' (x + 0) (x + b) (x + cJ and con be solved using a combination at rnemocs of long division.4 <-.14 .4 (2)2 . tile remainder Dividend Example is f(%l: = Divisor x Quotient 1 when ((x) + Remainder Find Ihe remainder (i) (ii) (III) = £Ii' -4. I. . is divided by (ox.\. (iii) 1(2) ~ 4 (2)3 .b) (the divisor) and f(b/o)"' 0.7 (-t) .2. then the remainder Is zero.e. Given Ihat {(Xl Is exactly completely factorize the by (ox+ 1). £Ii' - 4. The Remainder Theorem Wilen a polynomial ((xl [the dividend) is divided by (ax .7x . inspection and trial' and error using factor Example 2 In example dlvlslble expression.2 = 32 .4 .2 = 0 If the divisor Is a factor 2.7 (2) . Solulion OJ (ii) 1(-1) (-i) = 4 HJS .4 + 7 .4 H)2 .Chapter 5 Curriculum ObJectlve$: and tactor tI1eorems of polynomials equations Know and use the remainder Find factors Solve cubic I. then ox .7 (-1) .2 has a factor of a and x ..b) (the divisor).3 = 4 <-1)' . {(x) "' theorem. Factorization of Cubic Expressions Cubic equations should have three linear factors.1-)2 ..]x .t + % .2 = -.2 15 divided by x+ 1 4x+ 1 x- 2. Find tile value hence ~~----------------------------------------------- .>il .>il .2 '" .b is a factor 3.2 = .16 .

4Xlf(-~)- 7x . 1 ..7x .2R 0.2.(-3)3 .. 1). Find the value of a..-10 Substitute R .u3 -Ax2 -lx.<2x + 1)<2x" 1).(1).5(2) . :.x":<:--~7 x-Ax< . " (2) ..2)2 .u2 . 4i' + 4x + 1 by inspection.. 2R (2) 2R-R+12-2-0 R..: Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . 4xJ .2}.0 Is (2x.2 has a factor x .~ _________________________ ___.2)(2x + 1)(2x + 1) . 0.. A(-~)+ 1-0 dMslble by (ox + 1).-10 Into (1) a . 4x~+ Ax+ 1 x..Ai' -7x2 .R (1) 0- f(2) 0- 8-1O+a-R R .Solution 4xJ . 2 t(-3) .1..5(-3) + -27 + 15 + a ..2 is also exactly . 4(-~l :.-10 + 2 . a - 2 bomple3 The remainder It Is divided Sotutlon by when xJ . oond Rbe the remolnderwl1en (el xJ-5x + alsdlvlded Let t(lO bexJ-5x+ by x- 2. (2)' .2 4x' - A". Ax .A.5x + a Is dMded x- by x + 3 Is twice the remainder when 2.8x x-2 x-2 ex 2 4xJ .r-i-+1-O 4-Ao+o2-o (a .(x.. Ai' .2R + 12.•ono1her factor Factorizing :.

3.18 is exactly divisible by 2x . Find the remainder (a) )( + 3 (D) (c) 2J( - when 6il + 2il + 4)( + 3 Is divided by 1 3)(+ 4 2. Given of 28 (a) (b) that {(xl . Given tho! lor ollvolues 0. 5.3)( + 2 3x' .. evaluate 8. Given also tho! the expression Is exactly divisible by x + 2. has a factor of i' + 4x+ 3..70 . and find the third factor 6 The expression"a of a and of b. x* + (0 .. find the value of a and of b.cx + d leaves the some remainder wI1en divided by K .l)il factorize + Ii' . 1 or x . by x . b)(x + 2)(2x .ail + 5i' -17x+ bis exactly divisible by 3x+ 1 and hcs o remainder wI1en divided by x . Given that the expression 2i' + ~ .6 = 0 and hence find the possible values of a. + (b-2ali' + (0.>1 7 has a remainder + the following expressions: of 27 When divided 3. (0) (b) of x.1'. Completely (a) (b) (c) 2il ..1) .2..3x + b Is exactly divisible by i' + x- 2. Find the value of 0 for which (a) (b) (c) 2il - Ii' + 3)( + a has a remainder of 10 when divided by x- 2... Find the value 7. factorize r(X) completely. find the value of a and 01 b.L Evaluote bond c.3il .9 = (ax .2 or 2x . 13i' . Given that 4X' . c.9di' + 2 (d .8il + 3x + 2 sx' - SK = 2 - 2il 4.Revision Exercises 1. bond c. ox" + zx* -31i' - x + 6 hos a remainder of 7 when divided by x-I.il . 6il .. evaluate d.30. The expression 2il + b.7).b)x-6 of the expression. show that d' .6. (e) ~'L- _ Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a .

Usuolly there is only one solution to each unknown. substitute From (1) 0 (2) (3) (4) (3) into (4) 6(11 . equoftons. 0 = 2 and· b " 3 2.hn' t g 5 ~I r rial . I.3(3) 0=2 :. Example 1 The line bx + ay "" II Intersects 20x + by = 15 at the point (3. Find the values of 0 and b. at least one linear Simuifonoous equations are equotions met need to be solved at the same time. Then we substitute one unknown. It Into the non-tneor to eliminors we start with the linear equalion ----------------------------------------------------~~ Urrdmrraoilill terms of Ihe other. Simultaneous linear and non-linear When we deal wllh non-llneor Apart from elimirlallon USing substiMion. 11 sr. linear equations we usually ellmlrlate in two unknowns one variable to find a solLJt1onto the to solve the second variable. 1). TWo simultaneous To solve the equations. The latter Isthen substituted Into one of the equations first unknown. and express one unknown equotion in we may need to use toctorizctlon. by substitution.3b) + b ""15 17b"" 51 b-3 Substitute b"" 3 Into (3) a'" 11 . equations in two unknowns there witl be more than one sclutlon.Jfion x"" 3 and y "" 1 soosfy the two slrnultoneous (l) equoflons: b(3) + 0(1) "" 11 20(3) + b(i) "" 15 + 3b "" 11 a"" 11 -3b From (2) 60 + b "" 15 To eliminate o. So/l.Clioicllilim Objectives: equotlcns ln two unknowns with Solve slrnultoneous ecucmon.

..." . . both equations 2i' y" 3x ...." (2) Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" ..:)+~" (4) 4 """.. SubsliMe ~(...1 .To toctorze a quadratic following formula (given X~~~---'------ equation aXZ + WI..11 " 0." .j(-4W .. x- 2(~)" and 6.'..... one may need to use the -b±v'b'-4ac 2a 2 Example Solve Ihe simultaneous X+. x" ~ lIS ¥J 5 3: Substitute y -~ into (3).~J (5.. (1) + 2y2 ." + In the formula list) c" O..x+ y-Il "OotA the coordinates Solution of A and of B. " ..l=4 23 2xy " lIS Solution equations (1) (2) From (2) (C) x" lIS ...~) Of Example The liney" 3 3x-lintersecls the curve 2i' + 2y2 . (4) x 12y 135 + 4y2 " 48y 4y2-48y+ 135". (3) 2y (3) inlo 0).4(4)(135) y-~~~~~---'---~~ 2(4) 481:12 15 9 y=--_or8 2 2 Substitute y ""2 15 Into (3).... Calculate (e) must be satisfied simultaneously. At A and B.x + y ..0 -(-48) ± . the solutions are (3.

x + 3x .25 m2.-4 2X+y=2 x(3+y). Find the dimensions a.9 equa!ior.6x + 1) . 6.1). 2).12x + 2 . y = 3(1).>:"+ ~ = 20 at A and B. 'd.s: 2..+ 2(3x . (C) equations.>Q=28 ex 3.1 =-~ 2 2 1 (--. Solve the simultaneous y=x"+5x-3 2y = 3x .2 equations.1 = 2.11 = 0 U + 2(9x" .! 2 x= 1 2 1 Into (1) Substttute x .lOx . The sum of the perimeters 16. 10. Substitute x = 1 into (1) :. Y= 3(-. Find the coordinates of A. the value of a and of b.!) ..x +3x -12 ".30 y(2 + 2.11. 9.1 .xy + 9 = r.-- :. and of B. 2x + y" 1 4x" . 'of two squares Is 18 m and the sum of their areas Is of the squares. 0 20x" .3r 2x + y = 12 Given that (rr. Solve the simultaneous X+Y"XV 2y" x + 2 (Cl ~14s ____________________________________________________________ U rheberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes M ateri a .11 = 0 2x" + 18x" . The line 2x + y" 2 intersects the curve 4. Revision Exercises Solve the simultaneous 1. 7) is a solution of the simUltaneous 3xfind (I) (II) y" 8 and equotlons b~ .10 '" 0 2~-x-l=O.Substitute (l) Into (2).x + (3x .4xy . x + 2y) = . 5. (2X + 1)(x1) " 0" or :. 2x" =110 .4~ " -20 4. of the other solution. the coordinates 7. x" -. ~ + ~ " 13 3x+y".. The coordinates of A and of Bare 5 --) 2 2 and (I.

x where logarithmic 0> 0 end x Is a variable.. Igx. noturcl logarithm where 0" e... ee N.e.". Logarithmic Function Generallorm lrnportont (I) Is log.. functions: (ii) common 10garMhm where 0 ~ 10.._ N. laglOx l.e.. x 0 then V. Illx. ------~Qr---~------~~x Properties of the graphs where V" Igx or Inx: (I) V does not exist for x < 0 (iil (liO (Iv) V" 0 when x " 1 x '" then V .(culum ObJectlves: Know simple properties and graphs of the loqorllhrnic and exponential lunctbnslncludlng Inx and e< (series expansions are not required) Know and use the laws at logoJ1thms (Including Solve equotions of the form a' ~b. change of bose of logamhmsl I. .Chapter 7 Logarithm~c and Exponential Cu. logex I..

0..or Propert1es of lI1e groph y .. then y--> ..( Y' '" 0-0< graph 15obtained when .y = o' is reflected In the y-axis... ExponenHalFuncflons Gen8lal Important (j) form 15 a" where a Is a positive constant exponenfiol functions and x a variable...2. y .y~~ . As)(--> ~ then y--> 0 V y-a~ . ... .. Graph of y '" OX 15a reflection 01 log"" graph in lI1e line y = x.7 Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" . . . y.. ' ..:. (II) ex (Inverse 10' (inverse of Ig Xl of InXl wnere a> 1 y..a" (0) land (i) y> 0 for 011 real values 01 )( (jl) (ill) (N) x>O) Y '" 1 when )( = 0 As)(--> ..

find the (e) 2' '" 5 Ig2'=lg5 xl92 =195 = . - 3 5 3 or x = -2 (rejected is undefined) os Ig of negative constant :..:.I~a~n = log~ x + log~ y 1'+ J '" log" = nlog"x log" y .32 Ig2 since x = Ig5 c» Igx+1g (3x+ 1)= 1 IgX{3X + I) = Ig 10 x(3x + 1) = 10 3x'+x-IO=0 (3x. = yO (m-)" = ~ on To chonge base.(lt}" Lows of Indices QmxQI".::.. thai y = 2 when x = 3 ond thai y = 3_ volue of 0 end 01 b...()<)') IOg~r~ log. find the volue of x such that Be-' ~ e' =2. Lows of LogarHhm and Indices Lows of Logcuithm log. Solve the equation lox + Ig (3x + 1) " L By using the substitution y"" 8".__om=tl om 0" (0"')"= 0"" log" 0 = 1 log" 1 =0 00= I o-m =_1_ om o..5)(x + 2) = 0 5 x =.. X=- ~~--------------------------------------------Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Mater.\fa j_ m- !C OC".r'fr:.2. Solution (0) 9 when x » 9." .3. Given thai y = ax". from base b to base 0: 10gaN=logoN log"o Example (0) (b) (cl (d) 1 Solve the equation 2' = 5..

.(2) 92 + b Ig 9 (2) 9 = Ig a+ b Ig 9 Ig 9 =.(c) 89""-&'=2 Multiply throughout bye".693 (d) y = wf' When x =3. Insert on your sketch 1119 additional solution or )(2 = tr. ...-2 Ig~ 9 Substitute b " -2 into (I).. Ig2 = Iga + (-2) Ig3 Iga = 192 + 21g3 190 = 192 ... y = 2.( + log" y and logo 00" = n log" Xl z. a = 2 " 3' Example (I) (Ii) = 18 2 Sketch tne graph of y " Inx for x > O. Express ..: 2 = 0(3)" 192 = Iga + b Ig3 .. graph required to obtain a graphical (C) (iii) 49 Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .2) = 0 or or y= -4 e" = -4 (undenned) y= 2 e" = 2 :.. y = ~: (since log" (xy) = Iog.(1) When ...8 = 0 (y + 4)(y . b(lg .32 :.... 9 0(9)" Q Ig .... 1932 Iga" Ig2.(2 = &-2 in the form Inx = ox + b. y= e".. 8." Ig .( = 0.9 Ig 2 -Ig (1)."..( = 9.e2"=2e" Using the substitution y2 + 2y .2.b=~= Ig3-lg9 3-lg 9) 199 ".

a .2 of c-l. y = !x.action Exgmple 3 Sketch the graph of v= e1•2'_ soumor.1 is a straight line graph with gradient·! and y. lnx @ x< . rt will toke the shope of :.. 'Of Int9fS. When y '" 0.e<-< Inx2-x-2 2Inx-x-2 Inx- _!_x-l 2 where Q = ! and b =-1 2 (III) x< = e<-z Inx'" _!_X-I 2 Let The y -Inxond y- !x2 1.2 .2x '" 0 "2 I WL- ___ Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Mater. y '" e x e-2x Thus. y '" e'-2< '" 1 when 1 .SOlurion (I) Y" y . x . x '" y '" e-2x.lntercept . Intersection of y ~ Inx and y'" !x . y [!] Ih<>sG "''' 2 pI.2.1 graphs 2 gives a solution of x2 '" e<-'.

. InS logii '" In2 '" 2. '" In2..5 51 Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes Iv! ater.32 (b) Ig2.6 Nole: By changing 10 bose 10 or bose e. by rransloflng V'" e-2xholf on unlt to Example 4 By changing (a) bases.11 is possible to evaluate (b) Solution tile above.36 In2.5 '" 2. Ig5 (0) logp '" Ig2"' 2..6 QQ"".2.6 = 2.26 '" Ig2.32 Allernotlvely." .6 log.36 Alternallvely. evaluale Ihe following: logfj log". 1".The graph of y'" 81-2<' is obfained Ihe righl.

Solve fhe following equations: (Q) (b) (e) (d) 4.5 + 2<-< ~ 0 3. calculate values of (i) In 72 (ii) Ir. 2 Ig 2z + Ig (z+ 1) . 8. -12) and (_2.25 6.1162 (iii) In 2. ~ 4 2(i2'" - e>+' - 6e = 0 Given that Ig 5 " P. Find the value of p and 01 q. Exercises 1.Revision. Solve the following equations: (0) 2 Ig)( ~ Ig ()(+ 2) (b) (c) 2. Sketch the following functions: (I) y=lg3x (II) (iii) 7. the (H) (nI) 5. ~L- ___ Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M a\eri" .197.2"2 + 3 ~ 0.-1 ~ 8' 2' .62'-' 2 4" . 9. 6"''''" 146 29"""' ~ 7 e2' + 36'"2. solve the equation (0) Ihe curve wltn equation 16 PV ~ qx passes through Ihe points (1.Ig 3z" 0 Ig (2)<2 + 5)( + 2) = 3 Ig 2 + 1 Solve the following equations: (0) (b) (c) 3'" ~ 7 2 x 16. find in ferms of p (I) 15 Ig50 Ig25 wlthovtuslng calculator. Using the substlturlon V" 2'.1-). Given that In 2 ~ 0.693 and In 9 = 2. y" 3 In)( y ~ In(x + 2) Sketch the following functions: (i) y ~ 26"'x (II) (ill) v = e+' y" 2..

Given that x = Iga Is a solullon of the equation Q. x y Using graph o y= 2x 0. Find (l) (li) th. present at tIme 11. (e) substance. show that y has a stationary Complete the following table.]. the rate at wIlieh the mass Is decreasing when t = 50. 1()2>'+1 ~ 7(10')= 26. (Answer this 15: Differentiation) question atter revising chapter Solve the equation Ig(2O + 5!() ~ Ig( 10 ~ Xl " I.. draw the graph line. {TO (0) (c) the value of t wilen the mass Is half of Its value al r" 0.e value of m when t" 30. (e) find the value of --------------------------------------------~~~ Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" . find the sohrnons of the equation e-x far 0 s x s 2. Is given by the formula m" 24. = 1.(b) Solve the simultaneous equations: x'r(c) (i) (Ii) Igx+ 2lgy= 3 125 value when x Given that y = 2xa-~. By drawfng a suitable x + 1 " lOxe-x. of a radioactive t days atter first being oosa rvsc.5 2 paper. m grams.01)2'. (a) The mass.

)'. V. I. AS '" J(X2 . Distance between two points y BD<. determine of the transformed y" ax" In the larm y = mx by calculatng -I- C end y" Ab'.e. yo) -+--------------------------~K Given that the coordinates between 01 Aand Bare (x. Urheber reo h tllc h Q""" hutztes Maieri 81 .Chapter 8 Straight Line Graphs Curriculum ObJectives: Interpret the equation form and hence or Intercept of a straight line graph Including unknown graph Transform given relotlonshlps...Yl)2 .» respectively. l. distance A and B.) and ("2. to straight line the gradjent constants Solve cuestlons Involving'mld-point end length of a line Know and 'use the condition lor two lines to be parallel and perpendicular.X1)2 + (Y2 .

.-. the mid-point of AB. •• .2.-.(-8»)~-t.••• ..-. ..~ Let the mid-point of AB be C (x y). Mid-point y C0<..~...)/) A (X" y.~ •• ~...••• . •• .21 units '-8+<-2) (II) Mld·polnt = ( --2-' C = (-5..2) -2- 4+0) Urheberrcc htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" .-. •• "." •• . Solution (i) AB = ~(-2 . ••• ..4)~ =M = 7. •• . Coordinates of C = ( Example 'x +x Y +Y2) ?T 1 Two polnts have coordinates A (.(0 . •• .) . find (I) the distance between A and B: (iI) the coordinates of C.#' -+--------------------------------------..a.~ •• . 4) and B (-2" 0).

gradient 01 a straight Ilrle tangent line makes Io'<Iith the positive drectton 01 the x-oxls. gradient (I> O.. af a straight line joined by any two points Is defined as m _ the difference Ihe difference in the y .V.x Gradient of AB. Gradient Gradient m. -XI Since LBAC LBPQ.~-------------------------------------------Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" .coordinates In the X· coordinates = YI ±Y2 or YI :l:Y2 y ------~p~r-----------------~Q---------. Ian Q> O. m = y. Q = = ·01the arlgle which the is ocuts .(. . = tan LBAC = tan 9 . ~.3..

c.y p --o~----------------Q~~------------·X a 4. gradient < 0.." .. Is obtuse :.x + C. Gradients of two parallel lines y v~m/"." tan e. tan a < 0. A. Gradient of CD = ~ = tan When AS Is parallel to CD e.x + c... "ton 9. B /D c_ y~m"u"" Equation Gradient Equation 01 A8 Is y" m." e. of A. tan a = -ton LPQO. ton 8. of CD is y = m. e.B " m. ------------------------------------------------------~~ Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes Mater.

5.l =-Ion . SoIutJon Gradient of AC. General formula for area of the figure with C(x3• VJ).. B(x2• V~). rrI] = Ian LABD = Ian e rTlz rTlz = Ian LEDX = tan (3 from f to the x·axls.I ~ ~:.'. EF Is lIle perpendicular LDEF= rTl] e BF EF & =-~ <l= = EF=tan &= DF fI1:.58 .:'. V. where AB.:'.. Givan Ihallha gradlanl of AC Unes AC and BD are perpendicular Is ~.)... Area 0' Plane Figures vertlces A(x.. find the gradient of BD... ")) . 6. . N(xn• V.. I!lJt -ffr=-ta~ 1 =:t "" Example 2 10 each other. has gradient m.(sum ot all products /)) Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri" = ~ [(sum of all products .. mAC Is Slnea AC and BD ara perpenclculor. In on onn-clockwlse direction..C.). N Ole located Is ~I ::'. has gradient . l gradlanl of BD Is -m!c = -4. Gradients 0' y two perpendicular Ilnes A c e o I..

59 Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . y) o To find the equation of the stra~ht line Joining two points A(x.) and B<x" V.(5 .13) CUO. let R.45) ..<" YJ be a point lying on the same straight I[ne.).20 + 60») = }2 (170 .62.Example 3 shown below? What Is the area of the trapezium y 8(6.IO) SOlution Area of trapezium ADCB ~ ~1~~~X~~l~X~1 ~ }2 (((0lC-2) + m(1O) + (10)(13) + (6)(5») . V.5 unlt2 7.«(1)(5) + (10)(-2) +(6)(10) + (0)(13))) ~ }2 «0 + 10 + 130 + 30). EquaHon of a straight line (I) When two points ore given P(x.

. the area of the quadrilateral ABeD (C) ~L- ___ Urhcberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" . the polnts A. )I-X. 3). "V2 -V.) Example 4 y A(J. y. CO. Y.J) In the quadr1lateral ABCD.x.'. grodler'lt 0/ AP" gradler'l! 0/ AB V-V. the coordlnotes 0/ C. x2-X'.A. . The line BD bisect. P ono Bore colllneor. the line CA at right angles at polnt M.. (il) When one polnt ono gradient y of the straight line are giver'l P()c. Y-YI"m X'-xl :.y) A {_x11 v~) X -t-----------+ To find the equation with gradient m 01 the straight ir'le passir'lg through a point A(x. Band D are at (3. 2) respectively ..Y.-1) and (6. Flr'ld the equation of BD and AC Calculate (I) (ii) (III) the coordinates of M. = m(x.) and Let PI)(. y) be a point lying on the straight line.

. m and point A(3. of 80. the gradient of BO is t- -.(5.«0)(3) Is -- 113 0 5 6 31 + (5)(-1) + (6)(-1) + (3)(2))) = ~((-3 Y. <x.c. Coordinates (Ii) 01 M .2y + 2 Substitute (3) into (2).2 6-0 62 x AC is perpendicular Fram the equation :.4 :..'. 3) Is given.4 => Xc '" 8 .!. it must simutklneously two corresponding 2y = equations (1) (2) " .SoJution Given two points B(J). 1) of AC.) 3+x~ . M _ (3+2x~. the equa~on Since gradient of AC Is found y-3 --2 x-3 y. satlstythe x." -2.'.2-(-1) x-O y+l.2X From (l).3 = 5 2 3+yc -1 => Y -2-3 --1 2 c C.slilule y . (3) of both lines.2(2y + 2) " 9 .2 )/" 9 . x"2+.. 5y" 5 => Y" 1 Sub.. equation y-(-I) af BO is ._!_ 2y+ 2" x 2y" x.(--5-6 + 6)1 "~(25(--5» '" 15 units' Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M aleri" . Y" 9 . .(4.10 + 18) .. 011) Area of ABCO 23 -1 -1 2 3 . gradient ofACis of AC" to BO..1 Into (3). 2).. x . -1) and 0(6.3" -2x + 6 y=9-2X (i) Since Mlies on bath 80 and AC.-1) c.2-4 . Ye) = (4. 1) of C be Let the coordmotes Mis the mid-point Hence.~ 1«3)(-1) + (0)(-1) + (5)(2) + (6)(3» .4y .~. 3+.

13) = -3 (x . from the equation that gradient Y -13 =~ of DC Is ~ of DC. 1 3.y" <Ix + 15 (II) BC Is perpendicular . --.39" 4x.3>:" :. (i) AB is parallel to DC. «» 8(6. y 0 are (6.13) " A (x .10.Example 5 ABCD in which AB is parallel to DC.-2) Given that the equation of DC is 3y " 4x . 15 The equation of AB Is 3. x-6 3 3. Points Band and BCD are 90". flnd (I) the equation of AR (II) (III) (iv) the equation the coordinates of BC. 13) and (L ~2) respectively. The point A Angles ABC The diagram..'.6) 3y.6) 4y-S2=-3x+ 18 <ly = 70 . it can be deduced of AB Is ~.f=-_ 4 1 of BCls --= m 4 4 (y .3x y-I3 x-6 =_~ 3 . equation 62 Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M aleri a of Be Is 4y" 70 . of A and of C. gradient to AB. shows a trapezium lies on the y-axis.24 3y" 4x . (y .13) c 00. the area of the trapezium. Solution 3 :. the gradient 3.

(0)(13))) (1)(10) .(m) Gillen tI1at A lies on the y-axis. Yo = 4(10)-10 = 10 3 :. YA = 5 : ..3xc 3yc = 4x" . hen~ Point Cis tI1e point of Intersection Sl. the coordinates of AB. 1 10 6 Is 2 5 -2 10 13 5 110 01 (10)(13)" (6)(5).5 unit' Urheberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" .. .. of C (xo' Yd Into equoticns of lilles BC (l) (2) 4yc = 70 . 15 :. { 4X o3-10)_ 70-3xc 16Xo .40 = 210 . = 10 Subst~te xo= 10 into (3).10 From (2). :. VN' Using the equation 3y~4x .«1)(5) + (10)(-2) + (6)(10) = 12(10 + 130 + 30 .9xc 2Sxo " 250 => x. let coordinates of A be (0. 15 3YA .. we get: ~ must satisfy the twa equatloros of BC and DC simultaneously. 10) (Iv) Area of the trapezium = 12 1(0)(-2)" .4(ll) . 5).. of botl1lines BC and DC.Y~ = --sucstltute 4xc-1O 3 (3) (3) into (1). of A is (0.(5 -20 +60» = 62.Jbstitufing the coordrictes and DC. tna coordinafes of C = (10.

gradient m 0.0 (x .b = 0 x = b = -1---+-----+" b Example 6 Gwen fuat A and Bore respectively. 3) at AB." Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .Speclgl equaHons pclrtlilel to the CIlles W When a line is porollel to the x-oxls. x . Find the equation Gradient Equation (2.. A (2. fTI:l = 2-2 = undetlned _!_ "':2 =0 D(2. to the )'"Om.1) Equation of CD Is V-I = "':2 (x - 2) . y-Intercept a..8) Gwen that C and 0 ore (2.. 8) and (2. y-o=O(x-O) = = y .3 .. y Is b. V= 3 Exllmple 7 y C[2.0) = x .2) .3) SoJulion of AB. but 11m = 0 m Is undefined 11m (V . x - 2 +---_. m.3 = 0 5-2 B(S." (II) When a line is parallel the x-intercept Gradient.b :. Find the equation of CD.-----. 1) respectively.. Solution Gradient 8-1 at CO. 3) and (5. V= 0 0+------ -r-------. =3 .3) 01 AS Is y .

7).oIIg0 Igy )( -!go Ig(b+11) Table 8_1 Example a of yogalnst When the graph IX is drown. J(~b y='::'+b 11 -=-x~y . ostrolght line Is obtained the relationship which has gradient 2 and posses through the point (4.~( U rheberrcc htl lch gcsc h "Illes M ateri" .8.fX+c ----------------------------------------------------~. between Solution y= mX+ c m = 2. Non-inear equation Sholghl 1=0+bx nne IuncHon Y X b M c a b b Y= ox+ bi' x 1 x Y 0 a y Y )(' Y=£+b x y=~+b x x a a Y=--' . Determine x and V. v=mIX+c Since gradient V: 2. Determination of unknowns from stroight line graphs A non-linear equation Involving varlables xand vcan be converted to a straight line function in the form Y = mX + c where X and Yare expressions in x and/or m Is the grool'ent of X-V graph and c Ihe Y~nleJcepl. Evaluate V when x Is 25. y.a y=~+b x x" x" a 0 a b x" x" _!_=ax"+b I' _!_ =ox"+b Y 1'='£'+0 )(' a b Y xv = £+bJ( x y !_ y b Igy x' a b a x=bxy+ay -=bx+a X y x b y=ab' Ig v= Ig aulg x 19J( 19b Iga y=ax" Ig y= Ig a+ big J( Ig(n ~ YJ =Ig 0+ big Igy b Iga y=n~at' x Ig(n~ YJ Igx b Igo ya'=b+ n Ig y= Ig(b+ n).

= 5!. to the abnormally points to oblaln H_~ _ Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M aleri a .When x = 4. using the data given above. By 0 suitable choice of variables this equallon may be represented by a straight line graph. gradient of a.= P -2 => x is a straight line with gradient _5!. = 2 P (1) and V Intercept = q = B Substllule q B Into (1).6 0. y = 7. y =2-.60 5.7 0. Use your line to .O 0.7=2. the relationship When x and y is y '" 2~iX+ 3- x » 25.[4 +c ~ C '" 7-2.00 3..(C) a straight identify the point corresponding point use the remaining evaluate A and B.89 Vtuiables xond yare related by the equation II: is drawn. "t When a graph ot Y2agall)St 1 at -2 and on intercept on the axis (C) p 2+ y2 r Solution 2+y2 =1 Pq y2 =_2+1 q p y2 =-:!x+q p The graph of r against _5!. Calculate the value of p and of q.35 15.2(5)+3= 13 Exampl.. x y Ills believed 0.30 lB. Plot ttleS6 values and hence large value of y. Blp = 2 ~ p = II = .50 B. the resulting line has a grodient at B. P and y intercept :.4 =3 between :.5 large and also that one ot rne experimental values of y is abnormally by on equation that the variables x and yore connected of the torrn y" A + _!_. Ignoring ttlis line graph. x' where A and Bore constonts.25 26. obtain corresponding pairs of values..9 1.0 values of two variables x and y. Slate Ihese variables and. . P = II and q = 8 Example 10 The lable below shows experimental 0.125 +3".'.

Two points A and B have coordincrtes distance between A and B. 7' With 0. calculate the coordlncrtes of C. 67 Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M aleri" .0 Revision Exercises: 1..0 I X..50 8.•••. find the coordinates 01 the paint 01 intersection State the value of a and hence 01 the lines. X 0.76 1. 15.11 0. Find the equation of the line which posses through the point (1..."~". _!_ 6 10 12 16 . the point w~h X and V coordinates abnormally large value of y..6) has an = vntercept.7 11.~.5 1.0 16-0 = 15 y= ax. Gradient 01 Ihe line.6 6.20) 10 2-." o ••~. 2) respectively. B (0.~~."~. Find the Given that the perpendicular bisector of the line Joining A and B meets the yooxis at C.00 y 30 25 20 06.3x + 4.0 .00 3. a straight line graph is obtained Band by plotting y gradient y Intercept 0. 2.6.~. Theslraightlines 26 .0 4.~.Solution For equation against y ~ A + ~.00 0.60 5. A = 2.. -5) and (6.35 15.. -2) and 15 pcrouel to the line y .00 Y 1 x2 16.9 2." 4 •• 14 w~ .25 26._~_.' From the graph."~_". .30 18. J._"...2. where o is a constont ond y= 2x+ 3 are perpendicular. (-3.16 A.35.

<I. 68 Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri" . 6)..7) 0 C (I) (il) (ill) the equation 01 AB. 8) are the mid-points ABC. find 0 and A and hence the area ot ABCD. In the diagram.. of the sides of triangle 5. of the perpendicular bisector of fueline AG. The diagram shows a rectangle B has coordinates (3. 3) and Re3. the equation of Be the coordinates of C.<I units. of the line AB. where equatlon at CD ts Y = -2. Given that A B(3. Find y B A --------~----------------------~x o <0 (ii) (iii) c the gradient the equation the equation of the line PQ. 'Xl. h Hnd y ABeD. Given that CD is . PO.

Stale the value of of the lines. (ll) Find the coordinates of D. 6) respectively. a and hence and Y" '!X-l are perpendicular.>'+ Q. (14. 2 find the coordinates of the point of intersection (C) & y A (2. 69 Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M aleri a . Rnd the area of the rectangle ABCD. The point at AB and the point 0 lies on the y-axis. find the equafion at AC and BD. Calculate y OJ (II) the coordinates the coordinates at M.8) and B Is (8. C and Dare (2. Prove that ABeD Is a rectangle. where a Is a constant. The coordinates of B. 6). 12) and (16. 8). The straight lines Y" 0. The DAB" Q()O.8) c The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABCD in which A is (2. C lies on the perpendicular bisector equation at BC Is 3y " 4x . 7.6. ot A. ABCD is a parallelogram whose diagonals meet at M. Given that AChes a gradient 1.14 and the angle (l) the equo~on 01 AD.

Y graph. Variables xond yare related by an equation When Ig y Is plotted against x.75 Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri" . Calculate the value of a and of b.wnere Xond Yore expressions In X and/or yond m and c are constants. (I) (ii) (Iii) Plot xy against Use your graph When graph of yare related by the ecucncn x+a=':?'. x' y 2 3 20 3 63 4 14. stole the expressions for X. ADC Is 10 unit2 and find the area of the (C) Express each of the following equolions in the form Y= mX + c. y = _9__ where o onc bore constants.2. of the triangle bisector of AB.4 5 275 12. Explain how a straight nne graph may be drown to represent the given equa~on.(ill) (iv) the equation the coordinates of the perpendicular of C. y x 3 5 -I 6 7 -D. Show that the area quadrilateral ABeD. a straight line Is obtained with a gradient of -2 and on Intercept on the Ig Y. of the .-. Hence.5 -D. y. It Is known that xand constants. Y straight line obtained vs x Is plotted . Use the above data to plot the graph end hence e~mate the value of a and of b. b' II. what is the value of the gradient 1 and calculate 4 the intercept In the -<lxls. m and c in each case.!. the value of where aand bore y to obtain a stralght·llne to estimate a and b.JX IX x2 x x' + 3f = x y_Ax' ~ 10.. The table shows experimental values of two vonooles x and yWhich are known to be connected by the equation of the form oxl + by = x'.6 -1. co (ill) (v) (vII) Y = 3x' +2x Y= (Ii) (iv) (vi) y=6-~ xy=Sx+..:J)(isof 1.5 Y=X4 . 9..

5.0) V are connected 1'0 y by the equation y =01' where a ----~~------------~------.2 3. This line posses through the points (-1 .4 A. Calculateltie value of y when Ig x = 3. In such a way that when 14.' 22. The diagram shows Ine straighlline graph obtained by plotting Ig yagalnst Ig )(. (II) (jIQ (lv) x.O 7. Find the values of a and b. Variables x and yore related a stralghiline is obtained.9 x y 0.-S) (l) Express Igy in terms of Ig Elcpressy In terms of x. 2) FlrKl y fi 16) / 2J ------------------------~r_----------.13. Gil/en tnot tile vanables and b are constants. os shown on the diagram. x and (-7. (0) on expression for y in lerms of tile value of y when x = 1.x' (i) (Ii) IS.6) and (-5.5 -7.10x (O. The loble shows experimental x.4 7 Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .5 2. values of twa variables. L -IX Is plotted against il. x and y.2 -4.8 68.

ind the value of Given also that this line posses through tc (e) 72 Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .It is known thai x and V are related by the equation y . pxJ +qy'"' 1. o·~---------------------'X' (I) Given that the gradient of this line Is ~. 10 = Ak".. (ii) 4 (k. 4). The diagram shows Variables x and yare related by the equcnon the straight-lIne graph of y2 against xJ Which posses through the polnt (~. y = O.calculate the value of pond ot o. plot Ig (Y'" above data and use your graph to es~mate (I) (il) (b) the value of A and of the value of x when tc. ~). f. Using graph paper. where A 10) against x for the and k are constonts.

Curriculum Objective.o10om 9 0 lr'o" 2 l(1O')(1. For the angle of 0 complete s=2m :.5 cm2 2 ________________________________________________________ ~1~ . Radian Angles can be maosured In terms of (I) degrees (0) (II) Angle. Arc length and area 01 seclor From 8=~.05) = 52. Area 0" sector 1 r I MON = '2"9.5 em Arec of sector AOS = .8.8" 2m = 21r :. Solve problems Involving the arc length and sector area of a circle. area of sector AOB.05) = 10. ore length AB.. s= . 2 Ir rod = 360° 11"100 = 180" 2. (I) A~B SoJulion (Ii) (Ill) 60' =60x__. Where 8 Is In rod uomple The diagram shows a sector OAB of radius 10 em and 9 u 60. and use 01 radian measure. Including knowledge I. Find CD {ii) (iif) 8 in rod.!:_ rod = L05 rod 180 A8 " rfJ = 10(1. 9 (In rod) " radians (rod) s r 'evolution 360'.

the area of the shaded (Cl Solution a" sln-..(5)2 Sin(~ x 180 2 tr: 0 ) c :.38' IS (I) Arc ABC" ro" . its cenlre of the arc ABC.g . .ABC = ~ x base x height = ~b(a 2 2 2 sJn C) Q B =~obslnC c Expressl:ng height AJea of ll.2 rcdions. (C) The diagram (I) (II) 0 and its radius of 5 em. region. Calculote (I) the length (il) of the arc ABC. segment. Area of triangle Area of ll.!!.. 67..EXample 2 shows a circle of radius 13 em and chord AC of length A The dlogram 24 em.~ri" . Given that A LAOe is 1..35 cm" ___ rbeberrechtlch "".DAC Is 2 2.. area 01sha. c A lOb sln C "' lbc sin A" lea slnB 2 .2) = 6 cm (il) Area of the sector o OAC is ~r29 2 B = 1(5)2(12) 2 ~obsinc" Area of ll.".ol1lill:l s ~'".6 em (Ii) 13 x [2(67..ABC" In terms of ~In A and sin B. colculote the length the oreo of the shoded (I) Solution The 'length of the arc ABC" rO = 5(1.)X.ded segment Is ~(5j2 [12 ~ sln(~ x 1~~ 180')]" 3.30.38')>< = 332 cm2 Area of fhe shaded 1:0'] 3.38._] 180' ~ region" ~r2o " ~(l3)2[ 21<-2(67... 2' . 2 Example 3 shows part of a circle.

2 (iii) Let / be the length of the log.29 rad 180' (I) The length of the arc AXB ~ rO ~ 40 (1. (e) of the log below Solution Let Y be the paint of Int81Sectlon of AB and Ox.74" ~ 73.lab sin C = .287 = 1.29 Calculate (I) the length of the arc AXB.0 cml 2 2 Area of cross-section below the suncce ~ -1029.29) = 1029. LAOB ~ 2 cos-.'.29) ~ 51. The paints A and B are on the surface radians. snow thai LAOB is approximotelyl.Example 4 x The figure lloatlng shows the circular cross-secnon of an uniform log of radius 40 ern In water. (il) the mea at the cross-secnon (ill) the percentage of the volume below the surface. OY~40-8~32cm cos LBOY~ 32 x 40 .1 --------------------------------------------------------------~"~~ Urhcberrec htlich gesc hutztes M ateri a . and the highest point X Is 8 cm above the surface. Volume of the log ~ trrl/ ~ 11(40)21 50271 cml ~ Volume of cross-section of volume below the surface ~ 47651 Percentage of cross-section below the surface ~ 4765.74" x __::_ ~ 1.1><100%=94.32 40 ~ 73.5 cm Area of sector AOa ~ .6 + 768. the surface.6 cm' (Ii) 2 2 Area of triangle AOS is .8% 5027.0 = l!765 crri2 ".l40 x 40 sin 73.lr~o=1(40)'(1.74° = 768.

If trlangle AOB Is equllatertil. the area at the shaded region. of radius 10 em. 3 Colculote the length of the major arc ACB. The figure shows a circle of radius 4 em with centre a tropezlurn with a point C. AXB Is on are of a circle. O. Given that AC (I) angle AOS In degrees. find the angle AOB. AYB Is a semiCircle with AS as diameter. fts radius of 12 ern and a chord AS such thal angle AOB ~ (i) (il) !!. B o c The figure shows 0 circle. A o y 8 In the diagram. 76 U rheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes M ateri a .Revision Exercises 1. centre O. = 3 em. (II) the area of the shaded region.. Its radII OA and 08 form calculate 3. radians. its centre O. 2.

of radius 8 cm and angle AOB ~ 0. to OB.92 rcdlons. The line AC is perpendicular to OA and meets 08 produced at C.92 rod In the diagram. {ill (iIi) (Iv) (v) tile length at the arc AXfJ. marked Q. With centres at D and C and radii 4 cm and 6 cm respectively (I) (II) (ii!) meet CD at point E Find the area of the tropezlurn. centre O. Bcm O~~--------------~~--~------~c~-----------0. 4. the perimeter of the shaded regia". the length AB. P- Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" . Find (e) (0 OD the perimeter of the region ADB. A 5. marked the mea at the region ABC. The lTapezium ABCD has side CD ~ 10 ern. the area of the sector OAXB. Two orcs. OAB is a sector of a circle. the area of the shaded region. The line AD is fhe perpendicular from A.Hence calculate (I) the length 01 the chord AB. the area of the shaded region.

... calculate (0 (ii) tile perimeter of PQRS. where angle AOB ~ 1 roc. cenj19 0.. OA ~ AC ~ 3 m and CE ~ ... F o AB........ Sand Rare midpoints of OPand OQrespecllvely. Q a Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a .. A plece of wire Isbent 10 form the perimeter of pari of a sector w~h centre 0 and radius 10 cm.... RSIsa straight line..: .... --.. Given tnct angle POQ ~ 0...6.8 rad . CD and EF are arcs 01 concentrlc circles. Calculate (i) (ii) 7. by the wire.. tile shaded area.... P tile area enclosed s o <p:. m. tile perimeter ABDC..

General angles Angles measured Far example" from the x-axis. In the clockwise angles. equolions Involving the six trigonometric generol functions and the above relotionships (not Including Prove simple trigonometric 1.: Know the six trigonometric tangent. V (sIne. cosecant. cosine.g. where 0.-- Angles measured For example from the x"<lXis. sin I( and sin 21( + c. In the onnclockwlse dlrechon.Curriculum Objectlv9l. ~ and Il~ are negative Urheberrec htl lch ge5c hutztes Iv! ateri a . graphs Understand amplitude and periodicity of e. direction. ore posltlve angles. Draw and use the graphs of y~ 0 sin (bl() + c.inA cosec? A = 1 + ccf A and solve simple Irigonometric scil'utlon of trigonometric idenfities. are positive. ore negative. secont. v= 0 cos (bXJ+ = a ton (bx) b are positive Integers and c Is an Interger sinA = lanA cosA =cotAsfn2A+ coi2A= cos A . functions of angles of any magnitude cotangent) and the relationship betwoon C. equations) Knowandusatherelot1onshlps sec2A = 1+ lan2 A 1. II! and 0.

(ii) Cos(-x). y>0 sinO> 0 cooO<:O tan9<: 0 ONLY SINE IS POSITIVE Third quadrant. sino <: 0 x <: 0.!_ y cess _ tonO" OP opposite oojacenl _ PQ OQ _r x r where x and yore coordinates of point P and t is the distance of P from O. and 1 the reference triangle be as ~~--------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .sin6(l'. y <: 0 x> O. .2. 6(10 sinx" ..1::. x Ues In thelh~d x = 180' + til' =240' Example 2 or x = 360" = 300' Given that sinx = band 0" <: x <: 90° find an expression (i) tonx. Signs of Trigonometrlcal Second quadrant. r<-x"+y<ondx. (C) Since slnx <: O. sinO> 0 cosa » 0 tone> 0 x > O. opposite hypotenuse in terms of b for E. y <: 0 cos s » 0 tone <: 0 ONLY COSINE IS POSITIVE Rnd all the angles between Solufion 0' and 360" which satisfy the equation or fourth quadrant. lei slnx = shown. y> 0 Firsl quadrant. Ratios x <: O. sinO> 0 coso c 0 ton 0 > 0 ONLY TANGENT Example I IS POSITIVE ALL ARE POSITIVE FOUrth quadrant.oO 3. Solution (i) Given that xis in the first quadrant. Trlgonometrical sinO" Ratios oPposlte"PQ hypotenuse OP oojacenl_OQ hypotenuse ..

a ~ vl-b' y (0 :> O.. tonr ~ appos~e adjacent _~ b a o a direction as b ~vl-b2 (ll) H() Is measured from the x-ox_is in the clockwise y shown ln the figure.(2 1 ratios of special angles.30" sin3O" 2 2 cosao- = . The 8 Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a Note. Trlgonometrlcal Ratiosof Special angles: 30°. = 2_ y p LOPQ._2_ .60" sln60' _2_ 15 _.fl co545' " tan4S°" _2_ .d+lY~l :.xl ~ £ = 1 . cost .{3 2 ton3O" = LPOQ.-b) 4.!i=b" P(a.f3 2 y co560' " 2_ 2 tan60° = {3 sln45° s Lsor = Losr ~ 45° .45° and 60° In a right-angled trlol'lgle OPQ. since x Is In first quadrant) Referr1l'lg to the referel'lce trial'lgle. You are expected 10 recall the trlgonomefrical figures will help you remember the ratios. .

5. laM" -180 0 . 1 Period ls 360" -1 s ccss s 1 . cost -9) " coss No max.. ... e" .lne graph I. min.slo( 9) " -sIn e - The tangent graph I. " -I Ampllrude . La. or min.-360'" -ieo-. -W'" <. 0 when ~= .()" _ 270'. 0°. I.... Graphs of 51n9....e .__ -360". e. 0".-I 1 Period Is tso~ 10nO~ ~ " I" min. eess and lane '~ y Y-'CQsB -1 Comparing graph the three graphs: graph of sinO 01 cos 8 graph at Ion 9 Period ~ 360" -1 ~stn9~ Max..180'.. The cooIne graph IS symmetrical about the vertico I axis. tan{-9) " -tOnG [~"~--------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" .1 COSO" 0 when 0" . I. symmetl1col aboul the origin.ln6" 0 when Max. " 1. 1110"" 360"" The .. symmetrical about the origin. 361Y . Amplitude" .270".

. Solulion 0".5° Sketch TrigonometrlcalGraphs Points to consider (I) (II) when sketching graphs: t~ganometrlcal functions. 2y. __________________________________________________________ ~_a3. In shapes of curves for general Important points such as maximum and minimum points (which help determining the amplitude) and points where the curve cuts the axes.S'. 360 + 360° . " 135'. y. 360" . where Ian 8 Is undefined ere asymptotes of the graph Note: The graph Example 3 0" and 360' which of sn8 Is simply the graph 01 cess shifted 90' to the right.. tan2y " -to n45' 2 Y " 160' .The vertical lines through 8 ~ .... 0 :. 49S'... cosbx. 36Ct' = tan2y " ~ I. 360' + 180" .. -'170'..45'. the period of the function" the asymptotes In the case of graphs involving shapes of the followlng sinbx. . 6. 720' and since tan2y . 247. Find all the angles between sctlsfv the equation.S'.". (C) 0". 90'.315°. -90'. 67S' v= 67. ~. y a Y'" sIntt.45°.. tonbx_ 0 (Iii) (Iv) the tangent function.5'. 270"".. 2y lies in the second and fourth quadrants. Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a ..45". The general (I) functions are shown below. (ii) (II) Y" Y" Y" Q Q Q (I) y" a slnbx where ond b are constants. 337.0. IS7.45°.

(U)

Y~

a cosbx

a

y~ aoosbx

:JW'

0 -a

" "

~

"

"

(III)

y ~ a tanbx

y

a

K

0

-o

3tD'

"

EXCImpie 4

Sketch the graph SOluNon of y ~ 3 - sin2x for O' sx s 180". end minimum (e) values

sin2x has a period of 360' '" lBO° end maximum 2 of 1 ond -1 O.e. amplitude = 1).

-I

_

.

Recall Y'" a slnbx. here a", 1 and b '" 2. Hence the curve cuts the x-axis of ._-

180° 2

'" 90';

--

360° 2

-1

ao·.

Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri"

y

-1

**The graph 01 y ~ -sln2xls obtolned about the x-oxs,
**

y

by reflecting the graph 01 y ~ sin2x

...................

x~:l-<In2x

-1

Rnally. shiff the graph graph of V =3 - sln2x.

of V ~ -sln2x upward

**by 3 units to get the
**

the

Altematively.

one can get the graph of V ~ 3 - sln2x by plotting

graph at x '" 0". <15'. 90'. 135'. 180" directly.

ExampleS

Sketch on the some diagram the graphs 01 V"

Icoszx]

=~

**and <IV" x lor the domain
**

(e)

Os.xs,..

Soluh'on Y"

I cos2x I graph

has a period of y

--

360'

2"

The straight

line graph

y

=::. has a gradient <I

2

2

"',. and an amplituda of

01 1.

..!.

<I

-,

-1 ...•...•. , •...•.

::~.l...-: .•.... C .••..••••

;

------------------------------------------~~

Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a

To get the graph of y

"'I cos

2x1, first sketch the graph y'" cos 2x and the x-mls. hence

then reflect the port of Ihe graph below the x-axis about Note: There are four points of Intersection there are four solutions to the equation of the ""0

graphs.

41cos 2x1 '" x.

7_

**Trigonometrlcal Ratios 01 Cotangent, secant and COsecant
**

tonA ",slnA cosA s9CantA or secA '" _1_ cosA Note: signs of cotongent cotongentA or cotA ~ _1_ .. cosA tanA slnA '" _1_ sinA tallow those

cosecantA secant and cosecant

or cosecA

In the tour quadrants

ot

their reciprocals.

I.e. tangent

cosine and sine respectively. First quadrant All positive Fourth quadrant Only cosine and secant

Second quadrant Only sine and cosecant

positive

Third quadranl Only tangent and cotangent

positive

positive

8_

FundamentalldentHles

Consider

By Pythagoras'

(1).;-ti'

the right-angled theorem.

triangle

Ii' ~

a. + a

2

**In the figure.
**

(1)

1=-+-

a2 c2

Ii' b2 I = sfrYe +

02

ewe

c

(l)+a.

b "'1+ c

2

02

c05e&O (1)+

= 1 + c0t2e +1 +1

a

C. sec2a

b

2

= 01

c.

~ lan20

In summary. sl1"l"9+ cwO = 1 1 + cot20 = cosec-s tarYlI + 1 = sec20

os given in the formula

list.

~L-

___

Urhcberrec htllch gcsc hutztes M aleri"

4'. 153. Z = 26·.7°. 540' .1) " 0 cosx=O or or Srnx= - . y= 71.333.lon26.7' 5. 2 (240" -107').cos Gz+ 107. 1 10 x" 90'.360° or or v= lon71.4' (n!) sec GZ+l07')=-2 cos(~ z+ 107.5 tony .7'.6' tony = 3 tony" tony = .266· '" Urheberrec htllch gesc hutztes Iv! ateri" .. 174.3' or 27()' 5 ton"y = 5 tony + 3 sedly 5 ton"y = 5 tony + 3 (ton2y + 1) 2' ton~y . 180" + 71. 90".7°.) 1 =-2 cos 1 -2 GZ+l07D) =-~ cos Gal07') cos (~z+ 107') " . (e) -2 Solution CD TO sinx COS.26. Z = 746' Is outside :.251.107·) = 26°. 270' x = 5.60" = 120°.sec2e 2' . G z+107' J" sec2y. (il) (ill) 5 lonly = 5 tony + 3 sec O· and 360' which satisfy each af the equations.5.6°.3) " 0 :.26.6'.240'.\':" cosx cosx (10 sin x . 266".6'. tony = -~ or since 10n"lO + 1 ".180" 60" Z 0 + 60". 180" . 174.3 ~ 0 (2 lony + 1)(tony .6".)= 180°.3° Q .107°).. 746 the required ronge.6" 0 71.60".480" = 2 (12'0" .6 :. x (Ii) = 5.6° y = 180' . 2(480° .Example 6 Find all the angles between (i) I 0 slnx cosx = cosx.

RHS Alternatively. 360" _!_zs.1)(cosecx + 1)(secx .H. (120· .cosec2x+ _.1)(secx + 1) -1)(sec2 x .) 2 26'. 2 (240' .. 2 0·" cos Gz+ 107. _!_z + 107' z = 120'.. 266' !z + 107' s 287' 2 c - cos 60" :. Example 8 1 + cot'O" cosec'6 Prove the Identity cosecA-~". LHS " (cosecx " (cosec! since sinzx + cosZx" x .sec2x .107°) zExample 7 Show thol (cosecxSOlvtion l)(cosecx+ 1)(secx- l)(secx+ 1) = 1 (e) LHS " (cosecx " (cosacz 1) .cotA --l+cosA- (el ~~~~----------------------------------------------------------Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" .1)(cosecx + 1)(secx . 100" G z+ 107') before giving the 0' s z O· S s.1.'2x sln2x sln2" cos'2x cos2x sin2x cos2x +1 1 1-(sln2x + cos'x) 1 sIn2x cos2x + I-I sln2x cos2x + 1-1. 240' = 2.1)(secx + 1) 1 1 sin2x cos.sec29 " col2x -I tan<x " R.sec'x .107").S.) recoil: tan20 + 1 . values ot consider the range of + (~z 1070). _1 1_+1 cos2xsln2x x -1)(sed x - .Alternatively._1 1 sln2x cos2x ..coseciZx .

(c) ton (-30') .A sinA sinA l+cooA A l+cosA-sin2 sinA(l+cosA) l+cosA . ------------------------------------------------------~"~~ Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a . cos6Q".tonAlslnA " (COSA _ sinA )slnA slnA cosA 2 ~ cosA.~ (1-COS2AJ = COSA--1-+COSA cosA '" 2 cosA .~ l-s cos.sln A cosA • cos A .secA Prove the Idenllly Solution (el LHS '" (colA .(1. (b) sin 150'. express the following (0) cos30".tonA)slnA " 2 cosA .Solution LHS '" cosecA . Given that cos15O' '" -p.secA '" RHS Revision Exercises 1. (eI) in terms of p.COOlA) slnA(l+cosA) ccsA+cos2A slnA(l+ccsA) cosAO+cosA) sin A(l + cos Al cos A slnA : colA '" RHS Example 9 (cotA .

:!: and eosS" ~ and that A and B are acute.c0s67" Sin(_!_x. Os xs 211'. Find the value of a and of b.98 eos2x + sln5O' = 0 tan2x = . costA + 8).7sin 28.2) '" .30") " 0. 2 cosx +1 sln2x I sln2xl for I= state the number of solutions of the equation 1..36O" y" 3 -llanxl for osxs. 10nLA. - (b) (e) Cd) (e) 5 e05(8 8 sin48.8).2.:'l_ It (c) (d) (e) y" 2 sin2X'-1 for O:s.10 = 0 2 sec2x + 5 " 0 2seezx .5 2 8(lanx .xs36O" y = 3teosxl for 0" sxs.Hence.23 cotx . Find the maximum (0) ~ and minimum values of cess. Given that slnA = 5 tables or caleulotors. value of 7 and a minimum (e) 3. 6 Solve the following x « 360". graphs: y = 3 ..5 Ionx " 5 2slnx+cosx" 2__ sinx+2cosx 8. Sketch the following (0) (b) 4. 720" the graphs Of y = 2 cosx and y = 1 In the Interval 5. The function f (x) = aslnx+ b. Solve the following equations (d) cosec2x = 3 sinx (b) (c) (d) (e) 5 cot2x . x~ y = Itan~ 2 If 2 I+ 2 for 0'''' x:o. (d) (b) (c) (d) (e) sin2x = 0.. 7. Sketch on the some diagram.sln81. find . has a maximum value of -3. (d) sin(A + 8).2 s['nlt for O· s. equations for 0". 30°).3(2 lanx + 3) for 0' '" x s 360°..without using 17 the value of (b) (c) ~j~---------------------------------------------Urhcberrec htl lch gcsc hutztes M ateri a . where a> O. 6 ~ 21. 8 .

.. (0) Find all values between OJ (ii) (b) 2 co:t2x = 5.9. (a) (0) (c) (d) 10.5 sinx + 1 = 0 2 ronx = tan(30° . xs 360'.sec'A 11.. slnA-cosA!! A cosec 1+ cosA cosec A +cot A+fanA secA-cosecA tonA+colA (c) (d) (e) colA-lanA '" 2cosA. 0. 0' and 360' which satisfy the equation 3 siny tony + 8 . 2-cosac"A sinA-cosA sinA+cosA Show thai cosac"A + 2 col A (e) 91 Urhcberrec htl lch gesc hutztes M ateri a .x) 2sin2x + Prove the followlng IdentHies: (a) (0) cosecA " secAcotA ----"fanA+cotA slnAcosA sinAcosA. Solve tI1e following equctlons for 0''. 6 sln(2x ..35') = 1 ccsx = 0 2 cos2x .

The order of the objects A combination is a selection The order of the objects Example 1 of a set of objects choosen in the chosen from a given number of set is taken Into consideration. ~~------------------------------------------------------ Q""" hutztes ~'a!eri a . are excluded). and the expressions for pennutonon (cases wittl repefifion both permutations and cornblncnons 01 n Itsms taken rata. time Answer simple problems on arrang. For each choice of morutot Iheraare 3 possible choices of assistant monitors. Hence. the number of possible ways 01 appointing a monitor end an assistant rnonltor Is 4 x3 = 1'2.! 01 appointing a monitor (M) and an assistant monitor It can be seen that there are d possible choices of monitors. of objects. Esther and James.Curriculum Objectives: Recognise and distinguish between 0 perrnutotlon case and a combination case Know and use me nolatlon n! (with O! = )). in a circle or invoMng A permutation is an arrangement objects. Thsrs ore 12 possible way. Ahmad. In the chosen Find the number of possible woys of (permutations) of appointing 0 monitor and an assistant monitor from 4 possible condlcotes. comblnaHons. of a set of objects chosen from a given number set is not taken into conslderotion.ement and selection at objects. Mel Un. soumon Ahmad (AM) 11\ MsiUn (M) Esther (AM) (AM) Esther(M) Ahmad (AM) Jcmes MeiUn (AM) 11\ Ahmad (M) Esther (AM) James (AM) MeiUn (AM) 11\ James (AM) MeiUn (AM) 11\ James (M) Ahmad (AM) rheber rcc hIII h Esther (AM) (AM). or with objects arranged and.

e. Monitor Assistant Monitor Prefects Mei Un and Ahmad Mel Un and Esther Mel Lin and James Ahmad and Esther Ahmad and James I --. Method 2.------ Mel Un Ahmad Mel Un Esther Mel Un James Anmad Esther Ahmad James Esther James Tobie 1 Ahmad Mei Un Esther Me.-. uccn be seen that for every two permutations In Example 1.-. Asslslanl MOI'IItCII Ahmad Mal Un Esthar Mel Un James Mel Un Esthar Ahmad Jcrnes From the second method. there is one possible combination. since order Is not taken into consideration. Let's consider a case where the order Is not token Into consideration. Ahmad James Esther of In this case. It can be seen thai the order of appointment Is taken Into consideration. Un James Mei Un Eslher Ahmad James Ahmod James Esther Estherand James Table 2 --------------------------------------------------~~( Urheberrcc htl lch gesc hutztes M aleri a . Find the number of woys (cornblnotions) selecfing SOlution 2 prefects. I.AHemallveMelhod MonltcII Mal Un Ahmad Mal Un Esther Mel Un James Ahmad Esther Ahmad James Esther James EXample 2 Consider the 4 candidates In Example 1. Mel Un (M) and Ahmad (AM) Is different from Ahmad (M) and Mel Un (AM).

II 1 when we consider 'Items'.e. for the 3rd toble. nitems for the number of permutations n Items token all at a time is "Po where np~ " nl Nole: By definition in Example O! = I the number of permutations of a set 2 'Items' from . The number of perrnotctlons Nota: roctonoi 3 " 31 " 3 x 2 x 1 In general. the number . of cornomottoos 12 of prefects. And the number of ways of arrangement (permutations) .From Table 2.. we get 4 x 3 . the number of different perrnurcticns (or of permutations of n Hems token r 01 a time Is "P" where"P.1) x (n . vase statue bust choices statue I /"" vase bust stotue I There are 3 choices end 1 choice of display for the first table. Factorial n! " n x (n . Inere are 6 combinations l. a bust and a vase on 3 tables.. "2'" -2- Example 3 An art collector wonts to display a stotue.e. at When a set of n items is chosen from n items and arranged a time).2) x (n 3)x n(n!) is the product of nand 011 the positive numbers less thon n.... ~~----------------------------------------------Urheberrcc htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" . Since AI " A x 3 x 2 x l . 3x4 '" 6. 2 for the 2nd table " 3 x 2 xl" 6. the number The notafion of permutofions Is n1 of all at a time (i.. Solufion bust vase I /"" statue bust vase bust I statue vase I /"" I .12. 41 A x 3" 2i "(A-2)1 from AI When a set of r Items Is chosen arrangements) The notation nI Is (n-Ol' for Ihe number n! (n-i)I" n Items.

hearts they are to be seated Find the number of ways 6 bollies Find Ihe number of ways of selecting and 4 clubs from a pock cords consisting 1 spade. Find the number lane track. 4. Find the number of combinations of a set of 1 blue oou. Find the number of lot and the Mercedes in the lost arrangements when (I) they can be seated (Ii) 5. In a boy-gIr1-boy-glrl-boy can be chosen sequence. choosing the pieces. 3.3 of 52 cards. 13 cords at diamond from a deck of playing cords ore 10 be arranged for doing H" are there? In a row. Ihe fabric.Product Principle: When 0 'firsl process can be done In 01 ways" a number b x ex. of ways all 4 basic steps can be corned of ways a teddy out. 4 facial expressions. There are 6 blue balls. How many permutations 2. 6. 7. 4. 7 yellow balls and 8 red balls. 2 methods of sewing: 3 types of sluffing. a second process In I.) number of ways In which a third process In c number of ways and so on. in each step are: and culling expression. Find the number Solution The number bear can be mode Revision Exercises 1. a Volkswagen. from 60 bottles. sluffing the bear and sewing on Ihe facial The variations 1. 01 ways. (il) the Rolls Royce must be in the first parking lot. then the number all Ihe processes can be done Is ax Example 6 There are 4 basic steps to making 0 teddy bear. 2 dlomonds. in any order. 96 Urhcberrec htllch gesc hutztes M ateri" . Is 5 x 2 x 3 x 4 . of ways 5 runners can be arranged at the starting point of a 6- 3. a BMW. 3glrll and 4 boys hove to arranged and seated on 7 choirs. Find the number of permufotions in which a cor ceoler can display his 5 cars: a Mercedes. a Toyota and a Rolls Royce when (0 he can display Ihem In any order. 7 yellow balls and 2 red balls.120. sewfng There are 5 types of furry fob ric: 2.

sell nasl lemak.8. Lastly. lokso. given Ihe conomon ----------------------------------------------~~ Urheberrcc htllch gcsc hutztes M ateri" . firstly. He can choose ron proto. Find the number can take to move from point A to point D. Thirdly. pizza. mae goreng 10. margarine or oil. Secondly. A baker wonts 10 bake some buns. wants to have 4 servings of food. 6 tunnels from point C to point D. there are J tunnels leading leading from B to C and 4 funnels leadlrlg of rallies a hamster from point A to point B. ham or funo as filing. In a maze of tunnels. Find the number of ways the baker can bake a batch of bUr)$ when he can only choose 1 type of ingreadient at each slage. he has a choice 01 castor white sugar or brown sugar. 9. fish ball noodles. and dumpling soup. of perrnutctlons of perrnutoficns in which 4 different servings of food? the man may eat his 4 different In which the man may eal his 4 different thai he musl start with lokso. (I) (ii) (iii) How many ways can the man choose Find Ihe number servings of food. A man with a hearty oppetite stalls which. Find the number servings of tood. he may use either plain flour or bread flour. he can choose to use luncheon meat sausages. he carl choose 10 we butter.

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