Introduction

:
Al Hussein electricity station is one of the best in Jordan, it had been established in 1973, it works with steam turbine engine side by side with a gas turbine, and nowadays its capacity can be approximated to be 396 mega watts. The station had been established at 4 stages; the gas ones had a capacity of 14.5 mega watts & the steam ones with capacity of 33 mega watts. At the first stage; they established 2 gas units and two steam units Second stage; established another steam unit; each one has capacity of 33 mega watts. Stage three: at the third stage they had established 3 more steam units; the capacity of each is 66 mega watts. Stage four: there they established one more steam unit with capacity of 66 mega watts. Al Aqaba station: it generates about 42% of the requirement of Jordan, it contains of 5 steam station each one has 130 mega watts capacity, it uses sea water for cooling, and also they used the natural gas to generate electricity for the environment; Also there are many other stations like: Marka station, el kerba el samra… etc.

There are also some experiments to use the wind energy to generate electricity like: el Ebrahimiye station in Irbid and another one in Tafilah, as well as another one which is still under construction in Jerash, also there are many projects which are under discussion to see how useful they will be like Wadi Araba station and Hofa, Fojeej…etc. Also for the dams, in Jordan there are 9 dams with capacity of 220 m3. They use these dams to generate electricity as well. But it is still on limited way. For the solar energy, there are good ways to use it specially for heating the water in houses, but also they are many experiments to use it, especially for lighting the roads in the kingdom, it will be a useful power because:

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1- Geographic place (radiation power, temperature, wind velocity). 2- Technology used. 3- Performance of the components. Nowadays, there is also going to use the nuclear energy for generating electricity, it is still at the beginning but the studies said that it will be an economic way for electricity.

Electric Energy:
It is a kind of energy which is available in the natural. We can get it from nature as shocks or friction, but it is not effect or economic. So they used other ways to get it like chemical reaction in the batteries or from the mechanical motion to electrical energy by using copper wire To generate electricity we can divide the ways into two types depending on whether it consumes fuel or not as:
1- Fuel consumes ways, like steam station and hydraulic stations. 2- Non fuel stations, like solar systems and wind energy stations.

Electric power stations:
In the stations they generates electricity as a huge amount of energy, it can be thousands of mega watts. Mostly the stations located near the fuel resources, where the convert the electrical potential by electrical transformers to high voltage (33 KV- 400 KV), to make it ready for being transferred from the station to its consuming points. For transferring this energy they need big towers where we put at the top of the tower the electrical wires where the current will pass through. Then they deliver the energy at low voltage (110-220 V) using a large transformers.

Electrostatic Generator:
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical
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means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. They develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces. They work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the turboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Types of Power Stations:
1- Steam Power Stations: (energy converter)
This kind uses different types of fuel, depends on what is available like coal or liquid fuel as well as the natural and industrial gas. It is big stations; low cost for it is great performance, as well as it can be used to desalination; which make it as a double use stations. Site Selection of Steam Power Station: 1- To be near to the fuel resources. 2- The condenser needs much amount of water. So it is required that the station must be near the cooling water resource. So most of the time it is located near beaches or at the river side’s. 3- To be near consuming points. For saving the cost of making transferring system. How does it work? It depends on the available fuel type, and burning it in the combustion chambers; then to use the heat energy to heat the water inside the boilers, then to change its states to gas state at a specified temperature and pressure, then to deliver this steam to
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the steam turbines which already designed for this purpose, so the fast steam revolves the turbine with fast speed, so the heat energy converts to mechanical energy on the pivot of the turbine, by direct connection between the turbine pivot and the electrical motor(alternator), when the pivot revolves it is deliver the motion to the electrical motor pivot which convert this energy to electricity by using the magnetic property (rotor) and the fixed part from the generator ( stator), so the electricity generates on the side of the stator Components of steam station:
1-

2-

1-

2-

Furnace: big vessel used to burn the fuel, it had various shapes depending on the fuel type, and it is connected to storing unites and transferring, trading and exhausting systems. Boiler: Big vessel contains pure water, which is heated by burning the fuel which transfers it to steam. Most of the time the furnace and the boiler are located on the same place to ensure the direct contact between them. the boiler sizes varies depending on the a- Station size. b- Steam amount per time unit. Turbine: it is solid turbine, it had a cylindrical pivot which contains concaved plates, when the steam clash with the plates, it makes it to revolve, which effect the pivot to revolve with speed of 3000 rpm, turbines varies in size and shape depending on the steam speed, steam size and steam pressure, as well as its temperature; also the size of the station. Generator: it is electrical device, contains two parts, one moved (rotor) and another fixed (stator), the rotor direct connected to the turbine pivot. And the two parts are covered with a copper wire to take the magnetic field from the rotor and deliver it to stator as electricity current.
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3-

4-

5-

Condenser: big solid vessel. The steam enters from the top side of the condenser after it loses much of its pressure and temperature, and from the bottom flow a water current, and due to the heat transfers between them the steam back to be pure water and resent to the boilers again. Chimney: long cylindrical chimney built from bricks, it is used to exhaust the exhausted gases to a high height to make a less pollution. Auxiliaries: a large numbers from mechanical and electrical devices and speed controllers which helps to complete the work.

1- Nuclear Power Station:
It can be considered as heating station, because it works on the same principle; which is generating electricity from steam. But the difference is instead of the furnace, here we have a nuclear reactor where we get the heat as a result of a nuclear reaction, then this huge energy transferred to the steam in the boilers, then to the turbines and then to the generators.

2- Hydraulic Power Stations:
It is using the moving water (rivers and lakes) which are nearly high where we can think of fallen water to generate energy. So they building dams at these places and also the stations there, also they can make waterfall or natural one to direct generation of electricity. The principle here is to use the potential energy of water which gained by position and transfer it to electricity.

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Components of Hydro-Electric Station:
1-

2-

34-

Penstock: one or more pipes located at the bottom of the dam or at the top of the waterfalls and connected to the turbines, there are valves at the first and at the end of the pipe for controlling purposes. Turbines: turbine and generators located in vertical order, generator up and turbine down; so when the gate in the penstock opened, the water flows inside the pipes with high speed; which rotates the turbine, so the rotor in the generators moved which make the electricity current at the sides of the stator. Draught tubes: special tube to bull the flow water outside the turbine. Auxiliaries: extra but important devices which use to complete the work like: pumps, gates, valves, speed correctors.

4-Tidal Power Stations:
The tidal flow is a natural event, which causes an increase in sea level due to moon gravity. When the moon is in the nearest point the water rises, and when the moon in the far point it is decreases. The best place where this type is used is in the north coast of France where the tidal has a height of 30m. So the turbines distributed in such away it fits the tidal flow. The station in France has a capacity of 400 mega watts.

5-Internal Combustion Engines:

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It is a station uses the liquid fuel, where it burns in the chambers after been mixing with the air, so the result is a high pressure gases which can move the pistons in the diesel case or the turbines in gas turbines. Diesel power station: It is fast turn on/off machines. But it consumes high amount of fuel, so the cost depends on the fuel cost, from other side the capacity for this kind the capacity is low (3 MW), it is easy to set up. And it is been used in the emergency states. In this case they use many engines from this type to get the required energy.

6-Gas turbine:
It has varies capacities (1-250 MW). Its turn on/off period is (2-10 minutes); they are cheap, simple, fast set up ability, and easy maintenance, also it doesn’t need too much water for cooling. It can use many types of fuels (rough petrol, neutral gas, industrial gas …). But it has disadvantages like: it has short age, the output is not as much required (15-25 %); also consumes too much fuel to steam stations. Components of the station:
123-

Air compressor: compressing the atmospheric air to high pressures. Combustion chamber: mixing air with fuel and then burning to give high pressure and temperature. Turbine: horizontal pivot turbine, from one side connected to air compressor and from the other side to the generator, but by a gear box to decrease the speed because the turbine rotates at high speed that the generator cannot operate at it.

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4-

5-

Generator: nowadays there are two turbines in the cycle, one for the pressure and speed, and the other one connected to the generator called the power turbine. Auxiliaries: a- Air filters b- Start engine mostly diesel or electrical motor. c- Burn helping devices. d- Barometer and thermometer. e- Electrical measurement devices.

7-Wind power station:
Big fans places somewhere we can get a high speed wind, the fans rotates which gave us a mechanical energy that we can convert it to electricity.

8-Solar station:
Nowadays it is used to heat the water in the houses, and to light the roads, but the researchers are looking to generate a large amount of electricity from this type using the solar cells, and they did many projects about this where the most famous one was the solar car when they designed it with a maximum speed of 60km/h.

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Turbine:
A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow and converts it into useful work. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum, with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. Gas, steam, and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to the British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854-1931), for invention of the reaction turbine and to Swedish Engineer Gustav de Laval (1845-1913), for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse, i.e. driven, is a compressor or pump. The axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example. Here again, both reaction and impulse are employed and again, in modern axial compressors, the degree of reaction and impulse will typically vary from the blade root to its periphery. Claude Burdin coined the term from the Latin turbo, or vortex, during an 1828 engineering competition. Benoit Fourneyron, a student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine.

Theory of operation
A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: turbine is gay
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Impulse turbines These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine rotor blades (the moving blades), as in the case of a steam or gas turbine; the entire pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the nozzles). Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blading on the rotor. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Reaction turbines These turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluid's pressure or mass. The pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (such as with wind turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids, multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. t In the case of steam turbines, such as would be used for marine applications or for land-based electricity generation, a Parsons type reaction turbine would require approximately double the number of blade rows as a de Laval type impulse turbine, for the same degree of heat drop. Whilst this makes the Parsons turbine much longer and heavier, the overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is slightly higher than the equivalent impulse turbine for the same heat drop. Steam turbines and later, gas turbines developed continually during the 20th Century, continue to do so and in practice, modern turbine designs will use both reaction and impulse concepts to
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varying degrees whenever possible. Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor (this is a form of reaction). Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Cross flow turbines are designed as an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel. Turbines with multiple stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam Turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in Gas Turbines. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction style tip. Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used at first. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae and others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made. Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1. The rotor rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor; the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor entrance is Vr1. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at velocity Vr2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2. The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub , tip, midsection and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler equation:

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Whence:

Modern turbine design carries the calculations further. Computational fluid dynamics dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years. The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed. This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected. The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance. Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic.

Types of turbines

Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal or fuel oil or nuclear power. They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ships' propellers (e.g. the Turbinia), but most such applications now use reduction gears or an intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity, which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load. Turbo electric ship machinery was particularly popular in the period immediately before and during WWII, primarily due to a lack of sufficient gear-cutting facilities in US and UK shipyards. Gas turbines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such engines usually feature an inlet, fan, compressor, combustor and nozzle (possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines.
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Transonic turbine. The gas flow in most turbines employed in gas turbine engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic turbine the gas flow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes, although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less efficient and uncommon. This turbine works well in creating power from water. Contra-rotating turbines. With axial turbines, some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit. However, the complication can be counter-productive. A contra-rotating steam turbine, usually known as the Ljungström turbine, was originally invented by Swedish Engineer Fredrik Ljungström (1875-1964), in Stockholm and in partnership with his brother Birger Ljungström he obtained a patent in 1894. The design is essentially a multi-stage radial turbine (or pair of 'nested' turbine rotors) and met with some success, particularly in marine applications, where its compact size and low weight lent itself well to turbo-electric applications. In this radial arrangement, the overall efficiency is typically less than that of Parsons or de Laval turbines. Statorless turbine. Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary) inlet guide vanes that direct the gas flow onto the rotating rotor blades. In a statorless turbine the gas flow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered. Ceramic turbine. Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are made from nickel based alloys and often utilize intricate internal air-cooling passages to prevent the metal from overheating. In recent years, experimental ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view to increasing Rotor Inlet Temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating air-cooling. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts, and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure. This has tended to limit their use in jet engines and gas turbines, to the stator (stationary) blades. Shrouded turbine. Many turbine rotor blades have shrouding at the top, which interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce blade flutter. In large land-based electricity generation steam turbines, the shrouding is often complemented, especially in the long blades of a low-pressure turbine, with lacing wires. These are wires which pass through holes drilled in the blades at suitable distances from the blade root and the wires are usually brazed to the blades at the point where they pass through. The lacing wires are designed to reduce blade flutter in the central part of the blades.

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The introduction of lacing wires substantially reduces the instances of blade failure in large or low-pressure turbines.

Shroud less turbine. Modern practice is, wherever possible, to eliminate the rotor shrouding, thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling requirements. Bladeless turbine uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine. Water turbines
○ ○ ○ ○

Pelton turbine, a type of impulse water turbine. Francis turbine, a type of widely used water turbine. Kaplan turbine, a variation of the Francis Turbine. Voith, water turbine.

Wind turbine. These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and interstage guide vanes. An exception is the Éolienne Bollée, which has a stator and a rotor, thus being a true turbine.

Other

Velocity compound "Curtis". Curtis combined the de Laval and Parsons Turbine by using a set of fixed nozzles on the first stage or stator and then a rank of fixed and rotating blade rows, as in the Parsons or de Laval, typically up to ten compared with up to a hundred stages of a Parsons design. The overall efficiency of a Curtis design is less than that of either the Parsons or de Laval designs, but it can be satisfactorily operated through a much wider range of speeds, including successful operation at low speeds and at lower pressures, which made it ideal for use in ships' power plant. In a Curtis arrangement, the entire heat drop in the steam takes place in the initial nozzle row and both the subsequent moving blade rows and stationary blade rows merely change the direction of the steam. It should be noted that the use of a small section of a Curtis arrangement, typically one nozzle section and two or three rows of moving blades is usually termed a Curtis 'Wheel' and in this form, the Curtis found widespread use at sea as a 'governing stage' on many reaction and impulse turbines and turbine sets. This practice is still commonplace today in marine steam plant. Pressure Compound Multistage Impulse or Rateau. The Rateau employs simple Impulse rotors separated by a nozzle diaphragm. The diaphragm is essentially a partition wall in the turbine with a series of tunnels cut into it, funnel shaped with the broad end facing the

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previous stage and the narrow the next they are also angled to direct the steam jets onto the impulse rotor. Uses of turbines: Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. Very high efficiency steam turbines harness about 40% of the thermal energy, with the rest exhausted as waste heat. Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their working fluid and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants. Turbines are often part of a larger machine. A gas turbine, for example, may refer to an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine, ducts, compressor, combustor, heat-exchanger, fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an alternator. However, it must be noted that the collective machine referred to as the turbine in these cases is designed to transfer energy from a fuel to the fluid passing through such an internal combustion device as a means of propulsion, and not to transfer energy from the fluid passing through the turbine to the turbine as is the case in turbines used for electricity provision etc. Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor, a configuration known as a turbocharger (turbine supercharger) or, colloquially, a "turbo". Turbines can have very high power density (i.e. the ratio of power to weight, or power to volume). This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. The Space Shuttle's main engines use turbo pumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbo pump is slightly larger than an automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70,000 hp (52.2 MW). Turbo expanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes. Turbines could also be used as powering system for a remote controlled plane that creates thrust and lifts the plane of the ground. They come in different sizes and could be as small as soda can, still be strong enough to move objects with a weight of 100kg.

Shrouded tidal turbines:
An emerging renewable energy technology is the shrouded tidal turbine enclosed in a venture shaped shroud or duct producing a sub atmosphere of low pressure behind the turbine. It is often claimed that this allows the turbine to operate at higher efficiency (than the Betz limit of 59.3%) because the turbine can typically produce 3 times more power than a turbine of the same size in free stream. This, however, is something of a misconception because the area presented to the flow is that of the largest duct cross-section. If this area is used for the calculation, it will be seen that the turbine still cannot exceed the Betz limit. Further, due to frictional
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losses in the duct, it is unlikely that the turbine will be able to produce as much power as a free-stream turbine with the same radius as the duct. Although situating the rotor in the throat of the duct allows the blades to be supported at their tips (thus reducing bending stress from hydrodynamic thrust) the financial impact of the large amount of steel in the duct must not be omitted from any energy cost calculations. As shown in the CFD generated figure, it can be seen that a downstream low pressure (shown by the gradient lines) draws upstream flow into the inlet of the shroud from well outside the inlet of the shroud. This flow is drawn into the shroud and concentrated (as seen by the red colored zone). This augmentation of flow velocity corresponds to a 3-4 times increase in energy available to the turbine. Therefore a turbine located in the throat of the shroud is then able to achieve higher efficiency, and an output 3-4 times the energy the turbine would be capable of if it were in open or free stream. However, as mentioned above, it is not correct to conclude that this circumvents the Betz limit. The figure shows only the near-field flow, which is accelerated through the duct. A farfield image would show a more complete picture of how the free-stream flow is affected by the obstruction. Considerable commercial interest has been shown in recent times in shrouded tidal turbines as it allows a smaller turbine to be used at sites where large turbines are restricted. Arrayed across a seaway or in fast flowing rivers shrouded tidal turbines are easily cabled to a terrestrial base and connected to a grid or remote community. Alternatively the property of the shroud that produces an accelerated flow velocity across the turbine allows tidal flows formerly too slow for commercial use to be utilized for commercial energy production. While the shroud may not be practical in wind, as a tidal turbine it is gaining more popularity and commercial use. A non-symmetrical shrouded tidal turbine (the type discussed above) is mono directional and constantly needs to face upstream in order to operate. It can be floated under a pontoon on a swing mooring, fixed to the seabed on a mono pile and yawed like a wind sock to continually face upstream. A shroud can also be built into a tidal fence increasing the performance of the turbines. Several companies (for example, Lunar Energy) are proposing bidirectional ducts that would not be required to turn to face the oncoming tide every six hours.

Cabled to the mainland they can be grid connected or can be scaled down to provide energy to remote communities where large civil infrastructures are not viable. Similarly to tidal stream open turbines they have little if any environmental or visual amenity impact.

The Boiler:
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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating application.

Materials:
The pressure vessel in a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel is virtually prohibited (by the ASME Boiler Code) for use in wetted parts of modern boilers, but is used often in superheating sections that will not be exposed to liquid boiler water. In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only material used for boiler making was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by riveting. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Creator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for highreliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the use of steel, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labor. Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers", their purpose is usually to produce hot water, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid actual boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high pressure steam boilers.

Fuel:
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbines.

Configurations:
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

"Pot boiler" or "Haycock boiler": a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially-filled water container from below. 18th Century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low. Fire-tube boiler. Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube
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which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In the case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increase the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety.

Water-tube boiler. In this type, the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations: often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones, steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall. Flash boiler. A specialized type of water-tube boiler. Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional fire tube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives, but have met with little success in other countries. Sectional boiler. In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. These sections are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.

• •

Safety:
Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes could also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who loaded coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire buildings. A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler could also occur if a leak occurred in the steam supply lines that were larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.

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Superheated steam boilers:
Most boilers heat water until it boils, and then the steam is used at saturation temperature (i.e., saturated steam). Superheated steam boilers boil the water and then further heat the steam in a superheated. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant due to the fact that the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing a feed water heating "economizer", and/or a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path. There are advantages to superheated steam and this may (and usually will) increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization considered together: gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using "wet" steam, as causing condensation droplets will damage turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if there is a leak in the steam piping, steam at such high pressure/temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone entering its flow. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, it is not easy to see the leak, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence. The superheated works like coils on an air conditioning unit, however to a different end. The steam piping (with steam flowing through it) is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. This area typically is between 1,300 °C (2,372 °F)-1,600 °C (2,912 °F). Some super heaters are radiant type (absorb heat by radiation), others are convection type (absorb heat via a fluid i.e. gas) and some are a combination of the two. So whether by convection or radiation the extreme heat in the boiler furnace/flue gas path will also heat the superheated steam piping and the steam within as well. It is important to note that while the temperature of the steam in the superheated is raised, the pressure of the steam is not: the turbine or moving pistons offer a "continuously expanding space" and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler. The process of superheating steam is most importantly designed to remove all droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and/or associated piping.

Supercritical steam generators:
Supercritical steam generators (also known as Benson boilers) are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at "supercritical pressure". In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi/22.06 MPa 3,200 psi/220.6 bar that actual boiling ceases to occur, and the boiler has no water - steam separation. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the "critical pressure" at which steam bubbles can form. It passes below the critical point as it does work in the high pressure turbine and enters the generator's condenser. This is more efficient, resulting in slightly less fuel use. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" actually occurs in this device.
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History of supercritical steam generation:
Contemporary supercritical steam generators are sometimes referred as Benson boilers. In 1922, Mark Benson was granted a patent for a boiler designed to convert water into steam at high pressure. Safety was the main concern behind Benson’s concept. Earlier steam generators were designed for relatively low pressures of up to about 100 bar, corresponding to the state of the art in steam turbine development at the time. One of their distinguishing technical characteristics was the riveted drum. These drums were used to separate water and steam, and were often the source of boiler explosions, usually with catastrophic consequences. However, the drum can be completely eliminated if the evaporation process is avoided altogether. This happens when water is heated at a pressure above the critical pressure and then expanded to dry steam at subcritical pressure. A throttle valve located downstream of the evaporator can be used for this purpose. As development of Benson technology continued, boiler design soon moved away from the original concept introduced by Mark Benson. In 1929, a test boiler that had been built in 1927 began operating in the thermal power plant at Gartenfeld in Berlin for the first time in subcritical mode with a fully open throttle valve. The second Benson boiler began operation in 1930 without a pressurizing valve at pressures between 40 and 180 bar at the Berlin cable factory. This application represented the birth of the modern variable-pressure Benson boiler. After that development, the original patent was no longer used. The Benson boiler name, however, was retained. Two current innovations have a good chance of winning acceptance in the competitive market for once-through steam generators:

A new type of heat-recovery steam generator based on the Benson boiler, which has operated successfully at the Cottam combined-cycle power plant in the central part of England, The vertical tubing in the combustion chamber walls of coal-fired steam generators which combines the operating advantages of the Benson system with the design advantages of the drum-type boiler. Construction of a first reference plant, the Yaomeng power plant in China, commenced in 2001.

Hydronic boilers:
Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes. They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses in northern Europe (where they are commonly combined with domestic water heating), as opposed to the forced-air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common in North America. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the case of single pipe systems, until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid throughout the home typically by way of radiators, baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be heated by any means...gas, wood, fuel oil, etc, but in built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a motorized pump. The name can be a misnomer in that, except for systems using steam radiators, the water in a properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Most new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency. These boilers are referred to as condensing boilers because they condense the water vapor in the flue gases to capture the latent heat of vaporization of the water produced during combustion.
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Hydronic systems are being used more and more in new construction in North America for several reasons. Among the reasons are:

They are more efficient and more economical than forced-air systems (although initial installation can be more expensive, because of the cost of the copper and aluminum). The baseboard copper pipes and aluminum fins take up less room and use less metal than the bulky steel ductwork required for forced-air systems. They provide more even, less fluctuating temperatures than forced-air systems. The copper baseboard pipes hold and release heat over a longer period of time than air does, so the furnace does not have to switch off and on as much. (Copper heats mostly through conduction and radiation, whereas forced-air heats mostly through forced convection. Air has much lower thermal conductivity and higher specific heat than copper; however, convection results in faster heat loss of air compared to copper. See also thermal mass.) They do not dry out the interior air as much. They do not introduce any dust, allergens, mold, or (in the case of a faulty heat exchanger) combustion byproducts into the living space.


• •

Forced-air heating does have some advantages, however. See forced-air heating.

Accessories:
Boiler fittings and accessories
• • •

Safety valve: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler. Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauge or water column is provided. Bottom blow down valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out. Continuous blow down valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a condition known as priming. Flash Tank: High pressure blow down enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blows down flows to drain. Automatic Blow down/Continuous Heat Recovery System: This system allows the boiler to blow down only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blow down to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blow down discharged is close to the temperature of the makeup water. Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of internal surfaces. Steam drum internals, a series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).

• •

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Low- water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut off fuel to the boiler to prevent it from running once the water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure. Surface blow down line: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensable substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler. Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat. Feed water check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feed water line. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler. Top feed: A check valve (clack valve) in the feed water line, mounted on top of the boiler. It is intended to reduce the nuisance of lime scale. It does not prevent lime scale formation but causes the lime scale to be precipitated in a powdery form which is easily washed out of the boiler. Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated steam. Thus is to supply auxiliary equipment that doesn't need, or may be damaged by, dry steam. Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feed water pHs Main steam stop valve: Steam traps: Main steam stop/Check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations. Fuel oil system: Gas system: Coal system: Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment: Name plate: Registration plate:

• • •

Steam accessories

• • • •

Combustion accessories

Other essential items

• • •

Controlling draft:
Most boilers now depend on mechanical draft equipment rather than natural draft. This is because natural draft is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace, as well as the chimney height. All these factors make proper draft hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draft equipment much more economical.
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There are three types of mechanical draft:

Induced draft: This is obtained one of three ways, the first being the "stack effect" of a heated chimney, in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. The denser column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. The second method is through use of a steam jet. The steam jet oriented in the direction of flue gas flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draft in the furnace. This method was common on steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys. The third method is by simply using an induced draft fan (ID fan) which removes flue gases from the furnace and forces the exhaust gas up the stack. Almost all induced draft furnaces operate with a slightly negative pressure. Forced draft: Draft is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. Air is often passed through an air heater; which, as the name suggests, heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. Forced draft furnaces usually have a positive pressure. Balanced draft: Balanced draft is obtained through use of both induced and forced draft. This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes. The induced draft fan works in conjunction with the forced draft fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric.

Condenser:
In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant. Condensers are typically heat exchangers which have various designs and come in many sizes ranging from rather small (handheld) to very large industrial-scale units used in plant processes. For example, a refrigerator uses a condenser to get rid of heat extracted from the interior of the unit to the outside air. Condensers are used in air conditioning, industrial chemical processes such as distillation, steam power plants and other heat-exchange systems. Use of cooling water or surrounding air as the coolant is common in many condensers.

Example types of condensers:

A surface condenser is an example of such a heat-exchange system. It is a shell and tube heat exchanger installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in thermal power plants. Commonly, the cooling water flows through the tube side and the steam enters the shell side where the condensation occurs on the outside of the heat transfer tubes. The condensate drips down and collects at the bottom, often in a built-in pan called a hotwell. The shell side often operates at a vacuum or partial vacuum, often produced by attached air ejectors. In chemistry, a condenser is the apparatus which cools hot vapors, causing them to condense into a liquid. See "Condenser (laboratory)" for laboratory-scale condensers, as opposed to industrial-scale condensers. Examples include the Liebig condenser, Graham condenser, and Allihn condenser. This is not to be confused with a condensation reaction

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which links two fragments into a single molecule by an addition reaction and an elimination reaction. In laboratory distillation, reflux, and rotary evaporators, several types of condensers are commonly used. The Liebig condenser is simply a straight tube within a cooling water jacket, and is the simplest (and relatively least expensive) form of condenser. The Graham condenser is a spiral tube within a water jacket, and the Allihn condenser has a series of large and small constrictions on the inside tube, each increasing the surface area upon which the vapor constituents may condense. Being more complex shapes to manufacture, these latter types are also more expensive to purchase. These three types of condensers are laboratory glassware items since they are typically made of glass. Commercially available condensers usually are fitted with ground glass joints and come in standard lengths of 100, 200, and 400 mm. Air-cooled condensers are unjacketed, while water-cooled condensers contain a jacket for the water.

Larger condensers are also used in industrial-scale distillation processes to cool distilled vapor into liquid distillate. Commonly, the coolant flows through the tube side and distilled vapor through the shell side with distillate collecting at or flowing out the bottom. A condenser unit used in central air conditioning systems typically has a heat exchanger section to cool down and condense incoming refrigerant vapor into liquid, a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant and move it along, and a fan for blowing outside air through the heat exchanger section to cool the refrigerant inside. A typical configuration of such a condenser unit is as follows: The heat exchanger section wraps around the sides of the unit with the compressor inside. In this heat exchanger section, the refrigerant goes through multiple tube passes, which are surrounded by heat transfer fins through which cooling air can move from outside to inside the unit. There is a motorized fan inside the condenser unit near the top, which is covered by some grating to keep any objects from accidentally falling inside on the fan. The fan is used to blow the outside cooling air in through the heat exchange section at the sides and out the top through the grating. These condenser units are located on the outside of the building they are trying to cool, with tubing between the unit and building, one for vapor refrigerant entering and another for liquid refrigerant leaving the unit. Of course, an electric power supply is needed for the compressor and fan inside the unit. Direct contact condenser In this type of condenser, vapors are poured into the liquid directly. The vapors lose their latent heat of vaporization; hence, vapors transfer their heat into liquid and the liquid becomes hot. In this type of condensation, the vapor and liquid are of same type of substance.

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Figure1: turbine will be France.

water which used in

Figure how

2: A plan showing turbine and generator connected.

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Figure 3: Condenser.

Figure 4: Gas

Turbine.

Figure 5: Water

turbine.

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Figure 6: Nuclear plant.

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Figure 7: Steam Power Plant

Figure 8: thermal

power plant plane.

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Figure 9: Wind Power Station.

Figure Wind Plane.

10: Fan

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Figure 11: Inside a hydraulic power plant.

Figure 12: Hydraulic Power Station.

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