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Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – spinal/cranial nerves 1. Sensory (Afferent) Division - TO the CNS a. somatic afferents - from skin, muscle, joints b. visceral afferents - from membranes & organs Motor (Efferent) Division - FROM the CNS a. Somatic Nervous System (Voluntary) - to skeletal muscles b. Autonomic Nervous System (Involuntary) - to organs & glands i. Sympathetic Division ii. Parasympathetic Division
The Structure of a Neuron (Nerve Cell) A. neuron - special cells of nervous system that carry messages in the form of electrical Impulses B. Supporting Cells of Neurons 1. Support Cells of the CNS (Glial Cells) a. astrocytes - regulate environment around neurons and selective transport from capillaries b. microglia -eat infectious microbes of CNS c. ependymal cells - line cavities of brain and spinal cord, flushing cerebrospinal fluid (CFS) d. oligodendrocytes - form “myelin sheaths” around axons of CNS; increase speed of impulses Support Cells of the PNS a. Schwann cells form "myelin sheaths" around axons; also assist in regeneration of axon b. satellite cells - control chemical environment C. Special Characteristics of Neurons 1. 2. amitotic - "not mitotic"; they cannot reproduce or regenerate after certain point in life longevity - neurons can survive entire lifetime
c. white matter of brain . 5-140 micron diameter single large spherical nucleus with nucleolus Nissl Bodies .Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER). D. proteins. make proteins and plasma membrane nucleus .areas with myelinated axons . d.rare branches of an axon telodendria . and enzymes for synthesis of neurotransmitter i.a bundle of axons in the PNS axolemma . anterograde transport . h.a collection of cell bodies in the CNS ganglion .movement of material from synapse to cell body 3.plasma membrane of neuron axon hillock .extension that carries an all-or-nothing action potential from the cell body to the target.the cone-shaped region of attachment of the axon to the cell body. secretory component of the neuron axon depends upon the cell body for everything: organelles. site where action potential is triggered axon collaterals.gaps between myelin cells at regular intervals on axon c. Typical Neuron Processes (Dendrites & Axon) 1. abut the target tissue to secrete a chemical neurotransmitter.000 synaptic knobs/ boutons/ axon terminals . b. nodes of Ranvier . e. axon . 5. 3. 2. major part from which the processes (axons and dendrites) project.require OXYGEN and GLUCOSE at all times Neuron Cell Body (soma. myelin sheath .at the end of each telodendria. 4. rootlike extensions off the cell body receptive/input component of the neuron.wrap of Scwhann cells (PNS) and oligodendricytes (CNS) around the axon a. dendrites . incoming signals are forwarded to the cell body signals of dendrites are NOT all-or-none action potentials.a collection of cell bodies in the PNS E.movement of material from cell body to synaptic knobs ii. but are graded potentials that result from summation of inputs 2.branching. tract . g.3. conducting component of the neuron connecting it to other cells or neurons a. high metabolic rate . increases speed of action potential signal [myelinated (150 m/s). unmyelinated (1 m/s)] b. retrograde transport .typical terminal branches of an axon which may number up to 15. f.a bundle of axons in the CNS nerve . perikaryon) 1.
units of voltage millilvolt (mV) = l/l000 volt (typical unit used for membrane voltages) B. currents in the body are usually the flow of ions (Na+. Dorsal Root Ganglion of the spinal cord (sensory info from body) 2.d. Structural Classification of Neurons 1. Spinal cord) G. almost all are multipolar. unipolar neuron .areas with cell bodies and unmyelinated cell processes F. sensory (afferent) neuron . Ca++) 2. Basic Principles of Electricity A.transmit impulses from sensory receptors TOWARD the CNS a. Na+ into a cell) 1. almost all are unipolar and located just outside the spinal column i. Cl-. motor (efferent) neuron . volts .measure of the potential energy that results from the separation of Positive and Negative charges 1. Skin) b.transmit impulses AWAY FROM the CNS to the target tissue a.one long process attached to the cell body by a “T” like extension a.has three or more cell processes. voltage .have two (bi) processes: one dendrite and one axon. peripheral process – the part that starts at the sensory receptor (eg. multipolar neuron .the flow of electrical charges from one area to another (eg. with cell bodies in the CNS 3. bipolar neuron . more charge separated = larger voltage less charge separated = smaller voltage 2. K+. association neuron (interneuron) – between sensory and motor neurons III. each extending from opposite sides of the cell body (retina of the eye) 3. the more "potential energy" for current to move . voltage (potential difference/potential) . current .greater the separation of charge. gray matter of brain . Functional Classification of Neurons 1. typically many dendrites and one axon (throughout the CNS) 2. central process – the part that terminates in the CNS (eg.
channels that are always open (eg. chemical gradient . neurotransmitter: ACh. electrochemical gradient . etc.positive charges move toward negative charges and vice versa 2.open or close depending on the voltage across membrane E. Ohm's Law voltage (V). resistance (R) current (I) = voltage (V) resistance (R) INCREASED voltage = INCREASED current DECREASED voltage = DECREASED current INCREASED resistance = DECREASED current DECREASED resistance = INCREASED current D.) 3. Regulation of Current/Voltage . rubber. water. leakage channels . conductor . Na+-K+= ATPase Pump [Na+]out > [Na+]in [K+]out < [K+]in K+ leaks out of the cell 2.LOW resistance (high current) (eg. K+ Leak Channels . chemical-gated (ligand-gated) channels open or close when bound by a specific molecule (eg. copper wire. wire insulation material) b. insulator . K+ leakage channels) 2.net result of both the "electrical gradient" and "chemical gradient" 1.Changing Resistance (Permeability) of Cell Membrane 1.the hindrance to the flow of charge through which current must pass (plasma membrane and ion channels) a. most metals) C. resistance . Resting Membrane Potential of a Neuron: A Polarized State A. current (I). voltage-gated (dependent) channels .HIGH resistance (low current) (eg. Review of Polarized State 1. electrical gradient .diffusion from area of high concentration to low concentration IV.3. serotonin.
an all-or-none.potential generated by a stimulus (heat. uni-directional wave of depolarization along the length of a cell (such as the axon of a neuron. postsynaptic potential .short-term. hyperpolarization . This phenomenon spreads down the axon like a series of falling dominos.3. Na+ channels are closed at rest 4. after the discoverer. depolarization . allowing Na+ to rush in.to rush in. graded potentials . called a nerve impulse) Steps in Action Potential generation: 1. but the electrical gradient (due to negative charge inside of the cell) balances the chemical gradient for Cl. depolarization due to opening of Na+ channels When the membrane at the axon hillock is depolarized to a threshold level (-50 mV). Na+ moves into the cell) -70 mV-50 mV-30 mV0 mV+20 mV +60 mV 2.inside of the cell becomes even more negative. localized depolarization or hyperpolarization that depends on the intensity of the stimulus.channels open. V.inside of cell becomes less negative. action potential . Membrane Potential and Signaling A. the resting potential approaches ZERO or becomes positive (e. Cl levels [Cl-]out > [Cl-]in Chloride ions can also leak into the cell. decremental . receptor potential . causing further depolarization. the larger the stimulus. and Cl.g. the resting membrane potential gets larger (more K+ and/or Cl.like ripples in a pond when a rock is dropped.it decreases over distance. in an "all-or-none" fashion. and even more Na+ channels to open. K+ moves out. .their intensity gradually dies out at further distances from the point of stimulation . 1. This positive feedback loop is called Hodgkin Cycle. Definition of Terms . voltage-gated Na+ channels are triggered to open.potential generated by neurotransmitter on the “postsynaptic” cell 2. stretch) in a sensory neuron C.(relative to resting membrane potential -70 mV) 1.moves in) -120 mV -100 mV -80 mV -70 mV B. light. the greater the change in voltage and the farther the current spreads in cell Graded potentials are localized .
2. threshold . the local depolarizing effect of the opening has already been passed on.Coded by Action Potential Frequency The strength of a stimulus is translated by the neuron by the FREQUENCY (# per second) of action potentials. muscle fiber. D. 3. and K+ channels regenerate the resting potential. etc.small diameter/ no myelin VI.while Na+ channels are open.loss of myelin I. another neuron. until the resting membrane potential is restored. allowing even more K+ to rush out of the cell. Relative Refractory Period . joints) 2. muscle.) .increases the speed of impulse domino effect jumps between the nodes of Ranvier (called saltatory conduction) a. The more pressure on the skin.the junction of a neuron that allows transfer of message to "postsynaptic cell" (eg. Group B fibers . The Synapse: Axon Terminal Meets Postsynaptic Cell A. Stimulus Intensity . myelin sheath . Classification of Nerve Fibers 1. the faster are the impulses in afferent axon. so that Na+ can no longer enter the cell. However. Group C fibers . repolarization due to opening of K+ channels As the Na+ channels close. Group A fibers . action potentials can occur. it closes. axon diameter . gland. multiple sclerosis .large diameter/thick myelin (sensory and motor fibers of skin. it is impossible to generate another action potential G.the level of depolarization that will trigger an action potential (the level at which voltage-dependent Na+ channels are triggered to open) E. immediate closure of the voltage-gated Na+ channels Only 3 ms after a voltage-dependent Na+ channel opens.medium diameter/light myelin 3. and the resting potential can be regenerated. F. but the stimulus must be greater than before H.when Na+ channels are closed.larger diameter = faster impulse 2. causing the action potential. synapse . Absolute Refractory Period . voltage-dependent K+ channels open. Factors that Influence Speed of Action Potential 1.
the "threshold" voltage must be ."electrically coupled" cells that have "bridged junctions".axon terminal -> dendrite 2.Depolarization . For an action potential to be generated on the postsynaptic cell.Leads to MORE Action Potentials EPSPs result when a neurotransmitter opens Na+ channels. EPSPs are graded potentials.when an action potential reaches the axon terminal. allowing Ca++ to rush INTO the cell down its concentration gradient 3. which binds to chemically-gated ion channels on the postsynaptic cell. the influx of Na+ ions causes it to become depolarized 2. Chemical Synapse . VII. allowing the direct passage of ions from one cell into the next.The released neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft reversibly binds to receptors. Transmission of Signal Across a Chemical Synapse 1. Electrical Synapse .axon terminal -> muscle 7. ACh) across the synaptic cleft. the neuron that is sending the signal 9. neuromuscular junction .As Ca++ increases in the axon terminal.In response the depolarization of the axon terminal."after" the synapse.axon terminal -> neuron cell body 3. and increased likelihood of generating an axon potential. releasing contents into the synaptic cleft 4.Opens Ion Channels .axon terminal -> another axon 4. allows for direct synchronization of activity C. meaning they are localized and dissipate over a distance.1. axosomatic . opening either EXCITATORY ion channels (Na+ moves in to depolarize) or INHIBITORY ion channels (Cl-/K+ move to hyperpolarize) Excitatory.a synapse which relies on the passage of a "neurotransmitter" (eg. Increased Ca++ Causes Neurotransmitter Release .dendrite -> neuron cell body 6. dendrosomatic .axon terminal ->gland 8. causing depolarization of the cell body. axonaxonic .dendrite -> dendrite 5. dendrodendritic . Depolarization Opens Voltage-Gated Ca++ Channels . voltage-dependent Ca++ channels on presynaptic axon terminal open."before" the synapse. neuroglandular junction . synaptic vesicles containing the neurotransmitter fuse with the plasma membrane. Neurotransmitter Binds Receptor . the affected cell receiving the signal B. Depolarization of Presynaptic Axon Terminal . Postsynpatic Potentials (EPSPs) . presynaptic neuron . axodendritic . 1. postsynaptic neuron .
Hyperpolarization . causing hyperpolarization of the cell body (-l00 mv). K+ channels. reuptake inhibitors . c. Acetylcholine (ACh) a. ending the flow of ions. b. The neurotransmitter may be degraded by enzymes (eg. The "integration" of EPSPs and IPSPs through both temporal summation and spatial summation is how the postsynaptic cell makes the "decision" whether or not to fire an action potential. Most neurons release only one neurotransmitter.obtained at the axon hillock. If. In either case. General Characteristics of Neurotransmitters 1. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs) . or may diffuse away from the synapse.block the activity of aceytlcholinesterase g.serotonin for depression) f. nerve gas. This occurs through temporal summation and/or spatial summation of many EPSPs from up to10. some autonomic neurons. 5.channels. Structure and Function Classifications of Neurotransmitters A. Classification by Chemical Structure 1. the postsynaptic cell will fire an action potential. d. the axon hillock reaches the "threshold" voltage.000 incoming axons terminals on the postsynaptic cell body. norepinephrine). more than 100 neurotransmitters are known 3. Termination of Neurotransmitter Effects The EPSPs and IPSPs are terminated when the neurotransmitter is released from the receptor 3 ms). some snake/spider venoms . the synthesizing enzymes are made in the cell body.drugs that block the reuptake (Prozac .Leads to LESS Action Potentials IPSPs result when a neurotransmitter opens either Cl. or in the cell body and then transported. may be reabsorbed by the presynaptic cell (eg.block ACh receptor .breakdown enzyme breakdown product (choline) is recaptured by presynaptic axon for resynthesis of ACh e. Like EPSPs. and decreased likelihood of generating an action potential. VIII.synthesis enzyme acetylcholinesterase . but some may release two or more 2. and various parts of the CNS choline acetyltransferase . IPSPs are graded potentials that are localized and dissipate over a distance. or both. malathion . B. Neurotransmitters may be synthesized in the axon terminal. skeletal muscle. after all EXCITATORY and INHIBITORY input. acetylcholinesterase).
activate Dopamine. most are associated with pain regulation b. generally inhibitory . common biosynthetic pathway b.exitatory on skeletal muscle. Neuropeptides . metabotropic . L-Dopa used to treat Parkinson's Disease Indolamines . cAMP can activate enzymes in the cell to alter activity of channels and enzymes .glycine. dependent on location: most other neurotransmitters i.serotonin and histamine a. inhibitory on cardiac muscle 2.channels b. ionotropic . Serotonin. histamine derived from amino acid histidine c. LSD . different enzymatic pathway b. Metabotrophic Actions a.dopamine. NE and Serotonin reuptake inhibitors .in).hallucinogen that blocks Serotonin receptors 3.glutamate c. Biogenic Amines catecholamines . GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) 4. enzymes determine final product in neuron c. depending on what type of channel it opens a. binding of neurotransmitter causes production of intracellular "second messenger" called cyclic AMP (cAMP) ii. Classification by Function 1. Inhibitory or Excitatory? the action of a neurotransmitter can be either excitatory (allow Na+ in) or inhibitory (allow Cl. substance P a.glycine & GABA b. Amino Acids .2. tyrosine is precursor to all of these d. serotonin also derived from tyrosine. crank) f.promote longer lasting changes using "second messenger system" i.enkephalins. endorphins. Dopamine blockers .activate enkephalin receptors in brain C. glutamate. ACh . generally excitatory . Ionotrophic vs. and NE receptors (speed.used to treat depression (Prozac) g.used to treat Schizophrenia (thorazine & haloperidol) e. Amphetamines . narcotics (heroin & morphine) .opens Na+ or Cl. norepinephrine (NE). some can be either. and epinephrine a.
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