t

ALEXANDER FALILEYEV
\
ETYMOLOGICAL GLOSSARY
OF OLD WELSH , ~
Max Niemeyer Verlag Tiibingen
2000
Gedruckt mit Unterstutzung der Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Bonn
Contents
Die Deutsche BibJiothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme
Falileev, Aleksandr I.:
Etymological glossary of Old Welsh I Alexander Falileyev. - TQbingen : Niemeyer, 2000
(Buchreihe der Zeitschrift f(ir celtische Philologie ; Rd. 18)
CJ Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH, TUbingen 2000
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ISBN 3-484-42918-6 ISSN 0931-4261
Acknowledgements
Introduction .....
List of Sources . . .
Bibliographical Abbreviations . . .
Grammatical Abbreviations . .
Language Names ..
Glossary
A ..
B ...
C ..
CH ...
D.
E.
F ..
G ....
H ..
I .
K.
L.
M
N.
O ..
P ..
Q ..
R ..
S ..
T.
U.
Appendix I .
Appendix II
VII
IX
XIV
. XVIII
.XXIV
XXV
I
1
13
20
39
39
51
57
59
78
88
99
99
108
116
122
126
J ~ 4
134
140
144
153
156
157
, ..
Acknowledgements
The research which resulted in the present Et)'nJological Glossary of Old Welsh
would have been impossible without the help of the following individuals and
institutions.
I am grateful first of all to the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung for a generous
fellowship which allowed me to conduct the research uninterrupted at the Sprach-
wissenschaftliches Institut of the Friedrich- Wilhelms- UniversiHit Bonn (Ger-
many), and for covering the printing costs of this publication.
Professor Emeritus Karl Horst Schmidt has supported my fellowship with the
Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. I am greatly indebted to Professor Schmidt for
his comments and stimulating suggestions on the various aspects of this work and
for his making my stay in Germany a most fascinating experience.
I thank Dr Paul Russell who went through the earlier version of the (;/oJsary for
his critical comments, as well as for his help and hospitality during my stay in
Oxford. Dr Graham Isaac was always ready to answer my questions; the discussions
of the problematic aspects of Old Welsh alongside the other disputahle issues of
Welsh and Celtic philology and linguistics with Dr Isaac were very important and
lead to a certain re-estimation of the views of the present author. I am grateful to Dr
Peter Smith for his readiness to help; and to Ms Sandra Pragnell for her taking the
burden of
I am grateful to Professor Stefan Zimmer. the Director. for the excellent
facilities arranged for my research at the SprachwisscnschaftJiches Institut of Bonn
University, and for the opportunity to usc his private lihrary. Frau Gudrun Eigen-
willig, the Librarian of the Institute, was always very helpful.
I am indebted to the staff of Geiriadur Pri!VJKo/ particularly to Mr
Gareth Bevan, the editor, and Mrs Mary Burdett-Jones for the possibility to check
the collection of the dictionary slips and the most generous help. I am very grateful
to Mr Andrew Hawke for his help in accessing the computerised data-hase and the
most stimulating discussions of early Welsh lexica. I would like to thRnk Professor
Geraint H. Jenkins, the Director, and the staff of the Centre for A d\'anced Welsh
and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth, for their hospitality.
Thanks are due to Professors P. Sims- Williams anll P.- Y. Lambert for their
readiness to answer my questions, and to Dr V. who put me on the right
path and first drew my attention to the gClpS in EClrly Welsh lexicography.
Needless to say. thnt the faults of this puhlication are entirely mine.
/\. Falilcyc\"
I
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I
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,
Introduction
The present Etylnolog;cal Glo!;sary of Old We/sir is intended to offer an alphabeti-
cally arranged list of words which are found in the manuscripts transcribed before
the beginning of the Middle Welsh period, and to provide them with the most
important published references. Much work has been done hoth in the field of Old
Welsh studies and Celtic lexicography since the puhlication of J. Loth's Vocahll·
laire vieux-bretolt in 1884 which comprised the then known data of all the early
neo-Brittonic languages. Quite a few Old Welsh texts have heen edited anew;
more Old Welsh fragments have been found. Notes and articles which analyse
specific Old Welsh words and phrases appear in the journals. Old Welsh orthogra-
phy, phonology, morphology and the rudiments of syntax have been the subjects
of dissertations and scholarly research over the course of the twentieth century.
The publication of the Geiriadllr Prif),sgol eyn,ru (in progress) which considers
the Old Welsh forms with accuracy and offers an excellent historical panorama of
the development of Modern Welsh vocabulary is a major event in Welsh lexicogra-
phy. However'l it does not focus on etymological investigation" though provides its
entries with etymological comments; it does not give references to the scholarly
discussions. The present glossary intends to hridge this gap in Old Welsh etymolog-
ical studies and to offer the alphabetically ordered corpus of Old Welsh lexemes
with a bibliographical apparotuJ.
The data
Only records written down during the Old Welsh period have been used in the
compilation of the glossary. Texts which show Old Welsh orthographic features
and which were perhaps first written down during this period but which are found
in the later manuscripts are consulted; for the sake of chronological consistency
and homogeneity of the word-list" these entries are not included in the Glossary.
The non-appelative vocabulary of Old Welsh was not considered as the study of
personal names must be carried out within a different framework, while the inter-
pretation of the place-names which occur in the Old Welsh documents is a sepa-
rate problem. The same concerns the study of epithets; these \Vere used a ~ cn111-
paranda only. For (Old) Welsh glosses in MS Cotton Faustina C I see A. Pedcn in
CMCS 2 (19Rl), p. 2 0 ~ 2 ~ .
~
'.' ,',
, .
x
The sources
The sources for OW known before 1953 are conveniently summarised in K.H.
lacksoo·s Language and Hislory in Early Britain which was used as a definitive
guide for Ihis study. The only te1<t which was not used for the compilation of the
present Glossary is the Book of Llan Dav, which still requires to be comprehen-
sively discussed, and is a subject for research in its own right. The data of this very
important document is used throughout as comparanda for the research.
The compiler of the Glossary felt obliged to consider the Welsh entries which
are found in non.. OW manuscripts as well. Words which show Welsh character-
istics are found alongside Old Breton entries in several Latin texts of Breton
provenance. These, marked as ''"forme vieille galloise" by L. Fleuriot in his autho-
ritative Dictionna;re des gloses £n vieux Breton, and by a misleading "Old Breton
2" in A Dic60nary of Old Breton are listed in the Glossary. The instances where a
part of a gloss could be Breton as well are specifically indicated. Glosses .in which
all the components could be both Breton and Welsh are not considered. Forms
which show OW characteristics are found in texts of Irish provenance as well. It is
extremely difficult, if at all poS5ible, however, to assign these to a certain date or
even a language within early Neo-North.. West Brittonic, see Russell: 1995. These
are occasionally considered in the glossary, but only in the references.
The full list of used for the compilation of the glossary is given below. It
should be noted that the compiler made use of the edited and published texts only.
Only on several exceptional were manuscript readings consulted. The
focus has been laid on the collection of the published analysis of the rudiments of
Old Welsh thus the glossary could be viewed as an extended bibliography for Old
Welsh studies, rather than an authentic etymological dictionary.
Arrangement of the entries
The entries are arranged alphabetically according to the Welsh standard. The
glosses which contain more than one word are segmented; in those cases where the
segmentation could be problematic (and this applies to several particular frag-
ments of Old Welsh versification), the components of the phrases are explicitly
cross-referenced; when the segmentation is unclear, or the reading is variable, the
components of the phrase are as a complete entry. Homographic I homopho-
nic lexeme5 are treated under the different headings. Similar or identical instances
which were analysed differently are normally considered separately. Parts of com-
pounds are not treated separately; their discussion can be found in the entries
which contain 1he first element of the composite word. The forms of the verb 'to
be' are collected in the Appendi" II. and are not found in the main corpus of the
The word .i"c.gfina.. with an unclear initial is discussed in Appendix I.
XI
Structure of entry
Each entry contains the following elements:
1. First element of an entry.
1.1. The word as it is found in the manuscript or a conjectured form in the case of
an abbreviated or corrupted manuscript reading.
1.2. Grammatical characteristics of the fonn. As the OW data is salient for the
expression of gender of the noun, it is adduced from the later medieval sources,
and generally follows the treatment of the corresponding entries in the GPC. The
indication of gender is not provided for hapaxcs and plural forms.
1.3. English translation. Plural nouns are translated by plural forms. Forms of
the verbs are rendered normally by the corresponding English infinitive.
1.4. The corresponding form in Modern Welsh (if any). If the entry is a plural
noun, the singular Modern Welsh form is given for reference. If the entry is a verb.
the stem is normally given. The Mouern Welsh forms are given in square hrackets.
2. The second line of an entry gives I) a corresponding Middle Welsh formes)
and 2) Celtic c0111paranda for the entry. The earliest attested examples of etymol-
ogical correspondences of the Insular Celtic languages (Breton, Cornish and Irish)
are quoted. Old Cornish stands for the Cornish entries in "Vocahularium
cum"; the corresponding forms are cited from Graves's edition. The Continental
Celtic forms (particularly Gaulish) are also referred to.
3. The third part of each entry contnins etymological commentary. The IE proto-
forms arc normally quoted from J. Pokorny's rt,\'",o!oR;sclres
Worterbuch (1959). The Latin words (in case of hornl\vings) are given in their
classical forms or are otherwise indicated.
4. The fourth part of each entry contains bibliographical references. The list of
the bibliographical abbreviations is given below. The most important analysis of
Old Welsh orthography hy M. Lewis (As(lIdiaeth 0 Hell gan ei
chyfnharu ag ()rgraff Hen Wyddeleg, University of Wnlcs MA dissertation 1961.
unpublished), though extensively used at the preliminary stClges of the present
research, is not indicated in the references.
5. The fifth part of each entry gives the form under discussion as it occurs \vithin
its context; for the glosses the lemmas arc given. This is followed ny a reference to
the source (see the list of sources).
The Old Welsh data: some prohlcnls and desiderata
The present Ety",ological Glossary of (J/d U'e/sl, was planned as (l part of a higger
project which intends to survey various nspccfs of ()Id Welsh linguistics and r
h
ilnl.
ogy. At this point. however. it was considered appropriate to prclO\ent only the
XII
data; at a later stage the compiler will offer its analysis. During the work on the
Glossary the following problems related to the monuments of Old Welsh were
considered as desiring di scussion.
1. The Texts. As it is indicated in the section Sources (below), the majority of the
Old Welsh texts were edited and published (mostly without facsimiles) towards the
end of the nineteenth century. Moreover, the Old Welsh glosses in these editions
are normally given only with a quotation of Latin words (sometimes phrases) on
which they occur. This method of editing the remnants of Old Welsh could be
acceptable at the dawn of Welsh studies. It is obvious, however, that now there is a
demand for a comprehensive treatment of these manuscripts, which would
account for the Latin text (as well as Latin and Anglo-Saxon glosses) alongside the
Old Welsh entries proper.. Several of the Old Welsh texts have been and are being
studied in the likewise manner by the team of scholars directed by the Department
of Welsh, University College Aberystwyth (the results are yet unpublished); for
some of these texts this remains a desiderata. The other genre of Old Welsh
writing, the poetical pieces, ha'w'e been satisfactorily edited. These deserve now a
study within a broader context ()f Welsh poetics, particularly taking in considera-
tion the recen t progress in the analysis of the early Welsh poetry.
2. The Languages. Witb a few exceptions it is commonly maintained that the
remnants of Old Welsh are rather homogeneous (though naturally allowing for
linguisticrorthographic variations), It was argued for the Old Breton sources,
that some of them c<Jntain Old Welsh (as well as Old Irish) entries
alongside Old Breton. It can be argued that a parallel situation could be envisaged
for the Old Welsh texts proper; the non-Welsh element in these texts, represented
by Irish and Cornish should be extracted from the linguistic discussion, but utilised
for the analysis of the Welsh (scribal) tradition and the character of the medieval
Welsh scriprar;a. The same concerns the presence of the Anglo-Saxon element in
Old Welsh, both in the vocabulary, and in the texts themselves. This subject in
general has not received the proper attention.
The interaction of Old Wel!ih with the other important language of medieval
Wales, Latin, has been not sufficiently analysed either. Though several impor-
tant and thoroug.h studies were dedicated to the problem of the Latin borrowings
in Welsh., they unfortunately do not pay the desirable attention to the chronology
and the character of these borrowings at the earliest attested stage of the history of
this language. Not much is d()ne to elucidate Old Welsh linguistic contact with Old
Irish.
Old Welsh Le7<icology.. The material presented in the present Glossary allows
for VEl rious types of in\'es1iga tion, The study of the semantic fields, nearly absent in
, '
Welsh lexicology but veTy popular in the other linguistic traditions (Anglo-Saxon,
Baltic.. German.. lndic, Irish, Slavic, etc.), deserves primal attention. The compiler
of the tlt1empts tc bridge this gap in early Welsh lexicography with the
.' of the Ol(j agricultural vocahulary (in progress, see OWAV in
XIII
the List of It is hoped, therefore, that the other semantic fields
would draw the attention of scholars, provided that the data is already collected
and classified.
The collection of the material presented here points to a considerable amount
of hapaxes, which should be comprehensively studied. The focus could be laid
upon the semantic aspect, as well as on their morphological pecuharities. It is not
infrequent that the word could he attested only twice - once in the Old Welsh
sources, and then in the later poetry, particularly in the Red Book of flergest or in
the Book of Talicsin. These cases should he also considered. Some ohviollsly
idiomatic set-phrases occur in thc corpus of (lid Welsh.. and these should be
studied within a wider context of Welsh and C'eltic idiom.
The formal aspects of Old Welsh lexica are not sufficiently studied as \vell. It
should be noted, that there is no availahle study of Welsh morphology as a whole.
and perhaps the word-list presented in this hook could he used as a starting point
for the analysis of early Welsh morphology. The (;Io.tr;snry could be used as a
source for the future discussion of the models of Welsh word-formation: lists of the
suffixes with the indication of their productivity in Old Welsh are to be compiled.
Special attention should be paid to the possible calques on the Latin forms which
the Old Welsh words are glossing, as negligence of this factor will necessarily lead
to the distortion of the whole picture of Old Welsh morphology.
4. Old Welsh Grammar. Gral1t11lar of Old Welsh compiled hy J. T. Koch (as
reported in J. T. Koch, The Gododdin of Ancirin. C'ardiff: University of Wales
Press 1997, p. vi) is not yet availahle. It could he noted. h()\\,ever. that the tnetho-
dological (particularly chronological) approach to the trC(\tnlent of ()Id \Vclsh in
this grammar a priori differs fronl the views of the conlpilcr of the present (;/0,,\-
sary, as only the data found in the contemporary manuscripts could he relevantly
labelled as Old Welsh. Of course the publication of this (iro"""ar of (Jld n"el.'ih
will definitely open new horizons for Welsh linguistics: at the same time the
compiler of the present Glossary feels obliged to note that the notion of the
Archaic Neo-Brittonic, \vhich has been advocated by Dr Koch. though useful as an
instrument of research. needs further investigation. The two "'hich deserve
attention are I) the problem of the earlier dialectological relationships het\\'cen
the Neo-Brittonic languages. and 2) the concept of early Neo-Brittonic spelling..
There is still quite a range of grammatical aspects of Early Welsh which arc in
dispute, and the remnants of Old Welsh are no exception here. To mention just a
few of them: the presence of a morphologically deducihle future tense of the vcrh.
treatment of certain plural terminations of a noun. and the grammatical status of
specific adjectival and preverbal particles. All these issues relatcd to the (Old)
Welsh grammar and grammatical description cnuld not he disfussed in the prescnt
book. It is hoped, therefore, that the ()Id Welsh delta presented here \\'ill make
further investigation in this field more productive.
,'.
AC
CH
CIIadZ
Chid 3
List of Sources
The "Annale! Cambrlse" Bre found in Harlefan MS which fs dated to CI.
1100 (cr. LHEB: 56). The text was edited by E. Phil1imore (Phillimore: 152-169);
tbis edition i5 used. For the history of this text see K. Hughes, The Welsh Latin
Chronicles: Annores Cambriae and Related Texts. 1/ Proceedings of the British
Academy 59 (1973), p, 233-58 (see also the review of it by D. Dumville in SC 12/
13 (1917/8), p. 461-7) and The A.. text of Anna/es Cambriae. /I (D. Dumville, ed.)
K. Hughes, Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Woodbridge: The Boydell
Press 1980, p.86-100,
Glos.ses which show OW features in MS Angers 477. The text is dated by L.
Aeunot to the relevant glosses were written at the end of the tenth - begin..
ning of eleventh century by various hands, see DOVB: 8-11. See also G. Le Due,
Une glose en Anglo-Saxon gloste en Brittonique. /I EC 16 (1979), p.261-2.
Unedited; for the collection of the glosses see DOVB: 26-31; Lambert: 1983 and
1984, The references are to the MS.
The Latin Life of King Alfred composed by Asser about 890 contains several
Wel5h word5, predominantly toponyms, cf. LHEB: 53. The text was edited by
W. H. Stevenson. Asser's Life of King Alfred, Oxford 1904. See also S. Keynes,
M. Lapidge" Alfred the Great. Asser's Life of King A/fred and other
rary source!, Penguin Books 1983 for the translation and a most valuable com..
mentary..
AD OW gloss ill the so-called Colloquia Hisperica (Bodleian MS. 865, f. 93
1
) The
glos!i which is dated to tbe eleventh century was edited by E.C. Quiggin, An Old
Welsh Gloss. I! RC 38 (1920-1921), p. 15-16, cf. also Stevenson: 16. The referen..
ces are given 10 the MS (brackets - page and line in Stevenson's edition).
The ro-c:alled ISurexlt' Memorandum in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospels)
was dated to the eighth century by K.Jackson (LHEB: 42-6 with further bib1.).
According 10 D. Jenk.ins and M. Owen (JO: 83), this text was written in 830-850,
al50 Sims-Williams: 1991, 32, where a possibility to date this text earlier than
ca. 800 is noted" and D. Huws, Five Ancient Books of Wales H. M. Chadwick
Memorial Lec1ure 6, Cambridge: Department of Anglo.. Saxon, Norse, and Celtic
1985)., 1". 5 fn. 4 for Ihe date "about 800". The text was edited by D. Jenkins and
M. Owen in JO: further editions include: J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlii
with notes by J. W. M. Lindsay in EWS: 46; J. Morris Jones in MJ:
Zimmer.. forthcoming; see also D. Jenkins, Sylwadau ar y 'Surexif. /I ODeS 28
(1 930j, p. 607-11. Glan\'ille R. J. Jones, 'Tyr Telych' and Gwestfau of Cynwyl
Caeo and Cwmwd Caeo, 11 SC 28 (1994), p.81-95. The references are to JO.
A charter in mi1Ced Latin and OW in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospel5),
dated to the late Ilinch century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976), see JO
I
: 56: cf.
xv
LHEB: 46-7 for the further references). The text was edited by J. Gwenogvryn
in LL: xlv: cf. (text and Davies: 263: also HW: 214 and
PRW: 312. The references are to LL.
Chad 4 A charter in mixed Latin and OW in the Book of St. <:had (Lichfield
dated to the late ninth century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976), see JO
I
: 56: cf.
LHEB: 46-7). The text was edited hy J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlv. The
references are to LL.
ChH 6 A note in Latin and OW in the Book of Sf. Chad (Lichfield Gospels), which
establishes the boundaries of a manor near Lladybie; i!i dated to late ninth or
rurly tenth century (st.'e .'e)l: nlso I.IIFIJ: 47 And Itl72 -4, 10
(pnnlnlly) hy .r. in 1.1., p. )CIviL tht ttl(t nh""IHh i"
local place-names: no complete edition of it is avaiJClhlc; The references a re to
LL.
Chad 7 A single line in OW and Latin in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospels), dated
to the end of the eighth - beginning of the ninth century by J. Gwenogvryn Evans,
LL: xlvi (alongside Chad il). No date was suggested for it at the seminar in
Lichfield. Edited J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlvii (cf. also J0
1
: 55). References
are to LL.
Comp The Computus Fragment (Cambridge University Library MS Add. 4543). dated
by I. Williams to ca. 920 (cf. EWS: 45; LHEB: 54). Edited hy I. Williams (IQ27)
with translation and an extensive commentary. The earlier include those
by E.C. Ouiggin (1912; with translation and W. M. Lindsay (EWS: 53
with facsimile); see also J. III, The Old Computus Fragment
and Bede's Pagina Regularis: Part I. /1 Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic C"ollo-
quium, vol. 2 (19R2), p. 197-272. The references are to Williams: 1927.256 (the
number indicates the line in the edition).
DNR Six OW glosses in MS Peniarth (Bcdc·s l)r IIatura ,rr"",) dated to the first
half of the twelfth century. Edited hy I). Huws (Huws: Sill). The references arc
to the MS.
Gen The Old Welsh Genealogies which contain Old Welsh onomastics and epithets
are found in the same MS as AC. The text was edited hy E. Phillimore (Philli·
more: 169-183), and by p.e. Beutrum (BClrtrum: 9-1.':\). The latter edition iC\
The references are to the pages of the edition.
J OW glosses (several hands) in Camhridge MS Ff 4. 42 poetical
of the gospels). Edited hy Stokes (Stokes: IH60-61. p. 207-22R. cf. also Stokes:
1860-1, p. Stokes: IR73, 411-5). According to K. Jackson (LHER: 1-2.
following Bradshaw: 2RJ-4 and 4R4. cf. EWS: 16) the !!Iocoses are dated to ninth -
eleventh centuries. hut see D.Dumvil1c, Palaeogrnphical Consideration in the
Dating of Early Welsh Verse. /I nBCS 27 (1<J7R). p. 24R fn. fl. who states thelt ·'the
dating of most of the Juvencus glosses to saec. xlxi unacceptable on palaeogra-
phical grounds: they helong to the first half of the tenth century". cf. also Bishop:
258. For the hands see Bradshaw: 4R4, LHEA: 50-1 and particularly Ha r"ey:
1991 and the further bihliography cited there. The references are to the MS.
Juv 3 A poem of three stanzHS in CCtmhridgc MS rf 4,42, dated to fir't half of the tenth
century, see J. C. T. Oates, Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manu<icript
of Welsh Poetry: The Camhridge Juvenclis. II CMCS J (I tJR2). p_ R2 and fn. D.
Huws, Five (II. M. Chadwick fv1emorial Lecture n.
Camhridgc: Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse. and Celtic 19R5). p. indicates
XVI
the late ninth or early tenth century as its date. For the further references see
LHEB: 52-3 and cf. Watkins: 1982, 36-7. Edited by I. Williams, Tri Englyn y
Juvencus. II BEeS 6 (1932), p. 101-110 = Williams: 1980, p.89-100; see also
LHEB: 52 for a 1151 of the previous editions. See also J. Rowland. Early Welsh
Saga Poetry Cambridge: D. S. Brewer 1990, p. 466-7 (text). p. 510 (English
lat100), and passim. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and hne).
J•• , A poem of nine sta nz.as in Cambridge MS Ff4, 42, dated to first half of the tenth
century., see J. C. T. Oates, Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manuscript
of Welsh Poetry: The Cambridge Juvencus. /I CMCS 3 (1982), p. 82 and fn. D.
HUM, Five Ancient Books of Wales (H. M. Chadwick Memorial Lecture 6,
Cambridge: Department of Anglo·Saxon, Norse, and Celtic 1985), p. 5 indicates
tne late ninth or eerly tenth century as date. For further see
LHEB: Bromwich: 1980. 100 fn. 7; Watkins: 1982. 36-7. The poem was
edited by I. Naw Englyn y Juvencus. /I BBCS 6 (1932). p.205-224 =
WiJliams: 1980, p. ]00-121; and in Haycock: 3-16, with a Modern Welsh rende·
ring and an extensi\'e commentary; see the list of the earlier editions there. See
also J. Rowland, Ear]y Welsh Saga Poetry, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer 1990. pas-
sim. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and line).
Le.... An Old Welsh gloss in "Leiden Logical Fragment" (MS Voss. Q 2. F. 60), dated
to the tenth or ninth century (LHEB: 64). According to LHEB: 64, the language
is Breton on the assumption of the Fleury origin of the MS. The gloss was conside-
red as insular by F1euriot, DGVB: 7 (more precisely as Welsh, DaVB: 261); this
decision was based on Lindsay's observation (EWS: 22-3), where this MS is
compared with Ovid on palaeographical grounds. The gloss was edited by
W. Lindsay, A Welsh (Cornish?) Gloss in a Leyden MS./1 ZCP 1 (1897), p. 361.
The references are to the MS.
Me The OW glosses in Martianus Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mereur;; (Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge MS 153), perhaps ninth century (LHEB: 53). Edited
by W.Stokes (1873), See also Bishop: 262f. The references are to the MS.
MP The Old Welsh glosses in De Mensuris et Ponderibus (Liber Commonei, Oxonien-
. sis Prior)., Bodleian MS. Auct. F. 4.32, dated to 820 (I. Williams, Notes on Nen-
11 BEeS 7 p. 382; LHEB: 47), or 817 (EWS: 7; R. Thurneysen. Zu
Nemnius (Nennius). I! ZCP 20 (1936), p. 100 Hunt: VIII, fn. 5). Edited by Wil·
Iiams: 1930, 226-148 with a facsimile of fo 23
8
facing p. 228; the earlier editions
include Zeuss: 1060; Stokes 1860-1,237-8; for a facsimile edition, see Hunt; for
1be history of the MS., cf. A. Breen, The Liturgical Materials in MS Oxford,
Bodleian Librllry. Auc1. FA.l32.11 Archiv fUr Liturgiewissenchaft 34 (1992),
p.111-53. The references are to the MS (brackets - page in Williams: 1930).
The so·called Alph/lbet of Nemnius in Bodleian MS. Auct. F. 4.32, fo 20
8
; for the
date see cf, alsc R. Dorolez, Runica Manuscripta, Brugge: De Tempel
p.157-9, Edited by W. Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1, 236-7; cf. Zeuss: 1059).
The references are to Stokes: 1860-1.
<hid The OW &I055eS in Ovid's Ars Amatoria (Oxoniensis Prior, Bodleian MS.
Autt, F.. 4. 3l., fol. 37&-42
8
; see also above), dated to the ninth-tenth century
(Bradsttaw: EWS: 8; Hunt: XIII; LHEB: 54). Edited by W. Stokes (Stokes:
J860-t 234--6, coneC110ns p. 292, cf. Zeuss: 1054-1059; fol40
8
edited (with facs.)
ill EWS: 56). For the gloss ledit gI. pulsat (fo 38
b
) see Williams 1933: 113. The
Jcferenccs are to tile MS.
Ox2
Pad
Prise
XVII
The MS called (Bodleinn MS 572) which a Latin
text IJe Raris Pahllli... with OW (Clnd presumahly ()(') glosses dated ca. tenth
century EWS: 2": tHEA: 55). The text is edited hy W. H. Steven-
son. Stevenson: I-I L prc"iolls include: ('ra4\ter: 1.'5-6: IRfl(l--1,
238-44 (corrections on p. 29J): Zeuss: IOflO-J: for (1 fClc4\imiJe edition of a part of a
folio. sec H. de la Villemarquc in des
V (185fl). p.272 pI. J. For the Cornish comroncnt. see BHl<fshaw: 4Hfl: L.HEB:
55: J. Loth. Les gloses de 1'().to1lien.'ii.'i f'o.Hrrior sonl-elles corniqllcs? II RC 14
(1893). p. 70: VKG: I. IJ. The referencec; arc to MS (hrackets - rage and line in
Stevenson's edition).
An OW four-line verse Oil St. Pndnrn's slnff in Corpus Christi MS Il)(J (n. lIn
dnted to IOHO-IOt)() (Brndshnw: 4f1.c;). The text wnll\ edited hy I. WilliAms. An (ll<l
Welsh Verse. 2 (IQ.tI). p. (=
Williams: 1980. 181-(89). and hy M. Haycock (Haycock: 241-5). with a Modern
Welsh rendering and an extensive commentary. The references are to the edition
by I. Williams. the number indicates the line.
Glosses which show OW features in Priscian's grammar (BN lat. I029f»). dated to
the first part of the ninth century. Edited hy P.-Y. Lamhert (Lamhert: 1982: cf.
DGVB: 31 and pa,Hint). References are to the MS.
Bibliographical Abbreviations
AEW = J. de Vries, Alrno,.disches etymologisches Worterbuch. Leiden: E. J. Brill 1962.
AP = Pryde;n. Edited and annotated by I. Williams. English version by R.Brom·
wich. Dublin: The Dublin ]nstitute for Advanced Studies 1972.
BacheDery = E. Bachellery, rey. DGVB. 1/ EC 11 (1964-5), p.191-199.
Bartram ::: P. C. Bartrum, EaT/Y Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Cardiff: University of Wales
Press 1966.
BaudH = J. Gramma, of Early Welsh. Oxford 1924.
DDC = A.O.H. lannan, ed., L/yfr Du Caerfyrdd;n. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru
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BRCS = Thl! BuJitJin of ,1ft Board of Celtic Studies.
Bishop = T. A. M. Bi!hop, The Corpus Martianus Capella. II Transactions of the Cambridge
Bibfiograp1tica! 5oc;eiy 4 (1964-8), p. 257-75.
= H. Bradshaw, Corrected Papers. Cambridge 1889.
Bromwkh: 1980 =see Williams: 1980.
CA = I. Williams, Ctrn., Aneirin. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1938.
C.erwyn Williams: 1948 = J. E. Caerwyn Wil1iams, yo y Gymraeg. II BBCS 13 (1948),
p.I-IO. . ..
Chantraine = P. Chantraine" Dictionnaire etymologique de fa langue grecque. Pans: Editions
Klincks.ieck, 1917.
CMCS = Cambridge (since Winter 1993 - Cambrian) Medieval Celtic Studies.
Craster =' H. H. E. Craster" The Glosses of the Codex Oxoniensis posterior. II RC XL
( 1923) I p.
Davies =W. Da\'ies, The Latin charter·tradition in Western Britain, Brittany and Irclanu in
the earl" mediaeval period. IJ D. Whitelock, R. McKitterick and D. Dumville, eds. Ire-
land i" Eal/Y Mtdie"al Cambridge: at the University Press, 1982.
De Bernlrdo Stempel = P. De Bernardo Stempel, Die Vertretung der indogertnanischen
und rtlJ501.e-N .)onflnJtn;m Keltischtn. Innsbruck 1987. ,
DGVB = L. Aeuriot, Dicrionnaire des gloses en vieux Breton. Paris: Librairie C. Klinksieck
1964.
DOB == C. Evans, L. Aeuriot I A Dictionary of Old Breton. Toronto: Prepcorp 1985.
tc = tr/-4de5 Ct Jtique.s .
EL =11. Lewis. Y, Etlen Lddin yn y' faith Cymraeg. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru
1943.
EU =L Etn"du t.rrordd. Lerpwl: Gwasg y Brython 1945.
:Elsie =R. The of Brittonic. Bonn 1979.
'EmoDt-Mfillet = E. ErnouI, A. Meillet, Dictionnaire ttymologique de la langue laline.
Quatri!me edition. Paris: Librarie C. Klincksieck, 1959.
= 1. F_ E\k;\. (In ft"prprNntinn of the Hi.vpano·Ctftic In.vcriptinfl of Rntorrito.
Jnstitut fir Sprachwi!';senschaft 1989.
XIX
ESSYa = (0. Trubachov, ed.) Etimologicheski; slo\'o, sla'.'yan.rkikh jOlyko\·.
Nauka, 1974-.
EWS == W. M. Lindsay, Early Wel.r;h Script. Oxford, 1912.
Fowkes = R. A. Fowkes. of Cymric Etymology. /1 Lingua PO';flaniefu;'r; 6 (1957).
p.90-111.
Fowkes: 1958 =R. Fowkes, Sanscrit Evidence in Etymologies. IIIne Journal of Celtic
Studies 2 (1958), p. 1-4.
G = J. Lloyd-Jones, Geirfa barddOfliaefh gymlar f(I'mrae/(. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol
Cymru 1931-1946.
GED = W. P. Lehmann. A Gothic Etynlological Dicrionar,'. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 19R6.
GEW = H. Frisk. Griechisches etymologisches Worterbuch. Heidelherg: Carl Winter 1970.
GMW == D. Simon Evans, A (,r0111nl0r of Aliddl" »'elrh. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for
Advanced Studies 1964.
GMWL "" T. Lewis, A Glossary of Mediael'al WeI>" Lall'. Manchester: At the University
Press 1913. .
GOI =R. Thurneysen, A Gramnrar of Old Irish. Dublin: The Duhlin for Advanced
Studies 1980.
GPC = Geiriadur Prifysgo/ Cymru. Gol. gan R. J. Jones rac wedynJ gan G. A. Bevan.
Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1950-.
GPN == D. Ellis Evans, Gaulish Personal NameJ. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press 19f17.
Greene = D. Greene, Celtic. /I J. Gvozdanovic, ed.. Indo-European Numeralr. Mouton de
Gruyter: Berlin I New York 1992. p. 497-554.
Haannann = H. Haarmann. Der lateinische Lehnworl.fChot'l ;m Ky,nrischen. Bonn J970.
Hamp: 1965 = E. Hamp, Evidence in Keltic. /I W. Winter. ed.. E.·idence for
The Hague 1965, p.224-235.
Hamp: 1973 = E. Hamp. Formation indoeuropeenncs second *-(H(l)k
'
·'-. II Bulle-
tin de la societe de li1lgtti5iqttc de Pari.r; oR (197.1). p. 77-Q2.
"amp: 1974 = E. Hamp. Varia. II Erill. 25. 1974. p. 25J-2R4.
"amp: 1975-6 = E. Hamp. Miscellanea Celtica. /I SC 1011 ( (1975-6). p.
Hamp: 1976-7 = E. Hamp. Notes on Old Breton. 1/ EC 15 (1976-7). p. 191-3 and 569-72.
Hamp: 1977-8 = E. I-Iamp. Intensives in Celtic and Gaulish. /I SC (l977-R).
p.10-I3.
Hamp: 1979 == E. Hamp, Celtica Indogermanica. /1 ZCP 37 (1979). p. ](l7-7.l
Hamp: 1982 ::::: E. Hamp. The Indo-European Roots *hJrrr- in the Light of Celtic <lnd
Alhanian. II ZCP 39 (1982). p. 205-IR.
Harvey = A. Harvey. The Camhridgc - Evidence of
Literary Interaction? II P.S. Ureland. G. Broderick. eds. Lan8rtagr Contnct in tire Rr;t;,'fih
Isles. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1991. p. JRI-lqR.
Haycock = M. Haycock. Blodellgerdd harddas 0 gallll cref.vddol cy""ar. Llandyhie 1994.
Henry ::::: V. Henry, Lexique ftymnlogiqllt des te"neJ les plus du breton ,noderne.
Rennes 1900.
Hirunuma = T. Hirunuma, Gaulish Ordinals. II Studio Celth'o Japonica I (,qRR). p. 39--4R.
Hunt = R. W. Hunt, Sf D/lllsla,,'s Classhook fmlll (ila.f(ol1brtrl'. (Umhrae Codicum Occi-
dentalium IV) Amsterdam 1961. -
= D. Huws, A Welsh Manuscript of Bede's /)r narum rerum. II fiReS 27 (19781,
p.491-504.
HPB = K. Jackson. A PllOnolngl' of nr('/,m. DlIl>lin: The Dllhlin In.tillltc {PI
Advllnced Studies (Q67.
JIW = J. E. I.Io!·d. ,·1 11i'ltlfy or H'olt'\, Volt,nlc ,. London '41'.
'·It. xx
lEW == J. Pokorny, Indogerrntlnisches etym%gisches Worterbuch. Bern: Francke Verlag,
1959.
IF =l"dogermani5cht ForJch"ngen.
Isaac = G. Isaac, The Verb in 'he Book of Aneirin. Studies in Syntax, Morphology and
Etyrnorog)'. TUbingen: Max Niemeyer 1996.
Jackson: 1950 = K. Jackson, Brittonica. /I JCS 1 (1950), p. 69-79.
Jack..on: ]975-6 = K. Jackson, The Date of Old Welsh Accent Shift. /1 SC 10111 (1975/6),
p.40-S3.
JCS = The Journal of eel,if S'udies.
JIES = Journal oj lndo-European Studies.
JO = D. Jenkins, M. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Part II: The
'Surexit' Memorandum. "CMCS 7 (1984), p. 91-120.
J0
1
= D. Jenkins, M. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Part I. 1/
CMCS 5 (1983), p.37-66.
Joseph = L. Joseph, The Treatment of ·CRH- and the Origin of CaRa- in Celtic. 1/ triu 33
(1982), p. 32-55.
KBr = Beit,iige zu, vergleic1tenden Sprachforschung.
Kelly == P, Kelly. The Earliest Words for 'Horse' in the Celtic Languages. II S. Davies, N. A.
Jones.. eds., Thr Horse in Cefric Culture. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1997,
p.4H3.
KGP K. H. Schmidt, Die Komposition in gallischen Personennamen. /I ZCP 26 (1957).
p.33-301.
Klin_ellKhmidt = G. Klingenschmldt, Zur Etymologie des Lateinischen. 1/ M. Mayrhofer.
M. Peters, O. Pfeiffer. eds .. Lautgeschichte und Etymologie. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig
Reicllert Verlag 1980. p. 208-222.
Kom = J. Koch. 'Gallo-Brittonic' vs. 'Insular Celtic'. /I Bretagne et pays celtiques. Rennes
1992. p.471-95..
KZ = Ztit5chrift fu' Sprachforschung.
Lamber1: 1976-7 = P.. -Y.. Lambert" Emplois de la coordination. II. Proble-
mes par 12 prep. galloise A, ag 'avec'. /I EC 15 (1976-7), p, 523-31.
Lamber1: 1931 = P...Y. Lambert, La traduction du pronom relatif Latin dans les gloses en
vieil-irlandals, (J EC 18 (1981), p.121-139.
Lambert: 1982 = P.. -Y. Lambert, Les gloses du manuscrit BN Lat. 10290. /1 lic 19 (1982),
p.173-2L3.
LIlmber1: 1982a = P"V. Lambert, Vieux-gal1ois nou, nom, inno. 1/ BBCS 30 (1982).
p.20-29.
LamMrt: 1983 =P.-Y.. Lambert, Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie /I EC 20
(1983). p.. 119-143.
Lambert: 1984 = P.-y, Lambert. 'Thirty' and ·Sixty' in Brittonic. /I CMCS 8 (1984),
p.29-43.
Lambert: 19848 = P,"y, Lambe rt, Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V Suite. /1
tc 21 (1984). p.
Lambert: 1986 =P.-Y. Lamben, The New Dictionary of Old Breton. /I CMCS 12 (1986).

Lambe..: 1917 = P.-1', Lambert.. Les gloses grammaticales brittoniques. /I EC 24 (19R7),
I p.
Lane == G. Lane.. The Germano - Celtic Vocabulary. 1/ Language 9 (1933). p. 244-264.
LElA = J, V<'fldT;.'fS, el,"fn%giqlle de l'irlalldais ancien. Dublin: The Duhlin Insti·
tute for Ad\'lInccd Studies 1959-.
XXI
Lewis: 1926 = H. Lewis. Glosau Rhydychen. II nRCS 3. part I (192ft) p. 1-4.
Lewis: 1932 = H. Lewis. Glosau Rhydychen a Chacrgrawnt. Martianus Capella. /I RB('S 6.
part 2 (1932). p. 11G-112.
Lewis: 1956 = H. Lewis, Old Welsh Syntax. /I Crlth'a 1 (195(,). p. 295-9.
LHEB = K. H, Jackson, LangliaKe and Ilb.tnry in Ear'.\' Britai". Edinhurgh: The Edinburgh
University Press. 1953.
LL = (J. Gwenogvryn Evans, J. Rhys, cds.) Tile text of the Rook of L/a" Dal'. Oxford 1893.
McCone = K. McCone, Old Irish 'three' and 'four': a question of gender. /I trill 44 (1993).
p.53-73.
McManus = D. McManus. Irish Letter-Names and their Kennings. II Eriu Jq (I Q8R).
p.127-16R.
MJ = J. Morris Jones. Taliesi". (= Y Cymmrodor. 2R) 191R.
ML = J. Loth. Les nlot,,; latins dan,; les la"Klies IJrittoniqlle,{. 1R92.
Muller = M. Muller, Lectures on the Science of Lt"'KlIaKf. Sixth edition. \' .1-2. London·
IR71.
OCV = E. Van Tassel Graves. The Old Cornish Vocabulary. University Microfilms: Ann
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()WAV = A. Falileyev. Old Web.1t Agricultural Vocabulary (in progress).
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p. 120--123.
PECA = E. Campanile. Profilo Etinlolngico del Cornico Antico. Pacini-Pisa, 1974.
Phillimore = E. Phillimore, The Annales and Old Welsh (,enealogics from Har-
Ician MS. .1859. II Y ()nrn,,.odor 9 p. 152-18J.
PKM = I. Williams. ed.. Pede;,. l\'ei11C y Caerdydd: (fWl1sg Prifysgol Cymru IQ74.
PNRB = A. L. F. Rivet. C. Smith, The Place-Nan,es of Ro,,,an Britai". Princeton: Princeton
Unlversity Press. 1979.
PRW = G. R. J. Jones, Post-Roman Wales. /I H. P. R. Finherg. cd. Tire ARrnrian nf
England and Wales. I (II), Camhridgc: At the University Press, 1972. p. 281-.'\82.
PT = 71,r Poe111S of Edited and annotated hy Sir Hor WilliClms. English version hv
J. E. Caerwyn Williams. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1 .
Quiggin = E. C. Quiggin. A Fragment of an Old Welsh II TCP R (1912).
p.407-10
R = J.Gwenogvryn Evans. ed.. The Poe,ry i" 'Ire Red Ronk of IlcrKc,H. Llanhcdrog lQ11.
He = Rl'\'lIl' Ccltiquc.
REWb = W. Meyer-LUbke. lVijrtrr1J"clr. Heidelherg.
Rhys = J. Rhys. tect",.es Oil lVe/slr PI,iloloRr. London IX74.
Rhys: IM73 = J. Rhys. Die kymrischen zu ()xford. II KIlt vii p. and
466-7.
Rowland = J. Rowland. An Early ()Id Welsh ()rthographic Feature. /I RRCS 29 (IQH I).
p.513-20.
Russell: 1990 = P. Russell. Celtic lVo,.d /-'o""at;on. Tire l'elar SlIffixe,,;. Duhlin: Institute for
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Russell: 1995 = P, Russell. Brittonic words in the /I J. EC\ka. R. (,erflint
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19Y5, p. 166-R2.
SC = Studia (·eltica.
Schrijver = P. Schrijvcr. St"dirs i" Br;';JIr Crlt;c I{;wn,.;ca! Pho"ol"RY. Amsterdam I
Atlanta: Rodopi IQ95.
,....
XXII
Sims-Williams: 1981 = P. Sims-Williams, The Development of the IndoaEuropean Voiced
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Sims-Williams: 1991 = P. Sims-Williams, The Emergence of Old Welsh, Cornish and Breton
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1929.
Stokes: 1860-1 =W. Stokes, Cambrica. II TPS 1860-1, p. 204-249.
Stokes: 1865 = W. Stokes, Bemerkungen zu der ausgabe der Oxforder glossen von Zeuss. 1/
KBr 4 (1865), p.421-3.
Stokes: 1873 =W. Stokes. The Old Welsh Glosses on Martianus Capella with some Notes on
the Juvencus-Glosses. " KBr vii (1873), p.385-416.
T =J. Gwenogvryn Evans, ed., Facsimile and Text of the Book of Tolies;n. Llanbedrog 1910.
Thumeysen: 1890 = R. Thurneysen, Notes sur quelques gloses galloises. /I RC 11 (1890),
p.203-6.
TharneyRn: l890a = R. Thurneysen, Gloses bretonnes. 1/ RC 11 (1890), p. 86-93.
TPhS = Transactions of Philological Society. London.
US = W. Stokes, Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1894.
VB = L.. FJeuriot. u vieux 8reJon. Elements d'une grammaire. Paris: Librairie C. Klinck-
sieck ]964.
VGK = H. Pedersen, V£rgitichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Gottingen: Vana
denhoeck & Ru precht. ] 909-13.
VSB = A.. W. Wade-Evans, Vitae Sanetorum Britanniat tt Genealogiae. Cardiff: University
of Wales Press Board 1944.
VVB = J. Loth, VocabuJairt v;euxabreton. Paris 1884.
Watkinl: .'57 =Af"N)'JI Watkins, Yr arddodiad HG. (h)i, in: ce. y (= yn), yn. II sacs 17
(1957), p. 137-58..
Watkins: '''1 =T.Arwyn Watkins, The Accent-Shift in Old Welsh. II H. Pilch, J. Thurow,
.. Miinchen: Max Hueber 1972, p. 201-5.
Watkins: 197%-4 == T. Arwyn Watkins, The Accent in Old Welsh - Its Quality and Develop-
ment. 11 BBeS 25 (1972-4). p. I-II.
Watkins: 1982 =T. Arwyn Watkins, Englynion y Juvencus. /I R. Geraint Gruffydd, ed.,
Bardo5. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982, p. 29-43.
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Watkins alld Mlc Cana = A. Watkins, P. Mac Cana, Cystrawennau'r Cyplad mewn Hen
Gymraeg. (l BEeS 28 (1960), p. 1-25.
WG = J. Morris Jones II WfLsh Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.
White =F.. While . .)tudi£s in morphol1nfngy "r the Early Welsh Verb. Oxford University
D. Phil. T1Jesis. lUnpublished). Oxford IlJX5.
Williams: 1927 =I. William5, The Computus Fragment. /I BBCS 3 (1927), p. 245-272.
Williams: 1'29 = J. Williams, Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. /I BBeS 5 part 1 (1929),
p.l-8.
Willi••s: 1930 = I. Williams, Glosau Rhydychen: Mesurau a phwysau. II BBeS 5 part 3
(1930), p.Z26-24S.
Willia.s: 193J = I, William;. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. 1/ BBCS h (1933), p. 112-
118.
XXIII
Williams: 1944 = I. Williams, Vocabularium Cornicum. /I BBCS II (1944), p. 1-12 and
92-100.
1980 = I. Williams, The Beginning,; nf IVel.{Jr Poetry. Edited hy R. Rrnmwich.
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p. 149-164.
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Grammatical Abbreviations
Language Names
adj. adjective ord. ordinal AS Anglo-Saxon
Me Middle C o r n i ~ h
.dy. adverb pen. personal B (Modern) Breton
Mlr Middle Irish
atnl. cardinal pi plural Britt. (Common) Brittonic
Mllat Medieval Latin
:-:.; . d. compare poSe possessive C (Modern) Cornish
MW Middle Welsh
~ . .
roll. collective prep. preposition CD Cornish and Breton ()R
Old Breton
comp. oomparati\le pres. present Celt. Common Celtic ()C
Old Cornish
conj. conj unction prete preterite CI Celtiberian ()HG
Old High German
demonstr. demonstrative prone pronoun G Gaulish ()Ir
Old Irish
r feminine
sl singular IE rndo- European ()W
Old Welsh
imp. imperative
sg'. singulative Lat. Latin
Pict. Picti!l;h
imperf. imperfect subJ. subjunctive MB Middle Breton W (Modern) Welsh
impale impersonal IUperi. superlative
m ms!CUJine v verb
name numeral VB verbal noun
IJ
"I
"
...
- .....
• J.• -'
Glossary
A
B
I
conj. 'and' r8 J
MW a, OB (h)a
IE *ad-ghe-; see also ac, /za.
DGVB: 205; Elsie: 18; ope: 1; lEW: 3 and 417; JO: 95; Lambert: 1976-7; VGK:
I, 14 and II, 160
See also ha crip, hoi.
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
aceroenhOll gJ. et dolea 1 78
II exclamative particle Ia)
MW a; MB a, C a; OIr a, a
IE *6 'Ausruf, cf. Lat. o. See also IIa.
ope: 1; lEW: 712; Lamhert: 1987.287; LElA: A-4; VVB: 28
a mcin Cuniou gl. vittre tcnucs Ovid 37:t
a hir ctem gl. instita longa Ovid J7<l
g3 prep. 'of' (?)
MW a; OB a, ha. See o.
As shown by P.- Y. Lamhert. these instances could be analysed in the entry dedi-
cated to a
1
• See, however, GMW for the occurrence of a for n in this meaning.
DGVB: 49; GMW: 205; Hamp: 1976-7, 191; IIaycock: 12: Lambert: 1976-7,529
aguirdou pan dihu JUY 9 (4.2)
omnipotcns auctor tidicones adioln.,•• [... J JUY 9 (1.1-2)
8
4
prep. 'by' (?)
According to Fleuriot, a in this gloss is Breton 'de, par-, cf. a ~ ; this could be Welsh
as well. Cf. also 0
2
.
DGVB: 56
a faut gl. a fortuna Prisc 24 h
as relative particle
See hoi.
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
anguorit anguoraut Juv <) (5.2)
2
.b.lbrou.nnou n pi 'Ad.m
l
••pplel'
A compound; tho flrRt clemont I" abal 'n",.,lc' (MW nvnl, nfnl), cf. on nhlll 111.
malum, aballen gl. OC auallen gl. G avallo, Olr ahnll gl.
malus, see D. Adams in IF 90 (1985), pp. 79-82; DGVB: 51; E. Hamp in ZCP 37
(1979), 158-166; lEW: 1-2; LElA: A-6; T. L. Markey in lIES 16 (1988),
p.49-68; oev: 294; PECA: 10. The second component is -brouannou (MW
breuant, bruant) 'neck, throat, larynx', cf. OC briansen gI. guttur, OB brehant,
Olr see OGVB: LElA: B-76; LHEB: 460; DeV: 48; PECA: 17, from
*g"rdgh.. nJ-, 'verschlingen, Schlund' (lEW: 474-6; for details of the recon-
struction, see De Bernardo Stempel: 85 and the literature cited there).
GPe: 40 and 321; Stokes: ] 404; VGK: I, 100 and 138; VVB: 29
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus exsectis Me 42 a.a.
/ab}guid.ur n f 'alphabet' [agwyddor]
MW agwyd(d)or, egwyddor; OB aceter; OIr abgiter, abgitir
< Lat. (M Lat abecetorium / abgetorium)
DGVB: 52; ope: LElA: A-8; ML: 131; B. 6 Cufv in Erin 31 (1980),
pp. 100-1 to; Williams: 1927, 257
[ab]guidaur Comp 1
abroid adj. 'dimmit' [arrwyddJ
MW atrwydd, Olr amreid
The word is analysed as a combination of a negative prefix with a Welsh word for
'easy·, see
GPC; 45; LElA: R-16; Williams: 1927,262
nit abruid Comp 6
isabmid icinimer Inv 9 (3.2)
lie conj. lag)
See aI,
acet met gl. retonde J 77
acgene; v iDlperf. 3 sg '10 need' [anghen-J
ct. MW achen, angen 'need'; CB anken 'necessity, exigency'; OIr. ecen 'need',
< IE -ank- IOZwang, N01wendigkeit'. The c of this instance was added later by the
original scribe.
De Bernardo Stempel: 107; GPC; 52; Hamp: 1977-78, 5 and (differently) in IF 84
(1979) p. 203-4; JEW: 45; Rowland: 515; White: 207-8; Williams: 1927,386
gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16
.C'up v pres. 3 sg 'II) tont.in' (7) (8chub-]
MW achub; DB acupot
J1le standard derivation from Lat. occupo and the interpretation of I. Williams
accepted hy GPC is queried by White in view of the formal and semantic difficul-
ties.
3
navo: OPC: CJ; ML: 1.'\0; White: Rfl-·7; IQRO, In7
"'SUCllp nls url'up letter J"v t) (.1 ..')
schmonou n pi 'groins' fachfenI
Wachfen
< IE *ken- 'frisch cntspringen' (lEW: 563), cr. Olr oic,,,e.
GPC: 7; LElA: A-26; VVB: 31; VGK: II. 62
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusquc Ovid 41 h
sd
t
prep. 'to'
MW at, ar; 08 ad; G nd
< IE *ad- bei, an' (lEW: 3)
DGVB: 53; GPN: 128-31; GMW: IRS; GPC: JL E. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976),
p.138-9; Hamp: 1976-7, 191; E. Hamp in IF 90 (1985), p. 70: VB: 291: Williams:
1927, 261
ad ir loc. guac Comp 5
nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17
sd
2
(?)
This could be Latin; if see ad'.
ad stebfll gl. ad limina J 52
sdsul n m 'site, place, dwelling' (addod, addawdJ
MWadawt
GPC does not provide any etymology for this entry.
GPC: .13; Williams: 19RO. 116
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (R.l)
sdismor see dism.r
sed bid v pres. 3 sg 'to reach'
I. WiUiams who offered a very detailed of this word (1927: 261) sug-
gested t\vo possibilities for its interpretation. Following Fl. Lc\\"is this could be
analysed as corresponding to W. aellr!vdd (cf. elllyH', aet" + )'\1'). Williams appar-
ently prefers the other possibility - "as the sense requires a verh meaning
to arrive' the oed may he for /raedd, seen in cvrroed(/. ("'haedd,,": for the
etymology (cf. Me het"y 'reach', MB di""(1(',';, Olr Joig-). sec F. O. Lindenlan
in BBCS J() pp. 49-50, and (differently) Isaac: 0319-20.
pan aed bid. ad ir Joe. guac. issi. in triti llrd. Comp .5
sencum see sor is aencumhal
spit vpres. 3 'to fall
< IE *ag- 'trcihcn', cf. Lat ago.
GMW: 119; GPC: 40; lEW: 4; Isaac: 334; 460, 607: VGK I: 9tl. If: ..1JR.
451: White: 103-4
agit etcrin (ogit? - see Williams: 1930.235 and cr. Loth·s doullts. VVA: .lJ) MP 22
h
(234)
hegit hunnoid 22"

I
, '.
4
ail n f 'brow, eyebrow'lael]
MWael
GPC: 36; Stokes: 1873, 390; VVB: 34
itdagatte ail gI, coniuere Me 4 b.a.
ithrirdiuail gl. glabella medietas Me 9 b.b.
ailotou n pi 'members or organs of body' [aeJod]
MW aelawt, aelod; cf. Mlr aige
< *(p)ag/-atu, vpag-
On the grounds that the word is not attested elsewhere in Breton L. FIeuriot
suggests Welsh origins of 1his entry; he does not deny the possibility of its Breton
affinities. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 57; GPC: 31 and 1342; lEW: 788; LElA: A-28; E. Zupitza in Beitrage
lur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen 25 (1899), p. 91
ailotou gJ. membra Prise 25 a
alar n m 'boredom, surfeil' (name of a letter) (alar]
Walar
The word is compared by ope to W galar 'grief (OIr galar) < IE *gha/-ar-
'Schade, Gebrechen' (lEW: 411; ope: 1373).
GPC: 74; VVB: 3S
alar Nemn
a/eulinn n m 'olive oil'
Hapax in Welsh.
Compound which contains ofeu (see oleu), and linn. The latter component = MW
llyn 'drink' (OB linnou gl. humo,es, G. linda, Olr lind) < IE *lendh.. 'NaB, QueUe'
(DGVB: 243; GPC: 2642; JEW: 675; Lane: 253; VGK: I, 37).
GPC: 2642; VVB: 199
aJeuJinn gl. oliuum J 85
• llaur n r 'altar' lallor]
MW allaur, 08 altor; OC altor g1. altare; OIr alt6ir
< Lat. aJ'are
GPC does not consider this ins1ance.
DGVB: GPC: 18; LElA: A--64; ML: 131; OCV: 324; PECA: 7; VGK: I, 203
moys allaur gl.. catenum Prise 12 a
am prep. (!) "aboul' I••] (!)
For MW om see GMW: 182; GPC: 79; see also im; for a different interpretation of
this line. which considers am as a prefix, see S.v. trybann and the literature cited
there.
Williams: 1980, 188.
Arntrybann teilbann treisguenn Pad: 2
8mal prep. and [onj. 'II!;, like, similar; accordlDI to, .'
MW fal. 08 amal; C OIr amal
5
< IE *eln- 'eins', cf. Celtic forms with 11- and Lat. similis. The entry was tenta-
tively considered as Irish by F. White, see itercludant.
OGVB: 60; GOI: 500-1; GPe: 1267, 1808; lEW: 903; LElA: S-22; VGK: I,
286; VVB: 36
amal itercludant gl. ut suhigant J 32
8meen adj. 'other, different' ramgen)
MWamgen
The form is analysed as *alnbi- + cyn, (en 'as, so' (VGK: II. 198; GPe: 777).
GPC: 86; J. WiJJiams in BBCS 7 (1933), p.36
Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3
smcib(f)rel n m 'breadth, width' (amgyfFredJ
MW amgyffret, amgyffred amgyffryd 'breadth, width'
Morphologically segmented into (aln-)cyf-rhed 713) 'running together, of
equal speed and pace', see s. V. retee; for the different explanations, see a useful
summary in White.
GPC: 87; LHEB: 484; VGK: I, 476; VVB: 36; WG: 148, 365; White: 313-9;
Williams: 1930, 243-4
amcibret ir maut MP 23
3
(241)
amcibfret ir bis MP 23
3
(241)
smdifuys adj. 'huge, awful, wonderful' [amdill'wys)
According to GPC this word a prefix (*alnbi-), and (MW) diffwv
s
'moun-
tain side, steep, heavy'; the latter is analysed (GPC: 993) as an intensive ;li- (\\lith a
query), and the base found in affwYJ 'depth. abyss'.
ope: 83; Haycock: 245; Williams: 1980, 184
Amdifuys dauJ had patern Pad: 4
amdinnit v pres. 3 sg 'to defend'
Hapax in Welsh. Perhaps a combination of *a,nbi- with a verbal stem seen in OW
dinn 'hill' (OIr dinn), possihly to IE *edent- 'Zahn· (lEW: 2R9, cf. LElA: D-90) .
oPC: Haycock: White: Williams: 1980, 186
Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: 1
amgnaubot n 'sense, reason'
Hapax in Welsh; < a,n + *gnowhnd, cf. adnohod (GMW: 14R).
GPC: LHEB: 437; Rhys: 1873,233; VVB: 36; VGK: 11,447
hep amgnaubot gl. sine mente Ovid 38
h
amgucant v pret. 3 pi (historical pres. ?) 'to dispute' r .. J
MW amwyn, amuc
IE Vll(ejik- 'encrgischc, bcs. fcindscligc sce also gllogllith.
ope: 103; JO: 98-9; MJ: 270-1; E. I-Iamp in BAC'S 30 (19R3), rp.39-4L lEW:
1128-9; Isaac: 289; F.O. Lindemann in BBC;S 2R (t9HO), pr. filJ-5: White: lR9-
191
amgucant pcl Clmtanndi Chad 2
6
aml1lud n m 'mind, intention' (amrawdd]
MW amrawd; OIr imm-raid-
< *alnbi-rad.. , IE '*h
2
roh
1
d". (Pokorny's Yredh.. , rodh- to *ar- 'fUgen, passen').
GPC: 99; lEW: Isaac: 306; LElA: R-3; VGK: II, 591-2; VVB: 37
isamraud gl.. mens est J 78
amlsis adj. 'long, trailing'
According to OPC, the only other occurrence of this word in the whole Welsh
corpus is found in the "Book of Taliesin", T. 78.23-4, cf. G: 23. Etymologically a
combination of ·ambi.. , and Jai!, see s.v.
GPC: VVB: 37
amlais gl. dimissa Ovid 39
8
amser tonj. 'because' [amser]
MWamser, OC anser (for amser) gl. tempus, OIr aimser
Following I. Williams this should be considered as a conjunction is fel can
ys.... , cf. oraur (see s.v.), Ir. ore 'because'). According to H. Pedersen this is a
-stera.. I -stera- derivative of a cognate of Irish amm 'time' with no commonly
accepted etymology (but cf.. C4-J. Guyonvarc'h in Ogam 19 (1967), p. 240f). Note
the discrepancy in the gender attribution (mase. in WC, fern. in Irish and Breton,
see Loth, RC 34 (1913), p. 162), and consider Irish amm neutral> masc. See also
the next.
GPC: LElA: A-35; Lewis: 1956, 298; OCV: 202; PECA: 8; VGK I: 80;
Williams: 1930, 236
nichoilam hinnoid amser is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22
b
(234)
'when' (= 'lime')
The instance is not quoted in GPC. See amser
1

DGVB: 62
amserpanatos imauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 148
aml.nnd; prep. 3 sg f 'about her'
Based on see MW amdanei, ymdeni
GMW: GPC: 79; JO: LL: xliii-xliv; MJ: 271
amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2
an pron. pos. 1 pi 'our' (an, ein]
MW C ME hon
GPC: 104 and Williams: 1980, 96
dam ancalaur JUY 3 (L3)
dam anpatel Juv 3 (2.3)
an nibor11 .nbodlsull ?
There are two readings of tbis gloss. According to Stokes, this could be translated
as "whether bullion or in view of OC bat ('coin', gl. nummisma), which is a
borrowing from Latin bn//o, see PECA: 12, cf. W bath. T.H. Parry-Williams in his
7
list of the words found in the Juvencus glosses which show non.. Welsh features
quotes this gloss without a commentary. P.-Y. Lambert suggests dihoth and trans-
lates the gloss as "soit malgrc cux, soit avec argent".
Lambert: 1987,300 fn. 36; Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1.. 289
an nm6th anb6dlaun gl. pars inhians nummis J 35
anamou n pi 'blemishes, defects, deronnities, wounds' (anaf)
MW anaf, MB anam, aIr anim
Traditionally considered as a continuation of IE *0110- lschmahen·, but see LElA
for a sceptical evaluation of this etymology.
GPC: 106; lEW: LElA: A-78; VVB: 39
iranamou gl. mendae Ovid 40
3
anbiic v pres. subj. 2 sg 'to be (from), come (from)' (hanfodJ
MW hanuot; MB (h)amhout, hanhout
Etymologically, han (aIr sain) 'separation', see Ita11: and the form of the verb 'be' ..
cf. Sanskrit sa,n-bltavati 'comes from Suhjunctive form + Ruell is commonly used
in the expression of greeting. White mentions a possihilitv to consider this entry as
an imperat. 2 sg. form. .
GMW: GPC: 1822; 607; VGK: II, WG: 352-3: (differently)
VVB: White: 142 and 265
anbiic guell gl. magister aue Ox2 46
h
(10.26)
anbithBul adj. 'mad' (ynfydawl]
An "0/ derivative of inhith, see s. v.
VVB: 39
anbithaul gl. fervida J 61
Bnbod/aun see an niboth Bnbodlaun
BnguBstalh80ei v pres. subj. 3 sg 'to be inconstant, waver' (anwastat-J
The form a,ui'aJfafhati is found in the Peniarth 228 (heginning of XVII c.) glossing
a/terna, l'aeil/o, so that Fleuriot's claim for a Middle Welsh correspondence is not
strictly speaking correct. L. Fleuriot notes that in MB the forms gOllestad.
are most commonly found. The form contains a negative prefix. *-.'illg·. and the
base is a cognate of Irish fossad < *lJo..statos. sec VC,K: 1,034. For the analvsis of
this form as ultimately OB, see Lamhert: 1987, 295. .
DGVB: 65; GPC: 164
anguastathaoei gl. uacillet Ang 70 b
angui/ adj. 'bold, shameless, impudent' (anwyll
MWanwyl
< Celt. *yei/a· (MW gwyl, Mlr fia/ 'modesty, shame') with a negative prefix. See
gui/ed.
GPC: 16R: Williams: 117
anguil gl. pudendas J 78
;.
, .
8
8nit 'not' (introducing a question before any element other than the v) (oni]
MWonid
According to GPC, < 0, see hou, and nit, see nit, cf. honit, hou nit.
GMW: 176; GPe: 2648-9; Isaac: 152; VGK: I, 470, 11,256; VVB: 41; WG: 424
anft arber bit gl. Dum uescitur J 92
8BKeth n m 'phantom, appearance, pretence'
Hapax in Welsh. A combination of a negative prefix an-, and (MW) (y)sgeth
'appearance', cf. MW ysge/h, gosgeth.
CA: 76; GPC: 157; VVB: 41; Williams: 1933, 113-4
iransceth gl. nullum pulverem Ovid 39
8
8Btenne'et;c adj. 'hair-reaped'
Hapax in Welsh. Consists of anter 'hair, see hanther, and metetic 'reaped' an -etic
ledig derivative of medal (cf.. OC midil gl. messor, OB dicomit; Ir. methel), < IE
*me- 'mahen'. See also elmet..
DGVB: 138; ope: 1821; lEW: 703; LElA: M-45; Stokes: 1860-1,222 and 291;
VGK: I, 162; VVB: 42
antermetetic gI. semiputata J 77
anu n m (enw]
MW env, enw; MB hanu, C hanow; OIr ainm
< IE *en(o)mt:l-, etc., 'Name'; for the details of reconstruction, see De Bernardo
Stempel: 69-70 and the literature cited there. Cf. also enuein.
Elsie: 113; GPC: 1220; lEW: 321; LElA: A-36; VGK: I, 46; VVB: 42
anu di iuno gl.. Suadae Me 1 a.b.
anu di iuno gI.. Populonarn MC 11a.a.
issemi aou gl. Genius Me 11 a.b.
SButOn.BU n pi 'perjuries' [anudon]
MWan(n)udon
< Celt. loath' (W ud(on), Olr oeth, to IE Vei- 'gehen'; see also GED:
A91), with a negative prefix. See also the next.
GPC: 160; lEW: 295; Lane: 246; LElA: 0-12; Stokes: 1860-1, 212; VVB: 42
gl.. perjuria J 21
Bnutonou n pi ·perjuries'
See anu,onau.
anutonou gl.. perjuria O\'id 42
8
sor is 8eIlCflmn., (?_
According 10 P... Y. Lambert this is a Welsh entry; he segments it into aor = aur
'heure", is, OenCI.4m (vn, cf. W yng 'etroit'), and hal (= W all 'autre, nouveau,
second·).. He lransla1e5 the passage as "puisqu'une corse de 300 stades represente
, un nouveau retrecissemenl·". This interpretation is not accepted in DOB: 392. For
a different analysis of this gloss (as OB) see DGVB: 69.
Lambert: 1984a., 195; Lambert: 1986, 107
aor.isaencumhal cursus ece stadi(orum) Ang 64 a
9
aper see sperou
sperou n pi 'mouths of river; connuences' Iaber J
OW (LL) MW aber, OC aber gl. Sc. G. inhhir
As it was noted by Fleuriot, the plural form in -Oil (Breton -;,,,,) could indicate the
Welsh provenance of this word. A derivative of IE y""er- 'tragen, bringen' (lEW:
128f), for this stem see Hamp: 1982. For the semantics, see A. Falileycv, CT I PT
VII, 23-24 kat y" aber I ioed y dygy/rane adllr "reller lind die frtihwalisische
Schlachtenkatalogtradition. II Akten des Zweiten deutschen Keltologen-Sympo-
siums. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1999. This instance is not quoted in GPC·. C'onsi-
der also aper huer (Chad 6); di aper ferrus (Chad 6); diaper istjl (('had 6); diaper
hen (Chad 6).
DGVB: 69; apc: 2; lEW: 3; F. O. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995), p. 170; L. Mac
Mathuna, Continuity and Innovation in Early Irish Words for "Water Expanse··. II
W. Meid, ed., Studicn zurn indogcrrnanischcn Wortschatz. Innsbruck 1987. p. 95;
OeV: 320; PECA: 6; P. Stalrnaszczyk, K.T. Witczak in IF 98 (1993), p. 28.
apou gl. ostia Ang 17 a
aperth n m&1 'victim, offering' IaberthJ
MW abert; Ir edbart
< Celt. *od-bher·t-, IE yhher- 'tragen, hringen' (lEW: for this see
Hamp: 1982. See also apertholl.
apc: 2; LElA: B-40; E. llamp in lIES 1 (1973). p. 320; VVB: VGK: I.. 4RO
aperth gl. victima Ovid 41h
aperthou n pi 'offerings 01 gift, prayer'
See operth.
diaperthou gl. muneribus Ovid 37
h
aprer]thou gl. sacra Ovid 38
a
srsll pron. 'another' larall)
MWC araB, OB al(l)all Gaul. Olr arail
< *alalios; IE *a/i05 'andcrer' (lEW: 25); sec also lei/.
Gal: 307-9; OGVB: GPC: 176; LElA: Schrijvcr: VB: 267
nitegid ad serenn araB Comp 17
an{ter1n m 1 'plough' [aradrI
MW aradar, aradyr; OC aradar gl. aratrum, MB arazr; Olr arathar
< Celt. *aratrom, IE *or:1-trOl" 'pntig'
Loth's attempts to consider this as a Lat. loan were criticised already by M. MUl1er
(Muller: 1,292, n. 2) and J. Rhys (Rhys: 92). consider a reference to H. Lewis in
F.G. Payne, Yr aradr Cymreig (Cardiff, 1(54) p. 13. n. I. For the gloss and its
traditional amendment, see OWA V.
ope: 175; LElA: lEW: PECA: VCiK: I, VVB: 44; WG: 126.
166
ara[terl g1. nratrum Ox2 42
h
(4.6)
10
IJI1IU' n r'prayer' [arBwd]
MW arawt; OIr or6it
< Lat oratio; for a possibili ty to consider this entry as an imperate 2 sg. form, see
White.
GPC: 117; LElA: 0-31; LHEB: 83, 124; ML: 133; VVB: 44; White: 265
araut dinuadu J 1
srber m 'to take, partake of" [arfer-]
MW aruer, arver, arfer; OIr arbeir biuth 'jouir de, profiter de'
< Britt. ·are-ber-, IE Vbher- 'tragen, bringen' (lEW: 128f).
DGVB: 71; GPC: 193-4; LElA: A-85 and B-40; Stokes: 1860-1,226-7; VGK: I,
14 and II, 412; VVB: 44; White: 288-90
arber bit gl.. num uescitur J 92
srdbrenou n pi 'buried corpses' [argyfrain]
MW argyvrein, argyfrein
< IE ·are-com-reg(i)-no-, to IE yreg- 'gerade, gerade riehten, lenken, reeken,
strecken, aufrichten'; cf. W rhain 'stiff, OIr rigin. Differently in Elsie: 124.
CA: 67; GPe: 201; lEW: 856; LElA: R-30; LHEB: 453, 587, 588; J. Loth in RC
32 (1911)., pp_ 303-4; VVo: 45
ha arcibrenou gl. sepulti Ovid 39
8
arame;,. prep. 'opposite' (argyfair]
MW DB ercemer; cf. OIr airchomair.
A combination of ar ·before' (OIr air, GPC: 174, J. E. Caewyn Williams in BBCS
11 (1944), p.14f), and Britt. *kom-ar(e)-io- (W cyfair 'direction', GPC: 675). See
also
GPC: DGVB: 162; LElA: C-163; WG: 418
in arcimeir .0. Comp 7
in eir cimeir .0. Comp It
in arcimeir aries Comp 13
in eircimeir loc guac (reading of I. Williams, Williams: 1927, 267; Quiggin and
EWS errcimeir) Comp 13
Brcup " 3 sg 'to e.reS§' (?)
Apart from these two eKamples the word is unknown in Welsh. If this entry has
something to do with dCUp (cE. GPC and see s.v.), then this could be a case for an
infixed .,.,- (cr. dirgaJisse).
GPC: 181 Haycock: Williams: 1980, 107; White: 87
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
nisacup nis arcup leder JU\I 9 (3.3)
archrn.'fJu n pi 'shoes' [archen.d]
MW archenat DC orchi nat gL calciamentem; MB archenat; OIr aerann
Moms-lones's attempt 10 in this word < *park.. a metaphesis of *karp- (Lat.
carpiscl.JJum) is no longer accepted; another suggestion (see OCV) considers a
11
metaphesis to ·ork-, ark-, cf. Lat. oerea.
GPC: 180; LElA: A-12; OCV: 344; PECA: 84; Stokes: 1873, 392; VGK: II, 35;
VVB: 45; WG: 161
archenatou gl. calcei MC 5 b.b.
ardiu?
This gloss has caused a dispute. According to W. Stokes, ar diu stands for or duiu
'on God'. J. Loth translates it as "iI approche. i1 pressc", considering or = are-,
and diu, 3 sg. indo pres of the verb 'to come', dyuo/. T. I-I. Parry-Williams suggests
(with a query) that this could be "some form of the vcrh 'to be·"'.
Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1, 221; VVB: 45
ardiu gl. instat J 68
ardomaul'those who tame'
Hapax in Welsh; W. Stokes's idea that this word refers to Lat. docifis of the text
was rejected by H. Lewis in favour of argente(.'i) the word is segmented into ar-
'before, in front of', dom, and of. For the etymology, see do"reti(' and cf. douli.
GPC: 188; lEW: 200; Lewis: 1932, Ill; Stokes: 187J, 397; VVB: 45-6
ardomaul gl. argente(s) Me 9 a.h.
n m 'money, coin' [arian(t))
MW aryant, ariant; OC argans gl. argentarius, OB argant. argent: G
argento-, arcanto- in Argentomagus, arcantodan(os). Pict. Argentocoxos
(Dian Cassius 76.16); air argat
< Celt. *arganto-, cf. Lat. argentum. For the details of reconstruction see De
Bernardo Stempel: 77-8 and the literature cited therc
DGVB: 72; GPC: 203; lEW: 64; LElA: A-88; LHEB: 467; OCV: 1Ll; PECA: Qr;
VGK: I, 104; VVB: 46
is cihun argant MP 22
h
(234)
aries n r'Aries'
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat aries.
Williams: 1927,267
aries hithou Comp 13
aries ithou Comp 18
pet guarid. did di aries Comp19
arm n m&f 'weapon, arm" (name of a letter) larf)
MW arf; C arv; OIr arm
< Lat. anna
OPC: LElA: A-89; ML: 134; VVB: 47
arm Nemn
armel n 'bracelet"
This loan from Lat. o"n;/lo is attestcd only in uOxoniensis Posteriof'. and in PT
(I, 5 cant armeJJ ym arffct); cf. G: 42.
GPC: ML: lR; VVH: 47
nrmcl gl. armcllll ()x2 4Y'
, ".
12
arpe'eficion adj. pitiable'
Hapax in Welsh; < *ar-pat-, as in diasbad, < IE *kUit-, etc. 'schiitteln, beuteln'
(lEW: 632)
OPC: 177; VVB: 47; 1. Williams in BBCS 13 (1950), p. 203
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38
8
asse n 'as' (1)
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Latin as, assis.
VVB: 49
di assa .i. asse bichan - MP 22
b
(234)
• ,.il n 'building, premises' (1)
According to VVB: 49, this (as well as OB alta!), consists, contra Zeuss: 1059, of
or = Ir. aith, and tal = Ir taile 'salaire'. On the OB form see DGVB: 76. I will
discuss this entry elsewhere. GPC does not consider this instance.
atai) gl. vicem Ovid 42
a
.tsr n pi 'birds' (adar)
MW adar(en); see also eJerinn.
< Britt. t(p)arar- < IE '*pet- 'auf etwas los- oder niedersttirzen, fliegen, fallen'.
Ct hataned in hi hatoned (Ovid, VVB: 151. Elsie: 82; GPC: 12; Hamp in SC 12-13
(197718), p. 14; lEW: VVB: 49
hau bein atar MP 22
b
(234)
• fos v prel. (1) 3 sg 'to leave' (?)
This entry was interpreted by P.-Y. Lambert as a passive preterite form of the verb
at- Ito leave', thus ato[i)s = MW adwys (adaw). Etymologically, *ate-au-, yay-
'gern haben' (lEW: 77), for the semantic evaluation, see Isaac: 306. The instance
is not quoted in GPC.
GPC: Lambert: 1984a, 187; Lambert: 1986,107
amserpanatos irnauou rernanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14a
suI n r'hour' [8M]
MW awr, DB or, MB eur; Olr uar
< Lal. hOTa; see also oraur, aur, and cf. aor is aencumhal.
DGVB: 277; GPC: 242; LElA: U-9; LHEB: 307; ML: 135; WO: 95
dou lrean haur gI. bisse Ang 56 a
ir ir lri ui. aur Comp 3
pan diconetent ir.. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
BUr n 'bour'
II wa5 noted by Fleriot that this form in an otherwise Breton gloss "presente une
graphie (fapparence gall." See Dur
l

DGVB: 321 and 77
tripepTannaur. III.. petl, plin dt gl. hore trium Ang 65 b
."r' II ! or" Cneme I letter) (allr1
According to and Loth. this corresponds to W aur 'or', a loan from Latin
13
(aurum, cf. Ir or). GPC: 237, s.v. aur does not consider this instance.
VVB: 50
aur Ncmn
aurcimerdricheticion (?)
The compositum is a hapax in Welsh. According to Stokes. this contains allr
'hour', ci,ner (W cyler, OIr cO'l1ai,) 'opposite situation' and drichetion, which is
treated as "the pI. of the part. pass. of drichu, now drycllli 'to make apparent'''.
Loth explained this as aur-co," +air-drichticioll. On etymology of drychu, etc. , see
LElA: D-56; for eyfer see s.v. arci,neir and LElA: for the prefix .. see
eifnerdridou; see also aur·. GPC does not consider this instance .
Stokes: 1873, 407; VVB: 50
aurcimerdricheticion gl. orospica leg. horoscopa (?) Me 46 h.a.
Burleou n pi 'watches'
OB orlegh, orleg, orleh
This was considered by Stokes to be a compound of aur 'hour' (see s.v.) and l(l)e
'place', cf DGVB: 238 and 278. J. Loth (and now P.-Y. Lambert) suggests, that
this could be viewed as a borrowing, < Lat. horologilun. GPC does not consider
this instance.
DGVB: 278; Lambert: 1982a, 22; J. Loth in RC 32 (1911), p. 305; Stokes: 1873,
406
nou iraurleou gl. gnomonum stilis Me 46 a.a.
8
bacl n r'staff' (bagl)
MW bag(y)l; Ir bachall
< Lat. baculus
ope: 249; LElA: B-3; ML: 136; K. H. Schmidt in ZCP 40 (1984), p. 303; VGK: I,
225; Williams: 1980, 183
Amdifuys dalll bacl patern Pad: 4
bach n m&f 'hook, peg' (bach)
OW (LL) bach, MW bac, bach; OB bah; Olr baec
The word is considered by L. Fleuriot to be Breton. but its presence in a Welsh
gloss could be an argument for its Welsh origin. Since E. paper is
usually connected with Lat. bacuhun. and is derived from IE 'Stab a)s
StOtze'. As noted by J. Vendryes, this "mot populairc" *hakkn- contClins proh-
lematic IE h and a, and has a gcminatcd consonant. See ()WAV. does not
consider this instance.
Bachellery: 196; DGVB: 77: GPC: 246: lEW: 93: LElA: R-3: E. Zupitza in KZ 36
(1900), p. 234
pcig vel haeh gl. ligo Prise J) a
I
t
1
,
t.
i
'\"'"
14
bahe" n f'De' [bwyIU]
MW bwyall, MB bou(c)hazl, MC boell; Ir. biail
< *bisali- < IE tbhei(:l)·, tbhi- 'schlangen'; see also laubael.
GPC: 357-8; E. Hamp in Be 18 (1981) p.110, and ZCP 39 (1982), pp. 86-7; HPB:
232; lEW: 118; LElA: LHEB: 411; Schrijver: 323; VGK: 1,67; VVB: 50
bahell gl. securis Ox2 42
a
(4.2)
bann see dib...n
bardsuladj. 'bardit:, poetir" [barddol]
An "01 derivative of bard(d) ·poet, bard' < IE *gUer(;,).. 'die Stimme erheben',
lEW: 478; cr. E. Campanile, Per l'etimologia di celt. *bardos. /I Studi e saggi
linguistici 20 (1980), pp. 183-1; Isaac: 393; for a different derivation « *barzdo..
< *gllrsdo-) , see E. Hamp, The Semantics of Poetry in Early Celtic. /I (W. A.
Beach, S. E. Fox, S. cds.) Chicago Linguistic Society. Papers from the
Thirteenth Regional Meeting4 Chicago 1977, p. 151.
De Bernardo Stempel: 80-1; GPC: 258; VVB: 51
orbardaulleteinepp gl. epica pagina MC 1a.b.
ban?
Both the Latin word and the gloss over it causes problems. As was suggested, the
colomaJicus of the Latin text stands for columnat;cus. Notwithstanding the seman-
tic difficulties, the gloss was compared to W bar 'top, summit, crest' (OIr barr),
apparently to IE *bhares.. 'Emporstehendes, Spitze, Borste' (see De Bernardo
Stempel: 82; D. Ellis Evans in BBCS 24 (1972), p.421 fn. 11; lEW: 109; GPC:
256; LElA: 8-20). The instance is not quoted in GPC.
VVB: 51
barr gl. oolomaticus 0)(2 42
8
(3.6)
be??o
W. Stokes (1860--1: 219) suggested reading *belou and compared it with W. bely-
s(en) 'bundles of haulm or s1raw for thatching', which according to GPC: 271 is a
loan from English bares, first attested in 1707. This reading was considered by
J. Loth (VVB: 52) and I. Williams. The latter (Williams: 1933, 117) noted that this
could also stand for benou or bonou.
be??u gl, fila J 56
beanhiden. see besntrident
behet prep. 'as far as'
See be'.
behet hirmain guidauc Chad 4
behet cam dubr Chad 4
berdutOD see t ••erdlltou ri guird....
bet prep. II§ fsr I§' (bed]
MW het. 0 B bi t; see bt'FT e.,. o;heit, and cf. bichet,
15
DGVB: 84; GMW: 196; GPC: VVB: 52; WG: 415
bet circhinn frguollcuni gl. usque sub occiduum coeli J R4
betid n m 'the Christian world, Christendom' (hedyddI
MW bedyd
< Lat. baptido. See also pbetid.
GPC: ML: 137; Williams: 1980, 104
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
bibid adj. 'guilty, culpable'
Hapax in Welsh; MB beuez, Olr hihdu
The Irish cognate is listed under IE *""au- 'schlagcn. stoBen' in lEW: 112. Several
etymologies have heen suggested for these words (hy Zinlmer. Sonlmcr, Peder-
sen, Stokes), relating this word to IE *bhfid-, *"'heidh-, *hltei-d-, and for a
useful summary see LElA. The etymology is still not clear.
GPC: 363; LElA: B-49; Stokes: 1873, 404; VVB: 5J
bibid gl. rei MC 41 b.a.
bichan adj. 'small' (bychan)
MW bychan, bichan, OB becan, hican, OC hoghan gl. Olr becc\n
Note the discrepancy between Brittonic and Goidelic (OIr c = (g] vs Britt. (X).
Apparently an derivative from W haeh. Olr hec(c) without sound etymo-
logy. Consider also Welsh "'yell 'little' in toponymies. e.g.. Dinnych. D\\'yfeclt
'Small Dwy' (as opposed to Dwyfor 'Big Dwy·). cf. G.
DGVB: GOI: oev: PE("A: 16: VGK: J85: VVB: 53:
WG: 156
assa .i. asse bichan MP 22
h
(234)
irnimer hichan MP 22
h
(238)
ir bis bichan MP 23:1 (241)
bichet see bih;t
hid n m 'world' (1)
MW bid, byt; OB bit, G bitu-; Ir bith
< Celt. *bitll!i < IE *g"ei- 'Ichen'; this instance is not mentioned in GPC.
DGVB: 84; GPC: lEW: 468; VGK: I. 4L VVB: 53
nacenbfd gl. nulla J 71
biheit prep. 'as far as, until'
DB hichit, bicit, bicctt 'jusqu'a'; see bet.
DGVB: 82f, 84; GPC: 266; VVB: 52-3; WG: 415: Williams: 1927, 26R: Williams:
1930, 242
biheit hcitham ir cguin hittoi ir hunc MP 2J' (241)
bihit prep. 'as far as, until'
See bellet, ni"e;f, bet.
Williams: lQ27. 268
,
16
bihit. dir temi Comp16
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp18
binfic n m 'loan, that which is borrowed or lent' [benthyg]
MW benffyg; ME benhuec
< Lat. beneficium
EL: 25; GPe: 272; ML: 138; Russell: 1990, 69; VVB: 54
binfic gl. beneficium Ox2 43
b
(5.14)
bis n m 'finger' [bys]
MW bys(s); OC bes gl. digitum, bis gl. digitus, bis truit gI. allux, bess[et] (or bese,
see OCV) gl. digiti; OB bis (bes) in innbisiou, ennbisiou, inues; OIr bisse (ega)
Traditionally analysed as cognates of Old Norse kvistr 'branch', from IE *gllis-ti-s,
queried by Pokorny. See also AEW: 339.
DGVB: 83; GPC: 367; lEW: 481; OCV: 57 and 64; PECA: 13-14; VGK: I, 79;
VVB: 54
ir bis bichan MP 23
8
(241)
ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
his! n m 'bile, gall' [bustl]
MW bystyl; OB bistlou; DC bistel
< rtbis-tl-, IE ·bis-(t)[i- 'Galle'? (only Celtic and Latin), cf. Lat. hi/is. The instance
is not quoted in GPe.
DGVB: 84; GPC: 349; lEW: 102; OCV: 51; PECA: 14; VGK: I, 84
iT du bisl gl. melonoolia Ang 68 a
bissei n 'an intercalary dB)" (Latin -1)
< Lat. bisse(ctus)
or bissei Comp 3
hit niritarner rann. irbissei Comp 10
bit n ID 'fooo' (!)
MW byd; cf. Orr bfad
< Celt. *bit-; IE this instance is not mentioned in ope; see also
arber..
GPC: 361; Schrij\'er: LElA: B-47-8; VVB: 54
anit arber bft gl. num uescitur J 92
bfeuporfhet;c adj. bearing'
Hapax in Welsh.
This compound consists of b/eu 'hair, hairs, fur', later blew, cf. OC bleu < *bleus,
which was linked by G, Lane, Language 7 (1931),279 to IE *mel- 'Wolle' (lEW:
721 without this instance), cE. Elsie: 101; PECA: 15; and porthedig, a loan from
La t, porrare .
apc: LHEE: ML: 198; VVB: 55
nom irbleuporthetic gl. Ian igerae templs Ovid 38
8
11
bloidin n f 'year' (blwyddynI
MW blwydyn, MB bloez, cf. OB blidan, hliden, OC Olr. bliadain
< vi bleid- of the unknown origin; for a possihle connection with IE *bhle;- 'gHin-
zen' (lEW: 155), see Pennaod.
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: LElA: B-59; OCV: PECA: G. Pen-
naod in EC 23 (1986). p. VGK: I, II]
ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20
bloidin salt Comp 22
bloteit n ?
Already Zeuss, 1061 connected this with MW blowd 'farina', then it corresponds
exactly to the glossed Lat. word. Then. MW hlollt. W bJau'd. 0(' hint gl. farina.
OB unblot gl. similagineln, Olr lnlditlz, all from IE *nle/-. The word formation
remains, however, the renex of the root-vowel makes the ('ornish affi-
nities of this entry very likely.
DGVB: 86, OPC: E. Hamp in Celtica 10 (1973), rr. lEW:
LElA: M-56; PECA: 15; VGK: 1,52, 163; VVB: 56
bloteit gl. spumaticunt Ox2 42
3
(3.7)
boned n m 'stock, pedigree' (bonedd)
MW bonhet, bon(h)cd; Ir hunad
GPC does not consider this instance. See the next.
GPC: 299; LHEB: VGK: I. 290, VVB: 57
boned gl. gentem J 57
bonhed n m 'stock, (bonedd)
According to I. Williams (1933: 116), who rejected Stokes' reading he,nJred
(1860-1: 209, cf. VVB: 52, and Thurneyscn: 1890a, 93. where it is suggested" that
the word stands for pelnhed == Ir. coiced 'province"), this corresponds to MW
bon(It)et, bon(h)ed 'lineage, nobility, etc.', which is an -edd derivative of non (Ir.
bun), see GPC: 299 and LElA: B-117-8. See also honed.
bohed gl. tribus J 7
bos n f 'palm of the hand, fist' (bos)
W B h6z; aIr bos, bas
< Celt. *boJsa, *bo.r;ta. The attempt to consider this word as helonging to a sub-
stratum (J. Pokorny in ZCP 18 (1930) p. 111) should be possihly ahandoned in
favour of a connection with IE *glJes-, gyos-, gus- 'Gezweig. Laubwerk" (lEW: 480
does not list the Celtic words) in view of OIIG questa, see LElA.
GPC: 302; LElA: B-20; Lewis: 1926,4; VVB: 57
has ug gl. palma MP 23
a
(245)
both see an niboth anhod/aun
bracaut n m
MW brachaut, hragawt. hragot: Olr hrnc(c)6it frorn Arit.
An -au'd derivative (on thiC\ suffix sec St. Zirnmcr. the I.. ::ltin
'''.
18
suffixes in Welsh (and their Celtic congeners). /I A. Bammersberger, A. Wallman,
eds., Britain 4(X)-.(,OO: Language and History, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1990,
p.275) from brag 'malt', DC brag gI. bratium; aIr mraich, braich, G. (ace.)
bracem 'genus farris' (Pline, H. N. XVIII 62); Deus Braciara 'dieu de la biere ou
du malt', traditionally < IE *merk-, merg- 'morschen, faulen, einweichen'; but see
for a different opinion Schrijver: 176 and OWAV.
ope: 306-7; Lambert: 190; LElA: B-94, M-66; lEW: 739; OCV: 373; PECA: 16;
Russell: 115; VGK: II, 38; VVB: 97
bracaut gl. mulsum (uel melligratum for melicratum, JlEALXeatov) Ox2 42
3
(3.10)
brachaut gl. melligratum Ox2 44
8
(6.21)
bl1lch8Ut lee brscsut
bl1lurJ n f 'judgement' (brawd]
MW brawt, braut; C bres, B breut; cf. St.Patrick's modebroth and Ir
Until recently the word was considered to belong to IE *bher- 'tragen', cf. lEW:
130. The introduction of G tJ(Jutou into the discussion lead to the reconsideration
of this traditional etymology, the Celtic words now grouped under Pokorny's
'die Stimme erheben' (lEW: 478, for this base see also s.v. bardaul), see
H. Wagner in ZCP 28 (1960-1), p. 238. The extensive bibliography is given in De
Bernardo Stempel. See also the next.
De Bernardo Stempel: 87-9; GPC: 311-2; JO: 106; LElA: B-80; Russell: 1995,
174; VVB: 58
did braut Chad 2
braur n ·judgemenl' (name of a letter)
See
braut Nemn
bred; n f 'prow or ship' [breniJ
MW breni, cf. Y Freni Fawr; DC brenniat gl. proreta; aIr braine, broine
A word with an uncertain etymology. See LElA.
ELI: 19; GPe: 319; LElA: B-77; OCV: 129; PECA: 17; VVB: 58
ir gl. proram J 31
brethi"nou see m"p breJhinnou
briar n m&r 4hair of head, long hair' [briger]
MW bryger, briger
An derivative of W brig 'top; hair' < IE *bhreg.. 'steif emporstehen' (lEW:
166).
GPe: 324; VVB: 58-9.
ircarnottlul bricer g1. uitta crinalis Me 4 a.a.
bricrriauc adj. 'hairy'
'An -(Tl-le derivative of brictr; see bricer
GPC does not 1his. instance under brigerog (MW brigerawg).
19
oaVB: 89; apc: 325
briceriauc gl. crinalis Prisc 7 b
brith adj. 'mottled, pied, spotted· Ihrithl
MW brith; B briz, MC bruit; OIr mrecht
< *"rrik-to, perhaps to IE *nrer- 'fiimmern, funke1n". See also IJronnhre;"1et.
GPC: 326; E. Hamp in EC 2.1 (1986), p. lEW: 7J.1: LElA: LHEB: 405;
C. Marstrander in ZCP 7 (1910), p.373; VGK: I. 124; VVB: 59
brfth gl. pictam J 30
bronnbreithet n pi 'thrushes, missel-thrushes' IhronfraithJ
MW bronureith, brofraith
The compound consists of bron(n) 'breast" « IE *hlrreli-s- 'schwellen, sprieBen',
lEW: 170; see also Elsie: 84), and breith, for which see hr;t17.
GPC: 332; Jackson: 1950,69; VVB: 59
cecinet bronnbreithet g1. cicadae Ovid 40
h
bronnced?
A hapax in Welsh, which should not be confused with MW brnnget 'gift of the
bosom or heart" (G: 78; GPC: 332). According to J. Loth (VVB: (,0) this com-
pound contains bronn 'sein', and ced (Irish cedac voile'). He translates
this hapax as 'voile pour Ie poitrine·. GPC docs not mention this instance.
bronnced gl. bulla Ox2 43
01
(5.3)
brousnnou see s;'Blbrouannou
brut adj. 'hot, innamed, zealous, passionate' (hrwdl
MW brwd, brwt; OC brcdion gl. coctio, OB hrot gl. Olr hruth
< *bhrll-to < IE *blt(e)rell- hcftig hewcgen, wallen'
DGVB: 91; GPC: 334; lEW: 143f; LElA: B-106; OCV: JR9; PECA: VGK: I,
115; VVB: 60
is brut m
i
[= mihi] gl. est aninllls J 66
buch n f 'cow' [buwch, buch)
MW bucc, buch, OC huch gl. uacca I. cf. Celtiherian POlisToI"
'cow stable'
< Britt. *boukkii, IE Vg"Oll- 'Rind". According to E. Campanile (in ZC'p 3.3
(1974), p. 271 cf. PECA: 19) the British protoform could he a result of a crossing
with Latin uarca. However, the occurence of the other animal names with the final
cit < *-kk- could imply a certain model. cf. W I""clr, Inoch. etc.. E. flamp in
BBeS 27 (1977), p. 251; K. H. Schmidt in Kratylos 20 (1975). p. 173: P. de Ber-
nardo Stempel, Sulla formazione delle parole nclrantico cornico. II Studia
istira arnica ct magistro oblata. Milano 1991, pr. 1 ()W1\ V.
Eska: 88; GPC: 350: lEW: 482; LElA: R-fil: K. McCone in Eriu 42 (1991). p.
OCV: PECA: Rhys: 1873, V(,K: II. 2tl: VVB: 61
huch gl. juvcncac Ovid
, ".
20
budiClluJ n 'vidor, winner, conqueror' [buddugol]
MW budugawl, budygawl; OB budicol
Substantivised adjective, an -01 derivative from W buddig, buddug (MW butic)
'victorious, triumphant', cf. W budd 'profit, etc.', OB bud gl. bradium, OIr buaid
(Pokorny's *bhoudhi- 'Sieg' ?, lEW: 163; see LElA B-I07).
DGVB: 91; GPe: 346; Lane: 246; VVB: 61
budicaul gl. vieto Ovid 39
b
c
aJisuc n m 'little book' (caeog]
W caeog
An -og derivative of cae 'hedge, fence, enclosure; brooch, &c' (cf. OB caiou gl.
minimenta) < IE ·kagh-, *kogh- 'fassen, einfassen; geflochtene Horde, Flecht-
werk" DGVB: 94; JEW: 518; VGK: I, 97; WG: 165
ope: 384; VVB: 62
ircaiauc gL libellum Ovid 39
8
alitoir n m&f 'pubes, pubic hair, private parts' (cedor]
MW cedor; ME quaezour; MIr caither
The etymology and the relationship of the words is not clear.
GPC: 446; LElA: VGK: II, 50; VVB: 63
o caitoir gl. pube Ovid 41 b
ca/.mennoD n pi "stalks, reeds' [c.laf)
MW calaw, [alaf, OC kalagueli gl. stramentum
< LaL calamus
ope: 390; ML: 142; oev: 346-7; PECA: 20; VOK: I, 121; VVB: 63
cahimennou gl. culmos J 25
ca/aur n f&m 'cauldron' Icallor]
MW OC caltor gL cacabus; MB cauter
< Lat. caJdarlo
GPC: LHEB: 432; ML: 143; DeV: 384; PECA: 20; VGK: I, 225; Williams:
1980, 96
dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1.3)
callistr n f '!'Cone which produces sparks when struck; nint, pyrites' [callestr]
MW cyllystyr, callestr; C cellester, B cailhastr
No etymology for Ihis word has been offered. The instance is not quoted in ope.
It was noted by L. Aeuriot that the word could be read as callastr.
, DGVB: 94; GPC: 395
callistr (01 callastr) gl.. silicurn Ang 15 b
21
canam v pres. 1 sg 'sin,f (can- J
MW kan-, C. MB OIr cf. canoris gl. cantrix
< IE *kan- 'singen'
Elsie: GPC: lEW: 526; LElA: ('-31; VGK: II, 4RI; White: 77-ft
nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. t)
canlou adj. 'bright and melodious, bright of
This interpretation (accepted hy GPC) was suggested by I. Williams. Then, a ha-
pax which contains can 'song' (see canant) , and lOll 'bright", see lo)'r, loseetic.
louber, guolleuin, diguolouichetic.
oPC: 412; Haycock: 10; Watkins: 1982,36; Williams: 19RO.. 105
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
cannuill n f 'candle' [cannwyll J
MW can(h)wyll, OC cantuil gl. candela, MB cantoel1, Olr caindel
< Brit. Lat. cantela (cf. LHEB: 509), Lat. candela
GPC: Jackson: 1950, 72; LElA: LHEB: 471, ML: OCV:
337-8; PECA: 21; VGK: I, 193,225; VVB: 64
cannuill gl. lichinunt vel cantel Ox2 44
h
(7.23)
cant
l
num. card. 'hundred' (cant, canJ
MW cant; C cans, OB cant, Ir cet
< IE */art6m 'hundert' < *(d)jartt6nl '(Zehncr)dekade'. The instance is not quo-
ted in ope.
De Bernardo Stempel: OOVB: 276 and D. El1is Evans in BneS 27 (197R).
pp.235-6; GPC: lEW: LElA: C-82; VGK: I, 46
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos deccnnouenales XXVIII descrihi Ang 21 a
canr prep. 'with' (gan)
MW can(n), OC gur cans grueg gl. maritus.. OB cant; OIr cet-
< IE *kl!lta 'neben, entlang, abwarts, mit' (to Yk.onr-).
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: 96; D. Ellis Evans in BBC'S 27 (IQ78) ..
pp.238-9; Gal: 50l; GPC: E. l-lamp in EC 14 (1974). pr.4tl7-472; lEW:
LElA: C-83; PECA: 21; VGK II: WG: VVB: J. E. ('aerwyn
Williams in BBCS 13 (1950), pp. 20-21.
trean cant mel MP 22
h
(230)
dou etcrion cant hunnoid di assa .i. asse bichan MP 22
h

cantsrteint v ? 'they raise together' or 'they are closed' (?; Breton?)
The presence of -eint, a 3 pers. pI. pres. indic. ending of this form (cL ncrtheint,
scamnhegint) caused Flcuriot to consider this form as Welsh. Etymologically, COln-
and ard(d)- 'high', see on the lattcr GPC: tR5 and De Bernardo Stempel: 76-7
with an extensive bibliography. P.- Y. Lamhert suggests reading contarceillt and
interprets this entry as J pi passive; he argues that the form consists of a
cant- and ar-, and thc stem rap (sec s.v.), thus W arRap. GPC: IQ7. "[he instance is
not quoted in GPC.
,".
22
DGVB: 96; Lambert: 19848, 187
cantarteint gl. perstruuntur Ang 17 a
CIInteint v pres. 3 pi 'to go (together)' [The form could be Breton]
L. Aeuriot queried possible OW affinities of this form. The instance is not quoted
in GPC.
DGVB: 96
canteint gl. coeun1 Ang 16 a
cared n r 'Iran8gre5sion, sin, crime' [caredd)
MW karet, cared; MB carez, MC cara; OIr caire
< IE *k!i.ii, Vkar- 'schmahen, strafen'
Fowkes: 96; De Bernardo Stempel: 93; GPC: 425; lEW: 530; LElA: C-20-1;
VVB: 64
cared gl. nequitiae J 86
cared gl. nota Ovid 3g
b
CIImotsul adj. 'bun-shaped, wearing 8 chignon'
Hapax in Welsh. GPC suggests earn + ? od +0/; for W carn 'cairn, barrow; hoof,
see GPC: 429; E. Hamp in BBCS 37 (1990), p.111; lEW: 576; PECA: 22.
ope: 430; Stokes: 1873, 390; VVB: 64
ircarnotaul bricer gl. uitta crina lis Me 4 a. a.
calreCC n m&r 'stone' [aarreg]
MW carree; C carrag, 08 carrec; cf. Mlr carrie
< IE *kar- 'harf, see also carrecou, carreic, eerriec.
DGVB: 97; Elsie: GPC: 431; lEW: 532; LElA: C-42; VGK: I, 23, 83; VVB:
65; WG: 137
carrecc gl. Carubdim Me 42 a.b.
arremu n m rpi 'stones'
Note the unexpected plural form, Parry-Williams: 121; Harvey: 188-9. For the
etymology and references 1 see carrecc and cf. carreie, cerricc.
carrec6u gl. scropea (leg. scrupea] J 26
arreic n pi 'gones'
According to this could be a Welsh plural form. See carrece, eerriee,
carreec. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 97
carreic gl. sc)llla et charybde Ang 18 b
canl n m 'deer' Icsrw]
MW carw; OC caruu ,gl.. MB caru
< IE *ktyo-s "gehornl, birschkopfig, als Subst. Hirsch oder Kub'
GPC: 434; lEW: OCV: 252; PECA: 22; VGK: 1,51
dipennant ircaru Cha d 6
cas n m 'haired'
MW cas; C, MB cas; cf.. M[r eais
23
< */c;K/.to-, IE *kiid-, etc., '1Ial3'
OPC: 435; Hamp: 1977-8,3; JO: 104; LElA: M.J: 272
naln ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
casgoord n f 'retinue of attendants, I I
MW coscord, cosgor(t); OC goscor gl. den coscor gl. cliens
Several etymologies have heen considered: 1) < Britt. *ll(p)n-sknrjii (ysker-): 2)
Celt. *tlo·eks· + cor (as in W cordd 'trihe, clan. family'. Irish Cflire 'troupe.
armee', OPC: 553. LElA: C-275); 3) cost (as in ()B co...tad 'gardicn·. W COJfng
'mastiff (GPC: 570), PT VII, 2 ncu ti rygosteis kyn h\vyf teu (see PT: 79-RO) + cor
as in 2).
DGVB: GPC: 569.1510: lEW: 616. 93R: J. Lloyd Jones in nBCS (IQ21). p.
OCV: 80; PECA: 5L VGK: 11.615; VVB: Williams: 1944. RI
cascord maur Gen: 11
[G]urci ha Pcretur mepion Elcuther cascord maur 11arl (cf. Bartrum: II)
casgoord gI. satilites meos Ox2 43
h
(5.27)
[Eucrdil] uxor Elidir coscoruaur gl. magne familie VSB: j 15 (cf. Bartrum: 15)
casulheticc adj. 'wearing a chasuble'
Hapax in Welsh; an -edig derivative from ca.HI/ 'chasublc' (Olr co.'io/) < Lat.
casu/a, LElA: C-45, ML: 145; cf. also T.•1. Parry-Williams. The English Element
in Wclsh. London 1923, p. 29, where this word is viewed as a loan from AS.
GPC: 438; Stokes: 1873, 402; VVB: 65-6
casulheticc gl. penulata MC 14 b.b.
cat n f 'battle' IcadJ
MW cat, C. cas; Ir cath. G. Catu-
< IE *k.ot- 'kampfcn'; the word is used throughollt the "Annnles Camriae··. e.g...
cat pencon (s.a. 722).
GPC: OPN: 171-5: lEW: 534; VGK: I, 132
c8tteiraul adj. 'pertaining to a chair' Icadeiriol)
W cadeiriol
< Lat. cathedralis (Stokes, GPC). or < Lat. cathedra (VVB, ML: 141-2)
OPC: Stokes: 1873, VVB: 66
ircatteiraul rettcticc strotur gl. sella curulis Me 45 a.a.
cecinet n pi 'jays' [cegin]
MW cegin; MB quiguin
GPC: 449: Williams: 1933,115
cecinet bronnbreithct gl. cicadac Ovid 40
h
ceenn n m 'murex, purple dye made from the juice of the purple·fish' IcenI
MW ken(n)
Cf. W cen 'skin' (C' (,f1l. OR ('('1I"f'''' g1. "u'1,,"r01l0. Olr ('ri"11) < IF *(sJkpn-(d-)
ahgespaltenc Haul. Schuppc. Rindc·. on these sec DGVR: 102: JEW:
,"-
24
LElA: C-55; Schrijver: 36
ope: 460; VVB: 67; Wiliams: 1933, 114
oceenn gl. mirice Ovid 40
8
refel n m 'horse' [ceRyl)
MW OB pois Olr capall
There is no certainty that the word is surely Welsh and not Breton in view of the
Breton eJ(smples cited by Fleuriot. The etymology of the word, and its connection
with Lat. rohal/us is disputable, Ice the dilllcuRRion of it hy P. Kelly, cf. LElA:
C-34 and OWA V. ope does not consider this instance.
See also chefel.
DGVB: 99 and 331; ope: Kelly: 47-50; J. Pokorny in ZCP 19 (1933), p.l60
ceCel gl.. ueredus Prise 11 b
adj. 'fine, f.ir' [Cllin)
MW kein., cain; ME quen; Olr cain (possibly a loan from Brittonic)
< *kanio5 < IE tken- hervorkommen, enspringen, anfangen'
GPC: lEW: LElA: C-16; VGK: I, 23; VVB: 67
ni cein guodemisauch gl. non bene passa Ovid 39
8
reinmicum v 110 honour, .0 praise' [ceinmyg-]
MW ceinmyg-
A compound, for the first component see S.v. cein. The second element is *mygu,
found, e,g., in dirmygu < IE *meik- 'flimmern, blinzeln' (lEW: 712-3). The form
is analysed as pres. ind, 1 pi (or less likely, imperf. 1 sg) by I. Williams, and
imperal. ] pi by White.
GPC: 454; White: Williams: 1980,113
ceinmicum ucnou' ran Juv 9 (6.2)
cr;n,iru n m "first cousin' I cefnder(w)]
MV keuynderv, C kanderu, B kenderf
From (W) coifn, ceifn 'third cousin' « IE *kom-nepots) and derw 'true, etc.', see
s.v. deruen.
T. Charles-Edwards in BBCS 24 (1971) p.l06f; OPC: 447, 933; LHEB: 387;
VVB: 61
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38
3
reis " imp. 2 sl -'0 seek" (ceis-)
MW ceLs(s)-; OB (1, Leide n Leech-Book) cres
A wOld wi1h no establis.hed etymology. J. Loth though listing it alongside the other
Latin borrowings « Lat. cestio) states that "l'emprunt n'est pas certain". Another
pos!\ibility considered by Loth is to derive this word from *ked-t-: Ir ceis 'circuit',
on the lalter word see now LElA: C-57. According to White, this could also have
been b<Jlrowed flom qlla .
DGVB: OPC: 455; ML: l47; White: 266
Ceis ini r loyr Comp 21
25
celieell n f 'knife' (cyllelll
MW kallel, kyllell; OC collel gl. cultellus; colleI grauio gl. !'calprum
< Lat. cultellus
OPC: 751; LHEB: 668; ML: 156; OCV: 166 and PECA: VGK: I, 233;
VVB: 67
celleell gl. art[ a]uum Ox2 42
h
(4.7)
("(lImed adj. 'skUful, (celryddl
MW ('chait. ccluyd; ()B l'churd; MIl' c:nlrnn
< Britt. the IE haekgrounds Arc ohscure.
DGVB: 100; GPe: 456; LElA: C-27; LHEB: 605; Schrijver: VGK: I, 168;
Williams: 1980, 114
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
cemecid n m 'mill-pick, tool for dressing mill-stones' [cyregydd)
MW kyfegydd
An -ydd derivative from cyfogi, i.e. cyf-(h)ogi Ito make keen or pointed, set an
edge on; roughen, dress or pick', cf. B kOfll'ok see GPC: 709, Henry: 75; to IE
*ak-, ok- 'sharf, spitz, kantig\ lEW: 18f.
GPC: 689; LHEB: 606, 659, 668; PT: 31; VVB: Williams: 1929,3
cemecid gl. lapidaria Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
cemmein n m (old pi) 'steps, strides" (camJ
MW MB C cam, cf. aIr ceimm, CI Camanom
Perhaps to IE *gheng1l- 'schreiten' (lEW: 43R-4), see De Bernardo Stempel: 95
with bibl.
Eska: 53-4; GPC: LElA: C-54: Schrijver: and J95: VVB: 67
cemmein gl. in gradibus Ovid 3R
h
cen conj. 'although, even thouflh' (cyd" cyn)
OW (LL) MW kin, cyn: OB Olr cfa. cc
The connection between the Brittonic and Goidelic forms (eL Ogam Ir el) was
suggested by D. Greene. Sec also cet.
OOVB: ope: 65R; D. Greene in Eriu 21 (lCJ69), pp. LElA: C-92:
Lewis: 1956, 298: Williams: 1927, 266
cen nit hoi loc guac inter o. et a. in pagi"a regulari. 11
cenetl n r 'tribe, clan' (cenedl)
MW kenetyl, kenedel, kenedyl; OC kinethel gl. OB chenedl, chenetdl,
kcnctl; Olr ceoel
< *kene-tlo, IE Yken· 'frisch hervorkommcn. entspringen. anfangen'
DOVB: 104-5; ope: lEW: JO: LElA: ()C'V: 91: PECA:
Schrijver: 27 and VGK: I, 120-121
tutbulc hai cenetl Chad 2
cenett;c;on see uncenett;C';on
, II.
26
ren, n m 'b8tk' (celna, cern]
OW (LL) MW kein, cf. keuen, kef(u)yn; DC chein gl. dorsum
Loth's reading ("pour cengl, du lat. cingulum", VVB: 68) was rejected by I.
Williams, who pointed out to the spelling cecg which occurs in the Book of Llan
Oaf (LL: 73 truf irct"cg). For the etymology see Fowkes: 1958, 3-4 with bibliogra-
phy, where the connection with Sanskrit asman 'Stein, Himmel' is discussed.
Elsie: 80; GPC: 446 and 390; OCV: 56; PECA: 25; Williams: 1930,247
hou boit cihitun ceng if esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23
3
(246)
rennin n pi 'leeks, daffodils' [tennin)
MW ceonin, kennyn; OC kenin euynoc gl. allium; MB quinghenn; OIr cainnenn
It was suggested by A. Lubotsky (see Schrijver: 456), that these words go back to
*kasn-ina, from ·kesn- (cf. Russian cesnok 'garlic'); P. Schrijver (ibid., fn. 1)
suggests that "the word is probably not of IE origin, as the vocalism shows".
DOVB: 93; GPC: 464; LElA: C-19; DCV: 271; PECA: 24; Schrijver: 456; VVB:
69
cennin gL cipus Ox2 42
8
(3.7)
cenninJ prep. 'with us'
OB ceoten ni
See cant, ni.
DGVB: 102
cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 b
centh(i)list n m 'singer'
Attested twice and only in the Juvencus glosses; cf. MW gorcheithleit. An -iad
derivative of (MW) cathJ 'song' (B kentel, MIr eetal, GPC: 441) < *kantlofn, IE
Vkan- 'singen· (lEW: 525-6); see canam.
GPC: LElA: C-85; tHEE: 498, 587, 606; Stokes: 1860-1,218; VGK: 1,139;
VVB: WG: 17
ircenthiliat gl. Davida canorum J 7
centhliat gl. Dauida canorum J 49
cep n f&DI 'pirk8Jle, Dl8ttock, hoe; ploughshare' [caib]
MW caib. Scottish Gaelic caibe
SeeOWAV.
GPC: 389; VVB: 69
cep gl. fosarium Ox2 42
b

cephilor v. pres. impelS. 'to have, obtain, find'
See chepi.
ismod. cephitor. hanaud Comp 1
cepister n m 'haller, .ether, cussedness, evil' [cebystr]
MB cabestr
< Lat. copistrll,n
GPC: 444: LHEB; ML: 146; VGK: I. 192; VVB: 69-70
cepister gl. camum 0,;2 43
11
(5.2)
27
ceroenhou n pi 'mash-vats, tuns, tabs, casks, harrels' Icerwyn1
MW ccruyn, cerwyn; OC kcroin gl. cupa
The difficulties in the interpretation of this word as a loan from Lat. carOenll1n are
summarised in PECA. For -oe- representing lui]. see Sims-Williams.
EL: 35; GPC: 469; ML: 149; OCV: 399-4(X); PECA: 24; Sims-Williams: 1991.60,
n.5; VVB: 70
accroenhou gl. ct dolea J 7R
cerricc n m&f pi 'stones'
For the etymology and references, see carrecc and cf. corre;c. corrrcoli.
nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a.
cel conj. 'although, even
MW ket
See cen.
GPC: 658; Lewis: 1956.298; Williams: 1980,96
cet ibcn med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
cet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
ci v pres. 2 sg 'to have, ohtain, find'
See chepi.
ci (for cei 1) is did ciman. haci (Williams: 1927, p. 260) Comp 3
cihracma n 'hattlefield'
Hapax in Welsh; < *konlbranko-nlogos. For the second element. see
The first component of this compound (= Irish (0111,.0(') contains prefix *knl1'-.
and IE *(e)nek- 'reichcn' (lEW: 316f). on this sec l)c Bcrl1nrdo Stempel: q<J-IOO.
GPC: 710; Koch: 476
cibracma Chad 4
cihrmo n 'thrifty'
OB cohrmo
According to Flcuriot. this word contains the prefixes *kol1t-ro- and the stem -,no-
< *nlog-. The word is not attested in later Welsh.
DGVB: 105 and 111
cihrmo gJ. frugi Prise. 34 a
cihitun. cihutun prep. as far as' IcyhlldllnI
OW (LL: 122) orlech cilli/o11 dital ircecyn, OB cohiton. coihiton
A derivative of W cyhyd (OW LL 73 cellil) 'of equal length, along'. OB eehel. ce/tit
from the semantics was compared hy Flcuriot with Irish go siotlr as far
as'. For the criticism of the etymology offered in Wei: 415 « *ko-.,,;-ta,,). sec Loth
in RC 37 (1917-1919), p. 54.
DGVB: 113; GPC: 746; VVB: 71; Williams: 19JO, 247.
hor elin cihutun hi torr MP 2J
1
(24fl)
hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23" (24())
i
1
,'.
28
dhun(n) adj. 'equal, corresponding, proportionate'
The word occurs twice in W., both times in MP. GPC suggests a derivation "cy- +
elf. anhysbys". I will discuss this instance in SC, forthcoming.
744; VVB: 11 Williams: 1930, 236
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22
b
(234)
dhutun see cihitun
cilcet n HI 'toverlet, sheet, blanket' [cylched]
MW cylched, OB colchet gl. agipa; OIr colced gl. agipam
< Lat. culeiJa; see also ci/chetou.
DGVB: 113; ope: 748; LElA: C-157; LHEB: 668; ML: 156; VGK: 1,196; VVB:
71
cUcet gL tapiseta Ox244
8
(6.25)
cileet gL stratorium Ox2 44
8
(6.26)
dlche'oll n m pI 'co"er]et!, sheets, blankets'
See cilcet.
ircilchetou gl. vela Ovid 38&
dli8UC adj. 'faulty'
An -iog derivative of "kulo-, cf. MW cw/ 'fault, blame'; OB col gl. nefariam
rem, card gl. piacu/a .j.. abscenia; Irish col. Two etymologies have been suggested
for these words. These have beem connected with Lat. see/us (but see J. Loth in
ZCP 17 (1927), p.147-152), and Lat. culpa (Stokes in IF 12, 191; VGK: 1,94).
Both comparisons were rejected by Hamp due respectively to the formal inconsi-
stencies and the "unusual ancestral configuration". GPC does not consider this
instance..
DGVB: 106 and 99; GPe: 639; E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 199; LElA: C-155
ciliauc gt scaelestus Prise 40 a
dluin n 'crooked hinder part of the plough'
This hapax is ommited in GPC; for the etymology of this compound « IE *(s)ku-
/0, to etc.. , 'Versteck, Hinterteil', lEW: 951, and min, GPC: 2460) see A.
Falileye\' in SC 29 (1995), pp. 295-6 with bibl.
VVB: 12 Williams: ] 929, 3
ciluin gl.. buris 0'12 42
b
(4.7)
ciluma n m 'pail, pitcher, vessel, bucket, tub' [celwm]
MW kelurn, celwrn; DB chilorn gl. urceus (ch=k), PN Cilurnum; OIr cilornn gl.
urceus
Traditionally, < IE IKrug, Topf; for the scepticim in regard of *lp > I, see
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 199. The ; is left unexplained.
DGVB: 105; GPC: 458; lEW: 555; LElA: C-99; LHEB: 475; Parry-Williams:
121; VGK: L 94,365: VVB: 72; WG: 125
cilurnl1 gl, urne m J 40
29
cimachabail vn 'to raise, extol' (1)
The meaning and the etymology of this entry offered hy Fleuriot was reconsidered
by P.- Y. Lambert who compared the form with Irish vn ClIfflRohoil, and MW
kyuochael 'to raise, extol', see GPC: 673 and 6RO. The first word of this gloss,
hoy/oit, was analysed by Lambert as SW British. The entry itself is perhaps a
hybrid, with apparently Welsh reflex of the prefix, cf. here ci/llpe""er, sec s. v.
GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 106; Lambert: 1982, 1983, 136; 1986, 108
hoy.loit. cimachahail uel dimffnuim gl. tolletum Prisc 25 a
cimadas adj. 'suitahle, IcyraddasJ
MW kyfadas; OB cClfnadns gl. hnhilis; Olr cOfllndas
< *kom + addas < IE 'fcstsetzen, ordnen'; on this stem see
E. Hamp in lIES 1 (1973), p. 322ff and EC 15 (1976-7) p. 192.
OGVB: 94 and GPC: 674; lEW: 3; LElA: A-13; Stokes: 187J, 390; J. Ven-
dryes in RC 35 (1914), pp. VGK: I, 2R4 and 11,21; VVB: 72 and 63-4
isscimadas gl. par MC 4 a.b.
iscimadas gl. par est MC 4 b.b.
ciman
1
adj. 'whole, entire, complete' (cyfan)
MW kyua(n)
Analysed in GPC as < (?) Britt. *k011t-ann-.
GPC: 676
is did ciman. haci Camp 3
ciman
2
n f 'assembly' (cyman)
MW OIr commant, Mlr commann
I. Williams considers this word as a noun rather than adjective, and this interpreta-
tion is accepted by which analyses this entry as containing the prefix *kol1r-.
and the clement ,nan (= English Inan, with a query); the Irish "'ord which denotes
'allience, pact, company' is commonly analysed as a loan (rom Lat. CO/lll1lentll/ll.
GPC: 754; Haycock: 13; LElA: C-17R; Williams: 19RO, 112
it clu(i)s [it] dihan iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
cimarcimeir prep. 'opposite, facing'
See erc;lneir.
DGVB: 106
cimarcimeir gl. aduerso Ang 15 b
cimarguith('lejt n m&f 'well-informed person, (cyfarwydd)
MW kyvarwit, cyfarwyd, Olr comard(a)c
< Britt. *kom·are-LJeid-, IE Vy(e)di· 'erhlicken, sehen'
GPC: 6R5; lEW: JO: 5.1-4; LElA: C-166; VCiK 1,352 anu II. {}
imalitiduch cimarguith[i]ejt Chad 3
cimenllhaam v pres. t 'to narrow. I
W cyfyng-; cf. Olr cumtlog
,".
30
< *kom-ingu-, IE Yanth.. 'eng, einengen, schnUren'.
GPC does not consider this instance.
OGVB: 106; Elsie: 114; GPC: 725; lEW: 42-3; LElA: C-292; VGK: I, 107
gl. ango Prise 40 a
elmer n m 'connuence' [cymer]
MW cimer; MB kemper; Mlr commar
< *kom..bero, IE tbher... 'aufwallen' (lEW: 123); but see Hamp: 1982 for the
identification of the IE stem.
GPC: 759; LElA: C-178; VGK: I, 118
di cimer di aper ferrus Chad 6
eimerdrJdou n pi '1
Stokes analysed the form as containing two words, hir 'long' and the plural of
cimerdrid, which he could not explain. Loth considered this as a compound 'long
travail solitaire', hi, (see hir) + cimer « *kom...are) + pI. of drid, which he
compared with DB emd,it Itheoricam', on the latter see DOVB: 158. P.-Y. Lam-
bert tentatively connects this noun with MW cyfarthelid 'steady, constant' and
cyfrde/id 'beautiful't on these see GPC: 684 and 713. For the prefix, cf. aurcimerd-
richeticion.
Lambert: 19828,22; Loth in RC 32 (1911), p. 307; Stokes: 1873,391; VVB: 155--6
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucubrationum perennium Me 4 b.a.
ammsef;cion n pi ?
Hapax in Welsh.. GPe tentatively offers a comparison of this word with W cyma
'battle, conflict' which is considered to be a cognate of Olr com-bag, on this see
LElA C-167, and 8-4-5..
GPC: 153; VVB: 72
cimmaeticion gl. conquestos Me 4 b.a.
dmmsifhuress n f 'fo!ter-sister'
Hapax in Welsh.. Is analysed by GPC as cym-maeth-ur...es, cf. W cymaethu 'nourish
together-, magaf.
GPC: VVB: Stokes: 1873, 387
cimmaithuress gl. collaclea Me 1 b.a.
cimmaitburess gl. collactea Me 8 a.b.
dmpenner v pres. 5ubj. impers. 'to arrange' [cymhenn-]
MW ME quempen
This word which Welsh characteristics and is found in the Breton gloss was
not considered as ·f.v.. g: by Fleuriot (but cf. DGVB: 29). It was analysed as a
cognate of W cy",en « ? cym... + pen, GPC: 759), and as a loan from Lat.
cOl1lpendio. GPC does not ccnsider this instance.
,DGVB: 106 and 2S0; ope: 764
cimpenner aer Ang 65 a
cimprre. ? 'compara ti \tie"
08 OIr c()mparit; cf. W. cymar(cdig), cymharu, etc.
31
< Lat. comparatill.'i
GPC does not consider this instance.
DOVB: 106 Clnd OPC: LElA: ML: 156
hClc&oucimp& gl. supcrlatiulls ,nullo Prise 27 n
nirincirilcs. cilnpSdlliausauc oirei gl. ad plurcs sui gcncris fit l"olllparntio Prise 27 a
cinceu n 'concave'
As it was stated by Fleuriot, this is a loan from Lat. COIlCaVIIJ, though with an
unexplained Neither Loth nor Lewis mention this among the Latin loan-
words. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
OGVB: 106
cinceu gl. eoncauus Ang 16 Cl
cindraid n 'neap tide'
Cf. MW (T 41.13) kyn OB Mlr c{)ntracht
< Lat. for a derivation CO" + *traith, sec DGVB.
DGVB: LElA: lluws: SOl, n. (,
cindraid gl. ledona DNR 2v
cinimer n m adj. 'equal number' (cynifer)
MW ceniuer, Me cynyucr
Contains prefix cy- and ninter. see s. v.
GPC: 791; Williams: 19RO, 107
isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3.2)
cinnit conj. not, even not"
Cf. a negative form, see Lewis: 1956,247, and cf. (JMW: 235--6
Cinnit hays irloc guae hinnuith In pagi"a regulari COTnp 14
ciphillion n pi 'stocks, little trunks' (cytTyll)
MW cyfyll
An -yll derivative of cJff 'trunk, stock. stem' (Ir eepp) < Lnt. ciPI'IIJ (GPC': 727:
LElA: ML: 155-6).
GPC: 734; Stokes: 1873, VVB: 72-3
ciphillion gl. surculis MC 8 a. h.
circhinn n m 'circle'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. MW derivatives kyrchynyrtt. kyrchynurird: OB circinn.
Mlr cercend, C yn-kerghen
< Lat. circ;n(n)lls. See also danlcirclli"""OIi.
DGV8: GPC: LElA: ML: VGK: I, 383; VVB: 72
bet cfrchfnn frguollcunf gl. usque sub occiduum cocli J R4
circh/n m 'circle' (cylchl
MW cylch, MB kelch
< Lat circulus
DOYB: GPC: 747; ML: 156; 1927.259
seraul cirehl Cnn1r 2
, "-
32
hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 23
in ir loscetic circhl gI. circulus [... ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
dsemic adj. 'lirst'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. W cysefin (MW kesseuin, cesseuyn); OB cisemic
< IE *kentu-stam-, to IE *ken- 'frisch hervorkommen' (lEW: 564), and *stii-
'stehen', cf. W cysefin (lEW: 1(08).
DGVB: 109; GPC: 810; Isaac: 408; OCV: PECA: 24; VVB: 73; WG: 137
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus J 70
risso/tau n pi 'connections' [cyswllt]
MW kyssvllt, kysswllt, kyssyllt
< Lat. consoldo. The instance is not quoted in GPe.
DGVB: 109; GPe: 819; ML: 158
cis80ltou gl. commissure hapsidum Ang 13 a
cilhremmel adj. 'even, exact' [cythrymed]
MW cythrymhet; OIr cutrummae
< Celt. *kon-trum-, see trumm.
GPC: 827; LElA: C-298-9; Stokes: 1873, 401; VGK: I, 139; VVB: 73-4
cithremmet gl. b[i]lance libra Me 12 b.a.
daur n m 'cover, lid' [claWl]
MW clawr; B kleur; Olr clar
The traditional analysis derives these words from Common Celtic *klii-ro, < IE
*ke/-, etc., 'schlagen, hauen', cf. Greek For a consideration of a different
IE stem (·kld- 'breit beliegen, darauflegen', lEW: 599), see A. Falileyev, N. Ka-
zansky in Yazyk i kul'tura keltov, St. Petersburg 1998, pp. 10-13. See also cloriou.
Chantraine: 542-3; De Bernardo Stempel: 41; GEW: 872-3; GPe: 491-2; lEW:
545; LElA.: C-113-4; Schrijver: 182; VGK: II, 49; VVB: 74
elaur guicip. quod fit super faciem torcularis gI. prelum 1 78
cled n f 'left' [cledd]
MW cled; MB c]eiz, C cledh; OIr cle
< IE *l<lei-, 'neigen, lehnen'
Elsie: 109; GPC: 493; lEW: 601; LElA: C-114-5; Schrijver: 118; VVB: 74
6r cled hin gl. limite levo J 26
cleteirou n pi 'castanets'
According to Stokes, this could be an onomatopoetic word. On the other hand,
Loth suggested taking this as a loan (with metathesis) from Lat. erotol-, cf. Ir
crothal. P.-Y. Lambert acknowledges it as a loan, and the influence of the authen-
tic \\'ord cledr.
Lambert: 1982a, 22; LElA: C-248; ML: 150; Stokes: 1873, 399; VVB: 74
nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 103.a.
cloiumn see dolumn
33
cloriou n m pi 'boards, planks, faces, plates'
See clour.
GPC: 492; VVB: 74
ocloriou gl. tabellis Ovid 38
8
cluis?
I. Williams connects this word with MW glll;s 'fair. beautifur. with it causing
provection, or with the adjective derived from the verh cly"'yd 'to hear'.
Haycock: 13; Williams: 1980, 111
it clu(i)s [it] dlban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
clun n m 'meadow' (clun)
MW clun; OIr cluain
J. Pokorny hesitates between *klep- 'feuche (lEW: 603) and "kltu- 'spiilen· (for
this base see lEW: 607). For a different analysis, see OWAV.
OPC: 510; LElA: C-126
in guoilaut clun Chad 6
coc n f 'cook' [cog)
MW coc, cog; OB coc gl. pistor; OC kog gl. cocus; aIr eoic
< Lat. coqllllS (COCllS)
DGVB: 111-2; GPC: 540; LElA: ML: 15L OCV: PECA: VGK:
1,321; VVB: 76
CDC gl. pistor Ox2 44
ft
(6.)2)
coilsm v pres. 1 sg 'believe' Icoeli- J
MW coel-. coyll-; OB coilhaanl 'fcxaminc. je cOllsultC' in etn cnifl,oa11' gl. allis et
aspicio
A derivative of cte., for the etymology see s. v. coilioll.
DOVB: 113; OPC: 533; Watkins: 53; White: 72-3
ni choilam hinnoid MP 22h (234)
nichoilam MP 22b (238)
coilisucc n m 'augur. soothsayer'
Hapax in Welsh; OC chuil1ioc gl. augur
An -iog derivative of coel, sec coiloll.
GPC: 533; VVB: 77
coiliaucc gl. augur Me 2 a.b.
coil(i)ou n pi 'omens. portents, divinations' fcoell
MW cocl; OB cocl gl. (h)aruspiccm; OC chuillioc gl. augur. cuilliogcs gJ. phito-
nissa; Inser. de Lamas de Toledo Ir eel horrowcd from Brit.
< Celt. *kailo- < IE *ka;-Io- 'heil, unvcrschrt. auch von gutcr Vorbedcutung·.
See also coilanl, coi!iOliCC.
DGVB: 112; GPC: lEW: LElA: ('-5<): LJ1FB: 325; 143. 14):
PECA: 2(" .T. Vendrycs in RC 4fl (IQ2Q). p. 41q: VGK: r. 57: VVR: 7R
I
t
, '.
34
nouirmiinnguedou .i. coiJiou gl. extorum Me 2 a.a.
ocoilou gl. auspiciis Ovid 39b
oo;l;ou see coi!(i)ou
ro/ginn n m 'sting, awn' (colyn]
MW colyn
An -yn derivative of cor (MW coly, col, cf. IT colg) 'awn' < *kolgo- < IE *kel-
4stechen' (lEW: 545).
De Bernardo Stempel: Fowkes: 96; ope: 546; Joseph: 51-2; LElA: C-157;
LHEB: 466, 590, 607; VGK: I, 105; VVB: 78
c61gfnn gL aristam J 26
roll n coli. 'hazel' (coil]
MW coll(en); OC coli'iden gl. corilius, OB limn-collin gl. tilia; Mlr coli
< *kosl- < IE *kos(e)Io... 'Hasel'
DGVB: 243; GPC: 546; lEW: 616; LElA C-158; OCV: 293; PECA: 29; VGK:
1,32; VVB: 78
coli gl. corilis Me 8 b.b.
romoid n m 'power' (cyfoeth)
MW kyuoetb; OC du}' chefuidoc g). Deus omnipotens; Olr cumachtae
The meaning of this word is discussed by M. Haycock. Apart from the attempt of
L. Fleuriot to separate the Welsh entry from the Irish word quoted above, these
are commonly viewed as cognates. Several etymologies for this word have been
considered. According 10 Campanile, the adjectives go back to *koln-anktako-;
the traditional etymology derives it from *kom-okto-, with IE *enek-, *ne'k... ,
*enk... , *1Jic... 4reichen, erreichen, erlangen' (lEW: 316).
Fleuriot in EC 16 (1979),204-5; GPC: 708; Haycock: 15; LElA: C-286; OCV: 32;
PECA: VGK: 1'1 124; Williams: 1980, 115
gurd meint icornoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
romtantou n pi 'buzzing, 8 deep hollow sound' (?)
Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix com- and pI. of tanl 'string', see lanlou,
GPC: 687; Stokes: 1873, VVB: 81
orcomtantou gl. bombis Me 10 a.a.
room?
According to Zeuss: 1056 and VVB: 82, this stands for co - orn, orn 4tressaille...
ment, crainte', the meaning of coorn being thus 'applaudissement'. In view of the
frequent doubling of the letters in this manuscript (cf. piipaur, ceenn) I. Williams
(19]3: 113) suggests a reading corn. ope: 2656 refers to this instance (with a
query) in the analysis of W or" "blame, fcar'. D. E. Evans (Ir. orn: W. orn: Celt.
org-no.... /I Homenaje a Antonio Tovar. Madrid 1972, p. 134 fn. 28) interprets this
entry as (lit.) 5triking logether. clapping', i.e. 'applause', and hesitates hetween
a compounded form co-orn (= *cy-orn) and a simple corn. He derives this
35
instance from Celt. *org-n-, on which scc also E. I-Iamp in DDCS 25 (1974),
pp.388-91.
coorn gl. in media plausu Ovid 3R
h
cornoitsuc adj. 'full of sores, ulcerous' I I
MW cornwydawc
An -OtiC derivative of co,."wyd ahscess, sorc' which is analysed hy GPC as
containing corn 4crugyn' and elf. anhyshys. GPC' docs not consider this instance.
DGVB: 119; GPC: 564
cor. noitauc gl. gibberosus Prise 16 b
corruui n f'thong, latchet, lace' (carrail
MW carrycu, carreieu, car(r)ci: cf. MB correcnn
< Lat. corrigia; differently hy D. E. Evans, \vho derives it from Celtic *ko(I1I)-ro-
reig-, which contains IE Vreig,- 4bind', or Vrig- or a of these
stems.
EL: 5,19; D. E. Evans in SC 10-11 (1975-6), pro 74-7: GPC: LIIED: 449-S0:
Schrijver: VGK: I, 195; VVB: 83; WG: 165
corruui gl. corigiufn Ox2 433 (5.4)
COTS n f 'reed, cane" IcorsI
See corsenn.
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro tcxtili Me R h.a.
cors vel pennas gl. cannulas Me 14 h.b.
corsenn n f sgl. 'reed. cane" rcorsenI
MW cors(en); OC korsen (MS coisen) gl. calallll1s. B korz(cnn): cf. Olr curchas
< *kork-s-, usually compared to Lat. carex, on which sec Ernout - Meillet: lOt.
See OWAV. See also corso
OPC: 566; LElA: oev: PECA: 31; V(jK: I, 4R5; VVB: RJ: wc,: 219
ocorsenn gl. arundine Ovid 40a
coueidid n f 'company' IcyweithyddI
MW cyweithyd; C. cowethc
An -id (= -ydd) derivative of (W) cywaitlr, \vhich is analysed hy (,PC' as < Britt.
*ko-tl rkt-, IE *tlcgll- zichen. fahrcn· (lEW: 1118(, cf. UPN: 2RJ).
GPC: 832; LHEB: 659,668: Williams: 19RO. 98
isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
couer adj. 'complete" [cywairI
MW Olr coir
< IE achtgchcn'
GOI: OPC': R29; lEW: 1164; LElA: ('-IS2: Schrijvcr: J2(l: Willinnls:
121; I. Williams in BBC'S 3 (1926), SS-f)
uue nem isnem intcoucr Juv 9 (<).2)
cOllid n m 'poem" Icyn)'ddI
MW cywyld)d: If cuhaid
,'.
36
< ·ko(m)"l)idu.. , IE ·llidhu- 'Baum' (lEW: 1177), for the possibilities of the
semantic motivations, see LElA. OC coweid liuer (reete considered
by GPC, does not belong here, cf. Williams: 1944, 342 and OCV: 342.
GPC: 836-7; Haycock: LElA: C-264; J. Loth in RC 32 (1911), p.195; Wil-
liams: 1980, 104
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
crat see orst
cresticBul.dj. 'created, original' (ereadigol]
W creadigawl
An -ed-ig-awl derivative of (MW) creu 'create' < Lat. creo.
GPC: 583, 584; ML: 154; VVB: 87
creaticaul plant gl. genialis praeda Ovid 3g
b
ere.toroo n pi 'substances' (creadur]
MW creadur, OC croadur gl. creatura; MB croeadur
< Lat. crea/ura. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 121; GPC: 583; ML: 153; OCV: 213; PECA: 32; VGK: I, 197, 203
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
aeirrioo n m r pi 'relics, holy or sacred objects, treasures' [crair]
MW creireu; Mlr cretair
< *kred-ro-, IE 'Zauberkraft worauf setzen, glauben, vertrauen'
(lEW: 580); differently ("zu lat. celeber") in VGK: I, 113.
GPC: 578; LElA: C-232; Schrijver: 353; J. Vendryes in RC 44 (1927), pp. 90-96;
Williams: 1980, 185
Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3
(Teman n m 'reaping-hook, sickle, bill-hook' [cryman]
MW creman, cryman, C. cromman, Mlr cromman
A derivative from (W) crwm (cf. C crom, OB crum gl. gibbler; Olr cromm)
'crooked, bent, curved', which are analysed either as loans from Germanic (cf. AS
crumb, see Henry: 83), or as an authentic word, to IE *(s)kerb(h)-, (s)kremb-
'drehen, kriimmen', not in lEW: 948f, see G. Lane in Language 8 (1932),
pp. 296-7. See also crummanhuo.
DGVB: GPe: 622; LElA: C-244-5; LHEB: 668; VVB: 87
creman gl. baxus Ox2 42
b
(4.6 L)
criehed adj. 'roughness, crispness, curliness' [crychedd]
W crychedd
An -edd derivative of (MW) crych (MC crech, G Crix(s)us) < pre-Celt. *kripso- or
*kriJpo < IE v(s)ker- 'drehen, biegen', cf. Lat. cr;spus, lEW: 938, Schrijver: 374.
GPC: 619; VVB: 88
criched gl. ruga Ovid 40
a
crin adj. 'withered, brit1le, s.ra.k' (erln)
MW crin; OB erin; Olr crfn
37
< IE ·ker- 'vcrschrcn'
DGVB: 122; apc: 597; lEW: 578; LElA: C-2J6-7; Stokes: 1873,412; VGK: II.
498; VVB: 8R
crin gl. ar[i]dum J 27
erip see hs crip
erit n m 'shivering, tremble' [cryd I
MW crid, cryt, cryd; OB crit gl. frcnesin: C crys: Ir crith
< < IE *(s)ker- 'drehen. bicgcn'
OGVB: 123; GPC: 620; lEW: 9.17; LElA: C-239--40; VVB: 88-9
ocrit gl. timore (leg tremore) J 5
ernit, n m 'winnowing fan, winnowinK [crwydrJ
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. W crwydr (MW cruidir, erwydyr) 4wandcring, roaming';
OC croider gl. cribrum, 08 croitir gl. crebrum, MB croezr; MIr crfathar
< Celt. *krei-tro- < IE *skeri-, etc., 4schnciden, schcidcn', cf. Lat. crihrt"n, AS
hridder
DGVB: GPC: 617; E. Hamp, in BnCS 34 (19H7), p. 112: Ilenry: R3: lEW:
946; LElA: C-234-5; OCV: 391; PECA: 32; Stokes: lR60--1, 210; VGK: I. 134;
VVB: 89
cruitr gl. pala J 14
erommsnhuo n pi 'reaping hooks'
Note the spelling of the plural ending. See cre,nan
o crummanhuo gl. scropibus J 77
crunn adj. 'round, circular' (erwnI
MW DB eron gl. tornatili; aIr cruind
< *krundi-, < IE *(s)ker- 4drehcn, biegen'
DGVB: 123; Elsie: 124; GPC: 615; lEW: LElA: C-253; VVB: 90
nouirerunnui gl. oui MCIO h.a.
crunnoJunou n pi 'round wheels' (?)
See crunn, olin; this interpretation of the latter component was hy
Stokes (accepted hy GPC: 2644) alongside 0/ 'mark., trace· (on this see (,PC":
2640). Note the difference in orthography.
VVB: Stokes, 1873, 391
crunnolunou gl. orbiculata MC 4 b.a.
cualladj., also n m 'sudden, quick, speedy' (ellalll
MW cuall; OB cualoeh (eL Pers. name Marccoual)
J. Loth suggested a derivation < Vyel- 4 cntourcr, enroulcr'.
DGVB: ope: Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), pp. 31-R; VVU: 90
cuall gl. maturato [leg. motura, monitura] J 90
cueeticc adj. 'knitted., woven'
W gwcucdir. !!\\Ic\\'<,dig
,'.
38
An -edig derivative of (W) gweu 'to weave', cf. OB gueg gl. textrix, OC guiat gl.
tela, OIr {ige, etc., < IE 'weben, kntipfen' see GPC: 1608; PECA: 56. Note
initial c for g.
DGVB: 186; GPC: 1614; lEW: 1117; VVB: 91; Stokes: 1873,395
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro textili MC 8 b.a.
minhBunl v pres. (future) 3 pi 'to complain' [cwyo-]
MW cwyno; MB queinyff; OIr cofnid
The Britt. form could be -kei-n-; the interrelationship between Brittonic and
Goidelic forms is not clear; further etymological connections are dubious.
GPC: 654; Isaac: 317; LHEB: 503; LElA: C-18; VGK: 1,125; VVB: 91; WG: 323;
White: 122
cuinhaunt irruim mein gl. perpetuis deflebit subsita poenis J 55
mltel 0 'knife'
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat. cultel/us (cf. eel/eell).
VVB: 91
celleell gl. art[a]uum (.i. cultel) Ox2 42
b
(4.7)
miter see the next entry
m/tir n m 'coulter'
MW kulldyr, cwlltyr, kwlldr; ME COUIlT; MIr coltar
< Lat. cultrum; cf. also art[a]uum .i. cellel gl. culter Ox2 42
b
(4.7)
GPC: 640; LHEB: 337; LElA: C-I60; ML: 155; VGK: 1,233; VVB: 91
cultir gl. cultrum Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
cusam v 'chat' ?
The word was considered by I. Williams to be a variant spelling of eosam, see
gllorcosam. Alternatively it was explained as a borrowing from AS cuss 'kiss', or
cyssan 'to kiss', but the paucity of AS loan-words in early OW makes this assump-
tion unlikely.
GPC: 568; White: 76; Williams: 1980, 96
nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2.1)
ms;1 n m 'advice, counsel' (name of 8 letter) [cusyl)
MW cussyl, kyssul; OC cusul gl. concilium, MB kusul
< Lat. consilium (*cosilium)
GPC: 818; ML: 155; OCV: 110; PECA: 34; Russell: 1995, 176; VGK: I, 205;
VVB: 92
cusul Nemn
custnud eticc ?
Lewis rejected Stokes's reading custnudieticc in favour of cuslnud eticc. The gloss
remains obscure.
Le'wis: 1932, 112; Stokes: lR73. 399; VVB: 92
custnud eticc gl. confecta Me to a.b.
39
cutinn(n)iou n m pi 'locks, ringlets' (cudynJ
MW kudynn, kydyn; OC cudin gl. coma
< IE *keu- 'biegen', see Falileyev in ZCP, forthcoming.
GPC: 627; OCV: 44; PECA: 33; Stokes 1873, 393; VVB: 92
cutinnniou gl. illis (nodis) MC 6 b.b.
inircutinniou gl. in condylos (nodos) Me 6 b.b.
en
chefe/ n m 'horse' (ceffylJ
Notably spelled with ch- for k. Sec cefe/.
ope does not consider this instance.
OOVB: 287
pois chefel gl. mannus .i. equs breuis Prisc 7 h
chepi v pres. 2 sg 'to have, obtain, find"
Etymologically this base points to syncretism of different roots, according to
E. Hamp - IE *ghabh- 'fassen, oehmen' (lEW: 407-9), *kap- 'fassen' (lEW:
527-8) and *kagh- 'fassen' (lEW: 518); the involvement of thc lattcr is rejected hy
G. Isaac, see the scheme in Isaac: 313. Cf also ci, cephitor.
Eska: GMW: GPC: E. I-Iamp in ZCP 24 (1954). pr.22<1-3:
Isaac: 312-313; J. Lloyd-Jones in SBeS 2 (1925), p. 291; VGK: II. 552, WG: 345:
White: 79-84.
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
chet n f m 'tribute, fax" (cedi
MW cet, ked
ope: 445
isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4
choi/am see coi/am
D
d••raut?
For possible interpretations of this entry sec Williams: 19RO, 115-6.
rit crcis d••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
dagatte v imperf. 3 sg 'to leave, let go" (dyad-)
MW dyad-, diad-
This instance is not found in GPC. For etymology, sec dirgatiJJe. Sec also digat-
lna(ou).
GPC: 1113: VVB: Q3; White: 20R-9
itdagatte ail gl. coniuerc Me' 4 h.a.
40
d8m prep. '.round, .bout' (dam-]
This seems to be the only usage of dam as a prepostion; in later Welsh it occurs as
a prefix (dam-, dym-). Etymologically, < *do-ambi-.
GPC: 883; Williams: 1980, 96
dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1.3)
dam anpatel Juv 3 (2.2)
dBmcirchineBI n 'delayer'
Hapax in Welsh; see damcirchinnuou
GPC: 884; Stokes 1873, 392; VVB: 94
damcirchineat gl. demorator Me 6 b.b.
damcirchinnuou n pi 'a going around, a circuiting'
Hapax in Welsh; OB damcirchinn 'fait Ie tour de'
< *do-ambi + cyrchyn, see circhinn.
DGVB: 128; GPC: 884; VVB: 94; WO: 27
ordamcirchinnuou gl. ambagibus J 56
dsmlTlluda/uis [LatinJ
Several interpretations of these two difficult glosses, both of which occur in the
Juvencus manuscript have been suggested, see DGVB: 172; Thurneysen: 1890a,
92; Williams: 1933, 115; VVB: 93. It was argued by P.-Y. Lambert that in fact
these instances are Latin (dafiuU5 fraudatiuus). See P.-Y. Lambert in Revue de
philologie 57 (1983), pp. 39--45; cf. Lambert: 1986, 110.
dcifraud atuis gl. subtrahet igni J 2
dafraudatius gl. animae J 18
dBmes v prete 2 sg ?
The connections of this verb with MW darnu 'to separate' and tarnu 'to dry,
reckon' have been considered; the semantics, however, in both cases is remote.
According to Stokes, the phrase could be nominal, i'th darnes ti 'in your fragment'.
In general, far from clear.
Lambert: 1987,306; Stokes: 1860-1,291; White: 173-175; Williams: 1933,118
itdamestf gl. agitare J 88
das n m&f 'stack, heap, file' [diS]
MW das; OB desi; Ir daiss
< *dasto- < IE *dhe- 'setzen, stellen, legen'
DOVB: 136; GPe: 900; lEW: 238; LElA: D-13-4; ML: 94, 228; VVB: 95
gl. aceruo J 45
dBt' n m&f 'meeting, assembly, council' (dadl)
MW dad(y)l; OB dad) gl. concio, OC datheluur gl. concionator; Olr dal
< *dhH-tlo-, IE Vdhe- Csetzen, stellen, legen'; see also the next.
DqVB: 127; ope: 870; lEW: 237; LElA: D-16f; DeV: 110; PECA: 36; Schrij-
ver: VGK: I, VVB: 95
in irguorunhetic dati gJ.. in argulo foro Ovid 38a
41
dBllocou n pi 'places of dehate'
Hapax in Welsh, see datI and loc, for the formation cf. mynachlog
GPC: 872; VVB: 96
datlocou gl. fora Ovid 38a
dalsebimou n pi 'establishments, cattle-sheds'
According to Fleuriot, "Ie sens et la formation rappellent Ie lat. stabllltl1n··. The
entire gloss was considered to be Welsh particularly due to the presence of the
preposition o. As for the interpretation of this word, Fleuriot refers to W datsaf
'stay of blood·. \vhich is a cognClte of Jclvll, etc. on this word sec (iPC: ()(l4. The
instance is not quoted in ope.
DGVB: 274
odatsebimou gl. stabulis Ang 15 h
dallolimb?
According to Stokes, dat (cf. W datod 'to loosen') and limb (W lIun 'hend, turn·)
he interpreted the gloss as dattot-timb 'a loosening turn'. Loth, however. would
suggest dat = do + at in combination with dot (W dodi 'place') and li,n'" 'spasm'
(W tymmig), then 'demangeaison ou spasme pour reje/e".
Stokes: 1873, 399; VVB: 96
dattotimb gl. gestione Me 10 a.a.
dBul n m 'share'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. didalll, air ddl.
Perhaps, to IE *do: *d;J· 'teilcn' (lEW: 175).
GPC: 906; LElA: D-16; Williams: 1980, 184
Amdifuys daul bacl patern Pad: 4
dBum n m 'son-in-law; member of a retinue,
See dauu. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 130
dati gl. cliens Prise 34 b
dauu n m 'son-in-law; memher of a retinue, guesf [daw)
MW daw; OC dof gl. genec MB deuff; Mlr dam
< Britt. *diilno· (since O'Rahilly) < IE *don,os see also dOlO".
E. Campanile in BBeS 26 (1976), pp. J()5--6; DGVB: 1)0; 906: E. Ilamp in
ZCP 36 (1978), pp. 5-12; M. Gwyn Jenkins in 17 (195R). pro 252-R: LElA:
D-20; LHEB: 417; K. McCone in Eriu 43 (1992), pp. 193-7; T. F. (J"Rahilly in
Celtica I (1946), pp. 375-7; PECA: Rhys: lR73, VGK: I, 4R: VVB: 96
dauu gl. cliens Ovid 38
3
deccolion n pi 'decimals; tenth parts' f
W degawl, degol
An -01 derivative of 'ten' < IE *dekl!t-t- 'zehn', lEW: 191; see also De
Bernardo Stempel: 105-6 with hihl.
apc: 916: Stokes: 187J, VVR: Q7
ordeccolion gl. decadihus Mr' 7 h. h.
, '.
42
degion D pi IdeoDI
MW deon
A subtantivised derivative of the adjective (pI. form) da 'good' < *dag-, or directly
< *dagiones, see GPC: 866 and 942; GPN: 188 with bib!.
GMW: 35; GPC: 930; JO: LL: xliv; MJ: 271
imguodant ir degion Chad 2
delehid D m 'lock, bar, door- bolt' (dylaith]
MW dileith, dyle(y)th, B dleizen
GPC derives this fonn from Britt. *dlekt-.
GPC: 1135; VVB: 91
delehid gl. sera Ox2 44· (6.12)
delu n r'image, statue; idol' (delw]
MW delw; C del; Olr delb
< Celt. *del,!d- < IE ·del- 'spalten, schnitzen'
ope: 927; lEW: 194; LElA: D-47-8; LHEB: 387; VGK: I, 64; VVB: 98
delli gl. Dummismatis J 80
demen D sgl. 'oak-tree' (derwen]
MW derven; B deruenn; Brittonic Derventio; Olr daur
A well attested IE tree-name which is reconstructed (according to Benveniste) I
*der-w and II dr-eu (Pokorny's *deru-, etc., 'Baum')
E. Benveniste in Word 10 (1954), p.259; P. Friedrich, Proto-Indo-European
Trees, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1970, pp. 140-146;
GPC: 932; lEW: 214-211; LElA: 0-12
di pul irderuen Chad 6
demm ". pres. 3 sg 'to happen' [darfod]
MW deru-, darf-; OB darned, daruid
Since J. Loth (contrast WG: 351) this is considered as a combination of a prefix
dar- « "do-are) and personal form of the verb 'to be'. It has been noted (LHEB:
90) that the spelling "deruid and lacou are probably due to the influence of Latin
writing in Wales, in which b and v are sometimes confused".
DGVB: 129; GMW: 14S-(); GPe: 892; R. Loth in RC 26 (1915), p. 172
ir nider uid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21-22
di
1
prep. 'to'
MW OB da, do; OIr do
< IE ·'0-; see also didi.
OGVB: 126, 141, 146, GPC: 943; lEW: 1068; JO: 95--6; Lambert: 1983, 131;
Lambert: 1987,285--6; LElA: D-l11 and T-81; WG: 87; VVB: 99
diguorguac gI. inani Ang14 b
Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7.2)
haccet. nitegid. di. a. Comp 8
irnidibid ir loyr di a. Comp 10
43
bihit dir temi Comp 16
araut dinuadu J 0
di gl. exclusa medulae 1 38
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38;1
dilitau gl. Latio Ovid 39
h
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.3.
di assa .i. asse bichan MP 22b (234)
di mesur MP 23 a (229; cf. Lewis: 1926, 1)
(surexit tutbulc ... ) dierchim tir tclih Chad 2
This form frequently occurs in Chad 6
di1. prep 'to'
DGVB: 141 and 136; the form houl 'sun' is Breton. See di
l

di houl gl. in aduerso Ang 58 a
di
3
prep. 'to'
The analysis of this preposition as used to denote 'from' (Caerwyn Williams: 1948,
3; Bromwich: 1980, 109) was rejected in favour of 'to' hy T. A. Watkins, Watkins:
1982, 30, cf. Haycock: 11-2. Sec di
l
and cf. d;4.
dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
di
4
prep. 'from'
08 di; Ir de, di
< IE *de-
10: 105; lEW: 182; MJ: 272; Lambert: 19R7, 2RR; Cacrwyn Williams: 1948. 1-10
dimedichat Chad 2
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 19
anu di iuno gl. Suadae MC la.b.
enuein di iunoni gl. Iterducam et Domiducam Me' II a.a.
anu di iuno gI. Populonam l1a.a.
enuein di Sibellae int hinn gI. Erytria quacque ('umea cst vel Phrigia Me II h. b.
nomen di cretae gl. Mac[a]roncsos Me 49 b.a.
nomen di tauro gl. caucassus Me 50 h.h.
diapcrthou gl. munerihus Ovid J7
h
hin map di ioh gl. love dignus Ovid 39
h
di
5
(particle -?) see diglniuhit
diam.r 10 'mystery, wonder' ?
For the paleography of this difficult line see I. Williams, who inter aha suggests a
connection of this word with Irish dfa",oir, itsclf a word without an ctymology
(LElA: 0-68). The alternative readings of this linc were suggested hy M.
cock, *adiell ior, *adiein ior.
Haycock: 9; Lambert: 1976-7,529; Williams: 19RO, IOJ-4
omnipotcils auctor tidicnncs adiaI11."•• r· .. J Juv Q (1.1---2)
disuc adj. 'ISly'
f\1W diawc, ding: Q{' diue gl. ()B di,)c·hi
J
"\ "-
44
< di- (neg.) + IE *oku-s 'schnell'
DGVB: 143;GPC: 1026; lEW: 775; OCV: 141; PECA: 38; VGK: 1,48; VVB: 99
diAuc g1. segncm J 93
dib8nn?
If the word is dibann, I. Williams suggests a link with MW diuan 'immaculate,
perfect'. Still another possibility noted by Williams is to read this as in bonn
'melodiously' .
Haycock: 13; Watkins: 1982,31 and 38; Williams: 1980,111-2
it clu(i)s [it] iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
dibid v pres. 3 sg 'to come' [deuaf)
MW dib-; cL MW deu, ME deuaff
This form of the verb contains *do-, and the form of the substantive verb. See also
the next.
Elsie: 86; GPC: 934; VGK: II, 452
Imidibid ir loyr dLa. Comp 9
dibu l' prete 3 51 '10 rome'
See s. v. dibid.
GMW: 134; GPC: 791; White: 187-8; Williams: 1980, 109
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
dicnchiriuetitjon adj. pi 1
According to P....Y. Lambert this stands for dich(i)riu-etic-ion, a derivative of
dechreu 'beginning'; differently by Fleuriot, who does not explain the gloss; see
also DOB: II, 495" where Lambert's correction is doubted, though no grounds or
better suggestions are given.
DGVB: 229: Lambert: 1982, 195-6
irdicn_chiriueticion gl. principales Prisc16 b
dirones v prel. 3 5g 'to make'
For the interpretations of the verbal syntax, see GMW: 61, Watkins: 1982, 41;
Williams: 1980, 103. For the form, see White: 175-6. For the etymology see the
next entry.
omnipotens auctor tidicones adiam.r••[... j Juv 9 (1.1)
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
dironetent v prete (1) Impers. 'to make, to do'
Traditionally analysed as a derivative of a Celtic Ykiin-, related to Lat. conari (IE
*ken· 'sich mtihen" thus J. Lloyd-Jones, lEW: 564), or a lengthened grade of
*kan- 'singen' (GPC, cf. lEW: 526). According to F.O. Lindeman, it is derived
from IE *gel1:J- Ito give birth to'. I. Williams (1927 : 260) suggested the reading of
the ending as -einr in view of OW e = lei]. The form is then analysed as an
impersonal preterite. cf. GMW: J27, Lindeman p. 507, n. 1.
45
GMW: 151; ope: 998; F.O. Lindeman in nocs 29 (1981), pp. 507-12; J. Lloyd-
Jones in BBeS 2 (1925), pp.6--8
pan diconetent ir. oithaur hinnith Comp 3
did n m 'day' [dydd)
MW dit, dyt, dyd(d); OC deC OB dcd; Olr dla
< *diieu-; sec also diu Sill.
DOVB: 132, 138; Elsie: 87; oPC: 1119; E. I"lamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.472-7;
lEW: 184; JO: 106; LElA: D-64; LI-IEB: 351; DeV: 197; PEe'A: 37; VGK: I. 42;
WG: 83
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp 1
is did ciman. haci Comp 3
irdid hinnuith Comp 9
irdid. hinnuith Camp 11
pet guarid. did Comp 18
did braut Chad 2
didsu/adj. 'without a share, deficient, deprived or (diddawll
MW did(d)awl
< *di (IE *de-) + daul, see S.V., anti cf. Lat. ex·per(t)-s.
GPC: 967; VVB :l(XJ
didaul gl. expers Ox2 45
3
(8.2)
didaul gl. expers Ox2 47
3
(11.17)
didu prep. pers. 3 sg
A personal form of eli
l
(see s.v); see also gllotiapallr oi,,,e,. dill".
GMW: fiO; Williams: 1980. 110
guotiapaur oinler dic.Ju Juv 9 (4.3)
diliciuou n pi 'lack, want· I
MW diffyg, C dyfygy
< Lat. dificill1rl
GPC: 993; ML: 160; Russell: 1990. VVB: IOl
dificiuou gl. dispendia J 4
difrit n m 'a heatin,f
Hapax in Welsh. The word is analysed ns a combination of the prefix di- and the
stem is found in ffrydio, etc.
GPC: 992; Stokes: 1873, 104; VVB: 101
fonnaul difrit gl. fustuarium Me 41 a.a.
digstma n r'enclosure for animals, circus'
Occurs twice in Welsh, and hoth times in the same text. Sec also the next entry. A
-fa derivative from (MW) for the etymology see tii'RGtis,H'.
GPC: 1t LHEB: 45R. ()5R: J. Rhys: 1873. VVB: 102
irdigatma gl. area Ovid 37
h
digntma gl. circus Ovid JR
h
I
t
,..
t
··,
.,'r {
46
dig.'m.ou n pi 'enclosures for animals'
A plural of digatma, see s. v. for the further references.
irdigatmaou gl. circus Ovid 3g
b
diglniuhit ?
According to J. Loth, ...n... is a scribal error for -u-; he divides the gloss into di
(verbal particle). and gluiuhit which he analysis as a 2 pi imp. form of the verb.
cognate with gioiu (see s.v.).
VVB: 102
hac diglninhit gl. ret] eliqua Ox2 44
b
(7.20)
diguedhllm adj. 6last, ultimate, final' [diwethaf]
MW diwethaf
A *-samo- derivative from diued, see s. v.
GPC: 1059
issed diguedbam oJ] Camp 15
adj. 'bright, shining' ?
Hapax in Welsh; GPC suggests di... (cadarnhol) -g(w)o-llewychedig; llewych 'light'
< ?Britt. */ug-isk, yJeug-; according to P.-Y. Lambert this word shows confusion
of two sterns: ·diguolou-etic (ef. di-olo 'decouvert') and *fouich-etic (W llewychu
'briller', go/au, etc.).
GPC: 1060; P.-Y. Lambert in EC 27 (1990), p. 348; VVB: 102
diguolouichetic gl. proditus Ovid 41b
diguorinBch n 'addition'
See diguormechis. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 141; Lambert: 1982, 198
diguormach gl. adiectionem i. diriuationem Prise. 15a
diguormechis , pret. 3 sg 'to add'
OB doguormach 'addition' in doguormaheticion, degurmehi te, degurme(h); OIr
do-formaig
Hapax in Welsh which contains V*mag- < IE *meg(h)- 'groB'; -ch- was explained
by J. Loth (RC 40 (J923), p.342) as a development *mag-s (s-subjunctive) >
·max-; it is also noted that -ch... could be used to denote intervocal -g- (Thurn-
eysen).
DGVB: 148; GPe: 1001; lEW: 708-9; LElA: M-8; Thurneysen: 1890, 205;
White: Williams: 1930,237; I. Williams in BBCS 10 (1941), p.40
diguormechis lucas MP 22
b
(234)
dilein" (vn) ? 6to delete, era8e" [dil-)
MW dil-: Olr do-lega
< Celt. ·di·leg-n, IE Vleg- -tropfeln, sickern, zergehen' (lEW: 657)
ope: LElA: D-]61; StoKes: 1873,404; VGK: 11,562; VVB: 103
dilein gl. aboJitione Me 40 a,b,
diU" n m reproBC'h' (diliw]
MW diliw, OB diliu (?)
47
Since Stokes's edition (1860-1: 211-2, cf. VVB: 104) this word analysed as di-
(privative) + fill 'colour'. J. Strachan (in RC 2H (1907), pp. 197-R) interprets the
prefix as the equivalent of Irish do- (Greek /)vs-). lne word was considered
alongside OB deliu, dilill and OC disliu by Fleuriot (DGVB: 134 and 142). Accor-
ding to GPC: 1014, this contains di- and an clement which is found in WedliH'.
lliwied, etc.
dfliu gJ. livor daemonis J 15
dinBut n 'pipe, water-pipe, conduit'
Hapax in Welsh. Following J. Rhys (1873: 466) this could be analysed as a deriva-
tive from W dinou. 'to pour, flow, stream out' (ef. C denewy, MB dinou). This
perhaps contains di-, and IE *snii- 'nicl3en, Feuchtigkeif (lEW: 9710, cf. Irish
snuad (LElA: 5-154).
GPC: 1020; VVB: 104
dinaut gJ. pipinnis (for bipennis) Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
diprotsnt v pres. 3 pi 'to disjudge' (difrod-)
MW difrawt
A compound of di· and brollt (see s.v.v.). Note the presence of p, which is
explained as a result of douhling of [h) after di- (MJ) or compared to the forms like
dybll, etc. (JO), or otherwise considercd to represent rf] (F.O. Lindeman).
GPC: 986; JO: 100; F. O. Lindeman in BBCS 32 (19R5), p. 163f.; F. O. Lindeman
in Eriu 46 (1995), pp. 169-170; MJ: 271; White: 115-9
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
diTKslisse v pluperfect 3 sg 'to leave, permit" (dyad.. )
MW dyadu
Etymologically, di + gadu 4 pcrmif (on this see Isaac: 329) with the affirmative
particle -r- (MW ry, Ir ro) inserted after the prevern. Sec also dagatte. digat-
lna(ou).
GMW: 166; GPC: 1113; Loth in RC 29 (190R). White: 257
dirgatissc locclau gJ. concesserat MC Ra.h.
dirlimprosuni v pluperfect (pret. ?) I pi (1 ?) 'to extract, choose'
L. Fleuriot suggested that this stands for dirlil"prOSflll (,,);, \vith a prefix liir- (cf.
dirgatisse) and a stem found in W lIil1ll'rO, OD d;(s)le11,f,retic. The semantic shift.
putative -OSlI11 , and etymology werc left unexplained. Recently P.- Y. Lamhert has
shown that the word corresponds to Irish toI011l1llrati, \\'hich is a calque on Lat.
he also notes, that ula dcsinencc -osun-; est ccrtaincment rcquivalent
du gall. moy. et mod. -aSU'11 , 1re sg. de plus-quc-parfait de J"indicatif. r... ] I..e
pronom d'emphase affixe est d'aiJlcurs normalcment -; ala I pers. du sg.··.
DGVB: 144; GPC: Lamhert: 19Rfl, P,-Y. Lamhcrt in 17 (19RO),
pp.172-4
dirlimprosuni gJ. excerpsimus .i. colJegimus Ant! 12 n
adj.
'Japax in \Vel"h. hllt cf. W d;""'rfi( r!\'nt'("', ,{"'·""Jl)
, "-
48
A ..iad derivative from Celt. *do--ro-l}es--t < IE *yes- 'verweilen, wohnen, uber--
nachten' (lEW: 1170--1).
Fowkes: 1958, 1-2; GPC: 1038; VGK: I, 80; VVB: 105; I. Williams in BBCS 2
(1923), pp. 41-4.
diruestiat gl. jejunam J 64
n 'common, poor'
This segmentation of the line was suggested by I. Williams, who notcd that W
disgyr shout' is not a suitable comparanda. Instead he refers to MIr discir
'fierce' and doescair 'mean'. It was argued by Jackson, that these two Irish words
are unrelated (cf. LElA: D-98), and the meaning 'fierce' does not fit the context.
He holds that the word consists of a negative or adversative prefix (di .. or dy.. ), and
the stern *SCOT· 'host'; then I&no great host". He admits, however, that the double
final is unparalleled. R. Bromwich in her commentary to I. Williams' discussion
notes that the meaning 'mean' is attested for Irish discir. GPe lists the word as a
hapax. The etymology is obscure.
GPC: 1047; Bromwich: 1980, 97; Jackson: 1950, 70; LElA: D-98; Watkins: 1982,
38; Williams: 1980, 97-8
isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
n f'dish, plate' (dysgl)
MW dyskyl; cf. 08 disc « Lat. discis)
< Lat. disc 'Jus < disculU5
DGVB: 144; GPC: 1149; ML: 162; VVB: 106
o disci gl. lanee J 59
dissuncgnetic Idj. 'sucked out, drained'
Hapax in Welsh. The entry is analysed by GPC 8S *di +sugn + edig, for the stem
cf. W 5ugno, Irish suig- < (or a cognate of) Lat. sugo, see Elsie: 57; VGK: I, 72.
GPC:r 1051; lEW: 913; LElA: 5-201; Stokes: 1873, 369; VVB: 106
dissuncgnetic gl. exanclata MC 3 a.8.
diu num. card. f 'two'
See dou; for the fern. formation consider LElA: D-6
Stokes: 1813, 398; VVB: 101
ithrirdiuail gL glabella medietas MC 9 b.b.
diued n m 'end' (diwedd)
MW diuet, diwet, diwed; Me deweth; B divez, OIr dead, diad
< di (see s.v. di
4
) + VlJ.edh· 'ftihren', lEW: 1115-6.
GPC: 1056; JO: 99; D-29; WG: 251
ho dined Chad 2
diu suI n m 'Sunday'
MW dywsu]
The form contains diu 'day" sec S.v. did; and sui < Lat. solis (ML: 208).
gueith diu sui inm6n AC i.a. 876 (Phillimore: 166)
4<)
dluithruim n 'lever'
The suggestion of W. Stokes was to read luitll for dluith (llwyllt 'a weigh t'), and
rui,n = W rhwyf = Lat. renlllS; cf. VVB: lOR. According to J. Rhys, dillith stands
for tluit: W tlawd. L. Flcuriot's analysis suggcsts a derivation from *dleikt- in view
of B dleizenn. Apparently, lit. 'weight - beam I oar'.
DGVB: LHEB: 479-80: Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: IR60-1, 226
or mchir dluithruim gl. vectc movcri J 90
doctrin?
This word was analysed hy J. Loth as a loan from Lat. doctrina; but cf. W doeth <
Lat. dOCIUS. This could be Latin.
VVB: 108
doctrin gl. astructio Me 40 a.b.
doiumn?
According to I. Williams, Loth's reading ,nos cloillm" (VVB: IRI) should be
abandoned. The gloss remains ohscure.
Williams: 1929,7
doiumn gl. metallum Ox2 42
h
(4.5)
dometic adj. 'tamed, subjected'
W dovedig, dofedig
An -edig derivative of (MW) do! 'tame' (MB doff, Lat. d0I110). According to
Pokorny, lEW: 199-200, this is a loan from Latin (/0",0re. It is not, however,
listed by Lewis, and is perhaps an authcntic word, < ('cit. *d01110J (-fi) < IE
*d0I11h
2
-o-, sec Schrijver: 37. Sec also c/alill nnd ardo11und.
GPC: 1072; Russell: 1990,77; VVB: III
ordomctic gl. domito Ovid 39:1
dor n f 'door' (dorJ
MW dor, B doT. Me Olr dorus; C; doro
< Celt. *durii < IE *dhyr- 'TOr'. Sce also elf'll"'.
GPC: 1076; lEW: 278-9; LElA: D-181; Schrijvcr: VGK: I. VVA: 111
dor gl. super ualuam Ox2 44:1 (f).12)
dosseheitic adj.
It was suggested by L. Flcuriot that the word contains the stem dOJ and the suffix
-elletic (cf. -hegetic, -Iraheitic, ctc., DGVB: 20R). The stem was compared to that
of diddos 'watertight' (see GPC': 9(9), dos 'drop, trickle' ((iPC: 1077. \vith no
etymology provided). GPC docs not consider this entry. DaB: 44.1 lists this entry
as dOJseheeitic.
DGVB: 226
int dosseheitic gl. gutatirn Ang 15 b
dou num. card. m 'two" (dati)
OW (LL) dou, MW deu: C' dow, dew; ()O dOli: (llr delli. d(l
< Celt. *duyo. IE *duyo-, Pokorny's sec also dill.
50
w. Cowgill in MUnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 46 (1985), pp.20-25;
DGVE: 151; OPC: 905; Greene: SQ4.-{) and 538-9; lEW: 228; LElA: D--6; LHEB:
336; Schrijver: 331; VVB: 112
dou trean gl. bissem Ang 47 a
dou trean haur gl. bisse Ang 56 a
har dou trean gl. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
int dou pimp MP 22
b
(230)
dOll punt MP 22
b
(234)
dOll eterinn MP 22
b
(234)
num. canl. 'forty' [deugain]
MW deu vgein, deugein(t)
A compound, dou (see dou), and ugain(t) 'twenty' (aIr fiche, C ugens, B ugent)
< IE ..s 'zwanzig', lEW: 1177; see De Bernardo Stempel: 110-1 with further
bibliography. See also the next.
GPC: 938
douceint torth Chad 3
ha douceint torth Chad 3
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
douhollce;nf nOID. arel. 'forty'
See douceint.
DGVB: 232
is douhouceint gl. XL Ang. 59b
douid see •••erdutoa ti pint••••
dreb n?
According ]. Loth, this is a word for 'las'.
VVB: 113
guarirdreb gl. edito Me 3 a.8.
drissi n pi 'briers, brambles, thornbushes' [drysi]
MW drys(s)i, dris(si); DC dreis g1. uepres, OB drisoc gl. dumetum; OIr driss gl.
vepres
A widely accepted derivation from ·dris..to.. (Greek see lEW: 215) was
recently queried by P. Schrijver,
DGVB: 152; GPe: 1096; LElA: D-191; OCV: 302; PECA: 40; Schrijver: 410;
VGK: 1,80; VVB: 113
6rd "rissi gl. de tribulis J 27
drissi gl. spinis J 56
, .. drissi gl. dumas J 87
dnts n m 'door-way, door' fdIV!)
MW drws, Me darat; cf. Olr dorus
< IE 'Tur"; according to Pedersen (VGK: II, 20), this goes back to the
51
same protoform as OW dor, see S.V., with a syncope of the first vowel. However,
"the details of the reconstruction of drw.'i are thoroughly ohscure", Schrijver: 413.
OPC: lEW: 278-9; LElA: D-IR2; VVB: 113--4
drus gl. claustrum J 66
du adj. 'black' [du]
OW (AC, HB) Dub-, OW (LL), MW du; OC gl. niger; OB du; Olr dub; G
Dubis
A derivative of IE *dhubh- (ydhell-); for an underlying form *dllbLJo- see
E. Hamp in SC 18/19 (1983/4), p. 129. The presence of a Welsh article allows us to
consider this form as Welsh, though the Breton form must be identical.
DGVB: 153; Elsie: R3; GPC: 1097; lEW: 264; LElA: D-210; LHEB: 275; OCV:
209; PECA: 41; VGK: 1,116
ir du bisl gl. meloncolia Ang 6R a
dub see du
dubeneticion adj. pi 'cut away'
Hapax in Welsh; a cognate of W difyn 'fragment. piece', dyfin- 'to cut to pieces';
to IE *bhei- 'schlagen' (lEW: 117).
GPC: 989; LElA: B-34; Stokes: 1813, 404; VVB: 114
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus cxsectis Me 42 3.8.
duiutit n m 'divinity'
MW dwydit
A -tit derivative of OW (LL) (Juiu, OC dlly gl. denfi, G. Df'lIo,,; Olr dia, < IE
*dei·, etc., 'hell glanzen', see GPC: 1101. PECA: 41.
GPC: 1107; lEW: 185; LElA: 0-64; LHEB:
eo quod ipse narrauit generationem Christi hcnHd duititft J 0
dur adj. 'hard, cruel' rdurJ
MW dur; B dir, Olr dur
< Lat. duruJ
GPC: 1099; LElA: ML: VVB: 114
dur gl. dira Ovid 41 h
E
e prOD. pOSe 3 sg 'its' lei)
This interpretation of this entry was offered by L. Fleuriot CDGVB: 274-5); for the
etymology and further bibliography see s. v. hi I .
o e leidim gl. processu Ang. 61b
edil n f .. handle· rhaeddel]
MW hacddcl; MB haczl
< IE *segh- 'festhaltcn, halten'
52
GPC: 1804; T. Jones in BBeS 9 (1938), pp. 127-30; E. Hamp in BBCS 28 (1980),
p. 217; Hamp: 1919,68-9; lEW: 888-9; Schrijver: 134; VVB: 115; Williams: 1929,
4-5
edil gl. stipa Ox2 42
b
(4. 7)
egid v pres. 2 sg (3 sg - ?) '10 more, travel'
According to I. Williams, who was followed by GMW, this is a 3 sg. present form.
Alternatively, T. A. Watkins suggests that this is a 2 sg. present, due to the facts
that 1) independent form could not be expected in W after a negative particle, 2)
other forms with -id suggest a relativizing suffix and 3) there is no need to consider
in all the cases the omission of loyr. See also J. T. Koch in BBCS 38 (1991), p. 115.
GMW: 119; Watkins: 1987,59; White: 109-10; Williams: 1927,266
haccet. nitegid. di.a. Comp 8
nitegid ad serenn ara)) Comp 17
eguin n m&r 'nail of the finger or toe' [ewin)
MW ewin; OC euuin gJ. unguis, gl. ungula; OB eguin gl. adungem; Olr
ingen
< Celt. from IE -hJ'Jt·u. (Pokorny's ·onogh-, etc., 'Nagel'); --- Lat. un-
guis, etc.
DGVB: 169; GOl: 130; GPC: 1262; lEW: 780; LHEB: 387; OCV: 58 and 64;
PECA: 45; Schrijver: 326; VVB: 115; VGK: I, 107; WG: 131
ir eguin MP 23a (241)
eirimo'or v pres. impel'!l. 'to count' [eirif-)
This entry was considered by L. Fleuriot as an impersonal form of W eirifaf, cf. W
eir;f'number' (Olr dram) < *ad-rimo-, GPC: 1196, which contains a reflex of IE
*(o)r;·, *rei- (lEW: 60; cf. LElA: R-31); see also Hamp: 1977-8, 6. The instance
is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 156; Elsie: 87
eirimotor gl. dies Ang 54 a
elbid n DI f 'world' (elfydd]
MW eluit, eluyd, G Albi(o)-; Ir Albu
< *olbiio-, IE *albho- 'weiG' (lEW: 30)
GPC: 1205; E. Hamp in BBCS 36 (1989), p. 109 and ZCP 45 (1992), pp.87-9;
J. Koch in Emania 9 (1991),20-2; W. Meid, Aspekte der germanischen und kelti-
schen Religion im Zeugnis der Sprache. Innsbruck 1991
gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
e'im/u n m 'great host' [elynu)
MW eliw)u, elyflu, eliflu
, .. A compound containing the affected form of ala! 'herd of cattle, wealth, luxury'
. (cf. MIT a/om, < IE *al- lEW: 26, but see LElA: A-60), and lu 'host',
see s. v. reifl.
GPC: ] Williams: 1980, 109
dicones dicJimlu pbctid Juv 9 (4.1)
53
elin n m&f 'elbow, forearm' [elin)
MW elin, OC elin gJ. angulus, elin gJ. OR olin 'coude, angle' in
aIr uilen
< Britt. *o/fno < rE *el-, etc. 'biegen' --- Lat. ulna. etc.; see also elinoll; on
trionoloc gl. triquodru111 see I. Williams in nncs 10, (1940/1), p. 135.
DGVB: 276; GOI: apc: 1206; lEW: LElA LHEB: 595: OCV:
PECA: 42; Schrijvcr: 259; VGK: 11,59;
hor elin MP 23
3
(246)
elinn n f 'razor' (ellynJ
MW ellyn; 08 aHin gl. ferula; Olr altain
< IE *(s)p(h)el- 'spaltcn. abspalten' (douhted in LElA).
oaVB: 50; GPC: 1209; lEW: 985-6; LElA: A-J4; Loth in RC 45 (1928) p. 173;
VGK: 1,137; VVB: 116
elinn gl. nouacula Ox2 42
h
(4.7)
elinou n pi 'elbows, forearms'
The presence of an 08 form olin caused Fleriot to consider this form as Welsh, a
pI of elin. See elin. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 157
melinou uel elinou gI. cardinales Ang 15 a
ellesheticion ?
According to Stokes and Loth, this is connected with 'music'. GPC does not
consider this instance.
Stokes: 1873, 394; VVB: 116
ellesheticion gl. mela Me Ra.a.
em pron. pers. independent 3 sg 'he, if' (ef)
MW ew, cf, e; 08 em. C Ir som. scm
< IE *seln- 'eins', or from the IE demonstrative *e- (lEW: 2R I): the quotation
from the luvencus glosses ("thafs ir cise11,ic") shows the omission of copula. SC'C'
Watkins.
OaVB: Elsie: 102; GOI: 2R5: GPe: lEW LElA: VGK:
II, 164, 170; VVB: 117; Watkins: 1997, WG: 273
isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 (see Watkins: 19Q7. 5RO)
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid digucdham 011 in pagina regulari (·omp 15
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus 1 70
issemi anu gl. Genius Me 11 a.b.
emedou n m pi 'bronze, brass, copper' [erydd)
MW euy(d)d, efydd; Olr umae
< Celt. *omiio- < *o1n-eio·; traditionally. to IE V011t- 'roh, hitter· (Pedersen,
Pokorny, H. Hessen in ZCP 9 (1913) p. consider. however. W. Krogmann in
ZCP 21 (IQ1R). pp. 4R--Q. where IE Ye11t- 'fOt' is postulated. For the form l"ullid in
BN Lat. 10290 12 h sec E. RClchcllcry in Fe 11 pro 111--112. cf. <llso
I,nmhert: 19R2a. 22 fn. I. Sec r.lc;;o r111itl
54
DGVB: 216; ope: 1173; lEW: 777; LElA: U-24; Schrijver: 394; VGK: 1,32,166;
VVB: 117
ir emedou gl. aera Ovid 38
8
emeninn n m 'butter' (ymenyn]
MW emenin, emenyn; DC amanen gl. butirum; Olr imb
< IE 'SaJbe' (= *n3ngU-1J): see also emmeni.
GMWL: 296; lEW: 779; Jackson: 1950, 75; oev: 367-8; PECA: 8; Schrijver: 351;
VGK: I, 46; VVB: 118
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
emid n m 'bronze, brass, copper' (elydd)
See emedou.
nouiremid gl. aeris Me 4 b.a.
oemid gl. ex aere MC 46 b.b.
emmeni n m 'butter'
See emeninn.
emmeni gl. babtuta Ox2 42
8
(3.8)
emmi guollig v pres. 3 sg -to prevent' (1)
Hapax in Welsh. According to I. Williams, emmi (with no reflexive force) stands
for W am-, ym-, OB em- (cf. OGVB: 157); he notes, that OIr im I imm in
relative clauses becomes imme, imma. For the root he suggests a connection with
OIr leim (W lIam) 'to leap", with a prefix (Ir 10-, W gwo-), meaning 'to prevent,
anticipate'. For further possi bilities for the interpretation and their possible draw..
backs, see White.
White: Williams: ]927, p.269-70
Salt emmi guollig hinnitb if bloidin hunnuith Comp 19
en prep ·'in' (1)
IE *en- 'in' , cf. 08 en, in; Stokes: 1860-1, 291 considers this as an intensive
prefix.
lEW: 312; VVB: 119
nacenbfd gl. nulla J 71
enderic n m 'bullock, steer,
MW (h)enderic, enderic,
An -ig derivative, cf. MW OM (n)eir 'heifer', B annoer; Midlr a(i)nder, ann;r with a
probable Basque connection (see M. Aguid, A. Tovar, Diccionario etimol6gico
vasco. I Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia: Diputaci6n Foral de Guipuzcoa, Donostia:
San Sebastian 1989, pp. 865-7) and with an unexpected preservation of -nd.... For a
a derivation *ando-daTi-ko- see Hamp: 1977-8, 10. See also OWAV.
ope: LElA: LHEB: 508; VVB: 119; WG: 151; P.-Y. Lambert in EC
(1990). p. 347; H. Pedersen in JCS 1 (1950), pp. 5-6.
16 sive enderfc gl. vitu1us J 0
rntp n m'rIfe' (wynfhl
MW vinpn_ vvnpn. nc PI. naQina: OR cnen uucrt: Olr cncch. aincch
.55
< *(ep)-eni-Hoku-ii, cf. IE *ok
u
- 'schen'
DGVB: 160; Hamp: 1973,81-3; flamp: 1974,261-270; lEW: 775-6: PECA: 42;
VGK: 1,38; VVB: 119-120
haln hoi cncp gl. et totaln facieln mealn Ox2 41 h ( I. 10)
enmeituou n pi 'nods, signs, hints' (amnaidl
MW amnaid. emncid; OB enmeitiam gl. innun; Ir smcit-
The connection with Greek offered hy L. Stern in ZC'P 5 (1905) p. 402
was rejected by Vcndrycs.
DGVB: 160; GPC: 97; LElA: 5-141; VVB: 120; WG: IJ6
troi enmeituou gl. per nutus Ovid JR
h
enn;sn n m&f 'anvil' (eingionI
MW cin(g)on, ein(i)on; Ir indcin
According to 11. Pedersen this goes back to *'Jdhi-pon;. the root of which he
compares to Greek 1tfVOJUll. i.e. IE *(s)l'en-(d)- 'zichcn. spanncn' (lEW: 9RR); on
this difficult base, sec Chantraine: 881-2.
GPC: 1190; LHEB: 587; VB: 120; VGK: r. 114
ennian gl. incudo Ox2 42
h
(4.5)
enuein n pi 'names'
See anu.
cnuein di iunoni gl. Itcrducam et Domiducam Me II a.el.
cnuein di Sibellac int hinn gl. Erytria quaequc C'umca est vcl Phrigia Me II b.b.
epill n m&f 'auger, gimlet, wimble. borer, piercer' lebilll
MW chill. ebyll; OC obil (for cbit?) gl. clrtUllS. chilhocra leg. chilhoern gJ. cJanus:
MB (h)ihil
< Celt. IE *ak- 'scharf. spitz. kantig'
GPC: 1155; lEW: 19; OCV: 333; 4L VVB: 121
epill gl. rostru/n vel clauufn Ox2 42b (4.4)
ercimeir prep. 'opposite'
See arci11leir
DGVB: 165
ercimeir gl. contra Ang 60 a
ercit v imp.3 sg 'to seek, ask for, request'
See erehint, and cf. ereis.
White: 270: Williams: 1980.96-7
namercit mi ncp leguenid hcnoid Juv .1 (.1. I )
ercis v pret. 3 'to seck, ask for, rC(llIest'
Sec erehinl, ereit.
White: 183-4
rit crcis d••raul inadaut prescn Juv <} (H. I )
,
56
erchim vn 'to seek, ask for, request' [arch-]
MW erch-, arch-; MB archass; Olr arcn
< *arka < ·pr;sk-, IE Vperk-, etc. 'fragen, bitten'; see also ercit and cf. gurth ci-
march.
GPC: 179; lEW: 821; JO: 96; LElA: A-86; VGK: 1,44; White: 299
(surexit tutbulc ... ) dierchim tir telih Chad 2
erguid prep. 'according to' (herwydd)
MW herwyt, heruit: OB heruid
< Celt. ·ari-uid-, IE 'see, etc.'; for hlhl t., in el herwydd, see Williams:
1930, 244. See also heruid.
DGVB: 210; GPC: 1860; VGK: I, 413; WO: 414-5
guotan amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
errei see nam hint erre;
esC'eir n f 'limb' (esgair)
MW. esgeir, eskeir; OC elescher (possibly for uel escher, see Williams: 1944, 92) gl.
tibia; Ir escir 'ridge'
For the difficulties of the derivation from *eks-kara- (cf. Irish cara) see PECA.
Elsie: 109; GPC: 1242; DeV: 63; PECA: 43-4; VVB: 123
ceng ir esceir MP 23
8
(246)
estid n 'seat' (eistedd)
MW eistydd; OB estid; cf. OIr ast·
< Britt. *estied- < Celt. -eks.. dr..sed·, IE ysed- 'sitzen' (lEW: 884); for the seman-
tics, see Isaac: 326.
DGVB: 167; ope: 1200; LElA: A-97; VVB: 123; VGK: I, 70; VVB: 123; Wil-
liams: 1933, 112
estid gl. theatro Ovid 38
11
etem n m 'thread, yam' (edao)
MW edeu. edau; Gael. aitheamh 'fathom'
< Celt. *etami-, IE vpet- 'ausbreiten'
GPC: 1163; lEW: 824; Lane: 249; VGK: I, 132; VVB: 124
a hir etem gl. instita longa Ovid 37
8
eterin(n) n m sgl. 'bird'
See atar.
agit eterin illud MP 22
b
(234)
ir pimphet eterin MP 22
b
(234)
dOll eterinn MP 22
b
(234)
etlol?
This gloss is obscure. For various possibilities for its interpretation see OWAV.
VVB: 115
etlol g1. crouitorio Ox2 41 b cf. Craster: 135)
etmet " imp. 2 sg 'reap again·
A ................ 1-..: .... n.: .............. t _, (f)\ ........ ,1 __ J: _=_.... _, ......... .. .... .... __ ......... : ..... _
57
with aeddfed (GPC: 36), see OWAV.
DGVB: 138, 255; White: 266-R
acet met gl. retunde J 77
F
fsut n f m 'fate, luck' (fTawd)
MW faud. ffawt; cf. OC fodic gl. felix
< LuI. falll" .. (,PC' dot'S not consider this instnl1l'l'.
DGVB: .56; apc: 127(); ML: 167; ()('V: 140; PE('A: 46; VGK: I. 20J
a faut gl. a fortuna Prise 24 b
feciaul n 'napkin placed over the face of a dead person'
Hapax in Welsh.
< Lat. facialis
GPC: 1280; ML: 167; VVB: 125
feciaul gl. fascia J 91
felchou n pi 'spleen'
According to Fleuriot. the word could be Breton, though it is preceeded by the
Welsh article; see DGVB: 170. It is not attested in MW and W, which cannot he
used as a solid argument against the presence of this word in OW, cf. VB: 272. MB
felch alongside with Irish selg is traced to *Jpelgil-, see LEIA: S-R1. For the IE
etymon, see V. Toporov, Prusskii yazyk. Siovar' A-D. Moscow: Nauka 1975.
pp.236-7.
DGVB: 170
n6 ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
finn n pi 'sticks, rods' (ffonJ
MW ffon, pI. ffyn; Ir sonn
< IE *sp(h)endh- 'Holzcimer'; see also [onnaul and cf. [0"".
Elsie: 135; GPC: LElA: lEW: 9R9; VVB: 126; Schrijvcr:
Stokes: 1873, 403
finn gl. pila MC 38 a.a.
fionlluc n 'rose garden'
An .. auc derivative of fion, see fionoll. GPC lists this entry as Brcton conlparanda.
See also foionouc.
DGV8: 171
fionauc gl. rosarium Prise 24 a
fionou n pi 'roses; purple (monl
MW f(f)ion; ef. OW fionauc gl. Mlr sion
These words were analysed hy H. Pedersen as cognates of Lat. ,,;pion;a.
DGVB: GPC: E. "{amp in CMCS IH (I()H9). pr. LElA:
Schrijver: 2Rl; Stokes: lR73, VGK: I. 6R: VVB: 12ft
l1ouirfinnou gl. rnsnrum <) h.h.
t.
58
rlSll n 'fistula'
Hapax in Welsh; not registered in GPe, EL, Haarmann.
< Latin fIStula; W ffistwla was borrowed from English (GPC: 1290).
ML: 168; VVB: 126
fistl gablau gl. fistula (si]bilatrix MC 62 b.a.
n.ir n , 'smell, stink' Imair)
MW ffleir; OC flair glo oder, DB fleriot gI. que redolet
< Lat. /lagro < fragTo
DOVB: 171; GPe: 1292; LHEB: 597; ML: 168; DCV: 335; PECA: 46; Stokes:
1873,402; VGK: J, 223; VVB: 126
flairmaur gl. olacem Me 14 8.3.
foionouc n 'rose garden' (1)
Though the form of the suffix looks Welsh, the radical is Breton, cf. fionauc.
F1euriot points to the possible Breton origin of this entry; alternatively, this could
be a bretonised Welsh form.. See [ionou. GPC does not consider this instance.
DaVB: 171
foionouc gl. rosetum Prisc 35 b
fonn'1
The suggestion of Stokes (1873, 402-3) was to consider this as a sg. form of the
plural finn (see s.v.). The semantic aspect as it was noted by Loth (VVB: 127)
makes this assumption ra ther dubious. I am going to reconsider the suggestion of
Stokes in SC, forthcoming.
locell vel fonn gJ. ferculum Me 14 b.b.
fonnau/adj. 'pertaining to a stick or spear'
Hapax in an -awl / -of derivative of [onn, finn 'stick', see s.V.
OPC: .1302; Stokes: 1813, 404; VVB: 127
Connaul difrit gl.. fustuarium Me 41 a.3.
franc n m 'foreign merfenary'
MW franc
< MLat [rancus
This interpretation and derivation forwarded and advocated by I. Williams was
challenged by A. Breeze who considers this as a loan from AS franca 'javelin,
spear'. In her note len ny Rowland argues for the traditional interpretation of this
lexeme. The word perhaps also occurs in Juv 3 (1.3), see Williams: 1980,91.
A. Breeze in Notes and Queries 236 (1991), pp. 149-51 and in BBCS 37 (1991),
pp.98-9; Bromwich: 1980" 95-8; GPC: 1310; B. Rees in BBCS 18 (1958-{)(),
pp. 58-9; J. Rowland in CMCS 26 (1993), pp. 21-5; I. Williams in BBCS 7 (1935),
pp. 366-8; Williams: 1980, 95
mi am franc Juv 3 (2.3)
fralldll'uis see dsmfraudaJu;§
fnlirllnnsld ?
Thou£h the stem of the word is an apparent Joan from Lat. fructus (W ({,.n·rth),
59
the discussion of the form is very controversial; consider the attempts to see in it a
verb (VVB: 127) or the dispute ahout the formation of the adjective (Rhys: 1873,
236-7 and 467). Cf. hcrc W (1675) [[rwyth'onaidd 'fruitful. mature, prolific',
!!rl·vythloll 'productive, fertilc' (GPC: 1320).
fruidlonaid gl. fertilitas Ox2 46
h
(10.11)
Iminn n m&f 'bridle, restraint' (fTrwynI
MW fruin, fruyn, (f)frwyn; OIr srfan
< Lat. [renlon; see also ruinn.
GPe: 1319; LElA: S-IR6; ML: 171; VGK: I. 221: VVB: 12R
fruinn gl. frcnu"1 Ox2 43" (5.1)
fruinn gl. paglum Ox2 43
A
(5.2)
IUIII n f m 'fetter, gyve, shackle, bonds" (hual)
MW hual, MB cf. aIr sibal(l)
The Brittonic words are usually considered as loans from Lat. fihula; for a diffe-
rent view see ML and LElA. The unexpectcd vocalism was explained (differently)
by P. Schrijver and E. Hamp. The troublesome initial in OW was explained by a
"fluctuating changc", without specifying it 276), by the influence of the
Latin original (P. Schrijvcr), and the dialect variation (E. Hamp). For the discus-
sion of this entries and the arguments for the "Cornish symptoms" they betray. see
A. Falileyev in Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Texts and Transmis-
sion (submitted for puhlication).
EL: 17; GPC: E. Hamp, Mini-laws. II R. E. GrossmCln. 1..1. San, T.l.
Vance, cds. Chicago Linguistic Society. Papers fr0l11 the Eleventh Regional Meet-
!!!g. Chicago 1975, p. LElA: S-I04-5: LI-IEB: 276; ML: 17R: Schrijver: 160:
VGK: 1,220-1; VVB: 12R
fual gl. fibula Ox2 43
Cl
(5.4)
fual gl. conlpes Ox2 43<l (5.6)
Iuniou 0 r pi 'band, fillet' (",uo)
MW ffun; OB funiou gl. rudentibus
< Lat. funis
DGVB: 172; GPC: 1324-5; ML: 171; VVB: 128
a mein funiou gl. vittae tcnues Ovid 37"
G
gllblllu adj. 'split open, cleft, forked'
MW gaflaw
An -ow derivative of *gohl (all Kohl gl. oe.Hlla,.io, Olr RaJ"" < IE
'Astgabel, Gabelung, Gahcl' see lEW: 40Y, [JGVB: 17.1 nnd cf. Rehel). and nnt a
plural form, as J. Loth maintflincd. For the Latin context Stokes.
AP: 53: E. Bachcllery in EC R(IY5H). p. 225; (iPC': 1."\70; Stoke": 404: VVB:
12H
fistl gablau cl. fistula Jsi)hilatll.\ h.a.
j
60
. g.em n m 'winter' (gaeal]
MW gayaf, gaeaf, gaeaw; OC goyf gl. hyemps, OB guoiam; G. Giamon[ios]; Ir
gem, ga(i)m
< Britt. tgiiam·, IE yg(e)i- 'Winter, Schnee'
DGVB: 196; ope: 1368; lEW: 425; LHEB: 359; OCV: 201; PECA: 51-2; Schrij-
ver: 101 and 108-10; VGK: I, 66; WG: 100
in irgaem Chad 3
gam?
According to I. Williams (1929: 5; contrast VVB: 129, where this is rendered as
'milieu'), this stands for garr 'coes' ('leg'), see also Zeuss: 1054 for the identifica-
tion with MW garr, garan. GPe: 1380 does not list this example under gar.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
8
gebel n r'tongs, pincers, nippers' [gefel]
MW geuel; OC geuel hoern gl. munctorium, MB gevel
The word is compared with MW gafl 'fork' and was considered to go back to IE
*ghabh(o)lo- 'fork' by GPe, see gab/au. IE *ghabh- 'fassen, nehmen' (lEW:
407 f.) should be perhaps considered here,
DGVB: 172; GPC: 1386; lEW: 409; DeV: 338; PECA: 48; VVB: 129; Williams:
1929,5
gebel gl. dolabra Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
gebin n m 'gyve, shackle, fetter, chain' (gefyn]
MW geuyn, gefyn; Olr gebend
< IE *g£m- 'fassen (Fessel)' (lEW: 368)
GPC: 1386; Stokes: 1873,404; VVB: 129
gebin g1. culleo Me 39 b.a.
gener? .
The traditional interpretation of this entry considers this as a Latin word for 'son-
in-law., cf. 10: 95 and D. Jenkins in BBCS 28 (1980), p. 609. Most recently, how-
ever, St. Zimmer has argued in favour of analysing this word as a Welsh hapax, a
(learned !) loan from Latin genere; alternatively, he writes, this could be an
abbreviation for Lat. generario (Zimmer, forthcoming). Those assumptions are
based on the presupposition that the preceeding ha stands for the later 0; for the
discussion of 1he similar cases with somewhat different approach, see Lambert:
1976-7.
Surexit tutbulc filius liuit hagener tutri (Chad 2)
gennec-7
J. Loth analyses this word as 'gouffre'.
Parry· Williams: 121; VVB: 129
1. gennec gl. barathri coeno J 81
n r 'sharp stick or olher pointed instrument formerly used for prodding and
oxen, when plo.. ox (icrthi)
61
MW icrthi, (g)erthi; OC garthou gl. stimulus; B garz(h)ou; Ir gart
The word was tentatively considered as a loan from AS gierd by ope, and as an
early loan from Germanic in PECA. For a derivation from IE *gher. 'hervorste-
eken' (lEW: 440), see OWAV.
ope: 2012; DeV: 157; PECA: 47; VVB: 129
gerthi gl. iure Dx2 42
h
(4.7)
gi/b n m 'sharp point, sharp·pointed instrument, knife' (gylf]
MW gelef, gylyf; OB PN Regulbium; Olr gulha
< Britt. *gllibio-, IE *gelebh- 'schaben'.
According to Zeuss (1061), glosses roslnlll1. Sec also gilbi".
OPC: 1794; lEW: 367; LHEB: 559; PNRB: 440; VVB: 110; VGK: I, 118: Wil-
liams: 1929, 5
gilb gl. foratoriu," Ox2 42
h
(4.4)
gilbin n m r 'point· (gylfin)
MW gyluin, geluin, gylfin; OB golbin, OC geluin gl. rostrum; Olr gulhan
< Britt. *gulbfno- ; see gilb and also the next.
DOVB: 178 and 175; GPC: 1794; Lambert: 1982, 194; LHEB: 596; OCV: 219-20;
PECA: 48; VGK: I, 118; VVB: 130
gflbin gl. acumine J 70
gilbin gl. ostrum Prise 14 h
gil? ?
This dry stylus gloss was found and read by H. 1-1. E. Craster as Dr Paul
Russell and the compiler of the present CJlossary re-cxnrnined this en try
(13.05.1998); the first three letters are definitely gil; the last letter looks like a
small It, or h. This instance \vill he discussed in a paper hy Falileyev and Russell. in
preparation.
gili gl. secaliu111 Ox 2 42<t «('raster: 136; Latin context 3.5)
glsnst/innim vn 'pure I holy
A hapax, consisting of glon (MWC'B gl(l", ()Ir gla", < IE *glrrl.-')- 'gHinzen. schim-
mern' lEW: 429, see Schrijver: 17J for the identification of the IE stem: De
Bernardo Stempel: 117; GPt': 14(0) and stli""i"l. see s. v. For a possihle
Irish influence, sec Parry-Williarns.
LHEB: 417,527; Parry-Williams: 12L VVB: 130: White: .102
o glanstlinnim gl. famine sancto J 5
g/ss adj. 'blue, green' [glas)
OW (LL) and MW glas; DB glas gl. iacinctinum; MC' glas; Lat.G gillstum 'woad':
OIr glas
< *glllsto- < IE *ghel:l- 'glanzcn, schimmcrn; gclh, griin' (lEW: 4.12), sec Schrij-
ver: 173 for the form of the root.
DGVB: 176; Elsie: 101; OPC: 1401; lEW: 432: LI·IEO: Schrijvcr: 17J: VGK:
1,79; VVB: 130: WG: RJ
gins g1. cacrula .J10
)
t.
,r·
,"-
62
glas gt viridis J 72
glas gl. glauci J 75
glas gl. yalina Me 5b.b.
glBsliu n & adj. 'blue colour' [glasliw]
MW glasliw
The compositum contains glas 'blue', and liu 'colour'. See s. v. v.
GPC: 1404
gJasliu gl. iacirtrum [leg. hyacinthinum] DNR IV
gletu?
This reading by W. Stokes was accepted by J. Loth. I. Williams (1933: 117) pointed
to the possible readings gletu, glitu and gloiu.
VVO: 130
gletu gl. gl ebis J 56
glo;1I n m 'the (lear or a liquid' (gloyw]
MW gloyw, gloew; OB gloeu; aIr glc
< *gJoi-f:!o-s, IE *ghlei- (lEW: 432), see also glas.
DGVB: 199,267; GPC: 1411; LHEB: 325,6; VGK: 1,67; VVB: 131; WG: 98,130
gloiu gl. liquidum J 86
glu;uh;' see digJlliuhit
goba;! D r'smithy, lorge' [gerail]
MW geueil, geueyl
The of considering this form as Welsh is based on the presence of an
epenthetic vowel (Aeuriot). The form gofail in voce has been also considered as
Welsh. A derivative of W gof (OW LL gof) 'smith', cf. OC gof gI. faher I. elldo,
aIr gob(a)e, G Gobannitio. These are traditionally derived from *goban(n)-, with
the unclear further connections, see De Bernardo Stempel: 117-8 with further
literature. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 177; GPC: GPN: 351; OCV: Ill; PECA: 50; VGK: I, 86 and 11,112
gobaiJ gl. officina Prise. 34b
goudonou n pi 'moths' .1)
This entry was analysed by Stokes as a plural of goudon, which he compared with
OC goufJan gl. tinea; PECA: 51 offers no etymology for the latter and quotes only
B cf. also DeV: 270. The etymology is not clear.
Lambert: 1982a , 22; Stokes: 1873, 388
nouirgoudonou gL tinearum MC 2 a.b.
grate" n m&f 'grindle, gridiron; bakestone; p8D; gnte' [gndell)
MW gradell
< Lat. gratella for cTatelJa
GPC: 1518; ML: 114; Williams: 1929. 5
gratell gl. graticula Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
63
greliat n m 'title-deed'
Hapax in Welsh.
< Lat. graphillm + iatl; see JO; see also the next.
GPC: 1529; 10: 106
grefiat guctig Chad 2
grephiou n pi 'styles' [graifTt J
MW graifft; Olr graif
< Lat. graphill111; see also grefiat
GPC: 1523; ML: 174; Stokes: IR73 . .192; VVB: IJI
grephiou gl. stilos Me 5 b.a.
grois8uc adj. 'continuous, (?)
, The interpretation of this hapax is that of I. Williams. accepted hesitantly hy GPC
in view of K. Jackson's note. where it is stated that the connection· of this word
with Irish gresaeh, suggested hy Williams. is historically impossihle. Another pos-
sibility is to connect this instance with W. 'cross'. and this is disclissed by
M. Haycock.
GPC: 1534; Jackson: 1950.71; Haycock: 15--6; Watkins: 1982.31; Williams: 19RO,
117
piouboi' int groisauc Juv 9 (M.2)
grudou n pi 'cheeks'
MW grud(d); OC grud gl. maxilla; OIr gruad
< IE *Rhrolld- 'von gew(llbten K(lrperteilcn; nur Kelt. und Germ:; I. Williams
noted. that the form is Kl'lulou. and not ,,.,,doff. contrast VVB: 225.
GPC: 1536; lEW: 462; 44; PECA: 53; Williams: 142Q. .5
grudou gl. ocellos Ovid 3R
h
gIJ8C adj. 'empty'
MW gwac, gwag: OB guac
< Lat. \'OCffIlJ (UOCIIS).
DGVB: 1R1; 1552; ML: 175-5
ad ir loc. guac. Comp 5
ir loe guac Camp 6. R, 17
irloc guac Camp 14
irIoc quae Comp 9
loc guac Comp 12, 13
guapeli n m&r 'saddle, pad' rgobellJ
MW gobell
The word is analysed hy GPC as "go +clf.nnhyshys pel'''. Note the spelling -Ii for
-II, and the varintion -liO- / -"(1-.
GPC: 1417; VVB: 132
guapeJi gl. sudaris Ox2 4J;t ().4)
guopell gJ. ultia Ox2 41;t (5.5)
.!
64
gual't prep. 'otter'
See guor; cf. aIso the next ,
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi (Ang 21
a; see DGVB: 276 and 181-2; cf. DOB: 531 where the enry is rendered as 'out of').
aries ithou guar kalendis ianuariis Comp 18
guarirdreb gl. edito Me 3 a, a,
guar
2
prep. 'with'
The sequence guar un ,I. and pimmunt, according to P.-Y. Lambert "sont de deux
scribes The meaning 'avec' of guar in this gloss was compared with its
usage in the gloss on fo 18 of the same manuscript, oi rodiodlir guar un sHab 'on ne
fait pas de sens avec une seule syllable'. Is identical with guar
1
, see s.v.
Lambert: 1982, 194
pimmunt. guar" un .1. gl. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a
gual' see strudugusr
grJan; n m&f 'play, amusement, theatre' [paraeJ
MW gwar(a)e, chawarae; OB Ran Guarai, guarima, anhuariatan, annhuariat, MB
choary; Me hwary
No VGK suggests *worigo- as a protoform, cf" Irishfuirech < ·fo-rig;
see guaroimaou, guoroiou.
DGVB: 182; GPC: 1577 and 841; Schrijver: 216; J. Vendryes in EC 3 (1938),
p.41; VGK: 1,434; VVB: 133; WG: 100 .
guarai g]. scena Ovid 38:1
gusI'd
l
?
Stokes connects this (for gwarth 'covering') with guard
2
; J" Loth treats them sepa-
rately (just question marks).
Stokes: 1873, 406; VVB: 133
oguard gl. flammeo Me 44 a.a.
.
According to Stokes, this is 'throwing of the covering'; see guard
t

Stokes: 187, 412; VVB: 133
eicentem gl. iuuenem J 32
gusmBm y pres. I 51 '10 laugh' ((hwardd-]
MW chward-, chwerth-; DC gl. risus, MB huerzin
< IE 'Jachen', for wa- I gwa- , cf. chwarae / gwarae.
Elsie: 108; GPC: 843-4; lEW: 1040; OCV: 403; PECA: 67; J" Vendrycs in EC 3
(1938). p.38f.; VGK: I, White: 78; Williams: 1980,96
, II. .niguardam Juv 3 (2.1)
I!"aro;maou n pi 'plays, plaYRrounds' [gwarwyfa]
MW gwarwyua, gwarwyfa: OB guarima gl. circus
< glloro; + *-ma. see gflarai, guaroioll, maessid.
65
DGVB: 182; ope: 1589; VVB: 133
guaroimaou [sic] gl. theatris Ovid JR
3
guaro;ou n pi 'plays, frolics, games' (gwarwyJ
MW guarvy, gvarycu
See guarai, guaroimaoll.
ope: 1589; VVB: 133
guaroiou gl. teathra [leg. thcatra] Ovid 38
h
gUBr phenn n m 'end, termination' (gorfTenl
MW gorffen; MB gourffcnn; OIr forccnn
A combination of the prefix guor I guor with the word for 'head" I'('"n" see s. v. v.
ope: 1483
hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunccant Comp 22-3
gUBS n m 'boy, groom' in gUR.fi marchauc 'groom, stable-boy'
OW (LL) and MW guas; OB guos gl. stipulationcs; C guas: G. vass-; Olr foss
< Celt. *ljo-sto- < IE *upo-Jtho·. Vstd- (lEW; 1005)
DGVB: 199; GPC: 1590; E. Hamp in Eriu .16 (19R5). p. IR.1; ftPB: 432-3; lEW:
1106; LHEB: 533; Schrijvcr: 407; VVB: 13.1
guas marchauc gl. adultcr Ovid 41 a
gUBS see also slI'uduguar
gubennid n m&f 'pillow, bolster, cushion' (gohennydd)
MW gohen(n)yd(d); MB goupener
An -;d derivative of * 'under-head"; see pc"".
GPC: 1417-8; LHEB: 69; LElA: C-66; Schrijver: 112; VVB: 134
gubennid gl. ceruical Ox2 44" (6.25)
guecriStiiou n pi 'girdles, belts' (gwregysau)
MW gwregis; OB guocrisiuou
This form is quoted as OB by GPC: 1701. This is a cognate of ()C gr"gis (MS
grug', see oev: 342), cf. OW (Gen.) (rishan, MIr !ochruJ" explained as *"([')0-
krd-Sll -, IE *kerd- 'gorten'. It was argucd, however, that there is no need to
reconstruct this IE stem, which is attested only in Celtic and Slavic, see ESSYa: 4.
77; the Celtic namcs for \belf arc thus considered to show the same semantic
change as their cognates in Slavic: the latter nrc analysed as a suhstantivized
prepositions, cf. Old Church Slavonic 'IPb3h \through".
DGVB: IR5: lEW: 579; LElA: C-239: PECA: 5.1: VGK: I. 42
inom ir guccrissou gl. hapsidum cxtrcmequc Ang 1.1 a
gue;d n f 'time, occasion'
MW gweith; cf. OW (Ae) gueit 'hattie'
< IE 'bewegen, ziehen, fahren· (lEW: ) IHf): for the set-phrase. -"n llll
K'eith. cf. Ir. inti j7ccht so, ; n-nln/crlll 'on this occnsion. now'. Sec also RlIc;th.
DGVB: 276 and IR6-7: (fPC: 1564: Williams: 14XO. 117
66
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
gueimmonou n pi 'seaweeds' (gwymon]
OB gumouo; C gumman; OIr (emm
This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1769. The Celtic forms were tentatively
considered by J. Pokorny in his entry *ueib-, *lJi-m-b- (to *lJeip-, y.eib- 'drehen'),
see lEW: 1132 which follows T. O'Rahilly (in Eriu 13, 1940-2, p. 163). E. Hamp
notes that the better established IE root is *y.eip-, and proposes north-western
European *lJis-mon-, allowing for contamination *yipsma- x *,:!is-lnon. The other
suggestions are 1) to analyse these as cognates of Sanskrit vapat; (VGK: I, 93), or
2) to discuss them with reference to IE *yes- 'futtern, schmausen' (R. Thurneysen
in KZ 48 (1918), p.67).
DGVB: 186; E. Hamp in BECS 28 (1979), p.213; E. Hamp in Eriu 39 (1988),
p. 194; lEW: 1132
guiemonou gl. marinis herbis Ang 16 a
gueith n m 'battle' [gwaith]
Used throughout the "Annales Cambriae", cf. gueith cair legion (s.a. 613), gueith
hirford (s.a. 760), etc. Note the following exceptional spellings in AC: gueiht (s.a.
750, "the h of this word is added above the line", Phillimore: 161, fn. 2); gueit (s.a.
848); gueith (s.a. 157; &'the e of this word added above the line", Phillimore: 157,
fn. 5). The word is well·attested in this meaning in the later Welsh. For the
etymology see S.v. gueid.
pel n m 'gnss' [gwellt]
OW (LL) guell; MW guelt, gwellt; OB guelt; OIr gelt
< Britt. *ljelt- (cf. HPB: 239). Though the words are found in Pokorny's entry
*rJel- 'Haar, Wolle' (cf. guiJlihim), it was also noted that these could belong to IE
*gel- ·verschlingen' (lEW: 365); for the connection with MW gwyllt 'wild' with an
extensive bibliography, see Sims-Williams, and contrast Schrijver. See OWA V.
DGVB: 1878; Elsie: 100; GPC: 1632; lEW: 1139; Schrijver: 60, 67; Sims-Wil-
liams: 1981,224-7; VGK: ],96; Williams: 1980,106
eet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
gue/en n 'calendar or religious festivals'
OB guiler, guiteri; Olr. (elire
The word occurs twice in Welsh, and both times in the Computus Fraglnent. <
Lat. uigi!iarium or an -eri derivative of W gwyl « Lat. vigilia, ML: 176, cf.
Schrijver: 225).
DGVB: 191; GPC: 1161; Lambert: 1983, 123; Williams: 1927,267
in irgueleri. Camp 16
i:n irgueleri Comp 17
,
Rueli n m 'bed' (gwely)
MW gueli, gwely, DC gueli gl. lectum I. lectulum, liein gueli gl. sindo, kala gueli
gl. dillat gueli gl. fulcra
67
< Celt. *LJo·leg- , IE ylegh- ·(sich) legen, liegen'
DGVB: 238; L. Fleuriot in EC II (1964/5), p. 15(); 162R-9; lEW: fJ5R-9:
LHEB: 446; oev: 346: PECA: 55: Schrijvcr: 6R; V(,K: I. 9R and II. )AO: VVB:
135
gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 44
11
(6.25)
guell adj. 'better' (gwell J
MW gwelL guell: C gwel, B gwell
Perhaps to IE *yel-, etc., ·wollen. wahlen' (lEW: (137), see the discussion in
GPN: 272f.
GPC: VGK: II, 12l: VVB: I.lS
anbiic gucll gl. magister auc Ox2 46
h
(10.26)
Kuerc/aud n f&m 'meadow"
MW gueirclaud, gweirclod
The compound contains a reflex of Celt. *yesro- (Olr fer, W gwair) 'grass' (see
E. Hamp in Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 12 (196Y). rr. 156-7, and pp. 158-69 for
an inventory of IE cf. P. Stiles in KZ 9R (19R5), pp. 295-301), and claK'dd
·ditch, gutter, trench' (C kledh, cleatll ·ditch, trench', B kreuz, OIr clad < IE
*kliid- 'schlagen, haucn' (Elsie: RR: GPC: 491: E. 'lamp, Cia,,,: Lucus a non
Lucendo. 11K. J. Klar et 01., cds.. A Celtic Florilegium. Lawrence 1997. pp. 4(}-1:
lEW: 545ff; LElA: C-I09). See OWAV.
GPC: VVB: 136
guerclaud gl. prato Ox2 41 h (I. I
guerin n m&f 'people' (gwerinJ
MW guerin, gwerin: OB guerin gl. in duas fnctioncs: Olr foircnn gl. factio
< *{iorfllii , IE *yer- 'hindcn. anreihen·. see Schrijver: 12Q for *Ua- / *uc-.
DGVB: 189: GPC: 1643: lEW: 1151: LJ-IEB: fl05: J. Pokorny in KZ 45 (IQI3).
pp.36o-1: VGK: L 375: J. Vendrycs in RC' JJ (1912), r.47J: VVI3: 1.17
guerin gT. factio J 24
guetid v pres. 3 sg 'to speak"
The interpretation is that of I. Williams. according to which the form is a cognnte
of dyu'edyd, etc. The IE backgrounds arc disputahle: *Ur/- of this form was c1Clim4
cd by GPC to he a varinnt of IE *Urd- (Sanskrit ,·ndali). \vhieh is not in lEW.
Bromwich: 1980,99-100: (,PC: 1152: White: 110; Willillnls: 14HO. (}l)
dou nam riceus unguctid Juv J (3.3)
guetig adv•., prep., conj. 'after(wards)'
See guotig and cf. JO: 102-3.
rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2
dimcdichat guetig hit did braut Chad 2
grefiat guetig Chad 2
Iluiannuin n m
MW guah"nuyn. guayanuhin. gtlahanuyn, gUClcnhucn. g\v:lnh"·yn.
/1
" .
.s:'

"\ ".
68
wyn; OC guaintoin gl. ver
< *,!esanteno-, IE vyes- 'Frilhling'
GPC: 1575; lEW: 1174; LHEB: 361; oev: 200; PECA: 53; VGK: I, 74; VVB:
137
o guiannuin gl. vere Ovid 40
b
guich(i)r
t
adj. 'violent, fierce, (brave)' [gwychr]
MW guychir, gwychyr; OB guichr gl. ferinus; OIr feuchir, feuchuir
The entry is traditionally connected with IE *,!eik- 'energische, bes. feindselige
Kraft3uBerung'. The -ch- is left unexplained. See also the next entry.
DGVB: 190; GPC: 1749; lEW: 1129; Loth in RC 38 (1920-1), p.299; VGK: I,
122; VVB: 137
guichir gl. effrenus J 27
guichr gl. effera J 69
guichr'- n (name of. letter)
See guich(i)r
1

guichr Nemn
guid n coli. 'tree(s)' [gwydd]
MW guit, guyt, gwyd; OC guiden gl. arbor, OB guid, OIr fid, G. vidu-
< IE *'lidhu- 'Baum'
DGVB: 190; ope: 1753; lEW: 1177; oev: 290; PECA: 56; VGK: I. 41; Wil-
liams: 1980,106
cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
goil.t adj. 'merry, glad' [gwylad)
MW gwylat
An -at derivation from guiJ, see guiled.
GPC: 1760; VVB: 138
guilat gl. hilaris Ox2 45
3
(8.18)
piled n m 'modesty' (gwyleddl
MW gvilet, gwyled; OB guiled gl. honestas; aIr fele gl. honestas
An -edd derivative of Celt. *'leiiv- (MW gwyl, guyl 'modest', cf. Irish [fa/); for the
further history of this etymon see VGK: I, 181 and (differently) T. F. O'Rahilly in
Celtica 1 (1950), p. 365 f. This word was recently considered by E. Hamp (in BBCS
28 (1980), p. 213) who analyses it as a participle in *-10- of the root *lJei- 'drehen,
biegen', on which see lEW: 1120. Cf. also anguil.
DGVB: 191; GPC: 1761; VVB: 138
6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
guillihim n m 'sheep-shears. stissors' (gwellau]
MW guelliu, guelle(u), gwellau; MB guelteff
from gwallt 'hair" (OC gols, OB guolt) < IE *uel- 'Haar, Wolle'; note
the suffix. See also gulan.
GP(": lEW: 1139; VVB: IJR
guillihim gl. forceps Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
69
guin n m 'wine' r J
MW gvin, gwin, OC guin fellet gl. accetum, MB guin, guyn, Olr nn
< Lat. vil1um
GPC: 1662; ML: 175; OCV: 371-2; PECA: VGK: I, 210; VVB: 138-9
guin gl. uinum Ox2 44
a
(6.20)
gui[n?] cip n f 'wine-press, wine-vat'
A hapax in Welsh. The compound consists of gu;n (see s.v.), and £",." <
Lat. cupa.
GPC: 1664; Stokes: 1860-1, 222; VVB: IJ7-R
claur guicip gl. prelum (quod fit super faciem torcularis) J 78
guinlsnn n f 'vineyard; vine' (gwinllanI
MW gwinllan
See guin, and lann (it/ann).
GPC: 1665; Stokes: 1860-1,221; WG: 73; VVB:
guinlann gl. uitis J 77
guir· n m 'law' [gwirJ
MW guir, gwir; OC guirion gl. verax; OB guir; G Covirus; aIr ffr
< Celt. *LJiros < IE *l.Jero·s 'wahr' (lEW: 1166)
GPC: 1666; JO: 99-100; MJ: 271; DeV: 186; PECA: 57: VGK: I. 50: WG: 75
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
gui,.J- adj. 'true' r
See guir·; see also t••erdutou t1 guird••••
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.h.
guird adj. 'green' rgwyrdd]
MW guirt, gwyrd; OC guirt gl. viridis. MB guczr: Ir urdai
< Lat. viridis
OPC: 1762; LHEB: 58; ML: 177; oev: 210; 5R; VGK: I, 214: VVB: 140
guird gl. herbida Me 6 a.a.
puirdglll... adj.
MW gwyrd(d)las; B gurlas
See guird, gIllS.
ope: 1783; Lambert: 1982a, 22; VVB: 140
oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a.
nouirgu1rdglas gl. sali resplendcntis Me 3 a.a.
/JuirdJiu n & adj. 'green (colour)' (gwyrddliwJ
MW gwirtliv, gwyrdliw, gwyrtliw; the ()W form not considered hy GPC'
This compound contains guird 'green', and fill 'colour'. See Rllird, hll and cf.
glas/ill.
GPC: 1783
guirctliu gl graminCtJrll nNR I'"

f..
,..
70
guirdou n pi 'miracles, signs' [gwyrth]
MW guirth, gwyrth; OIr firtu
< Lat. virtus
ope: 1786; ML: 177; Williams: 1980,109
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
pith see quith
guithennou n f pi 'veins' [gwith(i)enJ
MW gwyth(i)en
A -en derivative, cf. W gwyth (MW guyth, gwyth(i), DC guid gl. vena, Olr [eith
'vein·; OB goed (Leiden Leech-Book) does not belong here. According to J.
Pokorny this is a loan from Lat. vitta; according to E. Campanile the words go
back to ·witt;- "d' ignoto etyma". For the discussion of the (proto-)forms, see
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.201-4.
GPC: 1791; lEW: OCV: 60; PECA: 56; VGK: I, 14; VVB: 140
guithtnn6u gl. uenae J 43
guithl8un adj. 'angry, furious' (gwythlon]
MW gwythlawn, gwythlon
A -faun (see s.v. reulaun) derivative of W gwyth, for this see guoguith, guithennou.
GPC: 1792; VVB: 141
or guithlaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51
gulan n m 'wool, down, soft hair' [gwlan]
MW gwlan; OC g)uan gl. lana; MB glan; OIr olann from British
< Celt. < *LJel- cHaar, Wolle'
De Bernardo Stempel: 134; GPC: 1680; lEW: 1139; LElA: 0-19; DeV: 360;
PECA: 49; Schrijver: 177; VGK: 1,158; VVB: 141
gulan.gl. lana Ovid 40
1
go/at n f 'country, kingdom' (gwlad]
OW (LL) gulat, MW gulat, gulad, gwlad, gwlat; cf. OW (Oen: 10) gu)etic; DC
gulat gl. patria; 08 OIr flaith
< Celt. ·yla-ti-, < lE ·gal- 'stark sein'
OGVB: GPe: lEW: 1112; oev: 310; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 171-2;
VGK: I, 157; VVB: 14J WG: 82
fssft padfu gulat gi, celsi thronus est cui regia coeli J 19
pled n r'feast' [gwleddl
MW gulet, gwled; OC Ceenguled, cf. G. Vlido-rix; aIr fled
< Celt. < IE VLJel- 'wollen, wahlen' (lEW: 1137)
De Bernardo Stempel: Ill; DOVB: 193; GPC: 1682; VVB: 141
gl. pompae J 86
gulip adj. 'liquid, Igw.yb)
MW gulip, gwlyp'l gwlyb; DB gulip, OC glihor gl. humor; Olr fliuch
< IE -flilc-fl-. V'dr'''. 'fcuchL naB· (lEW: 1145)
71
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: 193: Elsie: 145; GOI: 64; ope: 1685; DeV:
207; PECA: VGK: I, 60, VVB: 141
guJip gJ. fluctibus in Jiquidis J 60
gulip gJ. lequefacta (timore) J 60
guobri adj. 'dignified, honourable" Igofri I
MW gowri, gofri
The word contains a prefix gllo « *tIO) and the stem hri (C brv, 08
cumbri, uuobr;, MB hry, Olr brfg) < *8"cr-i-, Vg"('r- 'schwer· (lEW: 477: US: 185;
VGK: L 101 and 11,6(1).
L. Fleuriot in EC 20 (19H3) pr. ll4-{); ope: 1432,323; LHEB: 456; LElA: 8-90;
VVB: 142
guobri gl. gravis Ovid 40
a
guobrisch adj. comp. 'more dignified'
Comparative degree of gllobri, sec s. v.
GPC: 1432; LHEB: 448, 459; VVB: 142
guobriach gJ. sapientior Ovid 37
h
guoceleseticc adj. 'tickled'
Hapax in Welsh; an -(i)edig derivative of W goglai,4j 'tickle·. gnKleis;o 'to tickle' <
go + clais (cf. OIr clas) < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, hallen', see GPC: 4R9; lEW: 545;
LElA: C-114. See also guerclaud.
ope: 1437; VVB: 142
natoid guocelcscticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. b.
guodemis8uch v pret. 2 pi 'to sufTer, bear, tolerate"
MW god(d)cf; C godhaf. B gonzav; Olr fodaim-
I. Williams suggested reading gllodenlisoltch instead of the previouslv accepted
guodeimisauclt. Etymologically, Celt. *tlo-danl- to IE dnnl;J: 4
z
ilhmen,
bandigen'.
GPC: 1425; lEW: 199-200: LElA: D-IO; V(,K: II, 295. VVB: 142: White:
186; Williams: 1929,5
ni ccin guodemisauch gl. non hene passel Ovid J9:l
guogs/tou?
Stokes considered this to be gila-galt 'energy', cf. gafft ?
Stokes: 1873, VVB: 142
guogaitou gJ. fulcris Me 61 b.b.
guoguith adj. 'vanquished'
Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix guo- and the stem found in OW see
s.v.
GPC: 1517; VVB: 142
guoguith gl. victtls Ovid 41 a
Kuoi/aut n m 'hoftom, ha..e'
()W (LL) gurei)ant. MW gwaChl\\'t: MB gOOf'lcd. gnlc\;
f
1,·..
f
'I
,".
72
A derivative of (M)W gwael 'miserable'; the word is quoted in lEW: 1111 in the
en1ry .lJai- 'schwach, elend', cf. J. Loth in RC 39 (1922), p.417; GPe: 1549;
J. Morris Jones's alternative explanation (IE *upo-ped-lo- in view of Lat. pessi·
mus, WG: 247) was claimed to be more persuasive, cf. Schrijver: 132.
GPC: 1550; Schrijver: 115
in guoilaut clun Chad 6
gaoled vn 4to retreat from, avoid' [goleithi-]
MW goleith
Etymologically, contains go-, and llaith, which according to ope could be identi-
cal with the word for 'death' (OPC: 2091).
GPC: 1448; White: 292-5; Williams: 1980, 118-20
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
guolleu;n n m 'the west' (gorllewin]
MW gollewin, gollewein, gorllewin
This reading (instead of the earlier guolleuni) was suggested by T. H. Parry-Wil-
liams. The word is perhaps a derivative of lieu 'light', see loyr.
apc: 1489; Parry· Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1,224; VVB: 143-4; WG: 40
bet circhinn frg60lleuni gl. usque sub occiduum coeli J 84
guoJlung "n 'to let go or, let fall, drop; set free' I 'release' [gollyog-]
MW go))ug, gollw(n)g
< Celt. < IE *legh- '(sich) legen' (lEW: 658); differently by J. Lloyd
Jones (to IE ·'onk I jenk); according to Parry-Williams: 122 this instance shows
Irish interference. See Schrijver: 434.
GPC: 1457; J. Lloyd Jones in BBCS 1 (1923) 7; VVB: 144
guollung 1. ruid gl. uacuum J 65
popelJ see goBpel;
guOI prep. 'over' [gor-, gwor-]
OW (LL) guar. MW gar, gwar; C gor, DB guor-, gor-; Ir for
< Celt.. *ld
o
,-, < ] E • uper- 'tiber, oberhalb' (lEW: 1105); see also guar and guor-
cosom.
naVB: 198; GMW: 188; GOI: 513; GPC: 173 and 1459; E. Hamp in BBCS 15
(1953), p. E. Hamp in SC 7 (1972), pp.155-6
VVB: 132
Intrited retec.. relit ]oyr _. guorhir seraul.circhl Comp 2
guOl1lut v pret .. 3 sg 'to deliver, to save' [gwared-]
MW guaraud.. gwared(-), guaret(-); G. Voretovirus, OIr fo-reith
< -¥o-re,-.. cf. Lat. ilfccurro; see also guorit. For the etymology, see retec.
GPC: 1582; White: Williams: 1980, 110
anguorit anguoraut lu\' 9 (5.2)
KUorrosJlm 11 pres. 1 'to talk' (1), 4to watch over' (1)
Accordi ng 10 I. WiJlicl ms, this vcrh contains preposition (prefix?) guor-, And the
73
stem is the latter allows for a multiple interpretation. one chosen by
GPC is to see in it the same clement as in danRos, i.e. IE *kell.'l- 4feierlich spre-
chen, vcrkundigen' (lEW: 5(6), cf. Lat. Cl'Il.\'l'O. In his 1943 paper I. Williams
compared the cos in cO.'ltou'g and postulated cO.Haw "'atch over' (see gosgnr),
then 'I do not keep guard', which according to R. Brnmwich. gives "excellent
sense in the englyn". Sec also elisa!.
Bromwich: GPC: White: Williams in BBC·S II (1943), pp.81-2;
Williams: 1980, 92-3
niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1)
Kuordiminntiu.fi n m 'perverseness" r I
MW gordyfynt, gordiwynt
According to GPC, < ? + di- (neg) + *'''('/It-, as in gor!r"t « *{,lor-",e1lt-)
4zeal' the clement -illS is thus left unexplained.
1473; LHEB: VVB: Williams: I<}JJ. 114.
oguordiminntius gl. ab invito Ovid 39
h
guorennieu 0 pi 'fractions" ounces'
OB doguorennnam gl. pcrfundo
Hapax in Welsh. The word is analysed hy GPC' as the second element is
attested in the law-texts (GMWL: 16J-4). and means 4hig vat or vessel. tuh, pail.
pitcher; dry and liquid measure of uncertain capacity'. Another possihility (I. Wil-
liams, cf. J. Loth in RC 41 (1924), pro 400--40.1) is to see in this word a cognate of
W rhall" cf. OC renniat gl. dillisor. for this see LElA: R-7. PECA: 90-1: see rann.
Note the plural ending. which is exceptiollClI for this period.
DGVB: 148.295; GPC: 1474: LI-lEB: J71: VVB:
is xxx ha guorcnnieu guotig MP 22
h
(2JO)
guonr;t 0 m 'addition, extension'
OW LL 56lanworfrit, 287 Ian Worfrit, 62. 124, 2551ann gurfrit. 215 guorfric MW
cf. 08 gurprit gl. sllperstitiose
Possibly a cognate of Irish sret". see Williams: 19.10. cf. LElA: 5-93-5 for
etymology. See also afncibret
OGV8: 202; GPC: 1483
isit petguarcd pard guor frit nim MP 2J
Cl
(241)
KllorKnim n 'great toil, exertion'
This word is found (twice) only in the Juvcncus 9. Etymologically. gllor- s.v.),
and 8"il1' 4labour, toil' (OB i11'gIl08"il", air 8"(11'. V(,K: II. 540f). cf. aIr
!orgnent.
DGVB: GPC: 149.1; Ilaycock: Watkins: 19R2. 31. fn. Williams: 19RO,
Ill; White: 302-3
ni guo.gnim molim trintaut Juv <} (5.3)
nitguorgnim molim map mcir Juv <) (9.9)
K"orK"sc- adj. 'entirely empty or ,'oid'
r"f \\'
'\"'"
74
P.- Y. Lambert rejects the reading of Fleuriot, who compared this entry with W
diorwac. Instead he suggests that the gloss contains not a prefix, but rather a
preposition di, see S.v. and corresponds to W y orwac 'au vide'. W gorl·vag (GPC:
1504 does not mention this instance) is analysed as containing prefix gor-, and
guac, see s.V.
DOVE: 141 and 332; Lambert 1983, 131
diguorguac gl. inani Ang 14 b
guo';' v pres. 3 sg '10 deliver, to save'
See guoraWI.
White: 102-3
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
guonnod adj. 'too much, excessive, superfluous' [gonnod]
MW gormod
The suggestion of J. Lloyd-Jones (cf. OPC) to analyse this word as *upor-tttbhi-
mod- is superseded by that of E. Hamp who considers here a chain ·uks-mod >
*ymod- > *yor-ymod; see also P. Russell's comments.
OPC: 1492; Hamp: 1977/78, 12-3; J. Lloyd-Jones in BBCS 2 (1925), p.l04;
P. Russell in Eriu 39 (1988), p.117
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20.
porsed n m&r 'assembly, court, hall' [gorsedd]
MW gOJ5(s)et, guorsed; MB goursez, OIr forad
The word contains a prefix and the stem sed-, IE ysed- 'sitzen
1
(lEW:
884 The presence of the second prefix (*-en- according to J. Morris Jones, or *-
uks- according to E. Hamp) presupposes the antiquity of the term. On the other
hand, Loth"s criticism of the theory of the second prefix could be adequate 1 if the
word is a later coinage I see Sims-Williams.
GPC: Hamp: 1917-8,13; J. Loth in RC 36 (1915), p. 396; P. Sims-Williams,
Some Celtic Otherworld Terms. // A. T. E. Matonis, D. F. Melia, cds., Celtic
Language, Celtic Cul1ure. Ford & Bailie: Van Nuys 1990, pp.64-5; WG: 78;
Williams: 1980, 112-3
it clu(i)s (it] d,ban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
guol'!e"giT v pres. impel'S. '10 press' [gorsang-]
W gorseng-, gW8rsang-
This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1495. It contains a prefix guor- and the radical
sang.. , for the etymology of the latter see Schrijver: 423.
DGVB: 199
guorsengir gl. eKprimi tur Ang 15 a
guortholle;r ?
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
Kuol1lnlretic adj. 'noisy'
Hapa)E in Welsh. The reading is suggested by H. Lewis. An -edig derivative of
(cf. MB krrrrrn)
75
GPe: 1502; H. Lewis in BBCS II (1944L p, H4: VVI3: 145
in irguorunhetic datI gl. in arguto foro Ovid JR:l
gu(o)tan prep. 'under'
Following WG and I. Williams (1930: 244) == () on () da". a dan, )' dOll 5ee
J. E. Caerwyn Williams in BBC'S 1.1 (1950). pp.6-7 and PKM: 170. The spelling
1
however, is noteworthy.
GMW: 209; VVB: 1451 Schrijvcr: WG: 399
irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22h (23R)
ho hinnoid guotan amcibfret MP 23:1 (241)
oimer (didu) ?
The reading of the line. which is far frorn clear. was suggested hy I. Williams; see
Haycock: 12 for the further suggestions. Sec also (Iidll.
Williams: 19RO, 109-10
guotiapaur oimcr didu Juv () (4.3)
guotig prep. 'after' fgwedi J
MW (g)wedy, (g)wedi; 08 guet(i) or guet(ig) gl. secundum. guted
< Britt. *LJo-tig., IE *(s)teig- 'stechen1 spitz'; cf. Olr Sec also guetig
1
in
which i-affection is indicated.
OGVB: 190; GPC: 160R; lEW: Lamhert: IQX6. 110: LElA: T-7f1: LHEB:
455,607,615-7; Schrijver: 113: VGK: L J75: VVD: 146
is xxx ha guorennicu guotig MP 22
h
(230)
?
Meaning unclear. The gloss is rendered hy P,- Y, Lamhert as "des guotndinou":
for the considerations on the etymology of this \vord and the meaning of the Latin
context, see Lambert: 19R2a.
DGVD: 200 and Lamhert: 19X2a. 2) fn. I: L(lmhert: 19HJ, 12(i
inn() ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarurn n(ltll Allg 6H h
?
('C. OB guotric, W godrig: on the latter see (,PC': 142.1
DGVB: 200; Lambert: 19H7, J()3: Williams: IQJ.1. 115
nouinnguo/tricusegetic/ion gl. nec delata diu J 4
guoun n r'meadow" [gwaun)
OW (LL) guoun; MW gwawn1 gwcun; OC gucn gl. campus: OB goen. MB gueun:
British PN Vagniacis; cf. Olr fan
The traditional reconstruction 1 which was suggested first hy V. Henry (lnd accep-
ted by Loth, contrast WG: 95 (lnd J. Lloyd-Jones in BHeS 2 (1925). p. 290
1
is
*LJog-nii from IE *y..,g-: Illig... seine, Its relationship to Lat. 1I0KlIJ is
disputable. Sec OWAV.
L. Fleuriot in EC (19R6). pp. (fPC: 1603: E. Hamp in BBC'S 26 (1976),
pp.30-1 and 139; Henry: 132: lEW: 1120: Loth in RC ..'\6 (IQ1:<'). p. IRI: OCV:
PErA: )9: 1<)<.)1. 7.'
di !!uoun hen lann ('had (l
I,
....
76
gur n m 'man' [gwr)
OW (LL) gur; MW gur, gwr; OC, OB gur; OIr fer
< IE *yiro..s 'Mann' (lEW: 1177)
DGVB: 201; GPe: 1693; LHEB: 337; OCV: 106; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 151;
VGK: It 42; VVB: 147
gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
irgur hunnuid .i. mercurius gl. celebrat Me 4 b.a.
guragun v. imp.1 pi "to make' [gwn-)
IE *lJerg-, *ljreg- ·wirken., tun'
GPe: 1688-90; JO: 101-2; lEW: 1168; LL: xliv; MJ: 271-2; Isaac: 333-4; White:
270-1
guragun tage Chad 2
gurd prep. 'atcording to' [wrth)
See gllrt; cr. Williams: 1980, 115 for the meaning.
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
gurrhie adj. 'female'
A cognate of W gwraig, OC grueg, greg, MB gruec. According to Loth (RC 36
(1915), p. 127) 11 is used here to indicate a dipththong. The origin is uncertain; cf.
Elsie: 148, PECA: 53.
GPC: 1698; VGK: I, 161; VVB: 147-8
strotur gurehic gl. sambuca Ox2 43a (5.5)
gurmaur adj. '"ery great, huge' [gorfawr)
MW goruaur
A combination of intensive prefix gor- (Ope: 1459), see guar, guor; and mallr
see s.V.
GPC: 1478; Williams: 1980,95
mitelu nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1.2)
gun prep. 'against' [wrthl
MW wrth; 08 gurth Me (w)orth; Ir fri(th)
The traditional reconstruction derives this preposition from IE *LJer-t 'drehen,
wenden"; according to P. Schrijver (in Eriu 45 (1994), pp.151-89), the Celtic
forms reflect Celt, "!.',it-i (PIE dative or locative of the root-noun See also
gurd.
De Bernardo Stempel: 115; DGVB: 203, 145; D. S. Evans in BBCS 17 (1958),
pp. 15-21; GMW: 213; E. Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953), pp.124-5; LHEB: 337;
lEW: 1156; Schrijver: 158; VGK: 1,43-44; VVB: 148; WG: 406; J. E. C. Williams
in Celtica 3 (1956), pp. 126-148
gurt paup gl. consistes [i.e. contra quemvis] Ovid 39
b
,orl _ri<,,,;(,O v pres. 2 sg 'to decide' (?)
Hapa,; in Welsh. According to I. Williams, gwrth-trychi-di (cp. helghati gl.
venare). the Jr.vflr" ·cut' (IE *trrllk-, *ter- 'rciben', lEW: 1074) perhaps
77
a calque on de-cido, conl-I'"/0. It was noted hy F. White that it is possible to
connect this entry with MW verb Kwrth(dd)rych. 'look upon· (with the root < IE
*derk- 'hlickcn', lEW: 21.1), hut the orthography of Rurt triehiti makes this
assumption dubious.
GPC: 1718; Williams: 1927, White: R4-5
gurt trichiti nacgcnci C'0J11P 16
gur tum n m increment'
W gorthwf, gordwf
A comhination of which \vns corllpnfed hy I. WilJianls "'ith thnt of Juv. gllr
111aU,.. nno flo" (MW lnf, ()13 tI,," < IE *110110- \lick', lEW: IOX2: [JliVR: J25 nnd
334). A rather tentative suggestion of I. Willillms nn the connection of this Welsh
word with G (Coligny) VERTOMV, r('elc [)IVERT()MV, hns heen fecentlv con-
sidered by St. Zimmer: alongside a tentatively offered proto-form for the riaulish
word as *di- + *tler-Ioy-/nn- (IE V/eyl/- 'schwcllen') he elahoratcs several other
suggestions.
DGVB: 325; GPe·: 1499: Hamp: i<J77-X. St. ZilnmeL Gallisch I)IVER-
TOMV, kymrisch /lower. tocharisch A U·01l/-Wrll.'ik.f. /1 A. Luhotsky. ed .. Sound
Law and Analogy. Amsterdanl - Atlanta: Rodopi 19Y7. pr.253-4: Williams:
1927,263
is gur tUln tarnctor ir Inc guac haihid pos,. n, C'omp 7
Kurth 1 prep. 'opposite'
See Klir/
l
• and KlIrtlrre/.
haeet isgurth. ir SCfenn C"ornp 10
gurth
2
'in comparison with, compared with'
Sec gurth t •
Ameen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: -"'
gurthBret n 'one who strives, or for somethinJt·
Hapax in Welsh. Analysed hy GPC as gu.,.,h- (sec RUf,h) + elf. Accord-
ing to Flcuriot, DGVB: 311. the second cJenlent here is for 'vcnt;c', o'er. 08 lar:
but see S. v. tor.
GPC: 1715: VVB: 149
gurtharet gl. appetitofium Ox2 4J" (5.3)
gurth cimsrch vn 'to address, inquire, ask'
The gloss has heen rendered as 'head of the council': sec also ('en". \\'ord
finds a perfect match in W gu'r/lrgJlarclr, cf. ()Ir free/l1orc. though GPC does not
quote this example. It is analysed as (sec Rur/") + (\10rclr. i.e. c.\f - arch.
see erchi,n.
DaB: 537; OOVB: 2R4; GPC': 1725-fl
penngurthcimarch gl. primas Prise 37 a
Kurthdo v pres. 3 'to oppose, resist' I prep. p.... rs. 3 pl. th£'m' (?)
The form is analysed as a vcrh (gllrt". sec s.v,. and (l persona) form of the verh ·to
I
: /1.::
. r
!
I
, ..
18
come'); Stokes: 1860-1,289 considered this entry as a preposition (see S.v. gurth
l
).
GPC: 1720; VVB: 149; Williams 1933: 115
gurthdo gl. obsistit J 3
gurth(rJet" pres. 3 sg 'to run back, run opposite, retrograde' [?gwrthred-]
MW gwrthred-, i.e. gurth + rhed-, see S.V.v.; according to I. Williams, in Compo
this is "either a scribal error for gurthret or a variant of it (cp. parthed, parthred) or
that it is synonymous with it". It was suggested by E. Hamp, however, that the
form should be segmented as pigurlh ret ("what star against-which runs the
moon"), in which case the verb is a simplex ret-, see relec. This instance will be
discussed in an article by A. Falileyev and G. Isaac (in progress).
GPC: 1131; Hamp: 1975-6, 65; White: 98-7; Williams: 1927,261
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
proche/leroa n pi 'heights" [goruchelder]
MW goruchelder
Contains base ucheJ (see s. v. uuc), prefix gor-, and suffix -der. According to
Aeuriot. this form could be also Breton. This instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 215; GPC: 1501
o gurucheltoii g1. deffectum gl. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a
plan see guofllll
H
hal conj. 'and'
See al. See also !1ac, ha crip, hoi, and cf. the next.
har dou trean gl. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
ha chepi. hinn inguir Camp 21
hagener tutd Chad but see S.V. gener
haluidt iuguret Chad 2
douceint torth ha maharuin Chad 3
ha douceint torth Chad 3
ha huch Chad 3
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
h[a maha]ruin Chad 4
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
cet treidin gue' haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
un harned flapuiJ baper Juv 9 (9.1)
ha
2
conj. 'Iod· (with interpretations)
I) un harned Jrapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1). Contrary to I. Williams (Williams: 1980.
120). who considered this instance as a relative pronoun, followed by verb, T. A.
Watkins 1982.42) argues for its interpretation as a conjunction.
79
2) is xxx ha guorcnnicll MP 22h (230). According toJ. Willianls, this is a variant of
the preposition 0 'of. Recently P.- Y. Larnhcrt h(ls reconsidered this in favour of
H. Lewis's reading, \vhich suggests the meaning '(lnd' (Lamhert: I97(}--7. 529:
Lewis: 1926,3: Williams: 1930, 231).
3) ha hanner gl. dodrantis (Ang IJ h). \\'(lS not considered hy Fleuriot
(DGVB: 207) as a Welsh form. hut as it is folhn\'ed by a Welsh \\·ord. this could be
perhaps considered as Welsh.
ha
J
prep. 'or' ?
According to P.- Y. I...nnlhert this stnnds for 'Clnd·. Sec hal.
I-Iaycock: I L Lambert: 1976-7, .s2Y: Williafns: IYHO. 107
dicones pater haritncd presen Juv 9 (3. ))
ha
4
relative particle
See hai and also a'5. ha crip.
is did ciman. haci Comp 3
irloc quac habid pOJt .0. Comp 9
harodes Chad 7
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha hcinn cihunn MP 22
h
(234)
exclamative particle
See a
ha arcibrenou gl. sepulti Ovid 39"
ha erip 'who combs'
Most interpretations of this entry consider it as a gloss over elln, pecrine and
rendered this phrase as the combination of the conjunction 'and' (a). and ('rip (n
m&f 'comh. wool-card. curry-comh·. MW erih. cry": MB crih), see DGVB: 5:
ope: 594; Hamp: 1973,91-2; VVB: RR. It \vas suggested hy P.-Y. Lamhert that
this is a gloss over pectens: he nnalyses ha as a relative particle, and crih as a
personal form of the \vord 'to comb', 'qui pcignc'.
Lambert: 1976-7.529: Lamhert: 19R7, JOO
ha crip gl. pectens Ovid 42;1
hac conj. 'and'
See hal.
hac in irgueleri Comp 16
hacboi gl. excusiendus (leg. excuticndus] erit Ovid 39:1
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h
hac diglniuhit gl. let] eliqlla Ox2 44
h
(7.20)
hacen conj. 'hut, however' f )
MW hagen; C hagen, B hogcn
Several analyses of this word have hccn offered. According to .J. Loth and V. IJcn-
ry, the first part is identical \\lith a(c). 11(1«('). sec s.v. Morris-Jones Cl proto-
form *aggis(,lli.
GPC: IXII: Henry: )0): VVR: \Vr,: 44.1
hacefl gl. h a.
, --
80
hscet see hac(c)el
hac(c)et conj. 'and so'
According to I. Williams, this word which is not attested in later Welsh contains ac
'and' and et (as in nogyt, noget) 'so'. See a, ha.
DGVB: 205; GMW: GPe: 5; Williams: 1927,265
haccet. nitegid. di.a. Camp 8
Haeet isgurth. ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Camp 10
hac&aucimp& gl. superlatiuus multo Prisc 27 a
hail relative parlirle
MW ae, ai, ay
According to P. Schrijver, this could go back to ·sosin, cf. Irish a n- 'that (which)',
and the development of •hoi (n-) to hai and a is explained by the loss of stress.
GMW: 63; 10: 96; D. Howels in SC 1 (1966), p. 46; Isaac: 57; P. Schrijver in Briu
45 (1994), pp. WG: 287
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
ir loe guac haibid post. o. Camp 8
iT serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
iT loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 17
hai bid im guar phenn circbl naunecant Camp 22
tir telih haioid ilau elcu Chad 2
hai
2
'and his'; see ha, ';
JO: 107
tutbulc hai cenet] Ch ad 2
hair n r'war, battle' reer]
MW aer, OB air, G. Verogri; Ir ar
< *agro- ... IE '*ag- ·lreiben
9
(lEW: 4)
DGVB: 58; GPC: 37; LElA: A-82; LHEB: 461; VGK: I, 103; VV8: 34-5
hair gI. cladis 0;<2 46a (9.28)
ha' see 80r is aenc:umha'
ha'ou n pi 'filth, dung, manure'
Hapax in Welsh, A cognate of OIr sal and (with guttural suffix, cf. MW
halauc, W. horog ·dirty·) 0 B haloc gl. lugubri, OIr salach < IE *501- 'schmutzig-
grau'.
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: 1815-6; lEW: 879; LElA: S-16; J. Loth in RC 43
(1926) pp.139-l41; VGK: 1,72,216; VVB: 150
halou gl. stercora 0;(2 44
h
(7.. 5)
h8m =(h)s'm 'and my'; see h.
1
, m
VVB: 151
ham hoi enep gl. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4t
b
(1.10)
RI
hBm n m 'summer' (hart
MW OB ham, MC haf, G. Samon[ios); air sam
< IE *S1!1IJ- (*JeI11· 4Sommcr', lEW: 90S)
DGVB: 206; GPC: E. Hamp in BBC:S 2R (1979), p.217; LElA: 5-19'
Schrijver: 460; VGK: 1,71 '
in irham Chad 3
han adj. 'different, other' (hanI
MW han; aIr according to GPC. this is the only adjectival usage of 110"
4scparation' in Wclsh
< *selli- < IE *selli- 'ftir sich, abgesondcrf; sec also Izanalld
GPC: 1818; Hamp: 1982, lEW: 907; Isaac: LElA: S-14-15; J. Lloyd..
Jones in BBCS 11 (1944), pp.133--6; Stokes: IX7.1. VVJ3: 1)1
han gl. alium Me 51 a.a.
hBnaud prep. 3 sg m 'out from/of him I if
See han, o.
GMW: 59; GPC: Schrijvcr: Williams: 1<J27. 25R-9.
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp I
hanner n m 'hair (hanner)
Ow (lL), MW OB hanter, C. hanter
< IE *s1!,tero, ysel11- 'cins' (lEW: 9(2). For the uloss I'll A I t ng.. sce lert:
1984a, 186-7. Sec also anter1netetic.
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: GPC: IH2L 'Iarnp: 14X2. 217: LElA:
A-49; LHEB: 503; VGK: I. VVB: 151
moment ha hanner gl. scmuncias horarum Ang 1.1 h
dou punt petguar hanthcr scrihl MP 22
h
(234)
hanther see hanner
hared n m&f 'song, verse' raraifh)
MW araith; C areth: Olr airccht
LElA: A-43, which does not mention the ()W instllflce. considers here IF *rek-
'briillcn. schrcien' (cf. lEW: H60). and notcs the ohscurity of the "'ord fnnnation,
This instance is taken as the scrihc's mistakc for (1"(1111. sec s.V.
GPC: Haycock: Williams: 19XO, 114
it cluis it humil inharcd crlmed Juv 9 (7.1)
hathid v pres. 3 sg '10 pass away, vanish'
Prefix ad- (sec S.v. ad
l
), and the form of the verh 'to he'; for the MW forms
GMW: 145.
GPC: 30; Williams: 1927,271 .
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt C'omp 20
haur see allr
t. :
82
he/11th... n 'extremljy, end' lelthaf)
ow (LL) eithaf; MW eithaw, eithaf; OB etam
< IE *eghs... 'aus'
DGVB: 167; GPe: 1202; lEW: 292; VGK: 1,404; VVB: 151; WG: 176
biheit he[iltham ir eguin MP 23a (241)
he/cluJ m 'to hunl'
See helghaJi.
inhelcha gl. in uenando Me 39 a.b.
helghB(Ii) v imp. Zsg 'to hunt' [hel.. )
MW hel-; DC helhiat gl. persecutor, helhpur gI. venator, Me (verb) .OB
a olguo gl. MB (verb) (h)emholch; Irish selg; probably In the tnbe...
name Seigovae
< Britt. ·selg·, IE Vselg- &Ioslassen, ensenden, werfen, ausgieBen'
DGVB: 68; Elsie: 10.'; GPC: 1844; lEW: 900; Lambert: 1987,295; LHEB: 467;
LElA: 5-80; OCV: 116, 146; PECA: 62; VGK: I, 106; VVB: 152; WG: 387;
White: 268-9 ....
helghati gl. venare Ovid 38·
hen see hends'
henC"sssou n pi 'antiquities' . '.
A brittonised lrish form (OIr senchas, on this see K. McCone In Enu 46 (1995),
p. 1 see also s. v. hendat.
LElA: 5-84; Stokes: 1860-1,217-8; Thurneysen: 1890a, 93; VVB: 152
hencassou gl. monimenta J 49
henda' n m 'grandfather' [hendad]
MW hendad; OB hentatot gl. paternus auus (?); DC hendat gl.
auus
The compound contains O\y hen 'old' (OW (Gen: 10) [R]iderch hen, Dumngual
hen; LL hen(n), MW G. Seno-; Ir. sen) < IE *sen- 'alt', lEW: 907, and tat
'father' (OC tal, Be tad) < IE *tata- 'Lallwort' (lEW: 1056).
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: 1850; DeV: 76-7; PECA: 62; VVB: 152
hendat gl. auus Ox2 43
b
(5.28)
henmam n f 'gnndmother' [henfam]
MW henvam., henfam
The compound contains OW hen 'old', see s.v. hendat, and mam (MW mom, OC
mam, see GPC: 2332), derived from IE *ma- 'Lallwort ftir Mutter' (lEW: 694), or
analy!ied as a loan from Lat. malnma (PECA: 76).
ope: 1851; VVB 152-3
henmam gl. habira Ox2 43
b
(5.28)
henoid adv. 'to-night' [henol
MW heno(eth); C MB henoez
8.. l
< *.w'·noXI, IE *.\"0-, and etc.. 'Nacht'
(iMW: 221; (iPC·: IHS2-J; lEW: 762: V( j K: r. 12.'\ and II.. 79. I()(): IYRU.
94-5
henoid Juv 3 (1.1; 2.1; 3.1)
hep prep_ 'without' IhebJ
OW (LL) heh, MW hep, heh; C heh, B hep; Olr sech
< IE *sek"- 'folgcn'; sec also the next.
GOI: 5.10; GPC': IR.10; E. H<1mp in R (llJ5R-9). pr. 402-J; lEW: R97; [ .. Ef":
5-60; VGK: I, 129; VVI3: 15.1; WG: 404
hep amgnauhot gl. sine mente Ovid JR
h
hepdud prep. 3 pi 'without then."
This instance could he OB as well. Sec "cp.
DGVB: 232; Lamhert: 19RI. 13R; Lamhert: 19RJ. 131: Lamhert: 19R7, 2<Jl
is hcpdud gJ. sine quibus Ang 15 h
hepp v pres. 3 sg 'to say' (heh-I
MW heh; Mlr sech-
< IE *sek"- 'sagen'
GMW: 154; GPC: 18.10: lEW: R97; LElA: 5-62-64; Stokes: 1873, 400: White:
99-100; VVB: 15.1
hepp Philologia gl. pertulerim 11 a.a.
hepp philologia gl. intcllexcram conspicari Me II 3.3.
herp philologia gl. nosccre IJ <1.<1.
herp Marcianc gl. uicit Me 14 h.a.
hepp marcia gl. aduerto Me 45 h.a.
hepp marcia gl. proscipio Me 4(1 a.a.
hepp Gcometria gl. ego ipsa rcragraui Me' 47 a.h.
sum her Geometria gl. Percurslls hrellitcr tcrrarunl sitlls M(' 51 n.h.
heruid prep. to" after" Iherwydd I
MW herwyt. hervit, her\vir. heruuyd, hcr\vyd: on heTuill: C' hCT\vyth
< Celt. *l1ri-yid-; see also er8uid.
DGVB: 210; GPC: IR60; Hamp: 1975/6.03: VCiK: J. 40H. 41.1: VVB: 15.1: WC,:
415
herufd duiutft J 0
he...taur n r&m 'measure or quantity' Ihestorl
MW hestawr, hestaur
< Lat. Je:rtar;u.fi
EL: 40; GPC: 1861; Haarmann: 123; LJIEB: 514; ML: 17R; VVB: 15]
hi hestaur mel gl. in scxtario MP 22
h
(230)
is trimuccint hestaur mel MP 22
h
(231)
. hcstaur gJ. sestcrtium MP 2J
h
(2..1..1)
"\ ...,
84
hestoriou n pi 'measures of quantity'
See hestaur.
ir hestoriou oleu MP 22
b
(231)
heuei[th] 1) difficult (1)'
MS heuei. The amended form heuei[th] was compared with W hywaith (hy +
gwaith) 'beneficial, easy' (Z: 1061; VVB: 154); according to GPC: 1987, MW
hyweith is first attested in the R 1222. 22-3.
heuei[th] gl. non dificile 0,,2 42a (2.26)
hit pron. pos. 3 sg 'his, her, its' [eil
MW (h)i, y, e MB (h)e
< *esiiis ; see also it .
GPC: 1186
isem hichet triuceint torth Chad 4
cihutun hi torr MP 23- (246)
hi
2
prep 'to, in (1)'
MW y, OB i; OIr i;
See ;2, in.
DGVB: 216; LHEB: 641-2; VVB: 154; Watkins: 1957.
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
hi hestaur mel gl. in sextario MP 22
b
(230)
hih;?
I. Williams (I. Williams: 1930, 244-5) has considered several possibilities of inter-
pretation of tbis passage - hilli, hini or hem; his conclusion was to take it as yn ei.
Another possibilit)' is perhaps to consider this as a reduplicated pronoun 'she'. Far
from clear,
amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
hin n 'side, edge'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf.. MW hiniog, amhiniog, etc.; Mlr sfn
< IE 'lSi; .. , etc. 'binden"
GPC: Harvey: 192; lEW: 891-2; LElA: S-113; J. Loth in RC 41 (1924),
pp. I. Williams in BBCS 2 (1925), pp.303-306; I. Williams in BBCS 3
(1926), pp. 56-7
or cled hin gl. limite levo J 26
hinhsm n m 'head, chier, superior, lord' [hynaC]
MW hyneif, bynaf
Superlative of hen, see s. v. hendat.
GPC: LHEB: 279; Schrijver: 31; VGK: 1,74, and 11,122-3; VVB: 154-5
hinham g1. patricius qui sedit iuxta regem in sede (after sede) Ox2 46
a
(9.32)
85
hinn prone demonstr. m sg 'this' (hyn)
MW CB hen(n); Irish sin
A word with a disputable etymology; for a summary1 sec LElA.
DOVB: GOI: 304; GPC: lEW: 905: LElA: 5-111; VGK: II, 190f.;
VVB: 155; WG: 298
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
iT nider uid hinn Comp 22
irhinn issid crIst gl. Christus quem J 81
enuein di Sibcllae int hinn gl. ETytria quncquc Cumea cst vel Phrigia Me 11 b.b.
irhinn issid ille gl. ut si dicas Anton ille Me 43 b.b.
hin map di iob gl. love dignus Ovid 39
b
hinnith prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they' (hynny)
MW hynny(d), henne; OB henneth (DGVB: 2(9) should be excluded.
See also hiflnoid.
OPC: 1976-7; Klingenschmidt: 219: VVB: 155
pan diconetent iT. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
ir loe guac hinnith. in pagina regular; Comp 6
Salt emmi guollig hinnith Comp 19
hinnoid prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they'
See hinnith, hinnuith, hUfl110id.
prinit hinnoid MP 22
h
(234)
ni choilam hinnoid amser MP 22
h
(234)
ho hinnoid MP 23
a
(241)
is moi hinnoid MP 23
a
(246)
hinnuilh prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they'
See hinnith, hinnoid, hu""oid.
irdid hinnuith Comp 9
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith Comp 11
irloc guac hinnuith Comp 14
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15
ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20
hint see na(m) hint errei
hir· adj. 'long, tall' (hir]
OW (LL) hir, MW hir; CB G (Ecritu)siri: Olr sir
< Celt. *siro- < IE *sero-, y'se(i)· 'entsenden. werfen. fa1len
1
Elsie: 110; GPC: 1869; lEW: 891; LElA: 5-115: VGK: I, 51; VVB: 155: WG: 84
a hir etem gl. instita longa Ovid 37
a
nouirhircimcrdridou gl. lucubrationum percnnium Me' 4 h.a.
hir
2
definite article
The follo\\'ing two instances arc considered herr:
Intrited retec. retit loyr .. guorhir scrllu1.circhl C'onlp 2 (c;;er Wil1inrnc;;: t<·)27.
hir doguonimereticaith J!1. ut arithmrticfl Prise )4 h: the \\lord fnl1o\ving hi,. is
---------------------------_._-
"\"..
86
Breton. See OOB: 483; DGVB: 212.
See ir.
himnn see ir, un(n)
It was suggested (Stokes, 1860-1, 218) that this could also stand for yr hwnn. In
the corrigenda (ibid., p. 290), however, Stokes rejects this possibility. The former
view wins the support of P.·Y. Lambert, see Lambert: 1981,139.
hfronn gl. quem J 51
hit prep. 'until'
OW (LL) hit; MW hyd, hid, hyt; 08 het, hit, OIr sith-
< ·si-tu, IE yse(i)- 'entsenden, werfen, fallen'. See also the next.
DGVB: 210,212; GOI: 231; GPC: 1948; JO: 106; lEW: 891; LElA: 5-120; MJ:
272; WG: 84
hit did braut Chad 2
hit ni conj. 'unlD'
MW hyny, yny, oni. See hit, ni.
GMW: 244; GPC: 1949; WG: 446; Williams: 1927, 266
hit niritarnher irdid hinnui th Camp 8
hit niritarner rann. irbissei Comp10
hitt verbal p.rticle
See it.
biheit heitham ir eguin hiUoi ir hune MP 23
8
(241)
hithou pron. (conjunctive) 3 sg f'she (her, it) too' (hithau]
MW hithe(u); 08 itou, Me ythe cf. MW (mase) ynteu
According to I. Williams, this may have the force of 'also' in the text rather than
'then'. It was argued b)' P. Russell that the base form for this (and the other) conj.
pronoun was the 3 pl. MW wynteu; he reconstructs 3 sg f as *hih-t:Jf.
DGVB: 235; GPe: 1879; P. Russell in BBCS 30 (1983), pp.30-8; Williams: 1927,
367; WG: 272-3
aries hithou Comp 13
aries ithou Comp 18
hloimo/?
VVB: 156 suggests seeing here a cognate of W lIu 'host'; but see LHEB: 479,
where K. Jackson states that the meaning and etymology of this word is unknown.
hloimol gl. glomerarium Ox2 43
8
(5.5)
ho prep. 'from, out of' (oj
See O.
ho diued Chad 2
; hOT elin cihutun hi torr MP 23
8
(246)
ho hinnoid MP 23
8
(241)
hoitnu ?
A verv difficult word. According to I. Williams (1930: 237), this could stand for
R7
(h)oedeu, (h),,'ydeu, (h)oethell, or (h)w)'tlrell. Possihle interpretations therefore
include 1) 'difficulties", 2) 'plenty', 3) 'scarcity', GPC: 262R refers to this entry in
the discussion of W. oellz 'difficulty'.
hoid hoitou hau bein atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22
h
(234)
hoi adj. 'whole, entire' (011J
OW (Ll), MW Me oj, oil, MB (h)oll, G cf. Oir oil, uilc
< *(05)0/-£0- or *(o5)ol-no· to IE *solo· 'wohlhehalten. ganz' (lEW: (}79): differently
in lEW (to *0/- 'dariiber hinaus', pp.24 and 97R).
Elsie: 78: GPC: 2646; GPN: 237; LElA: 0-21; Schrijver: 323: VGK: II. 213-4;
VVB 156
ham hoi enep gl. ct total" facieln mean, Ox2 41 h (1.10)
holoinou n pi 'wheels'
Could be Welsh or Breton. See olin.
DOVB: 213-4
holoinou gJ. rotis Ang 12 b
honit conj. 'except, apart from' (onid]
See anit
GPC: 2648; VVB: 156-7
honft riamrfllJi gl. tantum ne [... ] unquam J 5J
hor (ho+r), see (h)o, ir
hou conj. 'ir (oj
MW o(t) .. OIr 6
IE *all- 'herab. wcg von'
See also 0, hOll nit.
ope: lEW: 72: Williams: 1930,273
hoid hoitou hou hcin atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22" (2J4)
hou boit cihitun ccng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 2J" (246)
hou nit conj. 'except'
Sec anit, "onil, hOll, nit
ir nider uid hinn, hou nit hloidin salt C"omp 22
huch n m f'sow' (hwch)
OW (LL) huch, MW huyc, hue, huch. hwch; OC hoeh gl. porctls. aD hoch gl.
apcr; Olr soce
< Celt. *slIkko-, IE ySlI-s Sau',
DGVB: 212; GPC: 1928; lEW: IOJR; LElA: S-15R: O('V: 255-5; PEC'A: M
ha huch Chad 3
hui pron. pers. 2 pi 'you' (chwil
MW chwi. C why, 08 hui, MB huy: Olr sf
< to IE *ili-
88
Elsie: GOI: 254, 282; GPC: 850; lEW: 514; LElA: 5-101-2; VGK: II, 168f.;
VVB: 157
ishut gl. quos J 19
hui gl. quae Me 63 3.3.
huil n f 'sail' (name of a letter) [hwyl]
MW huyl, hwyl; OIr seol
Several etymologies for this word have been forwarded, see a summary in LElA;
it was often considered to be a borrowing from Germanic (OHG segal, AS segl).
Most recently P, Schrijver reconstructed Celt. *siglo-, cf. VGK: I, 483.
GPC: 1937; LElA: S-88-89; Schrijver: 357; VVB: 157
huil (Nemn)
humil adj. 'humble'
MW ufyl, uwil, uvel, uffil; OC huuel gl. humilis; MB uvel; Olr umal
< Lat, humilis
LHEB: 276; LElA: U-25; ML: 214; OCV: 189; PECA: 66; VGK: I, 196; WiI..
Iiams: 1980, 114
it cluis it hurnil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
hun renexive marker '(one) selr [hun]
MW hun; see GMW: 89f.
GPC: 1911
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.a.
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
hune see une
hunnoid pron. demonstr. 'that, he (him), she (her), it'
MW hun(n)u, hon(n)o
See flinnirh, hinnuith, hinnoid, hunnuid,
GPC: 1931; Klingenschmidt: 219
ir pimphet eterin diguormechis lucas hegit hunnoid MP 22
h
(234)
dou eterinn cant hunnoid MP 22
b
(234)
hunnuid pron. demonstr. 'that, he (him), she (her), it'
See hinnith, hinnu;th, hinnoid, hunnoid.
irgur hunnuid .i. mercurius gl. celebrat Me 4 b,a.
I
-j pron. pen. 1 sg 'I'
See d;rUmprosuni
-j pron. infixed genitive 3 sg
Sec hni
89
i' pron. pos. 'his, its'
See l1i
2

OGVB: 275 and 216 : Lambert: 19RI, Lambert: 19R7, 2HR
o i nerth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3.2; hut sec Watkins: 19R2, 40 for the interpretation of this
i as i
J
).
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv <) (7.3)
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7.3)
issemi anu gl. Genius Me II a.h.
nirinciriles. cimp&illiaus3uc oirci gl. ad phares sui gcneris fit comparatio Prise 27 a
i
2
prep. 'in'
See hit.
haioid ilau clcu Chad 2
it c1u(i)s [it] diban iciman guorscd Juv CJ (6.1)
iar n f 'hen' liar)
MW yar, iar; OC yar gl. gallina; Mlr eidn
Several etymologies have heen suggested. According to Pokorny this goes hack to
IE *iero-, etc. \Jahr', then 'one year old anirna"; the Irish form is then not convinc-
ingly explained. This was noted hy O'Rahilly (sec also who offcred Celt.
*ieros < *pfp·ero- in view of Lat. pipio. For Stokes's equntion (llS: \\'ith
Latv. ifhe \grouse', etc., and a useful summnry, see Schrijvcr: 104--5.
GPC: 2000; E. Hamp in Eriu 40 (19R9), p. IR: lEW: 2<n: ()('V: T. ()'Rahiltv
in Eriu 13 (1942). p. 14R: PEC": 105: Schrijvcr: 104-): V(,K: L 6): VVB: I)(}'
iar gJ. alcs J R2
iben v imperf. I pl. (past subj.?) 'to drink' (yr-)
MW yu-, cu-; CB ev-, Olr ihid
< IE *p6(i)-/pf· \trinken'
Elsie: CiMWL: 292: lEW: R3<)-40: White: 212-5: Williams: Il)RO, Q6
cet ibcn med nouelJuv -" (2.2)
Ii/dO/Ie n (pi ?) 'pagan temple"
OB idolti; OIr indidaJtaigac gJ. fani
Hapax in Welsh. A compound, idol < Lat. idnltlln, nnd Ie 'housc· (see telll).
DGVB: GPC: 2009: Isanc: Stokes: IR73, ,394; V\lB: 15R
inir[i]dolte gl. in fanis Me 7 h.a.
iecllim sis ?
Stokcs: IR73, 392 statcs that he cannot explain this gloss.
icctlim sis gl. apollo MC' 5.a.
iehnlinn?
According to Loth. VVB: IO(), this could he ielr" (= Ir ig 'anncau') + Ii"" 'hois-
son': according to J. Rhys. (Rhys: 7lJ. flr"/;",, ('1) for ('""lilri",, -- Wcl'\h
enllyn 'anything eatcn or drunk \\'ith hrca<i'. l·his nlll<;t, ho\\'evcr. denote \hrlndlc',
'"\ "-
90
Cf. LHEB: 479. where the meaning and etymology of this word was claimed to be
unknown.
iehnlinn gl. ansa Ox2 53
8
(4.9)
iechui' n m 'health' (name of a letter) (iechyd)
MW Me yehes
An -yd derivate of W ioch (DC iach gl. sanus, 08 iae gl. suspite); for the etymol-
ogy see Schrijver: 103-4 with. bibl.
DGVB: 217; GPC; VVB: 159
jechuit Nemn
prep. 'between them'
This entry is traditionally considered as a case of metathesis of the form, similar to
the (later) attested y-ryngdun(nt); see JO. As was recently suggested by G. Isaac,
this could be a copyist's error for itridu, or a confusion of the two stems.
G. Isaac in EC 30 (1994), p. 231; JO: 104-5; LL: xliv; MJ: 272; WG: 405
nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
illisusaur'in plurality1
MW lIuossauc
According to Fleuriot. this stands for *in liausauc. The latter is an -Que derivative
of lialls, see s. v.
DOVB: 218,242 and 269; GPe: 2227
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit eomparatio Prise 27 a
im prep. 'around' (1)
MW OB am, em-; G. amb-; Olr imb
To IE "amblti- ·um-herum- (lEW: 34), see E. Hamp in Eriu 24 (1973), p. 163f.,
and cf. E. Hamp in Eriu 28 (1977), p.145. See also am.
hai bid guar phenn circhl. naunecant Comp 22
ima/iliduch 1
This passage freom Chad 3 has been read in several different ways. According to
J. Gwenogvryn Evans (LL: xlv), this should be read as y vel yth c5ybwg 'as ... leads
thee'. Jenkins and Owen (JO: 116) interpret this as y vel yth 0youch, which is
argued to belong to a pattern CONJUNCTION + PARTICLE + ?PRONOUN +
VERB; cf. Isaac: 365. F, White (White: 145) mentions inter alia a possibility of
reading this phrase as val i dydduch 'as (it) may lead'.
The verb., 3 sg. subj .. goes back to IE *deuk- 'ziehen' (lEW: 220).
imalitiduch cimarguith[i)ejt Chad 3
;mguodBnl v pret. 3 pl. 'to say (to each other)'
J.O\vcnogvryn Evans (witb much hesitation) read this word as ;,nguotant and
connected it with then d = [d]. Several other connections have been
forwarded. maintai ni ng d = (b) - *g""edh- (W. gh1eddi etc., 'prayer', thus J. Mor-
ris Jones). ·.,fd
4
thus I. Williams) and *{ledh· 'to lead, go' (then "they
came together"). See 10,
JO: 101; Isaac: LL: xliv; MJ: 271; White: It)2-4; I. Williams in BBCS 13
(1950), p.201
imguodant ir degion 2
im/adunJ vn (?) 'to light· Iymladd-I
MW ymlad-. cmlnd-
A cOJnhination of n rcnexivc prefix i",- \\'ith the vcrh sec ledit.
DGVI3: 219; GWML: 297
imladunl gl. attritu Ang 15 h
inJmisline v imperf. 3 sil. 'to smear' Iynllyn-1
MW emlyn-, ymlyn-
The form contnins a reflexive prefix. tlntl a ."' sg. infixed pronoun: for the etymol-
ogy. see linisanf.
Stokes: 1873,395; VVI3: 161; White: 209-211
immisline gl. allinebat Me Ra.h,
immit eel v pres. 3 sg 'to hide'
The line where this form occurs has caused a dispute. According to R. Thurncyscn
(1980): 205-6), we should rend il1"11('1 \\lith il11111rl == Olr ilnhcd 4hc<1ucoup·
and, apparently, a verb in the impersonal. 11. LC\\'js \\'ould sec in i""nrl 'ym my(j'
(Lewis: 1926.3). Following I. Williarns (Willianls: 19.10. 240). *.\'Ill-yd-gc/: thel1 .. Cl
derivative cf. MW celli 'hide, conceal". OB a",calcd. ()I r (,l';/;d. Lat. cclo. from IE
*kel- 'bergen, verhtillcn'.
DGVB: (,PC: 455: lEW: )5.14: LEI/\ ): \Vhitc:
immit eel irnimer bichan guttln irnl<lUr nirner MP 22
h

immotetin ? fymodi- ?I
According to 1'. H. Parry- Williams. this is to he cOJllp<lrcd \\'jth \V y",od: Fleuriot
suggests the devisioJ1 ;""n-of-('lill. sec ott. (·ollid this stClIH.1 for ;"""oIC(;("'.' Sec ttlC
next entry.
DGVB: 279; Parry-Williams: 122; Stokes: IH7.1. 41.1: VVR: ltd
imrnotctin .i. pupis gl. iactata J ()()
immottimoll \'n pi (?) ·to touch: handle. mo\'('· ? I
11. Lewis rejected Stokcs's re<lding i"",,ottilli01l !!1, geslicltfaliollc,\'. Instcad he sug-
gested the reading which is quoted here; sec also White, 1'his \\'OHi could he the
plural form of the vn y",od;(jllll) 'to nHlvc', \\'hich is attested in Modern
Welsh. Morphologically it is perhaps a plurnl vn \vith (l rcncxive prefix. See also
the previous entry.
Lewis: 111-2; PKM: 245; VVB: 162; White: JO(,-.112
irnmotimou gl. nlotus od<lruJl1 MC' «.) h.h.
in I prep. 'in' (yn I
Gin, MWC yn. MB en: Olr in
< IE *en- 4in ': see also ;2.
nGVR: 22J and 221 10(,: (,()I: IF\V: ," 1: "VO: 162; fl)'\7:
\V(,: 404
.-j:..
:P'
\ ..
92
in ir loscetic circhl. gl. circulus [, , ,] nrdentlor In ruborem Ang 13 u
Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum extremque Ang 13 a
inno ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarum flatu 68 b .
In irtritid urd Comp 1
Intrited retec Camp 2
in triti urd Comp 5
ir loc guac hinnith. in pagina regulari Comp 6
hai bu in arcimeir .0. Camp 7
in eir cimeir .0. Camp 11
in pagina reguJarf Camp 12
Is aries isid in arecimei r aries Comp 12
in eircimeir Joe guac Comp 13
In pagina regular; Comp 14
in pagina regulari Comp 15
hac in irgueleri Camp 16
hai bid in irgueleri Camp 17
in ir salt Comp 20
Ceis inir loyr Camp 21
in ois oison Chad 2
in irham Chad 3
in irgaem Chad 3
in ireguorunhetic datI. gl. in arguto foro Ovid 38-
it cluis humi1 inhared cclmed Juv 9 (7,1)
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
inircuitinniou gl. ion condy1os Me 6 b.b.
inir[i)dolte gl. in ranis Me 7 b.a.
in-helcha gI. in uenando Me 39 a.b.
in
2
adv. [yDa)
W yna, Olr and
LElA: Wiliams: 1927,261
passerenn. pigurthet. tayr in Comp 4
;nJ Bdyerbi al particle
See into
inguir Comp 2l
;,,4 see if/iaBsBur
particle? .'I
This instance is considered to be in origin the demonstrative pronoun, cf. lr · See
also S.\'. pal",
GMW: 72: Lewis: 1956, 299
in pan aed hid. ad ir lee. guac. issi. in triti urd Comp 4
93
III'''''''' Nt't' 111/",,,,,
inbith adj. 'mad' IynrydI
MW ynuyt
W. Stokes equated this form with 08 cnhit gl. dihilis. contrast VCiK: 1,21. where
the word is analysed as a loan from AS IlIlW;uv. which is vcrv unlikclv. For the 08
form, the interpretation of which presents difficulties as see DGVB: 15Q. It
wns suggested by I. Williarns thnt this could he C1 H\\'clshiScltion" of Irish nnr",I..
GMWL: 299; F. ()'Rahilly in 1..1 (1942). p. 150; W. Stokes in TPhS IRR5 .. 7.
p. 583; Williams: 193J. 117
ibith gl. rahicrn (vcntorurn) J 64
init conj. / part. (?)
For the analysis of this form nnd its MW parallels see J. Strachan in RC' 28 (1907),
Watkins and Mac 25; sec. s.v. and cf. VGK: II. Lambert: 19R1,
Lambert: 19R7, 302.
initoid gl. maculata J 7R
initoid gl. extincta J 78
initoid gl. J 92
inn predicative particle (cr. ad,·erh. part)
MW yn; OB iot. ent
Lambert: 1982a. 23; Lambert: 19R7. .103: Williams: 193J. 115
nouinnguotricuscgeticion gl. ncc delata diu J 4
int adverbial particle
OB int; OIr ind
'The origin of this particle is not clear. ('f. also it and the previous ent ry.
DGVB: 22.5-6; Wiliams: 19RO, 121
int dosseheitic gl. gutatim Ang I) b
piouboi int groisauc luv () (R.2)
uuc nem ismcl1 intcoucr Juv Q (9.2)
interedou pi ?
According to W. Stokes ( IH60-1: 215 and 21'4) this upcrhaps stand for ;1l/rrRuec!"fI,
cpo o1lguedoll gl. ('xfa hut more likely is the pi of ;,,'er('d, derivative fr(lm ;nle,.··.
VVB: 202
pcrmedintcrcdoll gl. ilia J 35
opermedintcredou gl. mcdullis J 51
iot n m 'pap, Iuwd I
MW iwt, OC iot gl. puis; Bind. Olr (h)fth (·pap. poftrtgc') gl. plus: G.-Rom.
iutta
< *ieyto-. IE Vicu- 4vermcngen. hci der SpCiSC7uhcreitung·. If \\'(1, noted oy
JAckson. LHEB: 55. that thc \vord (ns \\'('lIllS ?Lnfinised ;0""". sec helo\\')
hhcttcr with ()C' inf, ModB ind, than \\'ith Mod'" ;'nr·.
i
,
f
t
t
·f
q
.1
I
I
----- -
94
FEW: V, GOI: 39; J. B. Hofmann in Glotta 25 (1936), p.118; J. Hubschmied
(jr) Bezeichnungen fur - 'H6hle' - 'Steinplatte'. 1/ Sache art und
Wort. (FS J. Jud), Zurich 1943, p. 277; lEW: 507; aev: 374; PECA: 68;
J. Pokorny in ZCP 17 (1928), p.306; VGK: 1,65; VVB: 164-5; WG: 42
iot gl. pultum 0,,2 42
8
(3.1)
iotum n 'pap, pottage'
See iot
ioturn gl. (coleferum) ius Ox2 42
8
(3.8)
iotllm gl. ius Ox2 44
9
(6.16)
;ou n m r 'yok.e' (iau)
MW iau, yeu, iav; DC (Welsh?, "Vocabularium Cornicum") ieu gl. iugum, MB
G Veriugodumnus
< IE ·iugo- 'Joch' or < Latin iugum; see aWAY
L. Aeuriot, Brittonica et Gallica. /I EC 23 (1986), pp.73-4; GPC: 2002; GPN:
357-8; Jackson: 75-6; HPB: 238, n.4; KGP: 227; LHEB: 441; lEW: 508; acv:
156-7; PECA: 68; Schrijver: 340; R. Thurneysen in Anzeiger fUr indogermanische
Spraeh- und Altertumskunde 26 (1910) p. 26; VVB: 165; VGK: I, 98; WG: 109
iou gl. iugum 0,,2 42
b
(4.6)
;r
t
definite article [yr)
MW yr, y., 'r; Me en, an; Olr ind, a n-
The defcnite article goes back to a demonstrative pron., with n > r. See also 'r and
cf. in 5., irril, hirunn.
CA GMW: R. M. Jones in SC 10/11 (1975-76), pp. 326-44; VGK: II,
WG: 191-4
amserpanalos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria rcmanse-
runt Ang 14a
in ir loscetic circhl gl. circulus [...] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
"inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum extremeque Ang 13 a
no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
ir du bisl gl. meloncolia Ang 68 a
ir lanu gL aestum Ang 68 a
inn6 ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarum flatu Ang 68 b
ir parth alall gl. his litoribus abiens Ang 62 b
In irtritid urd Comp 1
ir ir Iri ui. aur. Comp 2
pan dieonetent ir. oithaur hinnith Camp 4
ad ir loc. guac Comp 5
ir loe guac hinnith Comp 6
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
ir loc guac haibid post. o. Comp 8
irdid hinn uil h Camp 9
irloc quae Comp 9
Irnidibid ir loyr di.a. Comp 9
hit niritarncr rann. irhissci C'onlp I ()
hacet isgurth. ir serenn Comp I (J
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith C'omp II
irloc guae hinnuith Comp 14
issem ir .e. hinnuith Comp 15
hac in irguelcri Comp 16
ir lac guac Comp 17
ir loc gunc hai hid in irguclcri ('omp 17
ir bloidin hunnuith ('ornp 20
in ir salt Comp 20
Ccis inir loyr Cornp 21
imguodant ir degion Chad 2
ill irham Chad 3
in irgacm Chad 3
di pul irdcrucn Chnd 6
dipcnnant ircaru ('had 6
nouirrniinngucdou .i. coiliotl g1. cxtorllfll M(' 2 (1,3,
nouirgoudonou gl. tincarum MC' 2 a.h.
guarirdrcb gl. cdito MC' J a.a.
nouirguirdglas gl. sali rcsplcndcntis MC' .la.ll.
ircarnotaul hriccr gl. uitta crillalis MC' 4 a,a.
irgur hunl1uid .i, mcrclirius gl. relchrat M(' 4 b.il.
nouircmid gl. acris MC' 4 b.a.
nouirhircimcrdridou gl. lucuhrationunl pcrcnniurn MC' 4 h.n,
inircutinnioll gl. in condylos M(' () h.h.
irpoul1oraur g1. pugillarcm rnginarll MC' 6 h.b.
inir[ijdoltc gl. in fanis MC' 7 h.a.
trui ir unolion gl. rer monades Me' 7 h.h.
nouirfionou gl. rosarum MC" 9 h. h.
ithrirdiuail gl. glahcl1a mcdictils MC l) h.h.
nouirc1eteirou gl. crotularum MC' 10 a.a.
nouirerunnui g1. oui Me 10 b.a.
irhinn issid illc gl. ut si diens Anton il1c M(' 4J h.h.
ircattciraul rcttetice strotur gl. sclla cllrulis MC 45 a,a.
nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonurn stilis MC' 46 a.a.
nouirccrricc gl. cautium Me 51 a. a.
ir tri ,u. MP 22
11
(230)
ir petguar pimp MP 22
h
(230)
ir hcstoriou oleu MP 22
h
(23 I)
ir pirnphct ctcrin MP 22
h
(234)
irnimcr hichan MP 22
h
(2.lH): seC' i"",,;t eel.
irmaur nimcr MP 22
h

ir his hichan MP 2J
ll
(241 )
96
ir maul MP 23
1
(241)
ir eguin MP 23
8
(241)
ir hune MP 23
8
(241)
ir bis MP 23
8
(241)
ir esceir MP 23
11
(247)
irdigatma gl. area Ovid 31
h
. 8
nom irbleuporthetic gl. Ianigerae templa OVid 38
in irguorunhetic datI gl. in arguto foro Ovid 38
8
ir emedou gl. aera Ovid 38
15
ircilchetou gl. vela Ovid 38
8
iransceth gl. nullum pulverem Ovid
irdigatmaou gl. circus Ovid 39
8
ireaiauc gl. libellum Ovid 39
11
• b
.inc.glinau irleiLl gl. Romanaque pectora OVId 39
iranamou gl. mendae Ovid 40
11
irtinetic gl. ti ncta Ovid 40·
ironguedou gl. exta Ovid 41
a
ircenthiliat gl. Davida canorum J 7
Ir breni gl. proram J 31
euinhaunt irruim mein J 55
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus J 70
ir tir gl. fundu m J 73
irmesur gl. nummum J 80
irhinn issid crfst gl. Christus quem J 81
irtfum gJ. abrupta J 81 (Reading: Stokes: 1865, 411)
bet circhinn frguolleuni gl. usque sub occiduum eoeH J 84
irdicnchiriueticion gl. principales Prise 16 b
ir
2
causal conj. , prep. 'for' [yrl
MW vr, OB ir . r .
DGVB: 228; 10: 103-4; Lewis: 1956, 297; MJ: 272; J. E. Caerwyn Wiliams In
BBCS 11 (1944) t p. 18
Irnidibid iT loyr dLa. Comp 9
iT hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20
ir oider uid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21
naf" ir ni be C85 igridu Chad 2
ir
J
prep. throughout, during' (er]
GPC lists this under er (C cr, d. La!. per), this is the only for
this meaning. The word is traditionally denved from IE *per das
tiher'". It was noted by I. Williams, that Utile prepositions ar, yr (er), g»'ar (ar)
. confused in Welsh··; he toole th is to have the force of Ir ar 'for, on account for.
GMW: 219; GPC: 1221: lEW: Williams: 1927.259-60
i ir tri ui. aUf. Comp 2
97
is prone (infixed) 3 sg.
immisline gl. nlinchat Me Ha.h.
is prep. 'under, helow' [is I
OW (LL) is, MW is. ys. Olr IS
< IE *ped-sll-, Vred- 'Furr (lEW: 790); see also the next.
DGVB: 230; GPC: 2031; VGK: I. 50
uuc nem isnem intcoucr Juv () (Q.2)
ise/adj. 'low· lisell
MW is(s)el; OB iscl. MC" ysse1: Olr fscl
See is. and belo\\'
DGVB: GPC: VGK: I, 50: VVB: 16H: W(i: 24H
o isel gl. ex humili J 5
adj. compo 'lower'
As opposed to isselach, sec S.v.. this form was considered hy Flcuriot as ultimately
W. See also isseI. This instance is not quoted in GPC. Sec ahove.
DGVB: 232
isclach gl. intcriorcs Ang 12 h
issei adj. 'low·
The form was considered Welsh by Fleuriot due to the presence of the
o in this gloss. This instance is not quoted in GP('. Sec ahovc.
DGVB: 232 and 275
6 issei gl. humili Ang 15 a
isselach adj. compo 'lower·
As opposed to iselach. sec s.v.. this form considered hy Flcuriot as possibly
Welsh. GPC quotes this instance as Welsh. Sec aho\'e.
DGVB: 233
isselach gl. submersior Ang () I a
istlinnit v pres. 3 'to proclaim"
MW (CA) sdlinet; DB gurstli(n). Ofr sluindid
For the connection with Lat. splent!c,.(' (VC1K: f. X.1--4) notlnvithstandillg the
scepticism of LElA. advocating a double treattncnt of *spl-. sec Schri.;ver.
DGVB Isane: LElA: LIIEB: 527. )2H; J. Loth in RC'
(1920-21), p. Parry-Williams: 121; Schrijver: 435-H: Stokes: IHAO-1. 209;
VVB: 168; White: 105
istlinnit gl. loquitur J 4
it
l
preverbal particle
OB it. ct
< IE *it(h)- (lEW: sec also },;ff. The instances quoted from JU\' q (lllo", for a
different treatment. sec Willianls: I <JXO. III and cr. it...
DGVR: E. Ilanlr. Needs PIHlllnlog\'. I S. Stee\'er rf al.. cdc;;_

, ..
98
Papers from the Parascssion on Diachronic Syntax. Chicago 1976, pp. 348-64;
Hamp: 1979,167-8; Isaac: 391-2; Lambert: 1987,306; VGK: 1,424; VB: 278-80;
VVB: 168
itdarnestr gl. agitare J 88
it clu(i)s [it] drban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
it cluis it humiJ inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
itdagatte ail gl. coniucrc Me 4 b.a.
if adverbial partirle
08 it, MB ez
The origin is not clear. See also into
DaVB: 234; VB: 286--7
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
itercludllnt y pres. 3 pi 'to block, cut off' (1)
A very difficult gloss; the meaning is adduced from the Latin context. Itercludant
allows for the two segmentations, iter (see s.v. ithr) + cludant (cludd- ?), or it
ercludant, which do not find parallels elswhere. It was suggested (White) that that
the gloss is Irish.
Stokes: 1873,412; VVB: 169; White: 119-20
amal itercludant gL ut subigant J 32
itlann n f '8 threshing-Ooor' (ydlan]
MW ydlan, OIr ithlaind (Oat.)
A compositum, for the second part see lann t. The first clement is the name for
'corn" .. MW}'f (cL OC hitaduer gl. messis, MB eth) < IE *pitu- 'Trank" Speisc'
(DGVB: 167; PECA: 64; lEW: 794; VGK: 1,41).
Stokes: 1860--1, 210, VGK: I, 3; VVB: 169
itlann gl. area J 14
ithr prep. [ythrJ
OW (VSB: 315), MW ythr; C inter, yntre, OB entr-, intr-; OIr etir, cter; cf. CI en
Tafa
< IE *'}ter- &zwischen - hinein"; see De Bernardo Stempel for the further
anda and bibliography.
Dc Bernardo Stempel: 109-10; Eska: 66; lEW: 313; a. Isaac in EC 30 (1994),
p. 231 VVB: 169
ithrirduail gl. glabella medietas MC 9 b.b.
ilhaD see hi_hoD
iudeoit?
lllis gloss is see Stokes: 1860-1, 289.
iudeoit gl. obscura J 36
iUrRcheir n r 'femel e roe-deer' Iiwrch]
MW yerchel. iyn:hetl
9Q
An -ell derivative, cf. W iU'f('h (0(' yore" gl. ('aprell. ()B iorch gl. ('aprea. G.
I"rca) < IE *i ork- 'l'icr aus der (jruppc dcr sec lEW: SLl OC'V: 254:
PECA: Schrijvcr: 61 VGK: 1,3.1, (lull particularly K. T. Witczak in Flistori-
sclle 107 (1994). pp,140-1. For Cl different approach see
E. Hamp in EC 23 (1986), pp,49-S0, and cf. ()WAV.
DGVB: 227; GPC: 204J: VVB: 169; Stokes: IH7J. 401
iurgchcll gl. caprca Me 12 h.a.
K
kam n 'wrong, evil' (name of a letter)
OW (LL) and MW cam: 08 camln; C"'I11(-): G Ofr camOl
The name of a letter in uAlphahct of Ncmnills" ,,'ns identified with MW ca,"
'curvus' by Zeuss: GPC does not consider cxnnlplc in its treCltfnent of W cal" <
*(s)kalllh· 'krUmmcn, hicgcn' (lEW: YIX: PEC'A: 20).
DGVB: GPC: 396; GPN: LElA: C'-2(}: VVB: 63; 1059
kam (Nemn)
L
lac/ad di?
Stokes: IR7J, 397 left this gloss ullexplained.
Inclad dii Me 9 a.h.
lac/ads; aT ?
Stokes: 1873, 397 left this gloss uncxplained.
lacJadsi ar Me 9 a.a.
lac;d"m?
L. FlclIriot queried the Welsh nffiflitics of the \\·ord. "'hich rcmnins altogether
unclear.
OGVB: 2J6
laeidum t(ran)s diem gl. kalcndis prinllim nHlrtiis Ang h
/s;s' adj. 'loose" (liaes)
MW lIaes: Olr lax
< Lat. laxus
GPC: ML: VGK: I. VV13: 170
hlis gl. diffussa J 70
/ais
2
?
This gloss was found hy II. Lc\\'is. If it is Welsh. cr. then '.
Lewis: 1932. 112
lais gl. total/til' ucncratioflc slipplicall\ 1 h
"\ ....
100
laiiJwer?
This gloss, which is "'characteristically Cornish in orthography" (LHEB: 55), is
analysed by J. Loth (VVB: 170) as a compound which c.ontains faith 'Iai,f,
which is hesitantly compared with W gwyr. The word IS translated as petlt-Iall.
For the orthography cE. Craster: 135; Stevenson: 3.
lai3per gl. lacticula Ox2 42
8
(3.8; Craster's reading)
lann
t
n , 'church, church-yard' [Ilan]
OW (LL) and MW I(l)an, C. Ian, British (Vindo)-Iand(a); aIr lann .
IE *lendh- 'freies Land, Heide, Steppe' (lEW: 675). See OWAV, and cf. alann;
see also the next.
GPC: 2094; VVB: 171
lann gl. aet[h]ra .i. aula celi 1 15
Isnn
1
n 'frying paD'
Etymologically identical with IannI. See OWAV.
VVB: 171
lann gl. sartago Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
lanu n m 'tide, now' (llaDw]
MW lIanw; OB lanu
The word is preceded by a Welsh article and identical with OB. This instance is not
quoted in GPC. Etymologically, < IE ·pl1}lJo- vpel- 'gieBen, flieBen'.
De Bernardo Stempel: 123; DGVB: 236-7; GPC: 2095-6; lEW: 798
ir lanu gl. aestum Ang 68
a
latarauc adj. 'swampy' (Irish word showing Welsh features]
According to K. Jackson, who criticises the analysis of W. Stokes and J. Loth
(Stokes: 1860-1,224,291; VVB: 171, cf. also DOVB: 236), this word
look of an Irish derivative of the stem lath- 'mud' with the Welsh termination
_QlIC
U
• This entry is not given in Thurneysen: 1890a or Parry-Williams as an Irish or
an "irishised" gloss in the Juvencus manuscript.
Jackson: 1950, 71
latharauc I. gl. barathri coeoo J 81
/su n r 'hand' Ina,,]
MW 1(I)av, 1(1)8u; DC lof gl. manus; OB 10m in lomrod; Olr lam
< Celt. *lama, IE .., pfli- 'breit und flach'
De Bernardo Stempel: 123; DGVB: 246; Elsie: 102; GPC: 2104; lEW: 805-6; JO:
96-7; LHEB: MJ: 270; OCV: 56-7; PECA: 73; Schrijver: 163; VGK: I, 53;
WG: 82
haioid ilau eleu Chad 2
IBabBel n r 'hand-halthel'
MW llaw vvwell
, For the of the components of this compound see lau, balle/.
OPC: 2111: VVB: 172
lauhael gl. secuJario Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
. ' ..
101
Isun see s. v. reulsun and cr. locc/su, Kuith/8un, anhodlsun
/aur n m 'Ooor'l place' (llawr I
MW laur, lIawr; DC lor gl. pauimentum; OB lor gl. Olr lar
< */oro- < IE *p/iiro. YpCI;l-: plii- 'hreit und nacho aushreiten'; oPC' mentions the
possibility of the Welsh affinities of this entry.
DGVB: GPC: lEW: J. T. Koch in EC' 24 (1987). p. 257: Lf'lEB:
oev: PECA: VKG: I. 4H
laur gl. platca Ang 51 b
leder n pi 'letters' (llythyrJ
MW lIyther, OC lithcren gl. littera; ()B ()Ir liter
< Lat. littera: for the Celtic for!'t1s (without this OW instance) see LHEB: 399;
oev: PECA: 72; VGK: I, 20n.
DOVB: 244; GPC: 22R4; ML: IRJ; Williarns: I <JHO. I07-R
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
ledit v pres. 3 'to strike. hit, heat' (liad-I
MW (I)lad-. (I)led-: OB ladam gl. caedo: MIr slaidid
A well-attested word in without etymology.
DOVB: 236 ; Elsie: GPC: 2079; LElA: S-126; Schrijver: 17R; VGK: II. 630;
Williams: 1933. ] 13
ledit gl. pulsat Ovid (Williams: 19J3. 113)
Ieee-e... n f 'laywoman' I
MW Icic. 1(I)eye; OC leic gl. laiclIs
< Lat. laicus
GPC: LHEB: 605; ML: IRI; OCV: 72; PEt'A: 71: VVB: 172
leeces gl. maritae J 80
lefet?
J. Loth (VVB: 172) compares this entry \\'ith W flr!ritll 'rnilk, nc\\' milk',
lefel gl. fordaliu11' Ox2 42<1 (3.7)
Jepuenid n m 'joy' (llawenyddl
MW IIcuenit. lIewenyd, lIywcnyd; Me' lowene; OB LOlluinid
< Britt. *latlclliio-, IE y/oll- ·erhelltcn. genicBen' (lEW: (55).
GPC: Lf-IEB: VGK: I. Williams: 19RO. 97
namcreit mi ncp leguenid henoid .JllV 3 (3. I)
leidim vn 'to moisten' (lieith- J
MW IIcithaw; MB leizyaff
This was considered hy Fleuriot to he a Welsh form flppnrently hecause of the
Welsh context. The instance was considered as Welsh hy GPC'. l'hc form is com-
pared with B /eiz, W /Iairll (Ir. leg-). < IE */cg-Io-. Y/eg- sickern. zer-
gchcn'.
DGVB: 274-5: OPC: 2150 and 20QL lEW: 657: VGKL: II. ."62
() (' k'idirn gl. proccssu 1\ ng 61 h
, "..
(
\.
102
leiJl pron. 'other(s)'
MW (pl.) lleill; DB a(l)all; OIr alaile
< *a!a1li-; see also arall.
GPe: 2091; Schrijver: 321; VVB: 172
.inc.glinau irleill gl. Romanaqaue pectora Ovid 39
b
lenD n r 'curtain, veil" [lien]
MW Hen; OC len gl. sagum; DB escei lenn gl. G Olr lenn
These Celtic words are derived from Celt. *linda; the further connections are
obscure.
DOVB: 166 and 240; GPC: 2151; OCV: 347; PECA: 71; VVB: 173
lenn gl. pa]]am J 30
lenn gl. pallae Me 5 b.a.
lenn gI. cortina Me 62 a.a
lenn gl. saga Ox2 44
11
(6.26)
les n m 'benefit, advantage' (Ies]
MW lies; DC les gl. commodum; Ir leas
For the connection with Greek see PECA.
L. Aeuriot in EC 23 (1986), pp. 75-6; DGVB: 240; OPC: 2156; OCV: 147; PECA:
71
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prisc 27 a
leJtir n m 'cup, dish, vessel' [llestr]
MW llester, lIestyr; OC lester gl. navis, OB lestr
Traditionally < Celt. ·'es-tro- (= Umbr. veksla, vekslu < cf. VGK
where < ·'ent- Iro- (::= Lat. linter); aIr lestar was borrowed from Brittonic.
DGVB: 241 GOI: 120, 178; GPC: 2159; lEW: 680; LHEB: 337; OCV: 128;
PECA: VGK: VVB: 173
lestir gl. rati J 61
n m 'page, ..rface' (lIedwyneb]
MW lIetwyneb; OB letenep; aIr lethenach
This compound contains let (lied 'breadth, width', so Stokes, Loth; or 'half' ac-
cording to L. Fleuriot; for the derivation from IE *Heelt- 'one of a pair' see J. Puh-
vel, Hittite Etymological Dictionary, Mouton 1984, vol. 2 p.270. E. Hamp in
Historische Sprachforschung 101 (1988), pp.79-80; differently by P. Schrijver in
Eriu 45 (1994), p. 179, cf. lEW: 833; for einepp, see s.v. enepp. For the formation
see Hamp and cf. Isaac: 374.
DGVB: 241; OPC: Hamp: 1974,268-70'; Stokes: 1873,386; VVB: 173
orbardaulleteinepp gl. epica pagina Me 1 a.b.
leueJirc ?
According to Stokes, who followed Ebel, this is lau 'lice' + esic (ysig 'fretting').
Loth considered th i5 as an -icc derivative of leues = *Iogas, cf. Ir. logo;n, 'jc
pourris·. L. Fleuriot connects it with OB 'oed 'sordide' and MW lIoedd.
103
DGVB: 245; Stokes: lR73, 38R; VVB: 173
Icucsicc gl. caricofc"l. Ie!!. ·anfCfll 3.1...
lisus n m&f 'multitude, host, crowd' [lIiawsI
MW lIyaus, on lios g1. pleraquc nomina: MC lues, Iyes: cf. Olr Ifa
< IE *ple-ias-t-, ypel-, pelll 'Mengc' (lEW: ROO)
DGVB: 243; Elsie: GOI: GPC: Loth in Re' :'7 (lqI7-9).
pp. VGK: I, 6R: VVB: 188
morliaus gl. quam multos Ovid
lisuS8UC see il1i8US8UC
lieRt n m&f 'SOllrl'e of ri"er or welle « '("'eel
OW (HB, LL) licat, MW lagat gl. oculus: MB lagat
< IE *Ieuk- 'Ieuchten'
GPC: lEW: 687; OCV: PECA: VGK: 11.36
dilicat dipul retinoc Chad 6
lichou n pi 'lakes, swamps, marshes' [lIwchI
OW (HB, LL) luch, MW 1(l)uch, 1(I)\vch: OB loch, Olr loch
According to E. Hamp (ZCP 4(1 (1994), 12). thcsc (cf. also Lat. laCllJ) should be
vicwed as horrowings from North (·Central) EUfopcCln suhstratum. and the Brit-
tonic words "must sh()\v connation '\lith another cty,non ('light. shining·?)"".
DGVB: 244: GPC: LI-IEB: (loR: Stokes: IR65. 422: VVR: 174
lichou gl. palu( dels Ox2 44
h

liein n m 'linen, cloth' (lliain J
MW Iycyn, licin. Iliain: OB lien gl. manlltergiu,n: 0(' liein gllcli gl.<;indol. liein
duilof gl. manutcrgium I. mantilc
E. Campanile derives thcse words from Britt. */fsan!n.: fhe forms arc found in the
entry *lino- 'Lein' in lEW: on this entry see no,v V.Orcl in IF 100 (1995). pp.
122--4 and the references cited there.
DGVB: GPC: lEW: PECA: 72: VVB: 174
gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 (6.25)
limnint" pres. 3 pi 'to make smooth, polish' IlIyfnwJ
MW lIyfn (hut see Williams: 19JJ. 117): ()B li,nn gl. lentllfn: Olr siemon lsnlooth'
Traditionally, < IE *(s)lei- 'schlcimig. durch glitschiger Boden. ausglc iten·:
see, however, P.-Y. Lamhert in EC 17 (1980), p. IHO for a comparison of this form
with Ir. I0l11raid.
DGVB: 242; Elsie: GPC: lEW: LElA: Stokes: lR73.
VGK: I, VVB: 175; White: 120
linint gl. tonoent J 44
lin proper name, Linus
glossator prohahly took the I fltin "'ord for a proper nanlC. sec L<1'nhert: I<">X2a.
21 and 22. GPC: 21 RI discusses this \vord in their entry dcdirfltC'd to \V IIi" 'flcl:x·.
noulin gl. lini 4." h.a.
I
I
, .
104
liniSllnt v pret. 3 pi 'to infect, defile' (llyn-]
MW llyn·; OIr lenaid
Perhaps, to IE ·(s)lei- 'schleimig, durch Nasse glitschiger Boden, ausgleiten',
lEW: 663. See also immisline.
GPC: 2273; White: 186; Williams: 1933, 118; VVB: 175
linisant gl. lauare J 98
linnoue;n n pi (a plural dublet) 'lakes, pools' [llyn)
OW (LL) and MW lynn; OC lin in pisclin, grelin; OB lin; Olr lend; DB linda-
< IE '*[endh- -NaB, Quelle'; see also aleulinn. The instance is considered as Welsh
by GPC.
DOVB: 243; GPC: 2272; lEW: 675; OCV: 320-1; PECA: 88; VGK: 1,37
linnouein gl. in lacis lacunisque Ang 16 b
lirou n pi 'seas, oceans' (llyrJ
MW Jlyr, Mlr ler
< -li·,o, Vie;. ' gie8en, OieBen'. This etymology is queried in ope. According to
P.·Y. Lambert, this is a poetique qui designe lui aussi des entites mythi·
ques", referring to Bedigeiduran uab Llyr, etc.
GPC: 2275; lEW: 664; Lambert: 19828,21; Stokes: 1873,408
noulirou gJ. aequorurn Me 51 b.a.
liS5;U n ID 'lye, lotion, decoction' [lieisw]
MW Ileisw, leisso; DB lisiu, Husiu gl. lixa
< Lat. Jixiuim
DGVB: 244; EL: 41; apc: 2149; LHEB: 535; ML: 99,181; VGK: 1,218; VVB:
176
lissiu gl. lixam Ox2 44
b
(7.20)
lita" n 'Latium'
MW lIydaw, cE. G. Litavi·, OIr Letha
< IE *p{Jo'!ia, \/plat· -breit, flasch' (lEW: 833)
De Bernardo Stempel: 125-6; OaVB: 14; GPN: 217; VVB: 176
dilitau gl. Latio Ovid 39
b
litim.ur adj. 'populous'
Several interpretations of this difficult word have been considered. According to
Stokes, "the i between t and m is very faint [... ] This should perhaps be luithmawr
from luilh" (cE. VV8: 176; on this word see S.v. luidt). R. Thurneysen read the
word as linmaur and considered it as Irish (cf. l{nmar 'nombreux'). The second i,
however, still exists, see A. Harvey. OPC analyses this hapax as containing (MW)
llydK' 'host" compa nyt t perhaps connected with (MW) lledw 'plenty, abundance'.
The second component is ,naur, see s.V.
GPC: Harvey: 192; Stokes: 1860-1, 212; Thurneysen: 1890a, 93
litimaur gl. frequens J 18
105
litolsidou n pi 'feast-days, birthdays'
The present reading and interpretation of this hapax was suggested by I. Williams
(contrast VVB: 68, s. v. cenito/aidall) who followed Zeuss: 1057; it was accepted by
OPC, which compares this to Olr /ftl, 'festival', B lid, (, Litu- (on these and the
etymological lay-out, see GPN: 217-R). Thc form is analysed as containing suffixes
·0/, and -aeth.
OPC: 2176; Williams: 1929,6-7
litolaidou gl. natales Ovid J9
h
liu n m 'colour, (colour of) complexion or skin' (lIiwl
MW lIyu, Iliw; OC liu gJ. color; OB liou gl. ncuum; Olr If
< */f-yo-, IE 'hUiulich
t
; for the semantic development which is found in the
instance taken from the Juvencus glosses see I-Iamp: 1977-R. tl, fn. I.
DOVB: 142; OPC: 2192; lEW: 965; 208; PECA: 72: VGK: J, 51
6 rud liu gJ. roseo colore Ang 17 a
liu gl. gratia J 25
liuou n pi 'rudders, tillers" (lIywJ
MW 1(I)yw; OC leu gl. clauus; aIr innaluac gl. gubernaculorum
Traditionally, from IE *p/ell- 'rinnen, nicf3en': for a different explanation see
aWAY.
DGVB: 241; ope: 2287; lEW: 836; oev: IJ2; PEC'A: 71: VGK: 1,61; VVB:
177; wo: 107
liuou gl. ligones J 25
10 t n m 'calr (110 J
MW 110, OC loch gl. uitulus, loch euhic gl. hinnulus, MB leue: Olr Ineg
According to H. Pedersen (VGK: II, 22) < */iipego· to IE *Iiip- 'Kuh' (lEW: 654).
Alternatively T. F. O'RahiJly (in Eriu 13 (1942), pp. 154-5), < *logioJ (cf. US:
253, and the criticism by J. Loth in RC 44 (1927), p.267; J. Pokorny in ZCP 24
(1954) p. 116), to IE */eg"h- 'Ieicht in Bcwegung und Oc\\'ichf (lEW; (60). J. Po-
korny lists these forms under *Ieig. 'hiipfen, hchcn' (lEW: 667). Most recentlv
P. Schrijver has argued in favour of Pedersen's interpretation. 01
OPC: 2196; LHEB: 451; lEW: 654; J. Loth in RC 44 (IQ27). pp.267-R: oev:
258-9; T. F. O'Rahilly in Eriu 13 (1942), pp. PECA: 7J; Schrijver:
309-310; VGK: 11,22: VVB: 177
)6 sive enderfc gl. vitulus J 0
10
2
'church, abbey, monastery"
A dry stylus gloss on Lat. pod; ('religious settlement', common in LL. see W. Da-
vies, An Early Welsh Microcosm. Studies in the Llandaff Charters. London 1()7R,
pp. 37f, 121 f). According to K. Jackson, the W. fo;m is for 10c
'monastery'; the recent examination of this gloss (13. 199R) hy Dr. P. Russell
and myself has shown that it should he read as loe; there arc smfliler illegihle
lettcrs under the upper loop of the c. The gl(lsS is perhaps Latin.
EL: 41: GPC: 2202; Jackson: 71-2: MI.: lR2
In gl. rodi 42
8
(context 2.21: Craster: 1.1(,)
j,
106
10
3
?
According to P.-Y. Lambert, this could stand for Lat. 10. See also 10.
Lambert: 1987, 292
10 gl. ipsa [i.e. vitulusJ Ovid 38
8
n f 'place' [lIog]
MW 1(I)oc, OB loc , loch (menech); Ir loc
< Lat. locus; see also datlocou and cf. /0
2
,
DGVB: 244; EL: ope: ML: 182
ir loe. guac. Comp 5
ir Joe guac. Comp 6, 8, 17
irloc guac Comp 14
irloc quae Camp 9
loe guac Comp 12, 13
loee/au?
Stokes suggests reading foc faun or IDee/au; the gloss remains obscure.
Stokes: 1873, 395; VVB: 177
dirgatisse locclau gl. concesserat Me 8 a.b.
lorell n m&f 'litter' [Iogell )
MW Hogell; OC logel gI. loculus; B logel
< Lat. /ocellus
DGVB: GPe: 2203; ML: 182; OCV: 326; PECA: 73; Stokes: 1873, 402;
VVB: 177 and 127
locell vel fonn gl. ferculum Me 14 b.b.
loinou D pi 'bushes, sbrubs, brakes' [liwyo]
OW (LL) luhyn; MW liven, Ilwyn; OB loin, loeo (in PN)
The word was considered as a loan from Lat. lignum by Loth and Lewis; and was
described as "unklar'" by Pedersen. Jones considered this word to be authentic and
suggested *lllgno- (=::: E. Jock), while P. Russell suggested a derivation from
*/ukno- (IE V/euk- -Ieuchten, licht').
EL: 41; GPC: 2244; D. M. Jones in TPhS 1953, pp. 44-5; LHEB: 465; ML: 183;
P. Russell in CMCS 9 (1985), p.27; Schrijver: 357, 431; VGK: 1,84; VVB: 177
loinou gJ. frutices Ovid 37
b
loirau/adj. 'Iunar
t
[iloerol]
An -01 derivative of W JJoer, see loyr. The instance is listed as W. by ope.
DGVB: 246; ope: 2199
loiraul gl. monath Ang 55 a
adj. 'burnt, charred' Ilosgetig]
MW lIosgedic, lIoskeddig; OB loscitic; cf. lescsit
An -tdig derivative of Welsh lIosg: llo,r;gaf" OC lose gt. arsura, Ir. lose < *luk-sk·.
Vleuk- 'Ieuchten, lichf, PECA: 74; lEW: 687. The instance is listed as Welsh hy
ope.
107
DGVB: 223,240 and 247; GPC: 2211
in ir loscetic circhl gl. circulus [... ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
louber n m 'light' (name of a letter) [lIeuferI
MW lIeuuer, Ileufer
As was noted by GPC. this compound contains 1011 (for lell. see Inyr). and the
second part of it allows for the two etymological interpretations. *!,her- 'tragen.
bringen· (lEW: 12Rf). or 'flow·. on this stem see Hamp: IQR2.
GPC: 2167-8; VVB: 178
louber Nemn
louhi?
The gloss is obscure.
VVB: 178
louhi gl. rosarium Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
lo]'r n f'moon' (lloer)
MW lIocr; OC luir gl. luna, OB loir
< */ugrii. to IE leuk- 'Ieuchten, lichf
DGVB: 245; Elsie: 112; GPC: 2198; lEW: 690; OCV: 33; PECA: 75; VGK II,
49-50
retit loyr Comp 2
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
Irnidihid ir loyr Comp 6
relit loyr Comp II
Ceis inir loyr Comp 21
Juchsuc adj. 'muddy' I
MW lIychavc
An -ouc derivative of OW (Nennius, flistoria Brittonum. 219. see GPC: 2234)
llichiein, cf. OB aIr sec licholl.
DGVB: 247-8 and GPC: lEW: VC;K: 1,361
luchauc gl. paluster Prise 26 a
luidl, I"ilh n m 'tribe, family" (lIwyth J
MW luith. OB loit. holoit. loitret; OC' leid gl. progenies. cf. Illid. G
luxtos; OIr lucht
< *luXt -, IE ylellg- 'brcchcn'
DGVB: 214. 246; GPC: 2248; 10: lEW: LHEB: 405: DeV: Q()--I:
PECA: 73; VGK: 1,73
haluidt iuguret Chad 2
luith grethi Chad 3
luird n m 'vegetable or kitchen garden' (lluarth)
MW Illarth, OC luporchguit gl. nlinrz. cf. Olr luhgort
The compound contains a continuntion of Celt. *Iuh- 'hcrh' ()Ir f,,;/,) < IE
*1(',,1'-. etc .. ·nhschfilcTl. cntrindrn': flnd ('elt. *gn,.,o-. fo IF ....
umfnssen' (IE\V: 442).
-- --
, '.
108
DGVB: 247; ope: 2215; lEW: 690; OCV: 296; PECA: 75; Schrijver: 146-5;
VVB: 178
luird gl. horti Me 50 a.a.
luith see laidt
M
m prone pel'S. 1 sg 'my, me, to me' ['ID]
MW m; OB -m; OIr -mm...
GPC: 2293; Williams: 1980, 96-7
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
namercit Juv 3 (3.1)
ham hoI eneti gl. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4l
b
(1.10)
maessid D pi 'fields' IAllesJ
OW (LL) rnais, MW OB maes, Gaulish -magus, Olr mag; cf. MaCasi(a)m
< Britt. *mages-tu· < IE ·meg(Ft)-, *mtg(h)- 'groB'.
DGVB: 250; GPC: 2312; E, Hamp, On dating and archaism in the Pedeir keinc. /I
Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1974, p. 99; Slow and
uneven change.. II (J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd, N. Jacobs, eds.) Hispano-Gallo-
Brittonica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1995, pp. 49-50; lEW: 709; Lane:
P.-Y. Lambert, Notes de celtibere./1 (A. Ahlqvist, V. eds.) do
Oide. Essays in Memory of C. R. 6 Clerigh. Dublin: Institiuid Teangeolafochta
Eireann, 1997, p.248; LElA: M-8; LHEB: 445; PKM: xviii-xx; M. Richards in
EC 13 (1972) p.. 389 f
maessid gl. plana Ang 17 a
m8h8R1in n m 'nm, wether' [maharen]
MW mahar(a)en, m)'baren
According to WG, < 'male' Lat. mas) + oen 'Iamb'. The
word is hesitantly compared by GPe with Welsh mehyr, myhyr 'spears, spear, fig.
of a bold leader', and t he phonetic development of the last syllable is there paral...
leled to hal,,-,'yn > haJl1en > haJen.
GPC: 2321; H. Lewis in BEeS 4 (1928), p.136; Schrijver: 216; WG: 114
ha maharuin Chad 3
h[a maha]ruin Chad 4
mail adj. 'bald; bart, defective' [moel]
MW moel; MIT mae]
< ·,nai/- < IE ·,nni- ·hauen, abhauen'; note the spelling ai for oe.
GPC: 2474-5; lEW: 691; LElA: M-6-7; Stokes: 1873, 405; VVB: 179
mail g1. mutilum Me 42 b.a.
msinswr n f 'distria, .erritorial .nd 8dministntlve unit' (mlenor)
MW rnaynaur. maenawr.. maenaul
109
Considered by GPC (with a question mark) as an -owr (hist. pI. or < Lat. -arills)
derivative from Inaen 'stone'.
GPC: 2310
Ostendit ista cosripsio nobilitateln mainaur med deminih Chad 6
mair n m 'one of the administrative officers of the court (in the Welsh laws),
responsible for land supervision and the selection or dues; steward, officer, om·
cial' [maer)
OW (LL) mair, MW maer; DC mair gl. praepositlls; OB mair, pI. meir; Mlr
< Lat. maior; see also merion.
DGVB: 253; EL: 15,26; GPC: 2311; LElA: M-7; LllEB: 354; ML: 1M3; oev:
PECA: 76; W. Stokes in TPhS lRR5-7, p. 564; VGK: 1,215-6; VVB: 180
mair gl. ad suum praeposituln Ox2 45
3
(8.20)
mair gl. prepossitus Ox2 46
8
(9.35)
malgueretic ?
J. Loth (VVB: 180) suggests a comparison with Irish mel/a;,,,; L. Fleuriot (DGVB:
251) considers this word in his discussion of OB lnaloilloc.
malgueretic gl. deceptus Ovid 4l h
msnnuclenn ?
The word, which is a hapax in Welsh. was considered hy J. G\\'cnogvryn Evans
(hesitantly) as a diminutive of banu' 'a sucking the initial consonant was
explained hy as a result of nasal mutation. hut see I.J1EB: 641. n. I. Rhvs's
reading is accepted though queried by W. I)avies. (iPC follo\\'s the rcadin!! offer-
ed in HW and interprets this word as n f? 'handful (of !!rain). handful or armful (of
corn). sheaf. from Lat. 11l011l1cio/(1111l). l"his loan is not attested in any of the
studies of Latin borrowings in Welsh. .
BaudiS: 144; Davies: 1982, 263; GPC: 2349; LL: xlv
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
map n m 'son' (mab)
OW (LL) rneibion; OW (Harl). MW mab, map; OC' rnah gJ. filius. ()R mah.
cf. G. Magurix; aIr mace
< Britt. *1nopo- < Celt. */11ok"o- < IE 'jung'
DGVB: 249; GPC: lEW: 690; LElA: M-l; ()('V: 79; PECA: 75: YCiK: L
128; VVB: 180
nitguorgnim moUrn map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
hin map di iob gl. love dignus Ovid 39
h
map brethinnou n pi 'swaddling-tlothes
ll
The word occurs twice in Welsh (see also ,naphrith .i. 01l1l0li). "The compound
consists of 1nap 'son' (sec s.v.) and (pI.) hrrthifl1l01l, MW hrell1y11(11) lc1oth. wool-
len cloth' < *bratlino·, cf. (or from ?) Olr hran; the further etymological connec-
tion arc douhtful, sce A. Brcc7c in ZCP 47 (1995), p. (,PC: 320: LrIA: R--Rl:
VVB: 5R.
medichat D '8 ruling, control'
Hapax in Welsh; traditionally analysed as Y/nedd- + -yclt- + -ad, see the discus-
sion and bibliography in 10. For the etymology sec nled
2

GPC: JO: I05-{}; MJ: 272
dimedichat Chad 2
III
med
l
n m 'mead' (meddl
MW met, mcd; Me mcth, MB mel; (j Mcdugcllos Ir rnic.l
< IE *Inedhu-
GPC: 2394; lEW: 707; LElA: VGK: I, VVB: 182
med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
med gl. sicera Ox2 44
3
(6.20)
med
2
n ? m 'authority, possession' [meddJ
MW met, mcd; OIr med
< IE *111cd- 'mcssen, ermesscn' (lEW: 705). Contrary to I. Williams who conside-
red this instance as a verb, T. A. Watkins argues for its interpretation as a nOlln.
GPC: 2394; Haycock: 16; LElA: Watkins: 1982,42: White: Williams:
1980, 120
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
mein adj. 'fine, slender' rmainJ
MW mein
Compared (hesitantly) hy GPC to W Inu'yn 'tender, mild' (Oe nllli" gl. gracilis,
OB Inoin gl. dulcis) for these see DGVB: lEW: 711-2 (s.v. *nlei- 'mild,
weich, lieblich'); PECA: 81.
GPC: 2322; VVB: 183
mein gl. gracilcnta Me 4 b.a.
a mein funiou gl. rvittae] tenucs Ovid 37<1
meint n m&r 'size, dimension' (main')
MW meynt. meint; Me on mcnt; Olr mcit
< IE *,nhrnt-, (*",e-, nl-e-l- 'etwas abstccken, messen, ahmesscn·). Sec also lninl.
DGVB: 254; GPC: 2323; lEW: 703; Joseph: LElA: M-32: Schrijvcr: 175;
VGK: 1,292
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7..3)
mel n m 'honey' (mel]
MW mel; 08 mel gl. nectare, OC mel gl. mel, G Su-meli, etc.; OIr mil (gen.
mela)
< IE *meli-l 'Honig'
DGVB: 253; GPC: 241R; GPN: 114-6; lEW: 723; KGP: 242; LElA: M-50;
PECA: 78; VGK: I. 247; VVB: IRJ
trcan cant mel MP 22h (2.10)
hi hcstaur mel MP 22h (2JO)
is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 22
h
(231)
I.:.,
110
ope: 2294; T. H. Parry-Williams in BBCS 1(1922), p.l10; I. Williams in ODCS 7
(1933), p.35
map brethinnou gl. in cunis Ovid 39
b
mapbrith .i. onnou n pi 'swaddling-clothes'
According to T. H. Parry-Williams, this stands for mapbrith(i)onnou or mapbri-
thinnou, cf OW map brethinnou, see s.V.
apc: 2294; Harvey: 1991, 191; Parry-Williams: 122; T. H. Parry-Williams in
OBCS 1 (1922), p. 110
mapbrith .i. onnou gl. conabula (leg cunabula) J 8
mBrchauc n m 'horseman' [marchog)
MW marchawc, marchauc; DB mar(c)hog gl. aequester; Me marrec; cf. OIr
marcach
An ·-dko- derivative of march 'horse' (DC march gl. equus, OB marh, MIr marc)
< IE *marko- 'Pferd' (lEW: 700; Kelly: 45-7; Lane: 253). On the Irish word see
D. Greene, The War Chariot as Described in Irish Literature. /I Ch, Thomas, ed.,
The Iron Age in the Irish Sea Province. London 1972.
DGVB: 251; GPC: 2357; Kelly: 46; LElA: M-20; Russell: 1990, 50; VVB: 181
guas marchauc gJ. adulter Ovid 41
8
mIlS n r'mass of metal, matter, substance, abundaDce' [mas]
MW mas; OB mas gI. stagnum, Ofr mass
< Lat. maS5a; see Williams: 1929, 7 for the reading and contrast VVB.
DaVB: 251; GPe: 2370; LElA: M-23; ML: 185; VVB: 181
mas gl. metallum Ox2 42b (4.4)
m8ur adj. 'big, great' (mawr]
OW (LL) maur, (Gen) maur; MW mawr, maur; OC muer, OB mor, G. maro-,
OIr mor
< IE *mi·; *mo- 'groB, ansehnlich'. See also litimaur, gurmaur, flairmaur.
DGVB: 259; Elsie: 82; GPC: GPN: 223-8; lEW: 704; KGP: 77-80; LElA:
M-18; PECA: 81; VGK: 1,49; VVB: 182
or maur dluithruim gl. vecte maveri J 90
flairmaur gl. olacem Me 14 a.a.
irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
mBul n r&m 'thumb' [bawd)
MW baut; MB meut
Without established etymology; J. Pokorny hesitantly lists this entry in his *me-,
m-e·t- 'etwas abstecken, messen, abmessen', lEW: 703; for a sceptical evaluation
of the comparison with Annenian motn 'finger' (Meillet, G. Solta), see E. Maka-
". jev, Armjano-kertskije izoglossy.1I Kelty i kel'tskije jazyki. Moscow: Nauka 1974
pp.58-9.
265; Henry: 200-1; VVB: 182
ir maut MP 23
8
(241)
112
,
..
113
, ....
me/in IdJ. 'yellow' [melynJ
OW (LL) melen, melin; MW melin, melyn; DC milin gI. fuluus I. f1auus; OB milin
gl. flauus
< Britt. ·melino; perhaps to IE *meli-t 'Honig', see lEW: 724.
DGVB: 257; GPC: 2422; LHEB: 596; ML: 186; DeV: 210; PECA: 78
melin gl. giluium Ox2 43a (5.1)
melinou n pi '(com)mills' (melin]
MW melin; OC melin gl. molendinum; OB molin gI. molam; OIr mulenn
It was noted by fleuriot that the form could be ow. ope: 2420, however, consi-
ders this entry as DB.
< Lat. molina
DGVB: 254; LElA: M-75; LHEB: 604; ML: 186; DeV: 393; PECA: 78
melinou uel elinou gl. cardinales Ang 15 a
mel/hionou n pi 'clovers, trefoils' [meillion]
MW meill(i)on; MB melchonenn
This plant-name is sometimes considered to belong to IE *meli-t 'Honig', see s. v.
mel; cf. the similar suggestions for the history of Middle High German me/de.
GPC: 2409; Jackson: 1950, 16; PECA: 78; OCV: 288; Stokes: 1873, 396; VGK: I,
137; VVB: 184
mellhionou gl. uiolas Me 8 b.b.
menn'.u/ n f 'balance, K81es' (mantol]
MW mantawl; DB monto)
For the absence of the relation of these words to G mantalo-, see J. Vendryes in
EC 1 (1936), p. 337 and ct. GPN: 68. J. Loth connects the Brittonic words with the
IE base ·mh/-nt- (see S.v. meint).
DOVB: 259; GPe: 2346; VVB: 184
menntauJ gl. bilance Me 12 b.a.
merion n pi 'omtials, stewards'
See maer
merion gl. actores J 78
mesur n m 'unit 01 measurement' (mesur]
MW mes(s)ur; OB misur in doguomisuram, OC (Book of Tobit, see PECA: 106)
dowomisurami gl.. compensabo; OIr mesar
< Lat mensura (MLat. mesura).
DGVB: 147,257; GPC: 2440; Haarmann: 124; LElA: M-41; LHEB: 331; ML:
187; PECA: 106; VVB: 185
irmesur g1. nummum J 80
di mesur gJ. ad Jjbram MP 23
1
(229)
mil prone pen. independliDI 1 sg 'I, me' [mil
MW my, mi; OB me (1: see Lambert: 1986, 109); Me my, me; OIr me
< IE ·,ne-
Elsie: 105; GPC: 2452; JEW: 702; LElA: M-25-6; VGK: I, 250; VVB: 185;
Williams: 1980,97, 115
ismi gl. nunc ego quem J 3
ismf Christus J S4
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
namercit mi nep Jeguenid hClloid Juv 3 (3.1)
rit pucsaun mi ditri"taut Juv 9 (7.2)
issmi gl. intemerata Me II a.a.
mi phiJologia gl. uoco Me II a.a.
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
m;2 prone pOSe I sg 'my' (ryJ
MW fy; B rna, va; Olr rno
GPC: 1271; WilJiams: 1980,95
miteJu Juv 3 (1.2)
micoueidid Juv 3 (.1.2)
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
miinnguedou n pi ?
According to H. Lewis the reading ,nllnnKliedoli offered oy Stokes (accepted by
Loth) is wrong. Instead he suggests I1,iinglledoll (W "'i" ... ·rddnll or ,ny,u1'eddoll).
According to P.-Y. Lambert, ho\vever, the entry could he read as niinglledoll, and
this was compared with DB nino
Lamhert: 1982a, Lewis: 19.12, 110-1 Stokes: IH7.1. VVB: 190
nouirmiinnguedou .i. coiliou gl. cxtorum Me 2 3.(1.
mine; n m 'hames, collar' (mwnciJ
MW mynci; cf Olr muince, perhaps horrowed from Welsh.
This compound was considered to contain IE *,n01l0· tNacken, Hals· (lEW: 747),
and *kagh- 'fassen, einfasscn' (JEW: SIR).
DaVB: 261; EJsie: 114; GPC: lEW: J. Loth in RC 45 (J928).
pp.198-9; LElA: M-72: Parry-WiJ1iams: 122; J. Vendryes in EC (1 (1953-4).
p.383; VVB: lR6
minci gl. monile J 26
minn v pres. 3 sg 'to want, claim" (mynn-)
MW min(n)-, myn(n)-; Me mynnas, MB mennat
< IE *l1lendh- 'seinen Sinn worauf richten, Ichhaft sein' (lEW: 730)
GPC: 2537; 10: 107; White: 100-1
nis minn tuthulc Chad 2
minn n 'crown, wreath of nowers'
The word is attested only in and could he Cl hnrrcl\ving from Irish ",ind. See
also the next.
GPC: LElA: M -SJ--4: .1. 'nth in R, 44. r VVR: l(,R
\ ..
114
minn gl. sertum Me 6 b.a.
minn gl. sertum MC 7 b.a.
minnou n pi 'crowns, wreaths of Dowen'
See m;nn
minnou gl. serta Me 9 a.a.
minoou gl. stemmata MC 10 a.b.
mint 'much, many'
See meint.
GPC: 2661
pamint gI. quam J 31
mod adv. 'how' [mood]
MW mod; OB mod, Olr mod
< Lat. modus
DGVB: 258; GPe: 2473; LElA: M-56; ML: 188
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp 1
modreped n pi 'aunts' ImodrybI
MW modryb(ed); OC modereb mam gl. matertera; 08 motTep gl. mater-
tera
< Celt. *mdtrVk";, to IE *mater· 'Mutter'.
DGVB: 260; GPC: 2472; Hamp: 1973, 78-9; lEW: 700; LHEB: 288; LElA:
M-25; oev: 86; PECA: 80; Schrijver: 197 and 213; VGK: I, 129; VVB: 187
modreped gl. matertere m[e]re Ox2 43
b
(5.29)
moi adj. comp. 'bigger, larger, more' [mwy]
MW muy, mui, mwy; OB roui, Olr roo
< *,ntiills, to IE *me-, *mo- 'groB, ansehnlich'.
DGVB: 261; lEW: 704; GPC: 2515; LElA: M-18; LHEB: 257; GOI: 237; VGK:
I, 66 and II, 120
is moi hinnoid MP 23a (246)
mo/aut n m 'pnlise, exaltation' [molawdJ
MW molaut, molaud, molawd
An ·oK'd derivative of rno/(im) , see molim.
GPC: 2479
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
molim vn 'to pulse' (mol-)
MW mol-; MB meuliff; OIr rnol-
For the possibilities of etymological analysis, see LElA.
GPC: 2479; LElA: M-62; White: 299-301
ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3)
riitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
marl exclamative particle 'so (great), how such (af [mor)
MW mor, cf. CA XXXII, 3 mor dru; cf. 08 mor, MR mar
115
This can be an unaccented form of fna"r, sec s. v.
CA: 165; GMW: 38 and 43; GPC: 2485; Lamhert: 1987, 293; VB: 249; VVB:
188-9; WG: 253-4
mortru gl. eheu Ovid 39a
morliaus gl. quam multos Ovid 39a
morl n 'sea" see mormeluet
morduit n m&f haunch.. ham" (morddwydl
MW mortuit, mord(r)wyt; oe morpoit gl. femur, MB morzat
The traditional connection with OHG fnuriot 'thigh' (then < *morieitii) was que-
ried recently by P. Schrijver due to the phonetic difficulties.
GPC: 2488; oev: PECA: 81; SchrijveT: 240; VGK: L VVB: 188; WG: 153
omorduit gl. femine Me 51 a.a.
mormeluet n pi 'sea snails' (mor-falwodI
W morfalwen (sg.)
This compound contains nlor 'sea' (OW (LL), MW mOT, mOT, MB mOT, Olr
muir) < IE *mori- 'MeeT' (lEW: 748; but see E. Hamp in ZCP 46 (1994). p. 11),
and "leluet 'snail' (DC melpen, MB mclhued) < IE *,nel- 'zcrmamcn. schlagen,
mahlen', see GPC: 2330, lEW: 716; PECA: 78.
GPC: Stokes: 1873, 408; VVB: 189
mormeluet gl. tcstudinum Me 51 a.h.
morthol n m 'hammer, malle'" rmorthwyl J
MW morthwl, morthuyl. mwrthwl. myrthwl. myrthyl: M(' morthal. MB morzol
< Lat. ,nartulus (MLat. *nlortlilo ?)
EL: GPC: 2494; LHEB: ML: 188: VGK: I. 239; VVB: lR9; WG: 113
mort hoI gl. seta Ox2 42b (4.5)
moys n 'basket, hamper.. dish"
L. Fleuriot noted that this word could he 08 as well. See 11Ut;J.'i
DGVB: 260-1; Lambert: 1982, 193
moys altaur gl. catenum Prisc 12 a
muhit n m r and adj. 'ebony" (muchudd)
MW muchud, muchyu
Word without etymology.
DoVB: 261; ope: 2499
muhit g1. ebeno (Leidcn)
muin n m 'treasure" (name of a letter) (mwynJ
MW mwyn; Olr mafn, mofn
< *,ne;-no, VI11Ci- 'wechscln, tauschcn'; hut cf. Irish ogam letter-name ,n";,, and
the problems related to its interpretation (McManus: 156-7).
GPC: 2519: lEW: 710: LElA: M-59-flO:.1. Loth in RC"' 40 (142.1), rr. VVR:
IR9
muin Ncmn
f
116
muiss n r&m 'basket, hamper, dish' [mwys]
MW mwys; DC muis gL mensa, OIr mfas
< Lat. mensa; see also mOJ5.
DGVB: 260; GPC: 2523; LElA: M-47; LHEB: 543; ML: 189; oev: 365; PECA:
82; Stokes: 1873, 407; VGK: 1, 208-9; VVB: 189
muiss gl. disci Me 46 a.b.
munutolBU n 'twigs'
Hapax in Welsh. OB minutolou gl. samentis
< Lat. minutal(ia)
OOVB: 257; GPC: 2502; ML: 188; VVB: 190
munutolau gi. fornilium Ox2 44
b
(7.27)
mur n m '".11' [mur]
MW mur, MB mur; OIr mur
< Lat. murus
The instance could be Irish as well.
GPC: 2502; ML: 189; Haf"\'ey: 191; LElA: M-76; VVB: 190
moenia aul .i. mur bethlem J 1
N
n pron. (infixed) I pi 'us'
See an.
Haycock: 12; J. T. Koch in Eriu 38 (1987), p.165 fn. 21; Watkins: 1982, 43
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5,2)
na negall"e particle [na(c)]
MW na(d); Me na(g); DB na(c); OIr na(ch)
See also not, nammui.
GPC: 2545; Williams: 1980,96-7
gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16
namercit Juv 3 (3 I 1)
na(m) bill' 1
Obscure, Bint was suggested (DGVB: 63) to be a form of the verb 'to be'.
DGVB: 263
na[m] bint gl. tan turn dissyllaba Prisco 34a
nam n m 'lord' [nan
MW naf
J. Loth in Archiv fur celtische Lexikographie iii (1905-7), p. 39 derives this form
which does not have any immediate cognates in the other Celtic languages from
*nahho- (cf. English navt'); see R. Fowkes for the semantic evaluation.
Grc: 2548; Fowkes: 1958, 2-3; Williams: 1980, 98
tinn n!.lln ririPlle: 11M allPti£1 Til U 1. (1 1)
117
nam 'except" [nam(n) I ?
Was considered as a suspension of nom11,"ill (MJ: 272, for this word see now AP:
43 and E. Hamp in BBCS 30 (1983), p. 288) or na""nll; (10: 103), see s.v. GPC:
2551 considers this as belonging to na1".\''' and cites examples from MW and W
(nom, nanl" 'except'). It was suggested hy St. Zimmer (forthcoming) that the
word belongs to the previous syntagm. and he translates the passage as '(un)
cheval. trois vaches, (plus) precisement trois vaches qui viennent de veler".
nanl iT ni be cas igridu Chad 2
nam hint erre; ?
This difficult gloss caused dispute. According to L. Fleuriot, this could contain
nam, into and errei (for rei 'kind'?). Alternatively. P.-Y. Lambert sees here naf1'-
hint = W namyn, and er-rei = MW y rei, translating Lat. quaJ.
DaB: 522; oaVB: 263; Lambert: 1982, 204
nam hint errei gl. sed quas Prise 34 a
nsmmu; adv. 'only'
MW namwy; Olr namma
See na, ,noi.
GMW: 233; GPe: 2551; LElA: N-2-3; VVB: 191
h6nft namrfnji gl. tantum ne r... ] unquam J 51
nant see pennant
nat negative particle (in a relative clause) (na(d) I
MW na(d); MB nad
Sec na.
DGVB: 262: GPC: 2544; VB: 276; VVB: 191
natoid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. h.
nsunecsnt n 'cycle of nineteen years"
Hapax in Welsh. GMW glosses "Olltler as '19' and "ollneca,,1 as 'a cycle of 19
years'. ope (with a query) lists this as a noun 'cycle or period of nineteen years'.
and this is the rendering of P.- Y. Lamhcrt. 'pcriode de dix-neuf ans', cf. Ir.
nofdecdae. Following Quiggin I. Williams compares this with B "onfldec '19'. and
refers to WG: 232 for the suffix -anI. cf. Evans: 1976-R. 237. It was also suggested
(1. Loth in RC 34 (1913), p. 147) that the second clement could he cant 'cercle·. cf.
DGVB: 95, but see Lambert: 1984,33, where it is tentatively argued fOf a
-t- derivation.
The formation finds a perfect match in OB noudeca"t. Etymologicaliy, nOli 'nine'
and deg 'ten', for the etymologies see "011011, deccolion.
DOVB: 264; GMW: 45; 255H; (Jfccnc: 540; Lamhcrt: IlJX3, 12H; Lamhert:
1984, 33; Sehrijver: 212; Williams: 1927, 272
circhl naunecant. Comp 23
118
n8UOU num. pi 'nine' lnaw]
MW nau; OB nau; OIr nof-n
< IE *neY1}- (GOI: LElA: N-19; VGK: I, 61)
The Welsh affinity of this entry is based on the preceeding definite article. This
instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 264
amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gI. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14a
nedim n , 4adze, (neddyf]
MW nedif, MB ezeCf
A derivative of the verb reflected in W naddu 'to cut' (= Ir snad-), on these see
GPC: 2548 and LElA: 5-146; to IE *(s)nadh- 'einschneiden, schnitzen' (lEW:
972-3).
GPC: 2561; VGK: I, VVB: 192
nedim gl. sscia Ox2 42
b
(4.3)
nem n f&m 'lleaven' (nel)
MW new, nef; OC nef gl. celum; OB nem; aIr nem
IE *nebh- 'feucht, Wasser' (lEW: 315)
DGVB: 265; GPC: 2561; LElA: N-8; OCV: 32; PECA: 82; VGK: 1,255
uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)
uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)
nemheun.llr 'at all'
This very di fficult sequence was considered by several authors. According to GPC
(which follows 8 .. Rees) this hapax perhaps contains neb (see s.v. nep(p», mewn
(OIr medon. < IE ·medhi- lEW: 706, LElA: M-28), and aur (see s.v.)
Bromwich: ope: B. Rees in BBCS 20 (1963), p.125; Watkins: 1982,
Williams: 1980, 93-4
niguorcosam nembeunaur henoid Juv 3 (1.1)
nep(p) proD. "someone, anyone'
OW (LL). MW OB nep; G. nepon; OIr nech
< IE see also nepun
DOVB: 265; GOI: 311; GPC: 2560; LElA: N--6; VGK: 11,211-2; VVB: 192; WO:
312-4
nep gI. oe quem] 70
namercit mi nep leguenid henoid Juv 3 (3.1)
panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.
nepun pron. 'someone, anyone, somebody'
MW nebun. neb un; 08 nep un alall; Me nep onon
Contains ntp and un 'one', see s.v.v.
DGVB: GPC: 2560; VVB: 192
nepun gl.. qua Ovid
119
nerth n m&f 'strength' (nerth)
MW nerth; OB ncrth gl. robur; G. ncrto-. Olr nert
< Celt. *ncr-to- < IE *ner- '(magische) Lehenkraft. Mann'. This instance is not
quoted in ope. For the gloss. cf. W n nertll 'hy the pCl\vcr of. hy. through, with the
help of. See also ncrtheint, ncrthiti.
DGVB: 275 and 266; GPC: 2571; GPN: 237; lEW: 765; LElA: N-IO: J. Loth in
RC 41 (1924), pr. 207-R: VOK: I. 136.414
a i ncrth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
nertheinl v pres. 3 pi 'to make reinforce' (nerthaf: nerthRul
MW nerth-; cf. air nertaigid
A -hall derivative of nerth: sec s. v. a. nd cf. ,,('rthiti.
ope: 2572; VGK: II. J]8; VVI3: 192; Whitc: 121
ncrthcint gl. armant J R9
nerthi(tJ) v imp. 2 (or pres. 2 sg) 'to make strong(er), reinforte,
Incrthaf: nerthu I
MW ncrth-; MB nerziff; Olr nert-
A dcrivative of "erth see s. v. and cf. "ertheint.
GPC: Lamhert: 19R7. VGK: II. VVB: 192: White: 26R
nerthiti gl. hortabcrc Ovid 39
h
nes adj. comp. 'nearer' [nesJ
MW nes; MCB ncs, OIr nessa; G neddamon
< IE *ned- 'zusammcndrchen. kniipfen'
DGVB: 234 and 266: GPC: 2573: lEW: LElA: N-12: V(,K: I. 4RO
issid ncs gl. imfcriora Ang HI h
nil pron. pcrs. t pi 'we, us' (ni)
MW ni, ny, ny, OB Olr sni
< IE *ne- 'wir' (lEW: 75R)
DGVB: 102; Elsie: GPC: LElA: S-150; VGK: 11,168: VVB: 193
cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 h
isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b
nouni gl. nostrum MC 44 b.h.
ni
2
negative particle 'not' (ni( d))
MW ny(t); MC ny(ns); OB ni(t). nc(t); G ne-: Olr ni. nf; cf. C'I nc
< *ne (Satznegation). < *1] sec also nit.
DGVB: 267-9; DaB: Elsie: 116; OMW: 173-4: GOI: GPC': 2581:
lEW: 756; LElA: N-14; VGK: I. 250 II. 252f.: VVB: 193: WG: 422-4
Oraur. ni hois. ir loc guac hinnith. in pagi"n regulari Cn,np 5
nitarnhcr C'omp 8
haccet. nitegid. dLa. 8.
Irnidihid ir loyr di.a. C'omr l)
niritarn(h)er Comp 10
cen nit boi lor !!tlnr i,,'f'" 0, ct a. in f'OJllf' t 2
120
Cinnit hoys irloc guac hinnuith In pagina regulari Camp 14
nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17
ir nider uid hinn. bOll nit bloidin salt Comp 21
nam ir oi be cas igridu Chad 2
nis minn Tutbulc Chad 2
niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1)
nieana[m] Juv 3 (2.1)
niguardam Juv 3 (2.1)
nicusam Juv 3 (2.1)
nit arcup betid hicouid canlon Juv 9 (2.1)
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
nisacup ois arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3)
ni choilam hinnoid MP 22
b
(234)
nichoilam MP 22
b
(238)
oi cein guodemisauch gI. non bene passa Ovid 39
8
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
nihn (n.me of • letter)
This entry in the so-called "Alphabet of Nemnius" is usually compared with an
ogam letter-name nin, without etymology, on this see McManus: 151-3.
LElA: N-17; VVB: 193
nihn Nemn
niinpedDI1 see mlinnguedDu
nim n 'measure'
I. Williams hesitated between the readings nim or nun, with the line over the last
two letters. His suggestion was to consider this as an abbreviation for nimer (see
s.v.) which he translates (1930,245) as'mesur'.
Williams: 1930,244
guor frit nim MP 23& (241)
nimer n r&m 'number" (niCer)
MW niuer, nifer, OB Ofr nuimir
< Lat numerus; see also nim.
DGVB: 268; GPe: 2582; Haarmann: 125; ML: 107, 190; LElA: N-24f; VVB: 193
irnimer bichan MP 22
b
(238)
irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
maior nimer gI. grauior numerus J 91
nom
l
?
Scribal error for nOll (I). See nou and cf. nom
2
.
DGVB: 211; GPC: 2596; Lambert: 1982a, 25; Lambert: 1984,185-6
Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum Ang 13 a
no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
inno ir guoloJinou gl. Ang 68 b
121
nom
2
?
This entry is very controversial. According to Zeuss (p. 1(55) /lon, here glosses
te,npla and corresponds to W n»1 'sacrum, sacellum'; this was accepted (with
modifications) by Loth. H. Lewis connected this word with W neuadd 'hair (see
s.v. nOllodoll). Fleuriot keeps to the traditional interpretation, thus 'sacred place,
temple'. P.-Y. Lambert, following W. Stokes and J-1. Bradshaw, suggests seeing
here a particle introducing genitive (see also nOll, etc.); this is not accepted in
OOB: 528 and cf. scepticism of GPC'.
OGVB: 271; GPC: 2596; VVB 194-5; Lambert: 1982a, 23-4; H. Lewis in BBCS
15 (1953), pp. 121-2
nom irbleuporthetic gl. lanigerae templa Ovid JR:l
nos n f 'night' [nos]
MW nos, DC nos gl. nox, OB nos; cf. air innocht
< *nokt-stu, IE *nek"-(t-), *nok"-(t-) 'Nacht'; for tra nos, cf. C ternOJ, MW tran-
noeth.
OOVB: 271; Elsie: 115; GPC: 2597; lEW: 762; OCV: 198; PECA: VGK: I,
123
tra nos Comp 13
notuid n f 'needle, pin' [nodwydd]
MW not(t)wyd; MC nasweth, MB nodocz; aIr snathat
< IE *(s)ne- 'weben, spinnen'; cf. W nyddll 'to spin',
GPC: 2590; lEW: 973; LElA: 5-148-9; VGK: I. R5; VVB: 195
notuid gl. acus Ox2 42
h
(4.8)
nou?
A higly controversial entry. GPC' refers to neu 'or", and preverhal particle. P. -y.
Lambert connects it with OW (LL) ynfnu. See the literature cited here and also
s. v.v. nOln 1-2.
GPC: 2599; Lambert: 1982a; Lambert: IQR7. 28R: VVB: 195
nouirmiinnguedoll .i. coiliou gl. cxtorurn Me 2 a.a.
nouirgoudonou gl. tinearum Me 2 a.h.
nouirguirdglas gl. sali resplendentis Me J (l.n.
nouiremid gl. aeris MC-' 4 h.a.
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucuhrationllm perennium Me 4 h.a.
nouirfionou gl. rosarum Me 9 h.h.
nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 10 3.a.
nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 0 b.a.
nouni gl. nostrum Me 44 b.b.
noulin gl. lini Me 45 b.a.
nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonum stilis MC' 46 a.a.
nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a.
nouJirou gl. aequnrum Me 51 h.a.
nou conj. 'or' Inell I
MW ()lr n{l. ",i
122
GPe: 2515; Lambert: 19828, 23; Lambert: 1987, 303; LElA: N-l1; LHEB: 50;
Williams: 1933, 115
nouinnguotricusegetiion gl. nec delata diu J 4
noue! adj. 'bright, mature, clear'
Hapax in Welsh; the word is usually compared with anawell 'clear' found only in
"The Book of Taliesin'" (T. 41.8). It was noted that the latter word should be
perhaps amended to nowe([ (G: 26). See J. E. Caerwyn Williams in Y Traethodydd
135 (1980), pp.46-7.
GPC: 2557; Haycock: Williams: 1980, 96
med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
nouidligi adj.? 'newly-tal, ed' (1)
Hapax in Welsh; this word is analysed as a compound of the two elements, repres-
ented by W newydd 'oe w., and 10 'calf' (see 10
1
). The lack of an expected i-affection
in the first element (for which cf. OW (AC) neguid in gueith dinas neguid, s.a.
921, see Philimore: 168) explained by 1) orthographical inconsistency or gene-
rally variable state of it in OW and 2) the influence of the Latin context preceeding
it (8. Schulze-Thulin). The troublesome ending was 1) compared to that of the
notorious /Jestr; (10) and 2) as a Latinism, a flection of n. pI. noun (B.
Schulze-Thulin). For the interpretation of this term as an Irish entry, see OWAV.
GPC: JO: LHEB: 607,615; MJ: 272; B. Schulze-Thulin, OW. nouid-
Iigi. "SC 28 (1994), pp.119-80.
tres uache nouidligi Chad 2
nouooou n pi 'halls' [neuadd]
MW neuad
GPC (which follows H. Lewis) derives the W forms from Britt. *nom-o-d (with
queries) and refers to a putative nom gl. temp/a, see nom
2

GPC: 25-75; H. BUeS 15 (1953), pp.121-2; VVB: 196
nouodou gl. palatia Me 7 a.b.
o
o prep. 'of, from, wiCh, by' [oJ
OW (LL, HB), MW 0; 080; OIr 6, ua
IE *QU- 'herab, weg von' (differently VGK: 1,438)
See ho, hanoud, o,aur.
DGVB: 213; GPC: 2005-L1; JO: 99; lEW: 72; LElA: 0-1; Lambert: 1987,287;
VB: 290-1
o gurucheltoii gl. deffectum gl.. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a
p issei gl. humili Ang 15 a
o i nerth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
or teneu creaturou gl. sllbtiolioribus elcmentis Ang 15 b
123
odatsebimou gI. stabulis Ang 15 b
orud liu gl. rosen colore Ang 17 a
or timuil gI. nocte ceca Ang 50 a
o e leidim gI. processu Ang 61 b
or ree issid pellaham gI. a superioribus continentur Ang Rib
omort gl. formidinc Berne 167 (see P.-Y. Lambert in EC· 23 (J9R6). p. JIR and
125; cf. P.-Y. Lamhert in EC 27 (1990), pp.339--40)
or bissei Comp 3
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
ocrit gl. timore (leg trcnlore) J 5
o glanstlinnirn gl. famine sancto J 5
6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
o isel J 5
or cled hln gl. limite levo J 26
6rd'rlssi gl. dc tribulis J 27
6r teu gl. obtonso [leg. ohtuso] J 37
6das gl. aceruo J 45
or guithlam tal gl. fronte duclli J 51
opermedintcredou gl. mcdullis J 51
ordamcirchinnuou gl. ambagidus J 50
o discI gl. lance J 59
o crummanhuo gl. scropibus J 77
or maur dluithruim gl. vecte moveri J 90
orbardaul Icteinepp gl. cpica pagina Me la.h.
oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a.
ordeccoIion gl. dccadibus MC 7 h.b.
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro textili Me Rh.a.
orcomtantou gl. hombis MC' 10 a.a.
orduhenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionihus cxsectis MC 42 3.3.
oguard gl. flammco MC 44 a.a.
oemid gl. ex acre Me 46 b.b.
omorduit gl. femine MC 51 3.a.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
il
o olin gl. rota Ovid 37
h
ocloriou gl. tabellis Ovid 38
il
ordometic gl. domito Ovid 39
3
ocoilou gl. auspiciis Ovid 39
h
oguordiminntius gl. ab invito Ovid 39
h
ocorsenn gl. harundine Ovid 40
3
oceenn gl. mirice Ovid 40
3
o guiannuin gl. verc Ovid 40
h
o caitoir gl. puhc Ovid 41 h
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusquc Ovid 4t
h
nirinciriles. cimp&il1iflusauc oirei gl. lld plnres !\ui fit cnmp;tratin Prise 21 a
, ..
124
oee' n f 'harrow' (oged]
MW oget, aged; MB oguet
< IE *okra- CEgge, Gerat mit Spitzen'; see aWAY.
GPe: 2638; lEW: 22; VGK: I, 122; VVB: 197-8
ocet gl. raster Ox2 42b (4.6)
oeh n m&r (awch)
This entry is usually compared with MW awch 'edge, point, sharpness'. GPe: 237
does not quote this instance.
DGVB: 273; Jackson: 1975'6, 44; Stokes: 1873, 412
och gladi gl. mochera J to
ochcul?
An obscure word. VVB: 198 hesitantly translates it as 'coffre de voiture, chariot
couvert', and considers here W cwl 'corl' (in fact a late loan from English cow!),
and och. Far from clear.
ochcul gl. ca psus Ox2 42" (4.2)
oro/uin n r 'whetstone' [agslen, calenJ
MW 08 ocoloin gl. cotes pro cautes
< IE *ak., ok.. 'scharf, spitz'; see also S.v. cemecid, diauc and cf. Greek dXoVll
'pierre aiguiser' (Chantraine: 43).
DGVB: GPC: 47; lEW: 18; VGK: 1,412; VVB: 198
ocoluin gl. cos 07(2 43
a
(4.8)
oimer see guotiap8ur oimer didu
ois n f '8ge, century' (oes)
MW oes; DC huis gl. seculum; Olr 'es, als, 6es, 6is; cf. CI aiuisa§
< *a;t.. to, see oiJ, and also oisou.
40; GPe: 2627; lEW: 11; JO: 107; LElA: A-21; MJ: 273; oev: 197;
PECA: VGK: J, 56
in ois oisou Chad 2
oisou n pi 'ages, centurie!'
See ois; cf.. WG: 204 for the final -d.
in ois oison Chad 2
oil n f&m 'time, period, space' (oed]
MW oet, oed; DB OIr aes
This word is derived in lEW from < *ai-to, IE Vai.. 'geben, zuteilen'; for the
difficulties of derivation and further literature, see LElA.
DGVB: ope: 2620; lEW: 10; LElA: A-21; Williams: 1927,271
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20
'l);Ih num. CI rd. 'eight' [wythI
MW OB eith, Me eath; OIr ocht; cf. G. oxtumeto[s]
< "oxl,;- < IE ·okto- lacht'; see also uilh.
125
DGVB: 156 and 276; Greene: 540; lEW: 775; LHEB: 405; LElA: 0-6-7; Schrij-
ver: 350
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a
or bissei pan dcconctent ir. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
oleu n m 'oil' [olew]
MW olew, OC oleu gl. oleum; aIr olae
< Lat. o/ell1n (MLat. olellll1n)
EL: 12; GPe: 2641; LElA O-IQ; LHEB: J67; 1. Lloyd-Jones in ZCP 7 (1910).
p.464; ML: 191; PECA: R4; VGK: I. 194; VVB: 148
ir hestoriou oleu MP 22
h
(211)
olin n f&m 'wheel' [olwyn]
MW olwyn; Ir. fulumain
< IE *e/- 'biegen' (lEW: 308). See also crunIl0l"nOIl, holoinoll.
DaVB: 213-4; GPC: 2644; VVB: 199
o olin gl. rota Ovid 37
b
011 pron. 'all'
See hoi.
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham all in pagina regular; ('omp 15
onguedou?
According to 1. Loth" of the text perhaps stands for nUJ11ngliedoll;
later, however, he turned hack to the reading offered in the manuscript. sugge..
sting a connection with Greek OVTOc; 'excrements d·animaux·, i.e. IE *ondlr- and
suffix -glled. According to I. Williams. the form in the MS is ongllcdoll.
Loth in RC 40 (1923). p. VVB: 199; Williams: 142lJ. H
ironguedou gl. exta Ovid 41 a
onnpresen?
A very difficult word. J. Loth (VVB: 199) translates this as 'instrument acreuser".
and compares (following Stokes: IR65. 422) the first part of this word with Irish
onn cpierre', and the second - with W pres 'a qui est aigu'.
onnpresen gl. foratorium Ox2 42
it
(4.4)
or n f&m 'limit, boundary' (name of 8 letter) lorl
MW or; OB orion gl. oram, erion gl. ora; Olr or
The attempts to see in this word a loan from Lat. ora meet serious phonetic
difficulties. For the authentic origin of the word and its connection with MW eryr,
etc., see I. Williams in BSe"S 4 (1928). pp. 137-141. Cf. [.lior, dygyfor listed under
Pokorny's *er- (I EW: 328).
DaYB: 277 and 164; OPC": 2651; LElA: VYB: IY9
or Nemn
oraur conj. 'since, because"
See ollr. 0. yr. cr. on an" a or; Olr. orr. ,iand lin;r. St'c J. E. CClcrwyn William!""
, "...
126
Notulae. II J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd, N. Jacobs, cds., Hispano-Gallo-Britto-
nica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1995, pp.304-8.
DGVB: 66; GMW: GOl: 509; H. Lewis in BBCS 6 (1931), pp. 63-4; Lewis:
1956,298; Williams: 1927,262
Oraur. ni hois. ir Joe guac hinnith. in pagina regulari Comp 5
ord n 1'hammer, mallet' [(g)orddJ
MW orth, ord, yrd; 08 ord eMS or) gl. maleus; G ordo(vices); OIr ord
H. Pedersen connects these Celtic words with Armenian uirn and traces it to IE
*ordh- (1); note that the word is masc. in Irish. LElA considers these forms as
"proprement celtique et d'origine inconnue".
DGVB: 271; ope: 1468; KG?: 252; LElA: 0-29; VGK: I, 144; VVB: 199
ord gl. malleus Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
om n (name of • letter) '1
This instance was compared by Zeuss with W om 'blame'; for this word see GPC:
2656, which does not list this OW example.
VVB: Zeuss: 1059
om Nemn
ombimni' ?
According to Stokes (1865: 422), this is a combination of or « Lat. aurum) and
"dunker" ubimnit. VVB: 200 considers the second element as the name for
'bronze, brass, copper".
orubimnit gl. auricalcu m Ox2 42
8
(2.16)
ot v imp. 'to snow or sleet, r.11 (01 snow), hurl'; 'throw' (Fleuriot) [od-j
MW cf. OB ot a te gl. toile (Ang 58 b)
GPC tentatively derives this word from IE *pet- 'auf etwas los- oder niederstiirzen,
fliegen, fallen" (lEW: 825) and refers to Greek and Avestan tiitd-( <
*ptiitd-). See also Isaac: 438-9.
OOVB: GPC: 2616
ot ti gl. toile Ang 9 a
ou pron poss. 3 pl. 'their' ?
OW (LL), OU, MW DB ou
DGVB: 279; GPC: 1255
hac&oucimp& g1. superlatiuus multo Prisc 21 a
p
p. pron. interrogBti,e Bnd relative 'which, what' [pa)
MW pa; cf. Me py, 08 pe
<: IE *k"a·
ope: 2661; Hamp: 1975n6, 6Of.; Stokes: 1874,393; VVB: 201
pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
127
pamint gl. quam J 31
papep bi gl. quid ? J 37
panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.h.
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.b.
padiu 'to whom, what for, why' (paddiw)
MW padyu, pa diw
According to J. E. Caerwyn Williams, pa (sec s.v.) + 3 sg pres. 'to he
present, be of value'
GMW: 77; ope: 2667; Hamp: 1975/76,62; VVB: 200; J. E. C'aerwyn Williams in
BBCS 23 (1969), pp. WG: 293
ISSft padiu itau gulat gl. cclsi thronus cst cui regia coeli J 19
padiu gl. quid Ovid 41
8
pant pron./conj. 'when 1(pan)
MW pan, OB pan, Me Olr cuin or can
Apparently from IE the connection with Goidelic is still disputable, see
LElA. See also pan
2

DOVB: 280; GOI: 289, GPC: 2677; LElA: ('-272
amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14 a
in pan aed bid. ad ir loc. guac. Comp 4
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
pan
2
pron. 'whence, that' (pan)
MW Olr can
Perhaps to pi (see s. v.). and an, for which cf. Olr an. See also pan I.
GMW: ope: LElA: C-29
Or bissei diconetcnt ir. oithaur hinnith passerenn. pigurthct. loyr in aed
bid. ad ir. loc. guac. issi. in triti urd. Comp 3-5
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
papedpinnac see pa, ped, pinnac
papep see pa, pedd
pard, part, parth n m 'part' (parth)
OW (LL) and MW parth; OB OC *parth deduced from ahard. aharh: Mlr
pairt
< Lat. pars (portis); for a possibility of crossing \vith an authentic word. LElA:
P-2.
nGVB: 281; GPC: ML: LElA: 1'-2 and ()('V: Hfl: PEe'A: (,;
VVB: 201
ir paTth alnll gl. hie;; litorihus Ang 62 h
teir pctgurcd p(tTt MP 2:l
tl
(241)
isit prtguarcd p;lnl MP 2:r'
'\ III.
128
part see pard
partuncul n 'hinder part'
According to J. Rhys (1813: 467), this corresponds to MW pardwngyl, (Owain, ed.
R. L. Thomson, Dublin 1968, 12, line 283) pardwgyl y kyfryw 'the partuncuI of the
saddle' = 'hinder part of the saddle', see GPC: 2688; Rowland: 514. The word is
not otherwise attested.
partuncul gl. femorale Ox2 43
a
(5.3)
parth see pard
parth (name of a letter)
See parth.
parth Nemn
pIItel n f 'bowl, vessel' [padell]
OW (LL) petill, MW DC padelhoern gl. sartago
< Lat. patella
GPC: 2665; ML: 192; OCV: 388; PECA: 84; VGK: I, 232; Williams: 1980, 96
mi amfranc dam anpalel Juv 3 (2.3)
patupinnac see pa, w, pinnae
pBUp pron. 'everyone, everybody' [pawb)
OW (LL) paup, MW paub, paup, pawb; OB pop, OC pup, pop, pcb; OIr cach
< IE *kuok"o, to ·kuo-; see also popptu.
DGVB: 287; GOI: GPC: 2703; Hamp: 1973,88-91; lEW: 645; LElA: C-3;
VGK: I, 187 and II, VVB: 202
gurt paup gl. consistes [i.e. contra quemvis] Ovid 39
b
pbetid
According to I. Williams, this is a scribal error; the word is then betid, see s. v.
Watkins: 1982, 37; Williams: 1980, 109
dicones ihesu dieJimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
ped n m 'thing, object' [pe'h]
MW peth; MC peth, pyth; MB pez; Pict. pett-; OIr cuit; cf. M. Lat. petia terrae,
French piece
< IE *k"esd-; for the e1ample found in the Juvencus glosses, it was noted by
Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1, 216) that the form in the MS is "apparently papep, but the
last letter must be Il".
GPC: 2789; E. Hamp in EBCS 17 (1958), pp. 158-161; LElA: C-281; Schrijver:
261
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.b.
papep bi gl. quid ? J 37
pel adj. 'far, long' rpelll
MW Me pell; DB pell
< IE yk"eJ- 'fern"
129
DGVB: 282; Elsie: 93; GPC: 2723; lEW: 640; JO: 99; LL: xliii: MJ: 271; VGK: I,
128; WG: 127
amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2
pelechi 0 pi 'cudgels, clubs,
The only other known record of this word is found in RRC 11.41 (ew a guant
penpalacll); this is an -aell derivative from *pal- < IE */.;."('1-, cf. MW pal 'spade,
shovel'.
GPC: 2671; J. Lloyd-Jones in Eriu 16 (1952), pp. 123-1JI; VVB: 202
pelechi gl. claure J 94
pel/shllm adj. superl. 'the farthest'
Due to its presence in a Welsh context the word was considered as Welsh hy
Fleuriot; cf. 08 pel/ant; not considered in GPC: 2723. A superlative degree of pell
'far', for the etymology, see pel.
DGVB: 278 and 282
oree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 h
penn 0 m 'head' [pen]
OW (Gen: 12) pennissel, (LL) and MW pen(n), OB pen(n). OC pen gl. capud;
Olr cenn; G penno
< Celt. *k"enno- with no exact parallel in the other IE languages. See also Rllrth
ci111arch.
GPe does not consider this instance.
DaVS: 283; Elsie: 103; GPC: LElA: OCV: 40: 86
penngurthcimarch g). primas Prise J7 a
pennllnt 0 m 'uplaod, (head of a) valley" Ipennant I
MW pennant
GPC considers this as a compound. which contains pen (sec s.v.) and nanl 'v(lllcy'
(OC nans, G nanto, < IE *nlll-IO- 'gehogen' 2551: lEW: PEC'I\: R2).
See, however, a set of examples listed in GPC: 2727 S.v. pen 'top. sumrnit",
particularly LL 78 irenn nant eilion.
GPC: 2754
dipennant ircaru Chad 6
pep see pll, ped
per 0 m 'chief, lord' (pair]
MW per, peir
GPC suggests a connection of this with the verb para/: peri 'to cause, to make· .. IE
*k"er- 'machen' (lEW: 641).
ope: 2670; Williams: 19RO, 120
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
perc-ig n m 'mattock, hoe' (perltinI
MW pergy(n)g. pcrging
r
piipllur n m 'piper'
Hapax in an -Qwr derivative of pih; see pipe"" I. Willillms's rcading (con-
trast VVB and Zeuss: 1056, where the readings piSl'olir and tihicine are offered) is
now accepted.
GPC: VVB: 204; Rhys: lR7J, Williams: I()J.l. 113
piipaur tuscois gl. tubicine tusco Ovid .1S
h
pimmunt num. cord. 'fifty' [pumwnt]
MW pynlwnt. pymhwflC ()B pinllnont
< *pil11pont < IE *penk"i;-kollll1- 'fiinfzig'
See also guor, lUI.
OGVB: 286; GPC: 2929; lEW: HOB; L8mbcrt: 19R2. 194.
pimmunt. guar. un .1. gl. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a
pimp num. card. 'five' (pump)
MW pimp, pump, pymp; 08 pem(p). G pinpe-. pempe-, penlpc-: ()Ir «lie
< IE *penk"e for an explanlltioJl of the Irish vocalism. sec W. Co\\'gill. The
etymology of Irish gllidid and the outcome of *g"'h in (·chic. 11M. Mayrhofer.
M. Peters, O. Pfeiffer. eds. Lautgcschichte und Etymologic. Wieshaden: Dr. Lud-
wig Reichert Verlag 1980, p.02. fn. 14a, where a deriv(ltion from IF is
offered.
DGVB: 2R3: Elsie: 95; Greene: )()9; ope: 292R: lEW: HOR: K(jP: 256: LElA:
LHEB: 496: Sehrijvcr: 27: VGK: I. 37: VVB:
int dou pimp MP 22
h
(230)
hint tri pitnp MP 22
h
(230)
ir petguar pimp MP 22
h
(230)
pimphet num. ord. 'fifth' [pumed)
MW pym(h)et. pcm(h)ct. pimhed: MB pempct. G pinpctos: Olr c6iced
An derivaivc of the cardinal numeral '5'. scC' """'1'_
GPC: Greene: 542: Hirunuma: 42
ir pimphet eterin MP 22
h
(234)
pinnac(c) prone '(who)soever, Icnitedl
MW bcnnnc. b(y)nnac: Me pcnnk. pynag. penn!!: ()B pcnnac
DGVB: 2H.1: (,PC: 364 and 2644
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.h.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
piou(bol) 'to whom belongs, who owns" (piau)
MW pyeu, pyeuwu, pieu
A combination of pi (sec pui), and 3 pres. form of the verh 4hc·.
GMW: 80-1; OPC: 279L I-Iaycock: 15; II. Lewis in BBC'S IJ (195()). p.205;
Watkins: 1982. Williams: 19RO, 116-7
piouhoi int grnisauc Juv <) (R.2)
131
pipenn n f fubc' Ipihl'nl
OW (LI...) pibrnn. MW pyprl1. piht'l1: :\flr "'pCIl
J.'
130
penned n m 'gut(s), intestine' (perfedd]
OW (LL) and MW perued; Me aberveth; OB permed, permidit
< Lat. permedius
nGVB: ope: 2771; ML: 195; VVB: 202; I. Wiliams in ZCP 21 (1938),
p.301
gl. ilia J 35
opennedinteredou gl. medullis J 51
peteu n m 'well, cistern, tank; pit, mud' [pydew]
MW pydew; Olr cuithe
< Lat. puteus; C'the three last letters are very doubtful" (Stokes: 1860-1, 239; cf.
Stokes: 1865, 422).
EL: GPC: 2959; LElA: C-282; tHEB: 668; ML: 200; VGK: I, 196; VVB: 202
peteu gJ. ad puteum Ox2 41
b
(1.9)
petguar nUIII. card. m 'four' (pedwar]
MW pedw8r, 08 OIr cethair; G petuar-
< ·petlJores < IE *"ue1llo,- 'vier',
DGVB: GPe: 2110; Greene: 539; lEW: 642; LElA: C-86; LHEB: 397;
McCone: 56; Schrijver: 122; VVB: 202-3
ir petguar pimp MP 22
b
(230)
petguar hanther scribl MP 22
b
(234)
petgulJred num. ord. 'fourth' (pedwerydd]
MW pedwerit. petveryd, petwared; OB petguare, G petuar(ios)
< see petguar and perguarid, For the hesitation on the form of the IE
suffix. see Schrijver: 288.
DGVB: 284; Elsie: 97; GPC: 2113; Greene: 542; E. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976), pp.
309-11 Hirunuma: 41-2; Schrijver: 285 and 288; VKG: II, 135; VVB: 203
biehet pani u pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
leir petguared part unc MP 23
8
(241)
petguared pards MP 23
8
(241)
petguarid see petgusred
, ". pi pron relBtit'e '(against) which'
< IE *k"i(c!); see Hamp: 1975(6, 65 for the analysis of this passage (cf. OPC:
2(02). and contrast DGVB: GMW: 80-1; J. E. Caerwyn Williams in SBeS 23
(1969). pp. 21-30.
Sec also I'a.
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr Comp 4-

J,
?:. . According to Fleuriot, tbis is a compound consisting of par (= Ir car 'javelin') and
caine 'branch'. GPC compares this with W. gweilging and does not provide etymo-
logy. See OWAV.
DGVB: 284; GPC: 2774; D. Jenkins, M. Owen, eds., The Welsh Law of Women,
Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1980, p. 213.
pcig vel bach gl. ligo Prise 35 a
, '.
132
An -en derivative from pib 'pipe, tube' < Lat. *pipa (1); see also reu/aun.
GPC: ML: 195; Parry-Wiliams: 122; Wiliams: 1933, 116; VVB: 203
pipenn reu laon gL st[i]ria J 14
pipennou n pi '.essels, dutts'
A plural form of pipenn, see S.v. apc: 2794 hesitates about the link with the
previous entry.
pipennou gl. arterias Me 14 b.b.
plant n pi 'children' (plant]
OW (LL) and MW plant; Olr eland
< Lat. planta
GPC: 2818; LElA: C-112; LHEB: 496, 503; VVB: 204
creaticaul plant gI. genialis praeda Ovid 38
b
plant honn", v pres. (future) impers. (pres. subj.?) 'to plant' [plann-]
MW plano-;
< Lat. planto
GPC: 2817-8; LHEB: 503; ML: 195; Parry-Wiliams: 122; R. Thurneysen in KZ 59
(1932) pp. 16-8; VVB: 205; White: 122
h6nn6r gl. fodie ntur J 88
plum.DC 8dj. 're8Ihered'; 8Uhstativised 'pillow, cushion' [p'uog]
MW OB DC plufoc gl. puluinar; Olr chl(i)m.
An ·ako- derivative from of plu(f) < Lat. pluma.
OGVB: ope: 2829; LElA: C-l28; LHEB: 416; ML: 196; OCV: 347-8;
PECA: 88; VGK: I, 207; VVB: 205
plumauc gl. puluinare Ox2 44
8
(6.25)
pois n m r 'weight' [pwys)
MW pvys, OB puis, pus; MC poys; MIr pis
Fleuriot hesitated as to whether it was not a Breton word (peus). If chefel is Welsh
(see cefe', chfjel) , this could be OW too, cf. W pwys (B. pauez); then pois chelel
could mean 'cheval lourd', 'cheval de somme', see Lambert. GPC considers this
instance as BretoR.
< Lat. pensum
DGVB: 70,281 and 291; GPC: 2953; Lambert: 1982, 192; ML: 200
pois chefel gl. mannus .i. equs breuis Prise 7 b
popptu n m 'et'ery [pop.u)
MW poptu
GPC lists this entry a5 a compound, though the separate treatment of the entries
seems still possible. For the first part, see S.v. paup. The second element (W tu;
OB tu (DGVB: 324) Me tu; OIr tofb) is listed under *(s)teig
U
- 'Schulter, Arm,
, Schenker in lEW: 1018. Accoding to LElA (T-92) it is preferable, however, to
follow VGK (], 116) where a comparison with Lat. tibia is offered. See also WG:
422.
133
GPC: 2RSO; VVB: 205,226
popptu gl. amhifarium MC 12 h.b.
postoloin n m 'saddle-crupper' (postolwynI
W postolwyn
< Lat. posti/e1la
GPC: 2862; ML: 201; VGK: I. 20R; VVB: 205
postoloin gl. antclla Ox2 (5.3)
poulloraur n 'writing-fablet'
Apart from this occurrcnce in the OW glosses, the word is found only "The Book
of Talesin", T 25.11 prlll/owr; cf. aIr p6laire.
< Lat. pugi/(/)ar-
GPC: 2790; LElA: P-II; ML: 19R; Stokes: IR73, 393; VGK: I, 222; VVB: 205;
WG: 109
irpoulloraur gl. pugillarem paginam MC 6 b.b.
presen n f m 'the world' (presen)
MW prcs(s)en(t)
< Lat. present·
GPC: 2877; Haycock: 11; ML: 19R
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut prescn Juv 9 (R. 1)
pressuir adj. 'constant, continuous' (preswyll
MW pres(s)wyl, prcssvcl; 08 prcsquor g1. diutino (see I. Williams in ZCP 21.
p.302)
OOVB: 289; GPC': 2879; VVB: 206
pressuir gl. adfixa Me 4 b.b.
prinit v pres. 3 sg 'to huy' (pryn- )
MW pryn-, OB prin- in disapriner, guuprineticion. compri: 0(' prinit in eaid
prinit; OIr cren-
< IE *k"rei- 'kaufen'
GMV: 119; GPC: 2293; DGVB: LElA: C-229; lEW: 64R; PECA: R9; VGK:
I, 128; VVB: WG: 332; White: 100
prinit hinnoid MP 22
b
(234)
pucsBun v imperf. I pluperfect (?) 1 sg 'to love, desire' (?)
MW puchaw ? ope: 2926 does not list this instance in the entry dedicated to
puchaf. There are two major possibilities for interpretation of this form. Accord-
ing to I. Williams, this is an imperfect, if it is a pluperfect. this could be a
siscd spelling for *PUCQJll1l (Loth, White). The etymology of the word is yet
unknown.
Haycock: 15: Loth in RC 2<1 (ICJOR). r. H: White: 206-7: \VCltkinC\: lQR2. (lnd 41;
Williams: 19RO, liS
Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut .Iuv () (7))
-._., - ,-
:

",
,'.
134
pui proll. Interrogative 'what' (pwy]
MW pwy; C pyw, OB pou; OIr cia
< IE *kuei-; see also s.v. pa.
GMW: 14; GPC: 2946-7; Hamp: 1975/6, 59; LElA: C-92; VVB: 206
pui gl. quid Ovid 41a
puil n mall 'wisdom' (pwyll]
MW pwyll; OC gurbulloc gl. insanus; Olr ciall
< lEW *kllti- 'worauf aehten'
GPC: 2948; lEW: 637; LElA: C-93; OCV: 175; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 224; VGK:
II, 490
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
punt n I 'pound' [punt]
MW pun(n), punt, C puns, cf. OIr pond « Lat. pondo)
< AS pund; contra Loth, this is now considered to be an English borrowing.
GPC: 2929; LHEB: 317; LElA: P-12; ML: 200; T.- H. Parry-Williams, The Eng-
lish Element in Welsh. London 1923, p. 30; VVB: 206
hint c punt - MP 23
9
(229)
dou punt MP 22
b
(234)
Q
q,,'Ih n HI 'IDger' (1) (name of a letter)
As it was suggested by Zeuss, cf. Loth, quith could stand here for guith, see
guoguith and cf.. guilhlann.
VVB: 206; Zeuss: 1059
quith Nemn
R
'r definite .rticle
See ;r; cf. orau,
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
or tirnuil gL. nocte ceca Ang SO a
har dou trean gl.. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
or ree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
or bissi Comp 3
bihit dir 1emi Comp 16
orbardaul leteinepp gl.. epics pagina Me la.b.
I ordecoolion gl. decadibus Me 7 h.b.
orcueetic con. gl. ex papyro textili Me Rb.a.
orcomt:tntou ttl. MC to a.o.
135
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus exscctis Me 42 3.3.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
ft
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 3R;\
ordometic gl. domito Ovid 39
ft
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h
raedam prep. 'before (himf rrhsll-)
OW (LL) rae, MW rac-, rag-; OB racdom
A 3 sg personal form of W r(h)ag; < IE *pro-ko-, V,.,ro- 'vorwarts, varn. voran'.
DGVB: 126, 292; ope: 299R; lEW: 815; VGK: I. 49; VVB: wc,: 401, 404;
cf. J. E. Caerwyn Williams in EC (l (1953-4). pp. 11-20.
racdam gl. sibi J 67
ran n 'verse' (1)
According to I. Williams this could he a cognate of Ir ra"" 4verse' rather than of W
rltan 'part, share'. LElA: R-7 mentions a possihility that Irish ran" \quatrain,
strophe' is etymologically identical with Ir rann 'division. sec ra"".
Williams: 1980, 113
ceinmicum ucnou ran Juv 9 (6.2)
rann n f 'share, contribution' (rhanJ
MW rann, ran; Me ran, OB ran(n); Olr ran(n)
< * IE *pfsnii-; to IE *per- 'verkaufen, hinilberbringen'. See also ran.
Dc Bernardo Stempel: 135-6; DaVB: 293; GPC: 3035; LElA: R-7: lEW: 817:
Schrijvcr: 177; VGK: L 52
hit niritarncr rann. irbissci Comp 10
rasel n f 'spokeshave, rasp' (rhasgl)
MW racsgyl, raskel, raschil
< Lat. rasc(ll)/-: see aWAY.
GPC: 3030; ML: 201; VGK: I, 220; VVB: 208
rasel gl. sartun, Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
rat n m 'grace (name of a letter) (rhad)
MW rad; OB Raduueten, Me ras; G Suratus, Olr rath
To IE *per- 'verkaufen, hintiberbringcn' (lEW: HI7).
De Bernardo Stempel: 136; DGVB: GPC: 2995: LElA: R-R; Schrijver: 178;
VVB: ZOR
rat Nemn
reatir n pi 'waterfalls, cataracts' [rhaeadrI
MW rayadyr, raeadyr, rheeidr; 01r riathor gl. tOTTens
< Celt. *riatrf (sg. to IE *re;;)- 'FlicBcn'
apc: 2997; lEW: 3.10; LElA: R-2R; LHEB: J37; 123; SchTijver:
25R. 3R5; VOK: I. f,(l-7: VVR: 20R
rcatir gl. torrcntum J 2X
ree prnn. 'some' 'rhoi J
MW reL MC'R rf. ()Ir rc
,".
136
The etymology is speculative; perhaps a cognate of OW rann, see s. v. See also rei.
DGVB: 278 and 295; Elsie: 133; oPC: 3030; LElA R-I0
or ree issid pellaham gL a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
regensu/adj. 'parenta'" (rhien(i)ol]
W riennoll, rhienawl
< ·pro-gen-al- (MW ,heeni, rhyeni, W rieni 'parents, ancestors', see T. Jones in
BBCS 9 (1938), pp. 131-3; PKM: 165-7).
P.-Y. Lambert, Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. /I J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd,
N. Jacobs, eds., Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press
1995, p. 99; LHEB: 453; Parry..Williams: 122; J. Vendryes in RC 32 (1911), p. 235;
VVB: 209
ir regenaul gl. patris (leg. patrii] J 57
rei pron. 'some' (rhail
This interpretation by P.-Y. Lambert is accepted by DOB and GPC. See ree.
DaB: 527; GPC: 3030; Lambert: 1982, 202
nirinciriles cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
reid n m&r 'spear' [rhaicldJ
MW rheiddiau, redyeu, reidyeu
< Lat. radius
GPC: 3093; ML: 201; VGK: I, 224; VVB: 209
reid gl. spicum Me 62 b. a,
(.. )relin?
The last letters of the word are preserved on the margin of the manuscript.
Stokes: 1860-1, 212
-retin J 20
remed8ut n m 'wonder" I rhyteddod]
MW reuedawt, ry wedawt, ryfedawt
An -0",'1 (on this suffix seae VGK: 11,38) derivative of ri,ned, see s.v.
J. Loth in RC 42 (1925), p. 437; Williams: 1980, 110
gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
retec vn 'to run' Irhedecl
MW ret-, red-; OC redegua gl. cursus, Me resek, OB retec, rit(ec); OIr rethid; G
ad-reticio
A vn in wee, for the formation cf MW ehedec 'fly', see Russell: 1990, 68; < *ret-ek;
IE ·ret(h)- 'Iaufen· (lEW: 86{j).
De Bernardo Stempel: 131; DGVB: 296; GMW: 157; GPC: 3043; lEW: 866;
OCV: 34; PECA: 90
Intrited retec Comp 2
retinoc adj. 'ferny' (rhedynog]
OW (VSB: 72) redinauc, MW redynawc
An -or derivative of Cell. tTa'i.. (MW rcdyn, OC rcdcn g1. filcx, Gratis, MIT
117
raith), < IE *pr:Jti- see lEW: 850; LElA: PECA: 90. For the quality of the
vowel in the suffix consider the dispute hetwccn Watkins and Jackson; this was
used for the dating of Chad 6.
GPC: Ll-IEB: 293,296; Jackson: 1975--6,41-4; Sims-Williams: 1991
7
31;
Watkins: 1972, Watkins: 1972-4, 10-1
dipul retinoe Chad 6
retit v pres. 3 'to turn' Irhed- )
See rctee and gllrthret.
LElA: White: Williams: 1921,259
Intrited retec. retit loyr .. guorhir seraul.circhl. C'omp 2
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith Comp 11
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith cen nit hoi loe guac inter o. ct a. in pagina regulari. Camp
11
retteticc adj. 'running'
Hapax in Welsh. For the etymology, see s.v. retee.
GPC: 3044; VVB: 209
ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. seJla curulis Me 45 a.a.
reulsun adj. 'icy'
Etymologically, 'icc-fuJI'; rell (W rhett' 'frost, ice', ()Ir relld, < ·prellsu'o-, see
E. Hamp in JIES 1 (1973), pp. 215-223, also liES 2 (1974), p. cf. Elsie: 97),
and -Iolln 'fuJI' < IE *pel(;1)- 'gieBen, Hillen', De Bernardo Stempel: 123; Joseph:
lEW: 79R, cf. also locclall, gllithlolln, allhodla,,,,.
Parry-Williams: Williams: 1933, 116
pipenn reu latIn gl. stri]ria J 14
ri particle
MW ry, OB row, aIr ro, cf. (] ro
< *pro- 'vorwart, VOTn, voran' (lEW: fOT nn extensive hihliogrnphy see
Isaac. See also riCfllS.
Eska: GMW: 166; Isaac: 387-RR; J. Loth in RC' 30 (190Q). pro
hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp R
In niritarnher Comp R
hit niritarncr rann. irhissci Comp 10
riberlhi n m 'spring tide" Irhyfcrthwy. rhyferthi I
MW ryuerthwy, OB rehirthi gl. malina: Olr roharta
To IE Vhlrer- 'tragen', see l-lamp: 19R2, 20R.
DGVB: 294; LElA: R-36; Huws: 501, n. 6.
riberthi gJ. malina DNR 2
v
riceus v ?
Due to the ohscurity of the line where this word occurs, as \vell ClS the general
spelling inconsistencies, the form allows for a variety of interpretations \vhich are
conveniently collected in the \vnrks referred to. It "PelS thClt the fnrnl (l
138

139
, ....
3 sg. pret. in -us, from cael, or 3 sg. pres. indo (with ry- denoting potentiality),
perhaps connected with Me keusel 'to speak', all from Lat. causor, or, less con-
vincing, from IE 'to speak'.
White: 88-92 and 102, Williams: 1980, 98-9
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
rimed n 'wonders' (rhyfedd]
MW ryfed, rifed, ryuet
< *ro-med-
I. Williams in BBCS 1 (1921), pp. 24 and 29-30; Williams: 1980, 107
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
rindr v pre!. impers. 'to need' [rhyng-J
MW ryng-, reg-; cf. also Early Irish ro-icc les meaning 'attains to the benefit (of),
needs' in neich roiccu a Jess gl. necessitatis meae (Wh. 23 d 9); ro-n-ecar less inna
diten (MI. 87 d 14) '(when) the protection is needed'; W rhyngu bodd rhywun 'to
reach someone's pleasaure' > 'to please someone', B rankout, renkout 'faHoir',
MB an pez a ranquer 'ce qu'il faut'.
DGVB: 297; lEW: 317; Isaac: 441; J. Loth in RC 46 (1929) p. 156; J. Lloyd Jones
in DDCS (1921), p. 6.
cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
ringuedalJlioD subst. adj. pi (1) 'virtuous' [rhinweddol]
MW rinwedawl
This compound is traditionally analysed as containing a form which corresponds to
W rhin 'virtue, secret' (cf. OIr run, < IE Vreu--, see DGVB: 297; lEW: 867; Lane:
260; LElA: R-53) and guedoJ, from gwedd, 'form'. It was claimed by T. A. Wat-
kins that 1his is a mistake for ringuedolion.
VGK: II, 14; VVB: 210; Watkins: 1972--4, 10
ringuedaulion gl. arcana Ovid 38b
Tit particle
See rio The identification of .( with the preverbal particle yt was deemed implau-
sible by Scbrijver.
GMW: 166; P. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994), pp.182-3; Williams: 1980,114-5'
rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut luv 9 (7.2)
rit ercis d...raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
rodes " pret. 3 sg 'to give' [rhod-)
See the next.
harodes Chad 7
rodesi' " pret. 3 51 '10 give' [rhod-]
MW rod-; MB reiff
, Various etymological of this verb have been offered, which consider
its relationship with Sanskrit ra 'give' (Vendryes), or derive it from IE *do- 'gebeo'
(\Vr,: cf. VGK: Il, See the previous entry.
Elsie: 99; GMW: lIR-9; JO: 102 (with Bihl); Isaac: 365; MJ: 272; White: lR4-5
rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2
roenhol?
Until recently this entry has been considered as an adjective. 'of a lineage. patro-
nymic', see the literature cited helow. P.- Y. Lambert (Three Brittonic Lexical
Notes. II J. Eska, R.Ocraint Gruffydd. N. Jacohs. cds..
nica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995. pp. 96-1(0) analysis this instance as
a noun cognate with OB roi(a)nt. originally meaning 'kingdom· > 'patrimony,
inheritance' .
Lambert: 1982,199; LHEB: 50; Williams: 1933,117; VVB: 211
roenhol dei patris gl. patrii pecoris J 45
rohodriS8UC ?
An -aue derivative, cf. MW rhyodres 'display, affectation'.
The most recent analysis of this word hy P.- Y. Lamhert suggests rlty..god-res, a
cognate of god 'adulter, pride' for which ope: 1420 provides no etymology; cf.
CA: 121 where a segmentation rhy-go-tres is offered.
DaB: II, 548; DGVB: 299; Lambert: 1982, 196-7; P.-Y. Lambert in BBeS 36
(1989), pp. 116--20
rohodrisauc gl. ogganio Prise 17 b
rod adj. 'red' Irhudd]
OW (LL), MW rud; OC rud gl. ruher: OB rudd: G. -roud-: Olr rtiad
< IE *roudho- 'rof
nGVB: 300; Elsie: 12L GMWL: 260; lEW: 872: LElA: R-147: ()CV: 209:
PECA: 91; VGK: I, 174
() rud liu gl. roseo colore Ang 17 a
rodcoch adj. 'purple red' IrhuddgochJ
MW rudgoch
For the first element of this compound, see s.v. rlld: the second element., OW
(LL), MW each 'red' is a loan from MLat. foee,,,,,,
rudcoch gl. purpureum DNR 1v
rudliu n & adj. 'red colour' (rhuddliw)
MW ruddliu
See rud, liu, cf. glasliu.
rudliu gl. igneum DNR 1v
mid adj. 'easy' [rhwydd]
MW rwyd, rwyt; OB ruet; OIr reid
The traditional connection of the Celtic words with IE *reidh- 'fahrcn· has heen
recently queried by P. Schrijver, who consideres this to be "no more than a
possihiJity" and insists on closer links with the (,ermanic cognates (Gothic garai-
dido 'arranged" English ready. etc.). For the sernantics. cf. ('1\: See also
ahruid.
..... _.._._........---.. ..- --_.-".
140
DGVB: 300; JEW: 861; LElA R-16; LHEB: 330; Schrijver: 224-5; VGK: I,
VVB: 212
guollung I.ruid gl.. uacuum J 65
mimmeln n pi 'bonds' (rbwym]
MWruym
< ·reig...smen < IE Vreig- I reig...
lEW: 862; VGK: I, 87; VVB: 212-3; WG: 136
cuinhaunt irruim mein J 5.5
minn n m f 'bridle'
This reading [f]Tu;nn was suggested by P.-Y. Lambert and was accepted in DOB.
See fruinn.
DOB: 456; DGVB: 206; Lambert: 1982, 193
haloiu aur. ruinn gl. glomus Prisc 13 a
romp n m 'auger' (rhwmp)
MW rump
< Lat. r(h)ombus. This is not found in Haarmann and EL; OB romb (MS rob) gl.
stiua which was rendered by Fleuriot as 'manche de charrue' was alternatively
explained as an abbreviated catchword in a Latin gloss by P.-Y. Lambert (Lam-
bert: 1986, 112).
DOVB: 299; GMWL: 261; LHEB: 503; ML: 203; VVB: 213
rump gl. ungulum Ox2 42
b
(4.4)
mnm;au n pi I Tn 'snore' [rhwDc]
MW rwnc 'snarl, snore'
< Lat. note the spelling ·ntn- for ..ncn....
VVB: 213; Stokes: 1873, 408; White: 297-9
runtniau gl. s1erope, leg. stertore Me 57 b.a.
s
',pron. 3 51 'him, it'
MW ·s; 08"'5
See also nis.
GMW: 55; VB: 262
nis minn Chad 2
nisacup nis arcup le<3er Juv 9 (3.3)
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
immisline gl. allinebat Me 8 a.b.
gl, n 'saltus Lunae' 15111t)
08 salt; Orr salt
< Lt\ t .\nllll,'t
141
DGVB: 301; LElA: S-IR
Salt emmi guollig hinnith ir hloidin hunnuith 19
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 21
ir nideruid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 22
scsmeJI n f 'bench' rysgafelll
W ysgafell, OC scauel gl. MB scahcll
< Lat. senhrllunt (Jca",rl/II'" EL. ML)
EL: 4H; ML: 205; J14; PEC'A: 9J; VVB: 214
scamell gl. tripus 62 a. a.
scsmnhegint v pres. 3 pi 'to IiKhten' r
MW yscafnhau, cf. OC sccucns gl. pulmo, MB scaff, Mlr scam
For a summary of etymological see LElA. It could he analysed as a
*-sag- derivative of *skarnno- I *skabno- 'light' with no estahlished further con-
nections.
LElA: LHEB: OCV: 50; PECA: 9J: Stokes: lR60--1. 20R: VVB: 214:
White: 121
scamnhegint gl. lellant J 4
scipBur n f 'barn' rysgubor]
MW cscubor, escubaur: C scibor
The word was considered by Loth (ML) to he a loan from Lat.
Otherwise this could he an -awr derivative of the word horrowed from Lat. scoro.
the same loan in the other languages. cf. Ir . .<:cr;ap. As \vas noted hy
T. II. Parry-Williams, i in this word stands for II [uJ. Sec also P. Sims-Williams.
GMWL: 302: LElA: S-56: ML: 216; Parry-Williams: 123: Sims-Williams:
1991, Stokes: 1860-1. 21 VVB: 214
scipaur gl. horrea J 14
scire.. • f sgl. 'splinter, lath' r J
MW escheren; B skirienn, cf. on scarat gl. diiudicarc
< IE *sker- lEW: 9JRf.
DGVB: 302: GMWL: 303: LHEB: 56: VCiK: I. 44: 11.615: VVB: 214
scircnn gl. stella Ox2 44
h
(7.22)
scrihenn n f 'writing' rysgrifenl
MW yscrivcn, scriven: C scriven, aIr scrib
< Lat. scribend-
LElA: S-54; ML: 215: VVB: 215
scribenn gl. scriptura MC 38 b.a.
scribenn gl. scriptura Me 39 h.a.
scrihl n 'scruple' Ia unit of currencyJ
MW ysgryhyl. cscryhyl. cscrihil: cf. ()Ir. scrcpul
< Lat. scriipII/'l1n, Jeril'lI/r""
T. in ORCS 24 (1<)72). l' ('MW1.: 1"FR: I.FIA:
142
5-53; ML: 215; VVB: 215
petguar hanther scribl MP 22
b
(234)
adj. 'standing, station8ry' [sefydlOl]
MW sefydlog, seuydlog; C. sevylyac
< ·sabetlo- ice qui est place'
DGVB: 304; Lambert: 1982, 205
sebedlauc gl. adsecula Prise 34 b
seith num. C8rd. 'seven' (saith]
MW seith, seyth; OB seith
< IE *sept'tJ 'sieben', or < Lat. septem.
This form could be also Breton.
DGVB: 305; GMWL: 267; Greene: 540; lEW: 909
iseith uith C·is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
selsic n I 'black-pudding, sausage' [selsigl
MW selsig, B silsig
< Lat. salsicia
EL: 46; LHEB: 605; ML: 206; VGK: I, 373; VVB: 215
selsic gl. lucani[C]3 Ox2 42
8
(3.1)
senlu/adj. 'stal1}' (senwl, -01]
An -awll-of « ·-alos) derivative of ser 'star'; see serenn
seraul circhl Camp 2
serenn n r sKi. (1) 'star'. 'Iidus' (in Comp.) (seren]
MW ser(en). 08 sterenu; OC steren gl. stella; G Sirona; Olr ser
< IE ·ster- 'Stem'; see also
DGVB: lEW: LElA: 5-90; LHEB: 530; OCV: 33; PECA: 96; Schrij-
ver: 423; VGK: I, 78
ir sereno. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Camp 7
ir sereno hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
nitegid ad sereno arall Comp 11
serr n m 'hillhook' (serr)
MW OB ser gl. fiscina (fuscina); air serr
< Lat. or < IE ·se'pti- ('Sichel, krummer Haken', lEW: 911-2). See
OWAV.
E. Bachellery in Be 11 (1964-5), p.122; GMWL: 267; Gal: 95; DGVB: 305;
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 197; LElA: S-95; Lambert: 1982, 176; ML: 206;
VVB: 2]5; VGK: 1,94; Zimmer: 152; WG: 125
,... serf gl. uoscera Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
serr gl. (alee J 77
s;C'h adj. 'dry' [sychl
MW sych. sich; Me 08 $Cch, MIr secc
143
< Lat. siccus
DGVB: 304; LElA: S-60; LI-IEA: 2R3-4; ML: 209; V(jK: I. 210; VVB: 215
sich gl. arentis Me 13 a.a.
silgued n m 'substance, essential' (sylwedd]
W sylwedd; OB solgued
The word was treated as a loan from Lat. solea or Joltun (ML: 204, cf. 08 sol gl.
bas) with a suffix which corresponds to MW gwailh, see s. v. gurid < IE *yegJr-
'bewegen' (GPC: 1563; lEW: 1119; PECA: 54).
DGVB: 305 and 306-7
silgued gl. creidinem Ang 59 b
sserenn n f sgl. 'star'
Used for sidus, not stella (Williams: 1927, p.260); see .'ieren".
passerenn. pigurthct. loyr in Comp 4
stebill n r pi 'rooms' (ystafell)
MW estauel(l); OC steucl gl. tridinium
< Lat. *stabellum
GMWL: 304; ML: 217; oev: 401; PECA: 96; VGK: 1,219; VVB: 216
ad stebfll gl. ad limina J 52
strotur n r'saddle' (ystrodur]
MW estrodur; aIr srathar
< Lat. slralura; see also the next.
LElA: 5-182; LHEB: 290; ML: 21R; VGK: L 204; VVB: 211
ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. se11a curulis Me 45 a.a.
strotur gurehic gl. samhuca Ox2 43
a
(5.5)
struduguar ?
Stokes: 1865, 422 suggests amendation to stru/UT guar. In view of slrntllr Rlirehic 1
J. Loth suggested (VVB: 217-18) reading this entry as strullir 'selle
d'homme'. According to Craster (Craster: 135). the reading is strlldllguar, hence
perhaps strudur guar (or guas). See strotllr.
struduguar gl. sel1a Ox2 42
a
(2.12)
strutiu n pi 'the old'
air sruith
Contra Thurneysen: 1890a, 93 this should he considered as an OW form. perhaps
cognate with OB strot, from IE ystrll- 'greis, all', on this stem see Schrijver.
DGVB: 309; E. Hamp in Annales de Bretagnc 79 (1972), pp.946--7; lEW: 1037;
LElA S-189; Scrijver: 453; VVB: 217
strutiu gJ. antiquam gentcm J (,
such n r 'ploughshare'
See JulI.
such gl. vomis J 25
\ ..
144
suh n r 'ploughsh.re' [swch]
MW such, B SOUC'hi OC soch 81. vomer
< Lat. SOCCU.J; or vernacular, cr, Olr socc, see huch. See also such.
lEW: 1038; LElA: S-158-9; ML: 208-9; Dev: 142 and 156; PECA: 95-6;
R. Thurneysen, Keltoromanisches. Halle: Max Niemeyer 1884, pp. 112-3; VVB:
218; Zimmer: 152-3
suh gl. uomer Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
sumpl n m 'goad' (swmbwl, swmwl, swml]
MWswmbyl
< Lat. stimulus
An intermediary form ·stum'blU5 « *slimilus) should be posited (for Romance,
see REW: 12,285). Note the exceptional development of st-. See aWAY.
Haarmann, 76; LHEB: 531, fn.. 2; ML: 209; Schrijver: 399; VGK: 1,219; VVB:
218
sumpl gI .. stimulus Ox2 42
b
(4.1)
SfJrg (name 0' 8 letter)
This letter-name was compared by Zeuss with 08 personal name Eusorchet.
VVB: 218; Zeuss: 1059
surg Nemn
T
, pron. (objed.) 3 sg. m 'him'
immit eel irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
t••erdlllou fi guird••••
According'to I. WilJiams, this line could be read as tiberdutou ti guir douid "Thy
glories (riches), a true Lord". Berdutou, pI. of the (MW) berthid 'wonder, power'
is commonly analysed as an -idJ-ud derivative of berth « IE *bher;;lg- 'glanzen,
weiB', GPC: 274; lEW: 139). For the interpretations of douid, ti, ti, see Haycock
and Watlcins. See also gu;r
2

Haycock: 10-11; Watkins: 1982,32 and 38; Williams: 1980,106-7
t••erd,dou ti guird..... Juv 9 (2.3)
'.ge n m ·peace' (tang)
MW tang, tanc; G tanco-
< IE ",enlc- ·sich zusammenziehen, fest, dicht werden'
GPN: JO: 102; lEW: KGP: 275; LL: xliv
guragun t age Chad 2
'III n m "orehead, front' [tal]
OW (LL). MW tal, OC tal gl. frons; cf. OB talar; OIr talam
< IE ·,,,r(rO- COach. nacher Boden, Brett' , ef. Lat. tellu.ri. For the etymological
summary see OWAV.
145
A.Bammesberger in EC tR (1981) pp.l17-9, and n. lion p.119; DGVB: 310;
GMWL: 210; E. Hamp in Fe 20 (IQHJ), p. 91; lEW: 1061; Schrijver: VVR:
21R
6r guithJaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51
tslcipp n 'bowl'
The word was compared with Olr ttil-ell/the; J. Loth identified this instance with T.
32. 19 agwin tal kibedd. See tal, cip.
LElA: T-18D-2; J. Loth in RC 22 (1901), p. 330; Stokes: 1873,408; VVB: 219
talcipp gl. cratere Me 59 a.b.
tantoo n pi strioKs' Itant I
MW tant; DB tanntou; OIr
< IE *ten- 'dehnen, ziehen, spannen'
DOVS: 311; lEW: 1066; LElA: T-55; VGK: 1,138; Stokes: 1873,410; VVB: 219
tantou gl. fides Me 63 b.a.
tantou gJ. fides Me 63 b.b.
tarater n m 'auger' [taradr]
MW taradyr, tarader; MB tarazr; Olr tarathar
< IE *terhj-trorn, cf. Ok. MLat. taratrum is a Celtic loan. As was noted
by K. Jackson, Uthe svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW·'.
DGVB: 317; GMWL: 273; E. Hamp in EC 20 (1983), p. 91; LElA: T-30; LHEB:
55,337; ML: 210; Schrijver: 87; VGK: I, 134; VVB: 219; WG: 82
tarater gl. scapa uel rostrum (i.foratorium) Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
tsmetor v pres. impers. 'to reckon" '0 compute, to count' (tarn"l
MW tarn- 'to rub off, wipe dry, clean., cf. Lat. crnnpllto (pIlIO - 'to cleanse. to
trim, to coun1'), IE ·ter- (lEW: 1071--4; the Welsh forms arc not quoted); sec also
the next.
Williams: 1927, 263-5
is gur tum tarnetor ir loc guac haibid post. o. Comp 7
tarnher v pres. subj. impers. 'to count' [tarn.. )
See above.
White: 165
hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp 8
niritarn(h)er Comp 10
teg ,uis '?
According to VVB, this stands for tegglli,f 'beau a voir', with tee (W teg) 'beauti-
ful', and guis = Ir [is 'visio·. I. Winiams, however, accepts Zeuss·s (Zeuss: 1058)
reading of the latter element as standing for W gwi"'g, and offers the interpretation
of the former as teg[irn], then
VVB: 219; Williams: 1929, R; 1931, 114
teg guis. gl. aureus Ovid 39
tl
),
...... __ ._.._. __._. _.. --'-'- . --.
leir name card. I 'three'
MW teir; OB teir; aIr te6ir
This form has caused a longing dispute, see particularly Cowgill and McCone. The
most recent treatment is that of P. Schrijver, who suggests *tesres or *tisras. The
reading of G. (La Graufesenque) tidres is uncertain. See also trio
w. Cowgill in Language 33, No 3 (1957), pp.341-5; DGVB: 312; lEW: 1091;
McCone: 10; VGK: II, 127-8; VVB: 220
teir petgured part unc (gl. tertia pars unciae) MP 23
8
(241)
leirban n 'three parts (of the world?)'
A combination of teir (see s.v.), and ban 'part, region'. If the latter is the same as
W ban 'top' (Olr benn) , then to IE *bend- 'vorspringende Spitze' (lEW: 96,
LElA: B-36; Schrijver: 455). The other interpretation of this entry takes into
consideration a possible reference to the cross.
Haycock: 244; Williams: 1980, 188-9
Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
lelu n m 'retinue' [teuloJ
MW teulu, teylu; OC teilu gl. familia; Ir teglach
< *tego-s/ougo-. The first part of this compound (OC Ii gl. domus, OW (Asser)
lig, OIr tech) goes back to tl£g05, IE ·(s)teg- 'decken' (lEW: 1013); the second,
(MW I/u, OC /uu, OIr slog, sluag) - IE ·slougo- 'das Helfen, Dienen' (lEW: 96).
GMWL: 275; LHEB: LElA: T-39; DCV: 80; PECA: 99; VGK: 1,84 and 99;
Williams: 1980, 95
mitelu Juv 3 (1.2)
lenea Idj. 'thin' [tenauI
MW tcneu; OC tenei'en gl. latus; MB tanau, tanow; OIr tanae
The non-Celtic cognates are given under IE ·tenu-s 'dOnn' in lEW; the further
study allowed for the reconstruction of PIE *t1;h
2
-eu- (Hamp: 1965, 232; de Ber-
nardo Stempel: 143)., or "tenh1-y- (Joseph: 40, rejected by Schrijver). The most
recent analysis by P. Schrijver derives the Welsh form from *tanalj!o- (mase.).
DGVB: 278; lEW: 1069; LElA: T-26; DCV: 59; PECA: 99; Sehrijver: 85 and 297
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
lennin n AI 'boundary' [terfynJ
MW teroyn, terwyn; MIr termonn
< Lat. terminus
GMWL: 274; LElA: T-53; ML: 211; VGK: 1,239; VVB: 220
terrnin gl. ora Me 48 a.3..
termin gl. ora Me 48 a.b.
lennisceticioll adj. pl. 'troubled ones' [d. terfysg)
MW terfysg'l Olr tairmesc
An ·et;c derivative from (W) mysg- 'mixture, confusion' (Mlr mesc-) < IE *mei-k-
'mischcn· (lEW: 7L4).
147
LElA: T-14; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), p. 31; VVB: 220; Stokes, 1860-1,235 and
292; Stokes: 1865, 421
termisceticion gl. solicitos Ovid 38
3
terni v or vn 'to reckon, to compute, to count'
According to I. Williams, this is a verhal noun, cf. tarfl- (see s. v. tarnetor); the
dropping of the lenited -[ finds correspondences in the same text, cf. "iti: tritid, or
isid: issi. Alternatively, T. A. Watkins considers this as a personal form of the verh
(2 sing. pres).
Watkins: 1987.59 (fn. 2); White: 304-5; Williams: 1927,2(18
bihit dir terni Comp 16
teu adj. 'thick' (tewJ
MW tew, MB teo, teu; Olr tiug
< IE *tegu· 'dick'
Elsie: 138; lEW: 1057; LElA: T-76; Schrijver: 68; Lane: 263; VGK: I, 99; VVB:
220--1; WG: 131
6r teu gl. obtonso [leg. obtusoJ 1 37
til prone pers. 2 SK 'you' (til
OB ti, te; C ty; Olr tu
< IE *tll 'duo; sec also t••erdlltoll ti guird••••; cf. P. MacC'ana in SC 10/11 (1975/
6), pp. 318-25.
DOVB: 311; lEW: 1097; LElA: T-155-7
gurt trichiti nacgenei C'omp 16
ftdarnestf gl. agitare 1 R8
omnipotens auctor tidicones adianl."••[... ] Juv 9 ( 1.1)
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.a.
helghati gl. venare Ovid 3R
ft
nerthiti gl. hortahere Ovid 39
h
li
2
pron. pers. 2 sg 'you"
See ti I. P.- Y. Lamhert apparently considers this gloss OB.
DGVB: 311
ot ti gl. toile Ang 59 a
ti
J
see Ii guird••••
tiis?
The word was compared by J. Loth with W teiJ-han 'coussin'; teyspan 'a coverlet',
GMWL: 276.
VVB: 221; Zcuss: 1063
tiis gl. staptuln Ox2 44a (6.26)
limu;1 adj. 'dark' (tywyllJ
W ty\vill. ty\vylL ()B cf. 0, !!'- Jr temrl
'''.
148
< ·temil-(j)o-, IE 'Item- 'dunkel'
DGVB: 278; HPB: 598; lEW: 1063-4; LElA: T-48; OCV: 196; PECA: 100;
Schrijver: 322
or timuil gl. oocte ceca Ang 50 a
tinetic?
MW Du Hir Tynnedic (7)
Cf. Lat. tingo 'dye, colour'
VVB: 221; Williams: 1933, 114
irtinetic gl. tincta Ovid 4()A
tir n m 'land' [tir]
OW (LL) tir, MW tiT, tyr; OC tir gl. tellus, MB tir, OIr tfr
< IE *te(: )rsl- , cf. Lat. fe"Q
For the etymological summary see OWAV.
Elsie: 90; GO): 39; lEW: 1018; LElA: T-74ff.; OCV: 35; PECA: 100; Stokes:
1860-1,221; VGK: I, 83; VVB; 222
tir teJih Chad 2
ir tir gI. fundum J 73
lOIJDOU n pi 'wa"es' (Ion)
MW ton, OB tonn gI. Iympha; Mlr tonn
Etymology is for a summary, see LElA.
DGVB: 315; lEW: 972 and 1082; LElA: T-I09; VVB: 222; WO: 168
ir tonnou gl. aequora J 60
tordgel n r 'saddle-girth' Itol'lengl)
MW torgengl, torgyngl, torgegil
This compound is traditionally analysed as containing tor 'belly', see s. v., and
cigel, cf. W cengel ·girth, saddle-girth' < Lat. cing(u)/a (GPC: 450, ML: 148). It
was noted by K. Jackson that '·the svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW".
GMWL: 278; LElA: T-65; LHEB: 55,337; ML: 148; VYB: 222
torcigel gl. uentris lora Ox2 43- (5.4)
torr n f 'belly' 1, 'palm' ? Itorl
MW tor, OC tor gl. venter, OE tar, tor; OIr tarr-;
The word has been analysed as a derivative of *tcsV·, to IE *(s)ter- 'starr, steif
sein'; but see E. Hamp who notes that the base could perhaps be eliminated by
'dry', see tir. According to ]. Wiliams, this instance in the text denotes 'tu mewn';
see Williams: 1930, 246.
De Bernardo Stempel: 144-5; DGVB: 311; Elsie: 81; E. Hamp in EC 32 (1996),
p. 88; lEW: 1024; LElA: OCV: 56; PECA: 101; YGK: 1,83
hi torr MP 23a (246)
torth n f 'IoarJtorlh)
MW torth; MCB torth; Olr tort
< lJat. torta
149
GMWL: 278; LElA: T-117; ML: 211; VGK: 1,233
douccint torth ha maharuin in irhaf Chad 3
douceint torth in irgaem Chad 3
iscm hichet triuceint torth Chad 4
till prep. 'over, beyond'
MW tra, OB tra ; OIr. tar
< *triins < IE *ter- 'hindurch, tiber - weg'
DGVB: 317 and 321; GMWL: 278; GOI: 530-1; lEW: 1075; LElA: T-28-9;
VGK: II, 129-130
tra nos Comp 13
tl'8US n (name of a letter)
OW (LL), MW traus; OB tros
The name of a letter in "Alphahet of Nemnius" WHS identified with MW (CA)
traus by Zeuss and compared with 08 tros by Loth, According to Fleuriot, these
words as well as OB trus were borrowed from LHt. trans, for the preservation of -s,
see LHEB: 637.
DGVB: 322-4; VYB: 223; Zeuss: 1059
traus Nemn
trean num. card. (fraction) 'one third" [traean)
MW trayan, trayn; OB troian, troean; G trian-; Olr trian
< *triano from *tris-ano; see trio
DGVB: 32; GMWL: 279; GOI: 250; Greene: 520; lEW: 1092; LElA: T-141-2;
VGK: 1,66; VVB: 223; Williams: 1930,248
dou trean gI. bissem Ang 47 a
dOll trean haur gl. bisse Ang 56 a
har dOll trean gl. tertias duas uni us hore Ang 65 b
trean cant mel MP 22
b
(230)
treidin v pres. (imperf. 1; subj. ?) 3 pi 'to relate" recite" [.raeth-)
MW traeth-; cf. aIr
< Lat. for the quantity of a, see LHEB: LElA: T-122; VGK: I. 229.
As the form follows eet, a subjunctive form could be expected.
White: 121, 216, 255; Williams: 1980, 105-6
cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
treisguen n 'holy power' ?
According to I. Williams, this compound contains trei.f 'might, force', and gllenn
'white, holy' (see GPe: 1770).
Williams: 1980, 189
Amtrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
trennid adv. 'day after tomorrow" rtrennydd)
W trennyd, cf. aIr in tremdid gl. postridie
A comhination of the word for ·dety· (see s.v. did). nod a *trrn (remod-
elled), see frat traU'.
,
....'.'


J,'

-_. ----- ---------
150 151
-,
LElA: T-135; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), p. 31; Stokes: 1873,393; VGK: 1,23;
VVB: 223-4
trennid gl. postridie Me 7 a.b.
lri num. rani. m 'three' (tril
MW tri; 08 tri; OIr tn; G. tri-
< Celt. ·(rrs < IE ·'rins, Pokorny's ·tre;- 'drei'
nGVB: 320; Greene: 539 and 507; Hirunuma: 41; lEW: 1090-1; LElA: T-139f.;
McCone: 55; Schrijver: 448; VVB: 224
ir ir tri ui. aUf. Camp 2
ir tri u MP 22
b
(230)
hint tri pimp MP 22
b
(230)
trimul:ein' name rarcl. 'sixty'
OW triucennau (DGVE) possibly for ·trimuceintau
Since Zeuss's edition was considered as a numeral denoting '30', see VVB: 224,
Thurneysen: 1936, 202; Williams: 1930, 232; GMW: 46, for the etymology see
then VGK: 11, 129-30, where "ae. trimuceint ist teils nach '70' teils nach '20'
umgebildet" and lEW: 1075, where trim < ·trem 'durch', Le. trimuceint 'Dekade
tiber 20 hinaus', see also O. Szernerenyi, Studies in the Indo-European System of
Numerals, Heidelberg 1960, p . 11 and LElA. The recent study of the Latin text(s)
by P.-Y. Lambert, however, has shown that apparently this form denotes '60', Le.
3 x 20, then see ugeinl, tri; the presence of -m- is explained as a consonantal glide.
See also Ir;UCenMQu.
DGVB 326-1; Lambert: 1984, 37-43; Lambert: 1984, 37-43; LElA: T-29;
J. Lloyd-Jones in BHCS 14 (1952), p.36; VVB: 224
is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 221» (231)
mntlJul n f [trindod]
MW trindod, OIr trind6it
< Lat. trinitalem
ML: 213
ni guor gnim molirn trintaut JuW' 9 (5.3)
rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7.2)
inungueid gualed trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
Iris' 8dj. 'sad' (trisl]
MWBC trist; Olr trist
< Lat. tristis
LElA: ML: 213; VVB: 224
tnst gl. anxia 1 63
trit; num. Old. 'third'
trifid.
in Inti urd. Camp 5
trifid num. ord. 'third' [tryd)'ddl
MW trydydd; 08 trete, trite. treded C trysse, trege, G tritos
< IE *u;tiio-, see tri and cf. triti.
DGVB: 320; Greene: 542; Hirunuma: 41; Schrijver: 285 and 288
In irtritid urd Camp 1
Intrited retce Comp 2
triuceinl num. card. 'sixty'
See tri,nllce;nt.
DGVB: 232; Lanlhcrt: 19R4,
isem hichet triuceint torth C'hnd 4
froi prep. 'through" (trwYJ
See trlli.
troi enmeituou gl. per nutus Ovid 3S
b
tro adj. 'sad' (troJ
MW tru; OB tru[ed] gl. C Olr truag
For an etymological summary see LElA.
CA: 165; DGVB: 324; GOI: 40; lEW: 1073, 1102; KGP: LElA: T-154;
VGK: I, 101; VVB: 225
mortru gl. eheu Ovid 39
3
troc8r8U€ adj. 'merciful'
MW trugarog, trugarawc; B trugarek; Olr tr6caire
A *-cor- (?) derivative from tru; see trLt.
LElA: T-154; VVB: 225
trucarauc gl. mitia J 42
lro; prep. 'through" [trwy)
OW (LL) trui, MW trwy, drwy; Olr tre
< Celt. *trei-, to IE *ter- 'hindurcfl. tiber - weg'. Sec Schrijver for the details and
cf. troi.
DGVB: lEW: 1076; LElA: T-126; Schrijver: VVB: WG: 404
trui ir unolion gl. per monades Me 7 b.b.
trumm adj. 'heavy' (trwm)
MW trwm; OB (s)trom, trum, Olr trom
Traditionally, < Celt. *trlldslno- < IE *trelld-. An alternative explanation for-
warded by E. Hamp (EC 21. 1984, p. derives this adjective from *(rllkfi-f1l0-.
See also citltremmet.
DGVB: 324; Elsie: lEW: 1095; LElA: VGK: I. 362; VVB: 226
irt
r
urn gl. abrupta J 81
trumrn gl. aegrurn J 88
trybann n (?) 'limit' ?
MW tryfan
According to I. Williams. this is Cl comhinatinl1 of fry· (intensive). tlnd "0"" Ctop.
tip'?), see (('i'''OI1. M. Haycock Cliso to consider the form o"11'\'''n",, (lS Cl
vcrh. cf. the heginning of the linc elf the
, '.
152
Haycock: 244; Williams: 188
Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
Ilylenn n 'protedfon, reluge' 8dJ. 'much loved'
MW trylenn
Perhaps a combination of the intensive prefix with lenn, see S.V., or with a cognate
of Ir. lennan 'love, sweetheart'. I. Williams compared this entry with Ir Ira chu
'much loved, very dear' (with a query).
CA: 186; Haycock: 244; Williams: 1980, 187-8
Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: I
Ilynit?
Several interpretations have been offered for this word by I. Williams. Try could
stand for 'three' Ctriple'), or alternatively is taken as an intensive prefix. The stem
could be a cognate of gnid 'work', or nyddu 'to spin'. In general, far from clear.
Haycock: 243; Williams: 1980, 186-7
Amdinnit trynit try]enn Pad: 1
tu n m&I'side' [ta)
MWtu
See popptu.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
n f 'gannent' Itwyg)
MW twyg
< Lat. theca; Stevenson: 113 suggests curbana (which occurs on the next page of
the MS as well, his edition 17. 16) = 'wallet'.
E. C. Quiggin in RC 38 (1920-1921), p.15
tuic gl. curbanam CH 16.21
tuo«hennou n pi (from sgl.) 'sods'
MW teguarchen, tywarchen(n); B taouarc'hennou
The form was considered by T. H. Parry-Williams to show non-Welsh character.
GMWL: 289; CA: 187; Parry-Williams: 122; Stokes: 1860-1, 219; VVB: 226
tuorchennou gl. glebis J 56
tusrois adj. 'Etrusaan'
VVB: 226 (cf. ML: 213) suggests rendering 'etruscans', from Lat. tuscensis; see
also Williams: 1933, 113
piipaur tuscois gl. tubicine 1usco Ovid 3S
b
tus(s) lestr ?
This compound is analysed as containing tuss < Lat. thus, and lestr, see lestir
Stokes: 396; VVB; 226
.i. turibulum gl. acerra Me 8 b.a.
tuslestr g1. acerra Me 10 b. a.
tusletr gl. acena Me 12 a.a.
tuslcstr g1. acerram Me 14 a.a.
153
u
uenou?
Discussing this word, I. Williams refers to MW ygnn (T). and suggests uch + gnou
'famous'. The possibility for a different analysis of this instance is considered by
M. Haycock who notes that nOli could stand for W Ilt1H'.
Haycock: 14; WiJliams: 1980, 113
ceinmicum ucnou. ran Juv 9 (6.2)
ueatiutaut beantrident
This line is not clear.
Haycock: 14; Williams: 1980, 113
ueatiutaut beantrident Juv 9 (6.3)
ug: Latin Contraction?
According to H. Lewis, this could be a contraction for Lat. p"gnlts.
Lewis: 1926, 4
bos ug gl. palma MP 23
ft
(245)
ugaint see douceint
ui n m 'egg' [wYJ
MW wy, OC uy gl. ovum; MB uy
lEW: 763 derives the word from IE 'Ei'. See also PECA.
Elsie: 92; GMWL: 291; LElA: 0-13; oev: 224; PECA: 104; Schrijver: 299-.300;
VGK: I, 66; VVB: 90; WG: 107
nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 10 b.a.
uiidimm n m 'bill-hook, sickle; hedginK-bill' gwddiJ
MW hudhyf, gudif, guedyf, gwydyu, gwdyf; OB guedom. guodoh; Oir fidha,
Lat. vidubium
< Celt. < IE Vyidhll- 'Baum' (lEW: 1177) + V"I11 'schlagen· (lEW:
117). See aWAY.
DGVB: 185--6; FEW: 14,434; GPC: 1607; fI. Lewis in snes I (1923), r. 14;
LHEB: 3R7; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-19), p. 301; Schrijver: 2R3; VGK: r. 165. 3H9;
VVB: 227
uiidimm gl. ligni[ci]smus Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
uir n (name of a letter)
This name of a letter in "Alphabet of Nemnius" was connected hy Zeuss with W
wyr 'grand -child'.
VVB: 227; Zeuss: 1059
uir Nemn
uith num. card. 'eight' [wyth)
MW vyth, uyth, vlIcth; OR cith: Ir ncht
< *OXto- < IE *01< 'acht'. See also oi,,1.
154
DGVB: 237 and 156; GMWL: 291; lEW: 775; LElA: 0-7; LHEB: 405
iseith uith (·is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
un
l
num. aard. 'one' [un]
MW un; 08 un, Olr ofn, 6en
< IE *Hoinos, cf. Lat. unus. See also hirunn and. ef. unoloion, un
2

DGVB: 327; Elsie: 117; Greene: 538; lEW: 286; LElA: 0-11; VGK: 1,57 and II,
126; Williams: 99-100
gl. quem J 51
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
un
z
nom. adj. l' 'one', 'only'
The sequence guar. un .I. and pimmunt, according to P.-Y. Lambert "sont de deux
scribes different5''' .. He translates the gloss as 'on exprime einquante avec un seull'.
See the previous entry.
Lambert: 1982, 194
pimmunt. guar. un .1. gI. unde quinquaginta Prise'4 a
unc n 'inch'
< Lat. uncia; or otherwise a Latin word.
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi iT hune MP 23
8
(241)
.i. is .Len unc gl. congeus MP 23& (228)
uncenettkion (')
According to Loth (VVB: 227), ia an -etic derivative of canim; he transla-
tes this gloss as lchantant seules'.
uncenettieion gl. solicanae Me 9 b.a.
unn see urfl
uno/ion n pi ·uoits, mOD.cIs' [uDol)
W unawl, unol
An ·01 derivative from un, see s.".
VVB: 228
trui ir unolion gl. per monades Me 7 b.b.
unl.u' n m 'unity' lundod)
MW undawt, vndawt
< Lat. unitatem
ML: 214; VVB: 228; Stokes: 1813, 397
untaut gl. orbem Me 9 b.8.
uld n f'row' [urdd]
MW urd, OB urdhaom (vo in -haom); MB urz; OIr ord
< Lat. ordo
OOVB: LElA: ML: 214
155
In irtritid urd Comp 1
in triti urd. Comp .5
uue prep. 'over' rDch)
MW uch; OB uh; cf. OIr 6s, uas
To IE *upo 'unten an etwas heran'.
DGVB: 326; E. Hamp in BBCS 16 (1954--{), pp. 254--0; Haycock: 16; lEW: IIO?;
LElA: 0-31; LHEB: 572; VGK: 1,75,93; Watkins: 1982.33; Williams: 1980,121
uuc nem isnem intcouer Juv 9 (9.2)
. :i
. 4
, I
.
Appendix I: .inc*glinau
:·r.:
Appendix II: 'To be', personal forms
Main references: GMW: 136-45; Isaac: 371-83; Lambert: 1987. passim.; P. Schrij-
ver, Old British. II Compendium Linguarum Celticarum. Wiesbaden (forthcom-
ing), § 4.8.7; VB: 320-2; VGK: 11,419-41; WG: 346-50; Watkins and MacC'ana;
White, passim.; see also K. McCone, The Indo-European Origins of Old Irish
Nasal Presents, Subjunctives and Futures. Innsbruck: 1991; R. Hernon, A Histori-
cal Morphology and Syntax of Breton. Dublin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced
Studies 1975, pp. 203-12.
"\"'''
A very difficult and uninterpreted gloss. Zeuss (p. 1057) read this as hin cet/inau; Stokes
p.235) as hinc:glinau. The reading of I. Williams is .inc.g/inau.
Williams 1929: 3
.inc.glinau irleill gI. Romanaque pectora Ovid 39
b
hinl
hold
hois
hoys
int
is
Pres. indie. 3 pI.
Imperf. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 pI.
Pres. indic. 3 sg.
To IE *es- (lEW: 340f.)
hint e punt gl. ad sextarium MP 23
lt
(22q)
tri pimp MP 22
b
(230)
hoid hoitou hou hein atar ha heinn cihunn MP 22
h

Oratur. ni hois. ir loe glial' hinnith. in pag;na regular; Comp 6
Cinnit hoys irloc gual' hinnuith In pag.;na regular; Comp 14
enucin di Sihcllae int hinn gl. Erytria quaeque ('urnca vel
Phrigia Me 11 b.b.
int dOll pimp MP 22
h
(230)
is hepdud gl. sine quihus Ang 15 h
iseith uith (*is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
is douhoueeint gl. XL Ang 5q h
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp I
is did ciman. haci Comp J
is gur tum zarnetor ir Inc gual' haihid posr. o. Comp 7
Hacet isgurth. ir sereno hai hid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 10
Is aries isid in arl'imeir Comp 12
isem hiehet triuceint torth Chad 4
ismi gl. quem J 3
fshtH gl. quos J 19
ismf Christus gl. quem J 54
is brut m
i
[= rnihiJ gl. est animus J 66
isamraud gl. mens est J 78
isdisl'irr rnieoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
isahruid icinimer Juv Q
iscimadas gl. par est Me 4 h.h.
is xxx ha guotig MP 22
f1
(230)
I
\""
ISS
isid
Isit
issft
ia
nit
01
oid
be
bein
beinn
bi
bid
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 35g.
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
Pres. iodie. 3sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
(negative)
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Imperf. 3 sg.
Imperf. subj. 3sg.
Imperf. subj. 3 pI.
Imperf. subj. 3 pI.
Future I Pres. 3 sg.
Pres. habit. 3 5g.
is trimueeint hestaur mel MP 22
b
(231)
.i. is .i.exx une gl. eongeus MP 23
1
(228)
amser is eihun argant agit eterin illud MP 22
b
(234)
is moi hinnoid MP 23
1
(246)
isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b
Is aries isid in arcimeir Comp 12
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune isit petguared
pard guoifrit nun MP 23
1
(241)
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina
regulari Comp 15
isscimadas gl. par MC 4 s.b
issmi gl. intemerata MC 11 a.a.
issemi anu gl. Genius MC 11 a. b.
issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.b.
pan aed bid. ad ir loc. guae. issi. in triti urd. Comp 5
issimi g1. ipsa MC 15 b.a.
issi g1. mortalis MC 10 B.a.
issid nes gl. imferiora Ang 81 b
ree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari
Comp 15
irhinn issid crist g1. Christus quem J 81
irhinn issid ille gl. ut si dicas Anton Hie MC 43 b. b.
fssft padfu gulat gl. celsi thoronus est cui regia eoeli J 19
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
nit abruid Comp 6
nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1.2)
nitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune MP 23a (241)
ti r telih haioid eleu Chad 2
nataid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata MC 12 a.b.
initoid gl. maculata J 78
initoid gl. extinea J 78
fnft6fd gl. pressus J 92
To IE *bheu· (lEW: 146f.)
nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
paped bi gl. quid J 31
if Joe guac haibid post. o. Comp 8
irloc quae habid post .0. Compo 9
ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
ir loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 11
hou nit bloidin salt hai bid im guar phenn circhl naune-
cant Comp 22
bit
hoi
boit
bu
itl.
Imper. I Pres. 3 sg.
Pres. subj. 3
Pres. subj. 3 sg.
Preterite 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3
Assit [leg. adsit]. i. hit J 32
cenit hoi loc guac Comp 12
piouboi. int luv 9 (R.2)
hacboi gl. (leg. excutiendus) erit Ovid 39a
hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir MP 23
lt
(246)
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
To IE *std- (lEW: 1004 f.)
issft padhi ita" gl. celsi est cui coeli J 19
159

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Contents

Acknowledgements Introduction . . . . . List of Sources . . . Bibliographical Abbreviations . . . Grammatical Abbreviations . . Language Names .. Glossary A .. B ... C .. CH . . .

VII IX
XIV

. XVIII
.XXIV XXV I 1 13 20 39
39 51

D.
E.

F .. G .... H ..
I .

57
59

78
88
99

Die Deutsche BibJiothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Falileev, Aleksandr I.: Etymological glossary of Old Welsh I Alexander Falileyev. - TQbingen : Niemeyer, 2000 (Buchreihe der Zeitschrift f(ir celtische Philologie ; Rd. 18) ISBN 3-484-42918-6 ISSN 0931-4261

K. L.
M N.

O .. P .. Q ..
R .. S ..

99 108 116 122 126
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,.

Das Werk einschlieBlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschiltzt. Jede Verwertung auBerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlages unzuUissig und strafbar. Das gilt insbesondere fOr Vervielfaltigungen, Obersctzungen. Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elcktronischen Systemen. Printed in Germany. Gedruckt auf alterungsbestandigem Papier. Satz und Druck: Laupp & Gobel GmbH, Nehren Buchbinder: Siegfried Geiger. Ammerhuch

T. U. Appendix I Appendix II

134 140

.

144 153 156 157

Acknowledgements

, ..

The research which resulted in the present Et)'nJological Glossary of Old Welsh would have been impossible without the help of the following individuals and institutions. I am grateful first of all to the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung for a generous fellowship which allowed me to conduct the research uninterrupted at the Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut of the Friedrich- Wilhelms- UniversiHit Bonn (Germany), and for covering the printing costs of this publication. Professor Emeritus Karl Horst Schmidt has supported my fellowship with the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. I am greatly indebted to Professor Schmidt for his comments and stimulating suggestions on the various aspects of this work and for his making my stay in Germany a most fascinating experience. I thank Dr Paul Russell who went through the earlier version of the (;/oJsary for his critical comments, as well as for his help and hospitality during my stay in Oxford. Dr Graham Isaac was always ready to answer my questions; the discussions of the problematic aspects of Old Welsh alongside the other disputahle issues of Welsh and Celtic philology and linguistics with Dr Isaac were very important and lead to a certain re-estimation of the views of the present author. I am grateful to Dr Peter Smith for his readiness to help; and to Ms Sandra Pragnell for her taking the burden of proof~reading. I am grateful to Professor Stefan Zimmer. the Director. for the excellent facilities arranged for my research at the SprachwisscnschaftJiches Institut of Bonn University, and for the opportunity to usc his private lihrary. Frau Gudrun Eigenwillig, the Librarian of the Institute, was always very helpful. I am indebted to the staff of Geiriadur Pri!VJKo/ (~y,,,rll. particularly to Mr Gareth Bevan, the editor, and Mrs Mary Burdett-Jones for the possibility to check the collection of the dictionary slips and the most generous help. I am very grateful to Mr Andrew Hawke for his help in accessing the computerised data-hase and the most stimulating discussions of early Welsh lexica. I would like to thRnk Professor Geraint H. Jenkins, the Director, and the staff of the Centre for A d\'anced Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth, for their hospitality. Thanks are due to Professors P. Sims- Williams anll P.- Y. Lambert for their readiness to answer my questions, and to Dr V. Kalygin~ who put me on the right path and first drew my attention to the gClpS in EClrly Welsh lexicography. Needless to say. thnt the faults of this puhlication are entirely mine. /\. Falilcyc\"

I
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I

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However'l it does not focus on etymological investigation" though provides its entries with etymological comments. 20~2~.. For (Old) Welsh glosses in MS Cotton Faustina C I see A. Loth's Vocahll· laire vieux-bretolt in 1884 which comprised the then known data of all the early neo-Brittonic languages. Quite a few Old Welsh texts have heen edited anew. while the interpretation of the place-names which occur in the Old Welsh documents is a separate problem. Notes and articles which analyse specific Old Welsh words and phrases appear in the journals. Pedcn in CMCS 2 (19Rl). The publication of the Geiriadllr Prif). Old Welsh orthography. these \Vere used a~ cn111paranda only. it does not give references to the scholarly discussions. The data Only records written down during the Old Welsh period have been used in the compilation of the glossary. phonology.sgol eyn. Much work has been done hoth in the field of Old Welsh studies and Celtic lexicography since the puhlication of J. The same concerns the study of epithets. and to provide them with the most important published references.Introduction The present Etylnolog.sary of Old We/sir is intended to offer an alphabetically arranged list of words which are found in the manuscripts transcribed before the beginning of the Middle Welsh period.' .'. more Old Welsh fragments have been found.ru (in progress) which considers the Old Welsh forms with accuracy and offers an excellent historical panorama of the development of Modern Welsh vocabulary is a major event in Welsh lexicography. Texts which show Old Welsh orthographic features and which were perhaps first written down during this period but which are found in the later manuscripts are consulted.cal Glo!. The present glossary intends to hridge this gap in Old Welsh etymological studies and to offer the alphabetically ordered corpus of Old Welsh lexemes with a bibliographical apparotuJ. for the sake of chronological consistency and homogeneity of the word-list" these entries are not included in the Glossary. The non-appelative vocabulary of Old Welsh was not considered as the study of personal names must be carried out within a different framework. p. ~ '. morphology and the rudiments of syntax have been the subjects of dissertations and scholarly research over the course of the twentieth century.

The fourth part of each entry contains bibliographical references. Arrangement of the entries The entries are arranged alphabetically according to the Welsh standard. The word . 1. The indication of gender is not provided for hapaxcs and plural forms. Homographic I homophonic lexeme5 are treated under the different headings. however. The full list of te~ts used for the compilation of the glossary is given below.. lacksoo·s Language and Hislory in Early Britain which was used as a definitive guide for Ihis study.Cjclr('s rt.H. It is extremely difficult. Only on several exceptional o~casions were manuscript readings consulted. The compiler of the Glossary felt obliged to consider the Welsh entries which are found in non. Cornish and Irish) are quoted. Forms of the verbs are rendered normally by the corresponding English infinitive.re des gloses £n vieux Breton.in which all the components could be both Breton and Welsh are not considered. Old Cornish stands for the Cornish entries in "Vocahularium (~orni. If the entry is a plural noun. Forms which show OW characteristics are found in texts of Irish provenance as well. . which still requires to be comprehensively discussed. The word as it is found in the manuscript or a conjectured form in the case of an abbreviated or corrupted manuscript reading. in those cases where the segmentation could be problematic (and this applies to several particular fragments of Old Welsh versification). 4. and are not found in the main corpus of the glo~sary. their discussion can be found in the entries which contain 1he first element of the composite word. the singular Modern Welsh form is given for reference. the components of the phrase are gl~en as a complete entry.3. The only te1<t which was not used for the compilation of the present Glossary is the Book of Llan Dav. 1. the corresponding forms are cited from Graves's edition.i"c.sclres Worterbuch (1959). The forms of the verb 'to be' are collected in the Appendi" II. Grammatical characteristics of the fonn. see Russell: 1995. These. though extensively used at the preliminary stClges of the present research. The second line of an entry gives I) a corresponding Middle Welsh formes) and 2) Celtic c0111paranda for the entry. Words which show Welsh characteristics are found alongside Old Breton entries in several Latin texts of Breton provenance. when the segmentation is unclear. is not indicated in the references. with an unclear initial is discussed in Appendix I. The third part of each entry contnins etymological commentary. rather than an authentic etymological dictionary. the stem is normally given. These are occasionally considered in the glossary.gfina. At this point. cum".ological Glossary of (J/d U'e/sl. The glosses which contain more than one word are segmented. marked as ''"forme vieille galloise" by L.. Parts of compounds are not treated separately. Lewis (As(lIdiaeth 0 (}r~raff Hell Gy.. The list of the bibliographical abbreviations is given below. and generally follows the treatment of the corresponding entries in the GPC. First element of an entry. The most important analysis of Old Welsh orthography hy M.o!oR. The data of this very important document is used throughout as comparanda for the research. ogy.2. 1. The focus has been laid on the collection of the published analysis of the rudiments of Old Welsh ~ thus the glossary could be viewed as an extended bibliography for Old Welsh studies. it is adduced from the later medieval sources. 3. for the glosses the lemmas arc given. XI Structure of entry Each entry contains the following elements: 1. This is followed ny a reference to the source (see the list of sources).x The sources The sources for OW known before 1953 are conveniently summarised in K. and by a misleading "Old Breton 2" in A Dic60nary of Old Breton are listed in the Glossary.all. Pokorny's l"d()~rr". English translation. or the reading is variable.1. OW manuscripts as well. Similar or identical instances which were analysed differently are normally considered separately. it was considered appropriate to prclO\ent only the . The instances where a part of a gloss could be Breton as well are specifically indicated. Fleuriot in his authoritative Dictionna. Glosses . 1. The fifth part of each entry gives the form under discussion as it occurs \vithin its context. the components of the phrases are explicitly cross-referenced. was planned as (l part of a higger project which intends to survey various nspccfs of ()Id Welsh linguistics and r h ilnl. The Old Welsh data: some prohlcnls and desiderata The present Ety".West Brittonic. to assign these to a certain date or even a language within early Neo-North. Plural nouns are translated by plural forms. The Mouern Welsh forms are given in square hrackets. The earliest attested examples of etymological correspondences of the Insular Celtic languages (Breton. and is a subject for research in its own right. If the entry is a verb. but only in the references. As the OW data is salient for the expression of gender of the noun.. University of Wnlcs MA dissertation 1961. however.\'". It should be noted that the compiler made use of the edited and published texts only. The Continental Celtic forms (particularly Gaulish) are also referred to. 5. The IE protoforms arc normally quoted from J.4."ra('~ gan ei chyfnharu ag ()rgraff Hen Wyddeleg. The Latin words (in case of hornl\vings) are given in their classical forms or are otherwise indicated. The corresponding form in Modern Welsh (if any). 2. if at all poS5ible.. unpublished).

Io. p. h()\\. \vhich has been advocated by Dr Koch. particularly taking in consideration the recen t progress in the analysis of the early Welsh poetry. It is not infrequent that the word could he attested only twice . Though several important and thoroug. Old Welsh Grammar. It was argued for the Old Breton sources. The other genre of Old Welsh writing. All these issues relatcd to the (Old) Welsh grammar and grammatical description cnuld not he disfussed in the prescnt book. see OWA V in . Moreover.' discus~ion of the Ol(j Wcl~h agricultural vocahulary (in progress..XII data. Several of the Old Welsh texts have been and are being studied in the likewise manner by the team of scholars directed by the Department of Welsh. vi) is not yet availahle. lndic. The two a~rccts "'hich deserve attention are I) the problem of the earlier dialectological relationships het\\'cen the Neo-Brittonic languages. The material presented in the present Glossary allows for VEl rious types of in\'es1iga tion. Koch. These deserve now a study within a broader con text ()f Welsh poetics. The interaction of Old Wel!ih with the other important language of medieval Wales. Baltic. as only the data found in the contemporary manuscripts could he relevantly labelled as Old Welsh.. The Languages. Koch (as reported in J. needs further investigation.'ih will definitely open new horizons for Welsh linguistics: at the same time the compiler of the present Glossary feels obliged to note that the notion of the Archaic Neo-Brittonic. The compiler of the GJo~S(1r.~). that now there is a demand for a comprehensive treatment of these manuscripts./0. which should be comprehensively studied.). The same concerns the presence of the Anglo-Saxon element in Old Welsh. which would account for the Latin text (as well as Latin and Anglo-Saxon glosses) alongside the Old Welsh entries proper. T. The focus could be laid upon the semantic aspect. particularly in the Red Book of flergest or in the Book of Talicsin. the Old Welsh glosses in these editions are normally given only with a quotation of Latin words (sometimes phrases) on which they occur. that there is no availahle study of Welsh morphology as a whole. During the work on the Glossary the following problems related to the monuments of Old Welsh were considered as de siring di scussion.~ tlt1empts tc bridge this gap in early Welsh lexicography with the .h studies were dedicated to the problem of the Latin borrowings in Welsh. represented by Irish and Cornish should be extracted from the linguistic discussion.ever. for some of these texts this remains a desiderata. ha'w'e been satisfactorily edited. however. and then in the later poetry. nearly absent in ' Welsh lexicology but veTy popular in the other linguistic traditions (Anglo-Saxon. T. that the other semantic fields would draw the attention of scholars..tr. Special attention should be paid to the possible calques on the Latin forms which the Old Welsh words are glossing. It is obvious. This subject in general has not received the proper attention.snry could be used as a source for the future discussion of the models of Welsh word-formation: lists of the suffixes with the indication of their productivity in Old Welsh are to be compiled. and the grammatical status of specific adjectival and preverbal particles.. It can be argued that a parallel situation could be envisaged for the Old Welsh texts proper. These cases should he also considered. It is hoped..Qtion.a. both in the vocabulary. provided that the data is already collected and classified. As it is indicated in the section Sources (below). the poetical pieces. has been not sufficiently analysed either. at a later stage the compiler will offer its analysis. they unfortunately do not pay the desirable attention to the chronology and the character of these borrowings at the earliest attested stage of the history of this language. and 2) the concept of early Neo-Brittonic spelling. and in the texts themselves. University College Aberystwyth (the results are yet unpublished). To mention just a few of them: the presence of a morphologically deducihle future tense of the vcrh. It should be noted. and the remnants of Old Welsh are no exception here.once in the Old Welsh sources. therefore. Some ohviollsly idiomatic set-phrases occur in thc corpus of (lid Welsh . It is hoped. the non-Welsh element in these texts. 4. Slavic. The Texts.. The study of the semantic fields. This method of editing the remnants of Old Welsh could be acceptable at the dawn of Welsh studies.. as well as on their morphological pecuharities. as negligence of this factor will necessarily lead to the distortion of the whole picture of Old Welsh morphology. Not much is d()ne to elucidate Old Welsh linguistic contact with Old Irish. but utilised for the analysis of the Welsh (scribal) tradition and the character of the medieval Welsh scriprar. . 2. The Gododdin of Ancirin. that the ()Id Welsh delta presented here \\'ill make further investigation in this field more productive. Gral1t11lar of Old Welsh compiled hy J. and perhaps the word-list presented in this hook could he used as a starting point for the analysis of early Welsh morphology. The collection of the material presented here points to a considerable amount of hapaxes. that the tnethodological (particularly chronological) approach to the trC(\tnlent of ()Id \Vclsh in this grammar a priori differs fronl the views of the conlpilcr of the present (. Witb a few exceptions it is commonly maintained that the remnants of Old Welsh are rather homogeneous (though naturally allowing for linguisticrorthographic variations). deserves primal attention. however~ that some of them c<Jntain Old Welsh (as well as Old Irish) entries alongside Old Breton. C'ardiff: University of Wales Press 1997. 1. 3~ Old Welsh Le7<icology. therefore. the majority of the Old Welsh texts were edited and published (mostly without facsimiles) towards the end of the nineteenth century. viz~ Latin. Irish. It could he noted. and these should be studied within a wider context of Welsh and C'eltic idiom. The (. XIII the List of Abbrev.\sary. Of course the publication of this (iro"""ar of (Jld n"el. treatment of certain plural terminations of a noun. There is still quite a range of grammatical aspects of Early Welsh which arc in dispute. The formal aspects of Old Welsh lexica are not sufficiently studied as \vell. German. etc. though useful as an instrument of research.

The references are to LL.. '. The references are to JO. i!i dated to late ninth or rurly tenth century (st.86-100. p.81-95. Jenk. LHEB: 53. Ouiggin (1912. see JO I : 56: cf.. Owen in JO: 91~ further editions include: J.JlIvencu~· poetical \'er~ion of the gospels).Jackson (LHEB: 42-6 with further bib1. The references are to the MS. Chad (Lichfield Gospel5). ~C' al50 Sims-Williams: 1991. see also D. Chid 3 ces are given 10 the MS (brackets . )CIviL tht ttl(t nh""IHh i" local place-names: no complete edition of it is avaiJClhlc. /I EC 16 (1979).) dated to the first half of the twelfth century. Keynes. cf.ses which show OW features in MS Angers 477. Jenkins and M. 2~ D.page and line in Stevenson's edition). see J. Phil1imore (Phillimore: 152-169). also Stokes: 1860-1.. tbis edition i5 used. xlxi i~ unacceptable on palaeographical grounds: they helong to the first half of the tenth century". dated to the end of the eighth . J. The Latin Life of King Alfred composed by Asser about 890 contains several Wel5h word5. cf. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlvii (cf. Lapidge" Alfred the Great. The references are to LL. The text was edited hy E. 1". Huws. 411-5). dated to fir't half of the tenth century. vol. Jenkins. Gwenogvryn Evan~ in LL: xlv: cf.. ed. The references are to the MS. Chadwick Memorial Lec1ure 6. References are to LL. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press 1980. Glan\'ille R. M.261-2. and Celtic 19R5). Jones.. The latter edition iC\ lI~ed. dated to the late Ilinch century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976). A charter in mi1Ced Latin and OW in the Book of St. p. with translation and fac~imi'e).Dumvil1c. 2 (19R2). 'Tyr Telych' and Gwestfau of Cynwyl Caeo and Cwmwd Caeo. Hughes.) K.C. /I (D. Une glose en Anglo-Saxon gloste en Brittonique. The text is dated by L. 32. /I nBCS 27 (1<J7R).256 (the number indicates the line in the edition). Beutrum (BClrtrum: 9-1. Unedited. Aeunot to 891~ the relevant glosses were written at the end of the tenth . Chad (Lichfield Gospels).':\). Hughes. No date was suggested for it at the seminar in Lichfield. (text and translation)~ Davies: 263: ~ee also HW: 214 and PRW: 312. See also G. Gen The Old Welsh Genealogies which contain Old Welsh onomastics and epithets are found in the same MS as AC. For the hands see Bradshaw: 4R4. cf. 42 (. An Old Welsh Gloss. 10 I~tliletl (pnnlnlly) hy . see DOVB: 8-11. T.r. see JO I : 56: cf. /I ODeS 28 (1 930j. Edited hy Stokes (Stokes: IH60-61. Asser's Life of King Alfred. Cambridge: Department of Anglo.'e)l: ~(l): ~ee nlso I. 607-11. Quiggin. 800 is noted" and D. According 10 D. Huws. Owen (JO: 83). /1 Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic C"olloquium. Williams (IQ27) with translation and an extensive commentary. 93 1 ) The glos!i which is dated to tbe eleventh century was edited by E. forthcoming. Chad 4 A charter in mixed Latin and OW in the Book of St. cf. See also S. 1100 (cr. 197-272. 865. Chad 7 A single line in OW and Latin in the Book of St. LL: xlvi (alongside Chad il). Norse. 28R-Q3~ Stokes: IR73. The ro-c:alled ISurexlt' Memorandum in the Book of St. Five Ancient Books of Wales H. CH AD OW gloss ill the so-called Colloquia Hisperica (Bodleian MS. 1/ Proceedings of the British Academy 59 (1973). The references arc to the MS. ning of eleventh century by various hands.. also Bishop: 258. The text was edited by D. Edited hy I. LHEB: 46-7). Huws (Huws: Sill). Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages. The referen. p. Dumville in SC 12/ 13 (1917/8). f. W. For the history of this text see K. ~ indicates AC The "Annale! Cambrlse" Bre found in Harlefan MS 38~9 which fs dated to CI. The Welsh Latin Chronicles: Annores Cambriae and Related Texts. mentary. Comp The Computus Fragment (Cambridge University Library MS Add. Chad (Lichfield Gospels) was dated to the eighth century by K. LHEA: 50-1 and particularly Ha r"ey: 1991 and the further bihliography cited there. p. M. 207-22R. Edited hy I).42. Rhys~ W. 5 fn. for the collection of the glosses see DOVB: 26-31. The text was edited hy J. p. The references are to Williams: 1927. According to K. H. Williams to ca. The references a re to LL. 15-16. Sylwadau ar y 'Surexif. J OW glosses (several hands) in Camhridge MS Ff 4..IIFIJ: 47 And Wlllkjn~: Itl72 -4. J. Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manu<icript of Welsh Poetry: The Camhridge Juvenclis. 24R fn. Edited J. LHEB: 56). p. p_ R2 and fn.rr"". The references are to the pages of the edition.). Arm~trong III. Oates. Stevenson.ins and M. Juv 3 A poem of three stanzHS in CCtmhridgc MS rf 4. Phillimore (Philli· more: 169-183). <:had (Lichfield Go~pels). CIIadZ . predominantly toponyms.. p. Jackson (LHER: ~ 1-2. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlv. which establishes the boundaries of a manor near Lladybie. 4 for Ihe date "about 800". 920 (cf. The text was edited by E. ChH 6 A note in Latin and OW in the Book of Sf. II CMCS J (I tJR2). cf. Norse. M. 461-7) and The A. LHEB: 54). Morris Jones in MJ: 268-79~ Zimmer. hut see D.beginning of the ninth century by J. where a possibility to date this text earlier than ca. also Stevenson: 16. Dumville.Saxon. C. Chad (Lichfield Gospels). dated by I. Oxford 1904. The text was edited by W. who states thelt ·'the dating of most of the Juvencus glosses to saec. Chadwick fv1emorial Lecture n. see also J. p. (~wl'no~vlyn I~\'"n~ in 1. Lambert: 1983 and 1984.xv List of Sources LHEB: 46-7 for the further references). Glos. fl. p.'e . . Asser's Life of King A/fred and other contempo~ rary source!. also J0 1: 55). I! RC 38 (1920-1921). The Old Wel~h Computus Fragment and Bede's Pagina Regularis: Part I. The text was edited by J. p. DNR Six OW glosses in MS Peniarth ~4n (Bcdc·s l)r IIatura . following Bradshaw: 2RJ-4 and 4R4.text of Anna/es Cambriae.begin. and by p. p. EWS: 45. Penguin Books 1983 for the translation and a most valuable com. Camhridgc: Department of Anglo-Saxon. 11 SC 28 (1994).C. dated to the late ninth century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976).1. and Celtic 1985). this text was written in 830-850. 4543). EWS: 16) the !!Iocoses are dated to ninth eleventh centuries. Le Due. p. Lindsay (EWS: 53 with facsimile).. M. 233-58 (see also the review of it by D. p. Five ~ncie~Books o~ales (II. The earlier edition~ include those by E. M. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlii with notes by J. Lindsay in EWS: 46. Palaeogrnphical Consideration in the Dating of Early Welsh Verse. Gwenogvryn Evans.e.

the earlier editions include Zeuss: 1060.!rY_~l_f_Wn_~~~ 2 (IQ. see the list of the earlier editions there. fol. FA. Edited hy P. p. DGVB: 31 and pa.'ii. fo 208 .. Chadwick Memorial Lecture 6. 37&-42 8 . 382. sec H.237-8. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and hne). For the gloss ledit gI. C. p. The OW &I055eS in Ovid's Ars Amatoria (Oxoniensis Prior. 466-7 (text). with a Modern Welsh rendering and an extensive commentary. For further reference~ see al~o LHEB: 52~ Bromwich: 1980. Zeuss: 1059). 101-110 = Williams: 1980. HUM. 226-148 with a facsimile of fo 23 8 facing p. A. The text is edited hy W.32. and passim.~~~~_~i_l~r~. perhaps ninth century (LHEB: 53). for the date see abo\'e~ cf.!i[~l~~s e~tteraires V (185fl). 42. 36-7. Stokes 1860-1. p. 5). this decision was based on Lindsay's observation (EWS: 22-3). 5 indicates tne late ninth or eerly tenth century as it~ date. R. dated to first half of the tenth century. Q 2.. alsc R.'i f'o. 100 fn. cf. pulsat (fo 38 ) see Williams 1933: 113. and Celtic 1985).). Rowland.. p. T. The Old Welsh glosses in De Mensuris et Ponderibus (Liber Commonei.HEB: 55: J. 181-(89). Les gloses de 1'().32. Pndnrn's slnff in Corpus Christi MS Il)(J (n. See also J. Auct. 70: VKG: I. Edited by Wil· Iiams: 1930. Rowland. Thurneysen. The text wnll\ edited hy I.. LHEB: 47). the language is Breton on the assumption of the Fleury origin of the MS. p. 60). with OW (Clnd presumahly ()(') glosses i~ dated ca.205-224 = WiJliams: 1980. IJ. J.. I029f»).c. cf.Hrrior sonl-elles corniqllcs? II RC 14 (1893). Brewer 1990. Hunt: XIII. Zeuss: 1054-1059. LHEB: 54). The references are to the MS.. Brugge: De Tempel 1954~ p. The OW glosses in Martianus Capella. Runica Manuscripta. Stevenson: I-I L prc"iolls cdition~ include: ('ra4\ter: 1. dated to the ninth-tenth century (Bradsttaw: 4~. An Old Welsh gloss in "Leiden Logical Fragment" (MS Voss. Williams. Watkins: 1982. 228. Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1. p. Cambridge MS 153). tenth century (Cra~tcr: I~n: EWS: 2": tHEA: 55). The gloss was considered as insular by F1euriot. See also J. I! ZCP 20 (1936).. passim. p. dated to the first part of the ninth century. The gloss was edited by W. WilliAms. see Hunt. Bodleian MS. Glosses which show OW features in Priscian's grammar (BN lat.l32. 361.157-9. see also LHEB: 52 for a 1151 of the previous editions. According to LHEB: 64. An OW four-line verse Oil St. Cambridge: Department of Anglo·Saxon. J•• . lIn dnted to IOHO-IOt)() (Brndshnw: 4f1. Oxonien. 4. Pad Prise Le. The poem was edited by I. DGVB: 7 (more precisely as Welsh. Auct. References are to the MS. Edited by W. Loth. <hid .Stokes (1873). p. 7. Auc1. De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mereur. fol40 8 edited (with facs. The references are to the MS. (Corpus Christi College. II BEeS 6 (1932).. Stevenson. For the further references see LHEB: 52-3 and cf. p. for 1be history of the MS. Oates. ]00-121. or 817 (EWS: 7. /I BBCS 6 (1932).Hint). arc to MS (hrackets . Five Ancient Books of Wales (H. 3l. S. Edited by I. Lamhert (Lamhert: 1982: cf. Cambridge: D.272 pI. An (ll<l Welsh Verse. the number indicates the line. The referencec. See also Bishop: 262f. 2~ D. p.'5-6: Stoke~: IRfl(l--1. Dorolez. 29J): Zeuss: IOflO-J: for (1 fClc4\imiJe edition of a part of a folio.89-100. 100 Hunt: VIII. The Liturgical Materials in MS Oxford. cf. F. Lindsay. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and line). The Jcferenccs are to tile MS. fn. F. 4.tI). for a facsimile edition. Watkins: 1982. Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manuscript of Welsh Poetry: The Cambridge Juvencus. A poem of nine sta nz.. The so·called Alph/lbet of Nemnius in Bodleian MS.XVI the late ninth or early tenth century as its date.11 Archiv fUr Liturgiewissenchaft 34 (1992). The references are to Stokes: 1860-1.. see BHl<fshaw: 4Hfl: L. see also above). Stokes (Stokes: J860-t 234--6. p. Ox2 XVII The MS called uOxonien~i~ Po~terior" (Bodleinn MS 572) which contain~ a Latin text IJe Raris Pahllli. Me MP N~.to1lien.111-53.as in Cambridge MS Ff4. 11 BEeS 7 (1935)~ p. F.page in Williams: 1930). dated to the tenth or ninth century (LHEB: 64). F. p. M. 238-44 (corrections on p. where this MS is compared with Ovid on palaeographical grounds. Edited by W. Haycock (Haycock: 241-5). and in Haycock: 3-16. A Welsh (Cornish?) Gloss in a Leyden MS. Zu Nemnius (Nennius). 292.rage and line in Stevenson's edition). 36-7. Bodleian MS. Bodleian Librllry. dated to 820 (I. Brewer 1990. EWS: 8. de la Villemarquc in Archive~ des Mi~4\ions sci~-. Williams. 236-7. p. Autt. sis Prior). Williams~ Naw Englyn y Juvencus. coneC110ns p. Ill~)~arn_!!L~~fl1~~. DaVB: 261). H. Tri Englyn y Juvencus.) b ill EWS: 56). The references are to the edition by I. Edited by W. and hy M. S. 4.-Y.. p. with a Modern Welsh rende· ring and an extensi\'e commentary. Ear]y Welsh Saga Poetry. lat100). /I CMCS 3 (1982). The references are to the MS (brackets . 510 (English t~ans. Early Welsh Saga Poetry Cambridge: D. Norse. see J. Notes on Nenniu~./1 ZCP 1 (1897). For the Cornish comroncnt. fl<J-7~ (= Williams: 1980. Breen. Williams. 82 and fn.

13~. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1938. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press 19f17. Henry.ieck. . Indo-European Numeralr. Notes on Old Breton. Davies = W.disches etymologisches Worterbuch. Hamp. slo\'o. The Hague 1965. II ZCP 39 (1982). 25J-2R4. A Gramnrar of Old Irish.10-I3. 1917. Jones Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru. 1/ EC 11 (1964-5). /)r narum rerum. Paris: Librarie C. Evans. Sf D/lllsla. II Studio Celth'o Japonica I (. GEW = H. 1982. p. Cymru 1931-1946.d~n und rtlJ501. Brittany and Irclanu in the earl" mediaeval period. The Corpus Martianus Capella. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin I New York 1992. Fowkes = R.n. Bishop = T. eds. 205-IR. Broderick. A. Edited and annotated by I. Williams. p. Fowkes: 1958 = R. Haycock. J.vddol cy""ar. Lehmann. Intensives in Briti~h Celtic and Gaulish.224-235. Sanscrit Evidence in Studies 2 (1958). 1912. Leiden: E. p. 19R6. Evidence in Keltic. E~k. Hamp: 1976-7 = E. Bonn 1979. DOB == C. Oxford 1924. Hirunuma. A Gothic Etynlological Dicrionar. Quatri!me edition. EU = L William~. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol GED = W. {PI HPB = K.qRR). de Vries. JRI-lqR.'fih Isles. lli. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1966. Aeuriot. I. Manchester: At the University Press 1913.. The Indo-European Roots *hJrrr. IJ D. Aneirin. L. Chantraine" Dictionnaire etymologique de fa langue grecque.. Frisk. p. Hamp: 1973 = E. Hamp.1). Bi!hop. Williams. EL = 11.r. London '41'. H.~forical PllOnolngl' of nr('/. Hamp. ed. Da\'ies. EI~le. Wel~h Etymologies. Volt. The Latin charter·tradition in Western Britain.rkikh jOlyko\·.w = H. GMW == D. Gvozdanovic. Blodellgerdd harddas 0 gallll cref. F_ E\k. p.Io!·d. Hamp: 1977-8 = E. p. Jackson. p. 25. of Early Welsh. Llandyhie 1994. /I SC 12-1. /1 Lingua PO'.Evidence of Hihern()-Wel~h Literary Interaction? II P. Hirunuma = T. EaT/Y Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Hamp. GPN == D. 191-3 and 569-72. IIIne Journal of Celtic G = J. Early Wel. ed ..'. Lindsay. Formation indoeuropeenncs ~ second el~ment *-(H(l)k '·'-.. Cambridge: at the University Press. Lerpwl: Gwasg y Brython 1945. Geirfa barddOfliaefh gymlar f(I'mrae/(. Caerwyn Wil1iams. Henry ::::: V.m Keltischtn. GMWL "" T. Lewis. 39--4R.t.)onflnJtn. CMCS = Cam bridge (since Winter ~ 1993 . Aeuriot A Dictionary of Old Breton.. Gol. Celtica Indogermanica. Pans: Editions Klincks. A. Alrno. /I SC 1011 ( (1975-6). J. II Erill. Bradshaw. . Cambridge 1889. AP = Arrn~s Pryde. 257-75. Fowkes. p..I-IO. ](l7-7. 1974. Gaulish Personal NameJ.fChot'l . 1950-.'s Classhook fmlll (ila. oR (197. C. rey. p.rrordd. II Bulletin de la societe de li1lgtti5iqttc de Pari. p. DGVB = L.s . Hunt = R. Bevan. p.in the Light of Celtic <lnd Alhanian. Nauka. Simon Evans. De Bernardo Stempel. English version by R.nrischen. Hamp. Etlen Lddin yn y' faith Cymraeg. I I GOI = R. II BBCS 13 (1948).90-111. De Bernlrdo Stempel = P. Mo~ow: EWS == W. ~4-7J. 1-4. p. Bartram ::: P. II Huw~ p. A Glossary of Mediael'al WeI>" Lall'.'yan. E. .XIX Bibliographical Abbreviations ESSYa = (0. p. Lewis. L/yfr Du Caerfyrdd. "amp: 1975-6 = E.m. Meillet. Die Vertretung der indogertnanischen Iiq. eds. tc = tr/-4de5 Ct Jtiq ue. A Welsh Manuscript of Bede's fiReS 27 (19781. . Y. Harvey. Varia.tillltc JIW = J. ErnouI.f(ol1brtrl'. p. Craster" The Glosses of the Codex Oxoniensis posterior. A. Klinksieck 1964. Bromwkh: 1980 = see Williams: 1980. Heidelherg: Carl Winter 1970.. Fowkes. Ireland i" Eal/Y Mtdie"al Europ~.·idence for Laryn~eal'i. Dublin: The Dublin ]nstitute for Advanced Studies 1972. Trubachov.vcriptinfl of Rntorrito. . C. /I J. Klincksieck.eiy 4 (1964-8).191-199. Der lateinische Lehnworl. Hamp: 1979 == E. A Advllnced Studies (Q6 7. The Po~fri(J" of Brittonic. II Transactions of the Cambridge Bibfiograp1tica! 5oc. Paris: Librairie C. lannan.·1 11i'ltlfy or H'olt'\. Bonn J970. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1991. Lloyd-Jones.noderne. M. InQs~ruck: Jnstitut fir Sprachwi!'. Craster =' H. E.l Hamp: 1982 ::::: E. G. DGVB. Gaulish Ordinals. = D.491-504. Haycock = M. B8udi~.r. 77-Q2. 1974-. II RC XL ( 1923) p.. Whitelock. Lexique ftymnlogiqllt des te"neJ les plus IIJuel~ du breton . Chantraine = P. 1/ EC 15 (1976-7). 1(J'~lardJ (In ft"prprNntinn of the Hi.n.erwyn Williams: 1948 = J. Greene = D. . 497-554. Harvey = A. A (.flaniefu. :Elsie = R. Dictionnaire ttymologique de la langue laline. Dublin: The Duhlin Studies 1980. DlIl>lin: The Dllhlin In. 'EmoDt-Mfillet = E.m Ky.. Dumville. BaudH = J. AEW = J.~ (l977-R).nlc . rac wedynJ gan G. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982. 1959.. Bartrum. Leiden: E. R. J.Cambrian) Medieval Celtic Studies. I-Iamp. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1943. Hunt. McKitterick and D. Winter. Lan8rtagr Contnct in tire Rr. In~titute for Advanced GPC = Geiriadur Prifysgo/ Cymru. Hamp. Etn"du t. The Camhridgc luvencll~ (JI(ls~c~ . Problem~ of Cymric Etymology.) Etimologicheski.H.senschaft 1989. D~ yo y Gymraeg. M. p. p. E. Innsbruck 1987. 6 (1957). gan R.O. ed. Ellis Evans.1ft Board of Celtic Studies.vpano·Ctftic In. Greene. /1 ZCP 37 (1979). = 1. Rennes 1900.S.e-N . Brill 1962. Toronto: Prepcorp 1985. Thurneysen. Miscellanea Celtica. CA = I. W. Haarmann.h Script. (Umhrae Codicum Occi- dentalium IV) Amsterdam 1961. Ureland. Griechisches etymologisches Worterbuch. A. P.\. Gramma. Hamp. /I W.r0111nl0r of Aliddl" »'elrh. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1964. Brill. BRCS = Thl! BuJitJin of . ed. sla'. Huws. "amp: 1974 = E. DDC = A. Hamp: 1965 = E.'r. Brad~h. Oxford. Bachellery.. BacheDery = E.Brom· wich. Corrected Papers. Dicrionnaire des gloses en vieux Breton. Celtic. Ctrn. E. Haannann = H.

1/ M.. Lewis. Bern: Francke Verlag. Peters. C. /I J.. Lambert: 1986 = P. PT = 71. Llanhcdrog lQ11.37-66. J. The Poe.. The New Dictionary of Old Breton. PECA = E.\' Britai". N. M.w·"('. R. /I Crlth'a 1 (195(.. 166-R2. Old Welsh Syntax. Celtic lVo. 'Thirty' and ·Sixty' in Brittonic. (J EC 18 (1981).iige zu. Jenkins. Die Komposition in gallischen Personennamen. p. 32-55. Finherg. Lambert: 1982 = P. p. Sixth edition. EC\ka. Lamben. Lane. Thr Horse in Cefric Culture. St"dirs i" Br. Tire l'elar SlIffixe. /I trill 44 (1993).. /I CMCS 12 (1986). IF 1959.11ogi. Les gloses du manuscrit BN Lat. /I ZCP 26 (1957). PNRB = A. p. Glosau Rhydychen a Chacrgrawnt. 1953. p. The Verb in 'he Book of Aneirin. LElA = J. Lewis.tnry in Ear'. I Russell: 1990 = P. Brittonica. H. Pede. The Old Cornish Vocabulary. 10290. p.4H3. p. 22~-2JQ and 466-7. Studies in Syntax.~lory nf England and Wales.. Lamber1: 1976-7 = P.JIr Crlt.173-2L3. Brittonic words in the Iri~h ~Io~~aries.and the Origin of CaRa.~ 19Y5. Rn". Lam bert. Edited and annotated hy Sir Hor WilliClms. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1997. p. Morphology and Etyrnorog)'.. Klin_ellKhmidt = G. N. Amsterdam I Atlanta: Rodopi IQ95.~-11J.. ()WAV = A.-1'. Smith..-Y. F. A Fragment of an Old Welsh ('omrlltu~. (= Y Cymmrodor. ML = J. LHEB = K..c I{. II. KGP ~ K. The Earliest Words for 'Horse' in the Celtic Languages. 1979.H. /I RB('S 6. Pokorny.'\4.. II S.r Poe111S of Talie. Jones.) Tile text of the Rook of L/a" Dal'. An Early ()Id Welsh ()rthographic Feature. Oxford 1893.es Oil lVe/slr PI. OCV = E. 69-79.Celtic Vocabulary. Glosau Rhydychen. A. E.40-S3. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1Q6~. Jackson. Old Web.if S'udies. p. KZ = Ztit5chrift fu' l'erglt'ic1rend~ Sprachforschung. Morris Jones." y. JCS = The Journal of eel. 2R) 191R. Lambert. II Eriu Jq (I Q 8R). l\'ei11C y ~lah. . University Microfilms: Ann Arbor 1962. The Annales Camhri~ and Old Welsh (. Muller.'.. Lambert: 1984 = P. 1/ Language 9 (1933).). SC = Studia (·eltica..407-10 R = He = J. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V ~nerable. R.wn. Kom = J.. p. R. /I H. Muller = M. M. Caerwyn Williams. Lambe rt. xx lEW == J.erflint Gruffydd. H. /I EC 20 (1983).33-301. Princeton: Princeton Unlversity Press. Isaac = G. Pfeiffer.an Britai". LL = (J. latins dan. Ludwig Reicllert Verlag 1980. Rowland = J. Russell. eds. V<'fldT. p.ry i" 'Ire Red Ronk of IlcrKc. eds . Zur Etymologie des Lateinischen. Lane == G... Indogerrntlnisches etym%gisches Worterbuch. = Beit.1-2.. Quiggin. 1974. Profilo Etinlolngico del Cornico Antico. MJ = J. Jenkins.~i. 'Gallo-Brittonic' vs. p. Pari~ 1R92. JO = D.'·It. II Y ()nrn. Rowland. Lautgeschichte und Etymologie. Lewis: 1932 = H. TUbingen: Max Niemeyer 1996. J. L.. .1859. p. Mayrhofer. Lamber1: 1931 = P. Edinhurgh: The Edinburgh University Press. Falileyev. /I JCS 1 (1950). p.. Koch.. Jacohs. Parry-Williams = T. /I CMCS 8 (1984). Russell: 1995 = P. McCone. The Juvcncus Glosses. H. O. /I RRCS 29 (IQH I). cds .iloloRr. KBr p. Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V~nerable. "CMCS 7 (1984).es of Ro. p. Part I.471-95. /1 lic 19 (1982). Williams. McCone = K. Martianus Capella..• lli. Les gloses grammaticales brittoniques. Lewis.. Quiggin = E. Jackson: 1950 = K. p.-y. Joseph. p. /I EC 15 (1976-7).'fS. Part II: The 'Surexit' Memorandum. Wiesbaden: Dr. C. London IX74. galloise A. Schrijver = P. Isaac.. Russell. part 2 (1932). -Y. La traduction du pronom relatif Latin dans les gloses en vieil-irlandals. LangliaKe and Ilb. ed . Rhys: IM73 = J. I (II). p. M. Vieux-gal1ois nou. Meyer-LUbke. part I (192ft) p. Schrijvcr.: 1917 = P . 91-120. p. Phillimore. -Y. 2&~-308. Taliesi". ed ."fn%giqlle de l'irlalldais ancien. 11G-112. London· IR71. Parry-Williams. P. Campanile. L~. inno. The Place-Nan. 1/ BBCS 30 (1982).on: ]975-6 = K.. p. 152-18J.. cds.ca! Pho"ol"RY. Gwenogvryn Evans.121-139. = l"dogermani5cht ForJch"ngen. \' . p. Old Irish 'three' and 'four': a question of gender. Klingenschmldt. p.. p. tect".~ lVijrtrr1J"clr.odor 9 (I~R8).l. Rivet. p.29-43. II nRCS 3. 1-4. Rl'\'lIl' Ccltiquc. Irish Letter-Names and their Kennings. Lectures on the Science of Lt"'KlIaKf. The Treatment of ·CRH. Lewis: 1956 = H... Tire ARrnrian lli. The Date of Old Welsh Accent Shift. Camhridgc: At the University Press. 1/ nileS I (1922). Pacini-Pisa. Jackson. Lambert. 1/ triu 33 (1982). 208-222. Kelly. . Problemes ~uleves par 12 prep. Caerdydd: (fWl1sg Prifysgol Cymru IQ74.'pano-(ial/o-lJriuoflic(l. les la"Klies IJrittoniqlle. Kelly == P. Loth. Lambert" Emplois dissym~triques de la coordination. Post-Roman Wales.. Suite.. PRW = G.allisc"e. McManus. Lambe.'\82. nom. Lambert.1t Agricultural Vocabulary (in progress). XXI Lewis: 1926 = H.Gwenogvryn Evans. Phillimore = E.enealogics from HarIcian MS . Heidelherg. Rennes 1992. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. 'Insular Celtic'. REWb = W.20-29. 120--123. Duhlin: Institute for Advanced Studies 1990. J0 1 = D.. II KIlt vii (1~7J). Lambert. Rhys = J. LamMrt: 1983 = P. Davies. /I EC 24 (19R7). p. Lambert. Van Tassel Graves. Joseph = L. 1~70-1(). p.-Y. p. Die kymrischen !=!Ioss~n zu ()xford. II TCP R (1912). ag 'avec'.~ ctY'l1oloRi. 295-9. Jones. (. The Germano .Y. /1 SC 10111 (1975/6).513-20. 1/ CMCS 5 (1983). English version hv J. 281-. Lambert: 19848 = P. p. 119-143. 523-31. JIES = Journal oj lndo-European Studies. /I Bretagne et pays celtiques.127-16R. Les nlot.. 244-264. cd.iqrH' el. Schmidt.. p. p.d /-'o""at.53-73. 185-2~. Cardiff: UniverC\ity of Wales Prec.{. Dublin: The Duhlin Insti· tute for Ad\'lInccd Studies 1959-. Rhys.in Celtic. Jack. Rhys. Jackson.. LIlmber1: 1982a = P"V. McManus = D.on. 1972. PKM = I. Rhys.. vergleic1tenden Sprachforschung. /1 tc 21 (1984).

~ JnJo-C~'tica Miinchen: Max Hueber 1972. Morris Jones II WfLsh Grammar. Williams: 1'29 = J. 1987~ p. Glosau Rhydychen: Mesurau a phwysau. nf IVel. Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. 1929. Second Edition. y (= yn). Arwyn Watkins. sieck ]964. Stokes. Englynion y Juvencus. Stevenson./1 BBCS 38 (1991). P. Williams. Essays in Memory of C. Rrnmwich.. 1/ RC 11 (1890). William. TPhS = Transactions of rh~ Philological Society. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1894. Williams. Zimmer. p. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982. II sacs 17 (1957). p. Bardo5. Zum hritischen s-. C.XXII Sims-Williams: 1981 = P. The Old Welsh Glosses on Martianus Capella with some Notes on the Juvencus-Glosses. Pedersen. Vitae Sanetorum Britanniat tt Genealogiae. The Accent-Shift in Old Welsh. London. 86-93. Vocabularium Cornicum. Consituent Order in the Old Welsh Verbal Sentence. T = J. Williams. 1913. Cardiff: University of Wales Pres~ t<. II BBeS 5 part 3 (1930). Oxford: Clarendon Press.421-3. Thurneysen. in: ce.ist. Watkins: 197%-4 == T. p.' (1994). Sims-Williams. Yr arddodiad HG. " KBr vii (1873).579-91.203-6.JRO. Gloses bretonnes. 201-5. yn. William~: 1980 = I. p.Arwyn Watkins.l-8. Sims-Williams: 1991 = P. KlinckVB = L. If BECS 29 (1981). {/ A.. /I BBCS 3 (1927). Bemerkungen zu der ausgabe der Oxforder glossen von Zeuss. p.n. The Computus Fragment. Watkins alld Mlc Cana = A.. W.. 1/ XXIII Williams: 1944 92-100. p. 149-164. Thurow.385-416. . p. 600-800: The Evidence of Archaic Old Welsh. V£rgitichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. . Ablq.. Willia. T1Jesis.. Oxford IlJX5. u a "r . p.. t\rwyn Watkins. 0 Cf~ri8h. ed. 112- . Early Scholastic Colloquies. II TPS 1860-1. VocabuJairt v. /I BBeS 5 part 1 (1929). US = W. VGK = H. Loth. J. WG = J. The Beginning.. Arwyn Watkins. Paris: Librairie C. Sims-Williams. Williams. 1997. II H. KBr 4 (1865). Zimmer = St. Thumeysen: 1890 = R.. Willi••s: 1930 = I. VSB = A . 1-12 and Zeuss = J. Dublin: lms111itiid Teangeolafochta Eireann.5]-60. White = F. Capkov~. Phil.. /I R. eds. Elements d'une grammaire. eds. p. (l BEeS 28 (1960). VVB = J.)tudi£s in tFt~ morphol1nfngy the Early Welsh Verb. Pilch. The sef [. p. I-II. p..euxabreton. /I Journal ol ('rIrie Li1lRII. Cardiff: University of Wales Press Board 1944. Stokes: 1865 = W. p.. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. The Emergence of Old Welsh. = I. (h)i..tkins: 1997 = T. William5. /I BBCS II (1944). Zimmer: forthcoming = St. Notes sur quelques gloses galloises. p. 1-25. Watkins. Wade-Evans.. 204-249. FJeuriot.. '~ p. Gwenogvryn Evans. Llanbedrog 1910. = I. curavit H. Zcuss. /I Ee.che Phi/nloKie. . R. Mac Cana. /I RC 11 (1890). TharneyRn: l890a = R. Gottingen: Van denhoeck & Ru precht. Facsimile and Text of the Book of Tolies. 1/ BBCS h (1933). Cystrawennau'r Cyplad mewn Hen Gymraeg. p. ReroJini J ~71. 29-43. p. lUnpublished).tic'i . Cornish and Breton Orthography. Oxford University D. 137-58.Its Quality and Development. forthcoming. Cambrica. Geraint Gruffydd. Grfl""natica Celtica. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. Zimmer. ] 909-13. J Realisation of the Welsh Identificatory CopuJar Sentence. The Accent in Old Welsh .. Paris 1884. Stevenson = W. II BBeS 34. p. Thurneysen. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt.{Jr Poetry. Stokes. While . Williams: 1927 = I.. Watkhm: 1987 = T.Z26-24S. Edited hy R. Arwyn Watkins..'57 = Af"N)'JI Watkins. W.s: 193J 118. Watkins: '''1 = T. Stokes: 1873 = W. ZCP = Zeitschrift fiir celri. H. 201-229. V. Dan do Oide. Editio altcra. 11 BBeS 25 (1972-4). 245-272. Stokes: 1860-1 = W.. Vieux-gallois Ke1ler et autre~ prohlemes 3utour de Surexit-Memorandum. ed. 2Q-86. Stokes. Stokes. Ehel.. The Development of the IndoaEuropean Voiced Labiovelars in Celtic. p. Watkinl: . vieux 8reJon. p. Watkins: 1982 = T.

prete prone sl sg'. comp. d. impale m name compare collective oomparati\le conj unction demonstrative feminine imperative imperfect impersonal ms!CUJine numeral pen. pres. IUperi. imperf.European Latin Middle Breton Me Mlr Mllat MW ()R ()C ()HG ()Ir ()W Pict.h (Modern) Welsh ..Grammatical Abbreviations Language Names adj. W Middle Corni~h Middle Irish Medieval Latin Middle Welsh Old Breton Old Cornish Old High German Old Irish Old Welsh Picti!l. demonstr. subJ.dy. :-:. . . r imp. . . pi poSe prep. atnl. CI G IE Lat. MB Anglo-Saxon (Modern) Breton (Common) Brittonic (Modern) Cornish Cornish and Breton Common Celtic Celtiberian Gaulish rndo. roll. v VB ordinal personal plural possessive preposition present preterite pronoun singular singulative subjunctive superlative verb verbal noun AS B Britt. conj. ~ adjective adverb cardinal ord. C CD Celt.

IIaycock: 12: Lambert: 1976-7. 'of' (?) MW a.. a in this gloss is Breton 'de..3. GMW for the occurrence of a for n in this meaning. VVB: 28 a mcin Cuniou gl. OIr ope: 1. also 0 2. Hamp: 1976-7. MB a. 'and' r8 J MW a. DGVB: 205. DGVB: 56 a faut gl. VGK: I.2) anguorit anguoraut Juv <) (5. As shown by P. a~.529 aguirdou pan dihu JUY 9 (4. LElA: A-4. JO: 95.287. 2.1-2) prep. lEW: 3 and 417. OB (h)a IE *ad-ghe-. Elsie: 18. instita longa Ovid J7<l g3 prep.2) as .. relative particle See hoi. ha. cf.IJ "I Glossary • . 191. See also IIa. See o. par-. 160 See also ha crip. see also ac. these instances could be analysed in the entry dedi1 cated to a • See. o.Y. /za. MW a.. mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1. however. GMW: 205. C a.2) omnipotcns auctor tidicones adioln... J JUY 9 (1.3) aceroen hOll gJ. cf. OB a. anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.• -' A B I conj. lEW: 712... ope: 1. vittre tcnucs Ovid 37:t a hir ctem gl. a fortuna Prisc 24 h " . Cf. 14 and II. Lamhert: 1987. J. DGVB: 49. hoi. 'by' (?) According to Fleuriot. this could be Welsh 8 4 as well.. Lambert: 1976-7.. e t dolea 1 78 II exclamative particle I a ) a. Lat. Lamhert.•• [. a IE *6 'Ausruf.

sec no~v F.IOZwang. 45. JEW: 45. ad ir Joe. throat. on nhlll 111. Hamp: 1976-7. Lindenlan in BBCS J() (198. p. < IE -ank.. WiUiams who offered a very detailed disclls~ion of this word (1927: 261) suggested t\vo possibilities for its interpretation. Me het"y 'reach'.. GPC: 7. v~er. 116 rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (R. ad stebfll gl. Ab8llo~ Olr ahnll gl. lEW: 4. Olr amreid The word is analysed as a combination of a negative prefix with a Welsh word for 'easy·.2 3 . N01wendigkeit'.138-9. v pres.. GPC: . ad limina J 52 sdsul n m 'site. sd t prep. dwelling' (addod. 100 and 138. Williams accepted hy GPC is queried by White in view of the formal and semantic difficulties. Williams: 1927. Hamp: 1977-78. OPC: CJ. LHEB: 460. DGVB: 51. abroid adj. OIr abgiter. Schlund' (lEW: 474-6.1JR. larynx'. bruant) 'neck. addawdJ MWadawt GPC does not provide any etymology for this entry. ~and' sd2 (?) This could be Latin.. 3 s~ 'to ~o' fall ago. Hamp in ZCP 37 (1979). 79-82. v iDlperf. oev: 294. ("'haedd. guac. LElA: A-26.": for the etymology (cf. MW achen. 451: White: 103-4 agit etcrin (ogit? . p. Olr Joig-). 6 Cufv in pp. guttur.lc' (MW nvnl. cf. 3 sg 'II) tont. T. CB anken 'necessity. l •• malum. Olr oic. OC briansen gI. PECA: 10. lEW: 1-2.49-68. VVA: .'verschlingen. 70: VB: 291: Williams: 1927. If: . E. E. 100-1 to. VGK: I.1 . see ruid~ GPC. OIr. exigency'. Following Fl. retonde J 77 acgene.r sed bid v pres. See aI.b. Loth·s doullts. cf. Williams: 19RO. Hamp in IF 90 (1985)."as the sense requires a verh meaning ~to rcach~ to arrive' the oed may he for /raedd. Lat GMW: 119. White: 207-8.1)~ pp.m pplel' A compound.386 gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16 I.13. nJ-. ecen 'need'. Lc\\"is this could be analysed as corresponding to W. Williams: 1927.. aet" + )'\1'). 3 sg 'to reach' ~: lag) acet met gl. GMW: IRS. 191. pan aed bid. L~'En. The second component is -brouannou (MW breuant. 203-4. The c of this instance was added later by the original scribe. Isaac: 334. 261 ad ir loc. PECA: 17. ar. place. Stokes: ] 813~ 404. GPN: 128-31. elllyH'. MB di""(1('. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976). Willh"n~: IQRO. see D.') schmonou n pi 'groins' fachfen I Wachfen < IE *ken. 5 and (differently) in IF 84 (1979) p. LElA: A-6.. GPe: 40 and 321.262 nit abruid Comp 6 isabmid icinimer Inv 9 (3. malus. DB acupot J1le standard derivation from Lat. cf. guac Comp 5 nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17 Erin 31 (1980). De Bernardo Stempel: 107. occupo and the interpretation of I. In7 "'SUCllp nls url'up letter J"v t) (. Williams apparently prefers the other possibility . nfnl). White: Rfl-·7. Adams in IF 90 (1985). abgitir < Lat. ab~ctda. B. see De Bernardo Stempel: 85 and the literature cited there). LElA: R-16. inguinihusquc Ovid 41 h cr.'frisch hcrvorkommcn~ cntspringen' (lEW: 563)..lJ) MP 22 h (234) hegit hunnoid ~fP 22" (~J. see OGVB: 89~ LElA: B-76. angen 'need'. /ab}guid.see Williams: 1930. 3 sg '10 need' [anghen-J ct. seen in cvrroed(/.a. GPC: 40.'.'ZU~ bei.'\0.C'up v pres. Comp . GPC. issi.5 sencum see sor is aencumhal spit . malus~ G avallo. 'dimmit' [arrwyddJ MW atrwydd.ium (M Lat abecetorium / abgetorium) DGVB: 52. 08 ad. G nd < IE *ad. < IE *ag. for details of the reconstruction. GPC: JL E. 257 [ab]guidaur Comp 1 navo: ~~. Olr br~ga.ur n f 'alphabet' [agwyddor] MW agwyd(d)or. 52.l) sdismor see dism.nnou n pi 'Ad..'trcihcn'.lbrou. DeV: 48.. OB aceter. egwyddor. tho flrRt clemont I" abal 'n".in' (7) (8chub-] MW achub. ML: 1. aballen gl. O. 'to' MW at.e.l) I . in triti llrd. pp. malus~ OC auallen gl. Markey in lIES 16 (1988). 460. L. VVB: 29 ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. 62 hac orachmonou gl. an' (lEW: 3) DGVB: 53. VVB: 31. 607: VGK I: 9tl.235 and cr. and (differently) Isaac: 0319-20. p. from *g"rdgh .2) lie conj. gurgulionibus exsectis Me 42 a. OB brehant. Rowland: 515. if otherwise~ see ad'. aellr!vdd (cf. VGK: II. ML: 131. ope: 49~ LElA: A-8. pp~ 158-166. Willia ms: 1927. 49-50.

JEW: 675. JO: 98-9. E. GPC does not consider this instance. Haycock: 245. he does not deny the possibility of its Breton affinities.'eins'.'Zahn· (lEW: 2R9. see also im.n + *gnowhnd. Stokes: 1873. 365. 103. GPe: 1267. (en 'as. MJ: 270-1.with a verbal stem seen in OW dinn 'hill' (OIr dinn). MW fal. Perhaps a combination of *a. 1808. see s. ' avel~ OIr amal IE Vll(ejik.S 2R (t9HO). pr. reason' am prep. possihly to IE *edent. J65~ 286. G.. different' ramgen ) MWamgen The form is analysed as *alnbi.li. cf. < a. GPC: 2642. similar. OCV: 324. membra Prise 25 a alar n m 'boredom. 186 Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: 1 amgnaubot n 'sense. Mlr aige < *(p)ag/-atu . GPC: 31 and 1342. and the base found in affwYJ 'depth.O. and (MW) diffwv s 'mountain side. the latter is analysed (GPC: 993) as an intensive . lEW: 903. GPC: 79. which considers am as a prefix. LElA: A-28. OC altor g1. 'other. linda. Compound which contains ofeu (see oleu). '.. VVB: 3S alar Nemn ope: 1373). and linn. Williams: 1930. ?) 'to dispute' r8my~ . GPC: 86. LElA: S-22. VVB: 34 itdagatte ail gI. 203 moys allaur gl. so' (VGK: II. V.b. see a useful summary in White. VVB: 199 aJeuJinn gl. ut suhigant J 32 8meen adj. ope: 83. 188. OGVB: 60. (!) "aboul' I••] (!) For MW om see GMW: 182. cf. trybann and the literature cited Hapax in Welsh. width' Morphologically segmented into (aln-)cyf-rhed (GP(~: 713) 'running together. glabella medietas Me 9 b. aJ'are GPC does not consider this ins1ance. heavy'. ithrirdiuail gl. catenum Prise 12 a Hapax in Welsh. LHEB: 484. . oliuum J 85 • llaur n r 'altar' lallor] MW allaur.'encrgischc. 3 sg 'to defend' a/eulinn n m 'olive oil' Hapax in Welsh.es. William s: 1980. adnohod (GMW: 14R). ML: 131. Lindemann in BBC. MW aelawt. LElA: A--64. 243-4 amcibret ir maut MP 23 3 (241) amcibfret ir bis MP 23 3 (241) smdifuys adj. VGK: I. 184 Amdifuys dauJ had patern Pad: 4 amdinnit v pres.233. awful. VGK: I. al]awr~ 08 altor. GOI: 500-1. ailotou n pi 'members or organs of body' [aeJod] 5 < IE *eln. rp. 'NaB. altare. coniuere Me 4 b. amgyffred 'gra~p'. VGK: I. C like. E. 3 pi (historical pres. VVB: 36. J MW amwyn. 37). cf. p. 476.36 Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3 smcib(f)rel n m 'breadth. GPC: 2642.and Lat. VGK: 11. I-Iamp in BAC'S 30 (19R3). 'huge. for the different explanations. fel~ 08 amal.a. aelod. for a different interpretation of this line. and [onj. VVB: 36.4 ail n f 'brow. see itercludant. oPC: 84~ Haycock: 243~ White: 104-5~ Williams: 1980. The latter component = MW llyn 'drink' (OB linnou gl. F. surfeil' (name of a letter) (alar] Walar The word is compared by ope to W galar 'grief (OIr galar) < IE *gha/-ar'Schade. WG: 148. Olr lind) < IE *lendh. humo. filJ-5: White: lR9191 amgucant pcl Clmtanndi Chad 2 ope: . VGK: I. lEW: 788. of equal speed and pace'.+ cyn.. Williams: 1980. J. Gebrechen' (lEW: 411. sine mente Ovid 38h amgucant v pret. Zupitza in Beitrage lur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen 25 (1899). wonderful' [amdill'wys) According to GPC this word contain~ a prefix (*alnbi-). Rhys: 1873.v. amgyffryd 'breadth. 91 ailotou gJ. Arntrybann teilbann treisguenn Pad: 2 8mal prep. Isaac: 289. similis. White. GPC: 74. there. WiJJiams in BBCS 7 (1933).447 hep amgnaubot gl. Lane: 253. retee. vpag. The entry was tentatively considered as Irish by F. PECA: 7. see S. steep.. accordlDI to. bcs. DGVB: 57. LElA: D-90) . eyebrow'lael] MWael GPC: 36. GPC: 97~ LHEB: 437. OIr alt6ir < Lat. p. width' (amgyfFredJ MW amgyffret. abyss'. Celtic forms with 11. 198. fcindscligc Kraftauncrung'~ sce also gllogllith. 390. VVB: 36 amal itercludant gl. White: 313-9.39-4L lEW: 1128-9. cf. FIeuriot suggests Welsh origins of 1his entry.(\\lith a query). QueUe' (DGVB: 243. amuc . GPC: 87. GPe: 777).ifestmachen~ On the grounds that the word is not attested elsewhere in Breton L. DGVB: 59~ GPC: 18.nbi. 'II!.

'because' [amser] MWamser. GPC: 164 anguastathaoei gl. soit avec argent". PECA: 8.. P.. VGK: II... T. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 148 aml.. 36. trailing' According to OPC.nnd. *yei/a· (MW gwyl. OCV: 202. 298.H. cf. 3 sg 'to be inconstant. aIr anim Traditionally considered as a continuation of IE for a sceptical evaluation of this etymology. Stokes: 1860-1 . ~ GMW: 147~ GPC: 1822. shame') with a negative prefix. uacillet Ang 70 b an nibo r11 . and consider Irish amm neutral> masc. defects. Fleuriot notes that in MB the forms gOllestad. subj. VVB: 37 isamraud gl. White mentions a possihilitv to consider this entry as an imperat. According to H. L. .23-4. 289 an nm6th anb6dlaun gl. (Pokorny's Yredh . dimissa Ovid 398 MW anaf. DGVB: 65. I -stera. Pedersen this is a -stera.v. magister aue Ox2 46 h (10. 2 sg. . see Lamhert: 1987.26) anbithBul adj. 236 nichoilam hinnoid amser is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22b (234) 8mse~ 'when' (= 'lime') The instance is not quoted in GPC. Williams: 1930. 78.ui'aJfafhati is found in the Peniarth 228 (heginning of XVII c. see s.. pudendas J 78 . . 295.). Lambert suggests dihoth and translates the gloss as "soit malgrc cux. pos. Lambert: 1987. pars inhians nummis J 35 anamou n pi 'blemishes. wounds' (anaf) aml1lud n m 'mind.derivative of a cognate of Irish amm 'time' with no commonly accepted etymology (but cf. GPC: 106. see Ita11: and the form of the verb 'be' . waver' (anwastat-J DGVB: 62 amserpanatos imauou remanserunt iii gl. but see LElA iranamou gl. MJ: 271 amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2 an pron. the only other occurrence of this word in the whole Welsh corpus is found in the "Book of Taliesin".6 7 list of the words found in the Juvencus glosses which show non . see s. Parry-Williams: 121. . and the base is a cognate of Irish fossad < *lJo. OIr imm-raid< *alnbi-rad... 'mad' (ynfydawl] An "0/ derivative of inhith. 1 pi 'our' (an. Suhjunctive form + Ruell is commonly used in the expression of greeting. .to *ar. subj.statos. cf. See amser 1• anbiic v pres. RC 34 (1913). OIr aimser Following I. ymdeni GMW: 58~ GPC: 79. deronnities. gl. mens est J 78 amlsis adj. GPC: 99. cf.'illg·.034. in Irish and Breton. oraur (see s. 3 sg f 'about her' Based on Qm~ see s. rodh. L'~EB: 607. come (from)' (hanfodJ MW hanuot. v. sec VC. p. prep. See also the next. JO: 99~ LL: xliii-xliv. passen'). Sanskrit sa. IE '*h 2 roh 1d". According to Stokes. For the analvsis of this form as ultimately OB. mendae Ovid 40 3 amser tonj. See gui/ed. *-.v. 96 dam ancalaur JUY 3 (L3) dam anpatel Juv 3 (2. T. GPC: 94~ VVB: 37 amlais gl. which is a borrowing from Latin bn//o. Lewis: 1956. 591-2.. see PECA: 12. Etymologically a combination of ·ambi. l'aeil/o. VGK: II. ein] MW an~ C an~ ME hon GPC: 104 and 1194~ Williams: 1980.n-bltavati 'comes from ~. cf. p. The form contains a negative prefix. ore 'because').K: 1. form. 'bold. 'long. 44.) glossing a/terna.~er is fel can ys. Guyonvarc'h in Ogam 19 (1967). GPC: 16R: Williams: IQJ3~ 117 anguil gl.Welsh features quotes this gloss without a commentary. OC anser (for amser) gl. fervida J 61 Bnbod/aun see an niboth Bnbodlaun BnguBstalh80ei v pres. lEW: 59~ Isaac: 306. G: 23. han (aIr sain) 'separation'. hanhout Etymologically.-Y.'fUgen. nummisma). fern. so that Fleuriot's claim for a Middle Welsh correspondence is not strictly speaking correct. ~n"stad are most commonly found. shameless. 240f). 2 sg 'to be (from). Parry-Williams in his angui/ adj. see Loth.300 fn. anaw~ MB anam. lEW: 779~ LElA: A-78. Note the discrepancy in the gender attribution (mase. .3) The form a.. this could be translated as "whether bullion or coin'~ in view of OC bat ('coin'. C4-J. tempus.. Williams this should be considered as a conjunction ("am.~ MW amdanei. MB (h)amhout. .l-4~ WG: 352-3: (differently) VVB: 39~ White: 142 and 265 anbiic guell gl. Ir.v. impudent' (anwyll MWanwyl < Celt. intention' (amrawdd] MW amrawd. GPC: I02~ LElA: A-35. 162). LElA: R-3. VGK I: 80. Mlr fia/ 'modesty. W bath. VVB: 39 *0110- lschmahen·.nbodlsull ? There are two readings of tbis gloss. VVB: 39 anbithaul gl. in WC. and Jai!.

. nouveau. nullum pulverem Ovid 398 8Btenne'et. W yng 'etroit')... MB arazr. OC aradar gl. nratrum Ox2 42 h (4. OenCI. IE *a/i05 'andcrer' (lEW: 25). see OW A V. *o. C hanow. OC midil gl. For the semantics. (?_ According 10 P.256. and hal (= W all 'autre. C'onsider also aper huer (Chad 6).. lEW: 321.c adj. CT I PT VII. apc: 2. Olr oeth. *aratrom. This instance is not quoted in GPC·.'mahen'. A combination of a negative prefix an-... see nit. 23-24 kat y" aber I ioed y dygy/rane adllr "reller lind die frtihwalisische Schlachtenkatalogtradition.onau. Genius Me 11 a. < IE *me. Innsbruck 1987. the plural form in -Oil (Breton -. Lane: 246. p. 470.. 212. aradyr. 'Name'. Witczak in IF 98 (1993). Mac Mathuna. Dum uescitur J 92 8BKeth n m 'phantom. Isaac: 152. connuences' I aber J OW (LL) aper~ MW aber.. Falileycv.·ro~ loath' (W ud(on). appearance. muneribus Ovid 37 h aprer]thou gl.'tragen. honit. LElA: nitegid ad serenn araB Comp 17 A-31-2~ Schrijvcr: 321-2~ VB: 267 . bringen' (lEW: 128f). 8 8nit 'not' (introducing a question before any element other than the v) (oni] 9 aper see sperou sperou n pi 'mouths of river. GPC: 160. Continuity and Innovation in Early Irish Words for "Water Expanse··. n. p.. anu di iuno gI. Yr aradr Cymreig (Cardiff. L. See also the next. Consists of anter 'hair. cf. p.~I. 113-4 iransceth gl.a. Williams: 1933. he segments it into aor = aur 'heure"... OGVB: 58~ GPC: 176. sec also lei/. VVB: 43~ VGK: I. This interpretation is not accepted in DOB: 392. A derivative of IE y""er. lEW: 703. 166 ara[terl g1. see hou.... diaper hen (Chad 6). to IE Vei. 2) and J. llamp in lIES 1 (1973). see also GED: A91). IE *or:1-trOl" 'pntig' Loth's attempts to consider this as a Lat.Y. with a negative prefix. OC aber gl.. Ir edbart < Celt. hou nit. . OeV: 320. un nouveau retrecissemenl·". Olr arathar < Celt. MW ysge/h. 13. *od-bher·t-.T. loan were criticised already by M. offering' I aberth J MW abert. Rhys (Rhys: 92). II Akten des Zweiten deutschen Keltologen-Symposiums. 170. see hanther. hringen' (lEW: 12Rf)~ for this ~tem see Hamp: 1982. Stalrnaszczyk. < 0. LElA: 0-12.'gehen'. LElA: A-84-5~ lEW: 62~ PECA: 9~ VCiK: I. Meid. Payne. 1(54) p. perjuria J 21 Bnutonou n pi ·perjuries' See anu. 95. apc: 2. etc. cf. diaper istjl (('had 6). LElA: B-40. LElA: A-36. VGK: I. see De Bernardo Stempel: 69-70 and the literature cited there. Populonarn MC 11a. 195. MWonid According to GPC. see A. perjuria O\'id 42 8 Gal: 307-9. Lambert this is a Welsh entry.. second·). OB al(l)all arall~ Gaul. aratrum.'tragen. anutonou gl. Stokes: 1860-1. and nit. For the gloss and its traditional amendment. He lransla1e5 the passage as "puisqu'une corse de 300 stades represente . E. p. Ir. Lambert: 1984a. allo-broges~ Olr arail < *alalios. Lambert: 1986.isaencumhal cursus ece stadi(orum) Ang 64 a an{ter1 n m 1 'plough' [aradr I MW aradar. ope: 175. VGK: I.222 and 291.292. VVB: 42 anuton~u gl. 11. ed.G.. GPC: 1220.b. 4RO aperth gl. See also elmet. PECA: 6. semiputata J 77 anu n m ~name' (enw] MW env.. cf. apou gl. WG: 126. lEW: 295. See also apertholl. MU l1er (Muller: 1. di aper ferrus (Chad 6). GMW: 176.b. Studicn zurn indogcrrnanischcn Wortschatz. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1999. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995). for the details of reconstruction. and metetic 'reaped' an -etic ledig derivative of medal (cf.. G. 'another' larall) MWC araB. OIr ainm < IE *en(o)mt:l-.. VVB: 41. F. CA: 76. 46.4m (vn. victima Ovid 41 h aperthou n pi 'offerings 01 gift. prayer' See operth. GPe: 2648-9. OB dicomit. IE yhher. sacra Ovid 38 a srsll pron. VVB: 42 anu di iuno gl. 28. GPC: 157. gurges~ Sc. enw.6) . methel). Stokes: 1860-1. is. DGVB: 138. Cf. ostia Ang 17 a aperth n m&1 'victim. P. consider a reference to H. lEW: 3. VGK: I. messor. K. WG: 424 anft arber bit gl. for this stem see Hamp: 1982. 'hair-reaped' Hapax in Welsh. II W. and (MW) (y)sgeth 'appearance'. I.. MB hanu. Elsie: 113. DGVB: 69. 162. 320. LElA: M-45. inhhir As it was noted by Fleuriot. n. issemi aou gl. ope: 1821. Suadae Me 1 a. SButOn. VVB: 44. VVB: 41.) could indicate the Welsh provenance of this word.BU n pi 'perjuries' [anudon] MWan(n)udon < Celt. also enuein. gosgeth. sor is 8eIlCflmn. pretence' Hapax in Welsh. VVB: 42 antermetetic gI. 107 aor. diaperthou gl. O. Lewis in F. For a different analysis of this gloss (as OB) see DGVB: 69.

prep. CA: 67. o"n. VGK: I. *arganto-. see White. arver.(cr. dirgaJisse). Williams: 1927. Lat. LHEB: 453. 14 and II.1) nisacup nis arcup leder JU\I 9 (3. lEW: 200. considering or = are-. 'opposite' (argyfair] arki~eir.JJum) is no longer accepted. VGK: I. OIr rigin.. LHEB: 83. GPC: 188. cf. cf. profiter de' < Britt.'tragen.. LHEB: 467. A combination of ar ·before' (OIr air. OB argant. docifis of the text was rejected by H. For the etymology. GPC: 203. Loth translates it as "iI approche. Williams. T. air argat < Celt. DB ercemer. Comp It in arcimeir aries Comp 13 in eircimeir loc guac (reading of I. Quiggin and EWS gi~e errcimeir) Comp 13 MW m 'money.'fJu n pi 'shoes' [archen. Lat. and Britt. E.0. Ill. GPC: 201~ DGVB: 162. 5 cant armeJJ ym arffct). pp_ 303-4. indo pres of the verb 'to come'. Parry-Williams suggests (with a query) that this could be "some form of the vcrh 'to be·"'. J. GPC: 180. did di aries Comp19 arm n m&f 'weapon. cf.16). OIr or6it < Lat oratio. 587.. douli.'gerade.. and of. arm" (name of a letter) larf) MW arf. According to W. VVB: 46 is cihun argant MP 22 h (234) a~8nt n MW aryant. *kom-ar(e)-io. and diu. dyuo/. VVB: 47 arm Nemn archrn.14f)./lo is attestcd only in uOxoniensis Posteriof'. anna OPC: 192~ LElA: A-89.(Lat. armcllll ()x2 4Y' (~.0. sepulti Ovid 39 8 arame. argent: G argento-.. Differently in Elsie: 124.b. cf. VVB: 44. OIr arm r aries. cf.d] MW archenat ~ DC orchi nat gL calciamentem. strecken. 107. GPe: 201. For the details of reconstruction see De Bernardo Stempel: 77-8 and the literature cited therc DGVB: 72. argyfrein < IE ·are-com-reg(i)-no-. PECA: 84. LElA: A-85 and B-40..10 n 'prayer' [arBwd] MW arawt. ark-. ·are-ber-. gerade riehten. lenken. form. Stokes's idea that this word refers to Lat. LElA: A-12. WG: 418 in arcimeir .~) . White: 288-90 ~nft arber bit gl. Stokes: 1860-1. DGVB: 71. bringen' (lEW: 128f). GPC: 174. LElA: C-163. ML: 133. GPC: 181 ~ Haycock: 9-10~ Williams: 1980. arfer. GPC: 117.226-7. G: 42. num uescitur J 92 ardomaul'those who tame' Hapax in Welsh. ariant. i1 pressc".'i) ~ the word is segmented into ar'before. arcantodan(os).reS§' (?) Apart from these two eKamples the word is unknown in Welsh. lEW: 856. argentarius. Loth in RC 32 (1911). OCV: 344. VVH: 47 nrmcl gl. White: 265 araut dinuadu J 1 IJI1IU' 11 r metaphesis to ·ork-. I-I. VGK: II. See also ~rcim£ir. etc. GPC: Iq~~ ML: t~3-4~ p~r: lR. OC Brcup " pr~. to IE yreg.267 aries hithou Comp 13 aries ithou Comp 18 pet guarid. Parry-Williams: 121. calcei MC 5 b. IE Vbher. oerea. Stokes: 187J.3) < Lat. 267.(W cyfair 'direction'.~ Pict. partake of" [arfer-] MW aruer. ML: 134. then this could be a case for an aries n 'Aries' This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat Williams: 1927.). aufrichten'. ardiu? This gloss has caused a dispute. Argentocoxos (Dian Cassius 76. VVB: 44. OIr aerann ~ Moms-lones's attempt 10 ~ee in this word < *park. Stokes. arcanto. J.. 124. J. 35. ar diu stands for or duiu 'on God'. instat J 68 srber m 'to take. 392. OCV: 1Ll. a metaphesis of *karp.in Argentomagus. GPC: 675). Comp 7 in eir cimeir . and in PT (I. WG: 161 archenatou gl. GPC and see s. GPC: 193-4. Lewis in favour of argente(. VVo: 45 ha arcibrenou gl. for a possibili ty to consider this entry as an imperate 2 sg. 221. see do"reti(' and cf. White: 87 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.. 397. argente(s) Me 9 a. 3 sg.. Lewis: 1932. 412. W. infixed . PECA: Qr. Stokes: 1860-1.h. dom. LElA: A-88. argentum. If this entry has something to do with dCUp (cE. VVB: 45. C arv. carpiscl. another suggestion (see OCV) considers a armel n 'bracelet" This loan from Lat. p. in front of'. MB archenat. 104. Stokes: 1873. lEW: 64. LElA: 0-31. reeken. LElA: R-30. srdbrenou n pi 'buried corpses' [argyfrain] MW argyvrein. Caewyn Williams in BBCS 11 (1944). W rhain 'stiff. 588. VVB: 45 ardiu gl. VVB: 45-6 ardomaul gl. OIr airchomair. coin' [arian(t)) gueid~ur argans gl. 3 sg 'to e.v. OIr arbeir biuth 'jouir de.

asse bichan .-Y. see also oraur. see also eJerinn. ML: 135. aor is aencumhal. or" Cneme ~r I letter) (allr1 According to Zeu~s and Loth. See ()WA V. (1) 3 sg /impers~f? 'to leave' (?) this instance. which is treated as "the pI. cf. VVB: 47. *ate-au-. p. see Isaac: 306. lEW: 826~ VVB: 49 hau bein atar MP 22b (234) • fos v prel. GPC: 237. < Lat. MB eur. of drichu. Stokes: 1873. but its presence in a Welsh gloss could be an argument for its Welsh origin. 183 Amdifuys dalll bacl patern Pad: 4 bach n m&f 'hook. 187." +air-drichticioll. Ct hataned in hi hatoned (Ovid. Schmidt in ZCP 40 (1984).< IE '*pet.contClins prohlematic IE h and a. Lambert: 1982a.) 'opposite situation' and drichetion.-Y. for the semantic evaluation. see LElA: D-56. 406 nou iraurleou gl. Olr uar < Lal. 305. s. WO: 95 dou lrean haur gI. DGVB: 77: GPC: 246: lEW: 93: LElA: R-3: E. Elsie: 82. 203 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. etc. see eifnerdridou. Zupitza~s paper thi~ is usually connected with Lat. Ir bachall < Lat.12 arpe'eficion adj. horoscopa (?) Me 46 h. vicem Ovid 42 a aurcimerdricheticion (?) The compositum is a hapax in Welsh.i. < Britt. J. GPC: 13~ Lambert: 1984a. III. aur. OIr cO'l1ai. a loan from Latin II pcig vel haeh gl.. t(p)arar. Etymologically. horologilun. contra Zeuss: 1059. gnomonum stilis Me 46 a.. now drycllli 'to make apparent'''.tsr n pi 'birds' (adar) MW adar(en). for eyfer see s. beuteln' (lEW: 632) OPC: 177. LHEB: 307. ~ II wa5 noted by Fleriot that this form in an otherwise Breton gloss "presente une graphie (fapparence gall. (. GPC does not consider this instance.) and l(l)e 'place'. ci. 1. orleh This was considered by Stokes to be a compound of aur 'hour' (see s. DGVB: 278. and cf. Loth explained this as aur-co. this corresponds to W aur 'or'. this contains allr 'hour'.neir and LElA: (~-163~ for the prefix . fliegen. This entry was interpreted by P.oder niedersttirzen. ligo Prise J) a t. bacuhun. plin dt gl. Lambert: 1986. I will discuss this entry elsewhere. OB bah. of the part. cf DGVB: 238 and 278.'auf etwas los. VVB: 151.a. ". peg' (bach) OW (LL) bach. yay'gern haben' (lEW: 77). 303.MP 22 b (234) • . baculus ope: 249. Since E. ML: 136. GPC: 12. < IE *kUit-.a . and tal = Ir taile 'salaire'. Lambert) suggests. 'schiitteln. VVB: 50 aurcimerdricheticion gl. 14. 22. petl. Olr baec The word is considered by L."r' ! 4l~old. etc. VGK: I. MW bac.P(~ does not consider this instance. assis. LElA: U-9. this (as well as OB alta!). see also aur·. Stokes: 1873. ~wretched. atai) gl. p.v.107 amserpanatos irnauou rernanserunt iii gl. thus ato[i)s = MW adwys (adaw). VVB: 49 di assa . hOTa. DB or. aith. 1 t n 'bour' . DGVB: 277. Williams: 1980. < *ar-pat-. hore trium Ang 65 b . H. Burleou n pi 'watches' OB orlegh. 407. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 BUr . as in diasbad. Loth (and now P. and has a gcminatcd consonant.ner (W cyler.Ito leave'. Bachellery: 196. of or = Ir. bach.. this "mot populairc" *hakkn. Vendryes. orospica leg. On the OB form see DGVB: 76." See Dur l • DGVB: 321 and 77 tripepTannaur. Zupitza in KZ 36 (1900). pass. GPC does not consider this instance . Williams in BBCS 13 (1950). miseris patruelibus Ovid 38 8 VVB: 50 aur Ncmn asse n 'as' (1) This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Latin as. bisse Ang 56 a ir ir lri ui. fallen'. and is derived from IE *bflk~ 'Stab a)s StOtze'. 225. Lambert as a passive preterite form of the verb at. On etymology of drychu. p. arci. Loth in RC 32 (1911). pitiable' Hapax in Welsh. LElA: B-3. . aur does not consider this instance. 234 I suI n r 'hour' [8M] MW awr. premises' (1) According to VVB: 49. According to Stokes. p. The instance is not quoted in GPC. Hamp in SC 12-13 (197718). that this could be viewed as a borrowing. 13 (aurum. G PC does not consider .il n 'building. Fleuriot to be Breton. Ir or). GPC: 242.v. consists. i . K. orleg.v. As noted by J. p. J. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14a 8 bacl n r'staff' (bagl) MW bag(y)l. aur Comp 3 pan diconetent ir.

Philosoph~ cds. lEW: 109. 11. Williams: 1980. Dinnych. Christendom' (hedydd I MW bedyd < Lat. 'small' (bychan) MW bychan. bw(y)ell~ MB bou(c)hazl. e. VVB: 50 bahell gl. Williams. ni"e. G bitu-. HPB: 232. De Bernardo Stempel: 80-1. *bitll!i < IE *g"ei. E. baptido. VVB: 51 orbardaulleteinepp gl. GPC: 267~ ML: 137. < *gllrsdo-) . WG: 415: Williams: 1927. relating this word to IE *bhfid-. The instance is not quoted in GPC. GPC: 363. asse bichan MP 22 h (234) irnimer hichan MP 22h (238) ir bis bichan MP 23:1 (241) ban? Both the Latin word and t he gloss over it causes problems.) Chicago Linguistic Society. 0 B bi t.f. 404. Borste' (see De Bernardo Stempel: 82.t hid n m 'world' (1) MW bid.a.i. bicit. p.'Ichen'. Olr hec(c) without sound etymology. See also pbetid. until' See bellet..67. Hamp in Be 18 (1981) p. 'Emporstehendes. Apparently an *-agno~ derivative from W haeh.1) bibid adj. 'die Stimme erheben'.). VVB: 5J bibid gl. 'guilty. and cf. p.cUJ~.< IE tbhei(:l)·. byt.heit. summit. cr. VGK: I. /I (W. Papers from the Thirteenth Regional Meeting4 Chicago 1977. 104 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. WG: 415 bet circhinn frguollcuni gl. *""au- bichan adj... DGVB: 84. bet prep. this instance is not mentioned in GPC. see bt'FT e.n bardsuladj. Notwithstanding the semantic difficulties. VVB: 52-3. Ellis Evans in BBCS 24 (1972). biail < *bisali. see uea'illfau~ besntrident behet prep.. Sonlmcr. GPC: 258. MC boell. S. nulla J 71 biheit prep. MB beuez. Stokes). Olr hihdu The Irish cognate is listed under IE 'schlagcn. 268 berdutOD see t ••erdlltou ri guird. II§ fsr I§' (bed] MW het. .. E. OC hoghan gl. Spitze.. GPC: 26()~ VVB: 52. The Semantics of Poetry in Early Celtic. DGVB: 80~ GOI: 93~ GP(~: J60~ oev: 407~ PE("A: 16: VGK: J85: VVB: 53: WG: 156 assa . Williams: lQ27. (X).g . 4L VVB: 53 nacenbfd gl. see E. GPC: 357-8. VGK: 1. rei MC 41 b. G. GPC: 266. Campanile. 26R: Williams: beanhiden. usque sub occiduum coeli J R4 bahe" n f'De' [bwyIU] MW bwyall. The latter (Williams: 1933. Stokes (1860--1: 219) suggested reading *belou and compared it with W. Stokes: 1873. Loth (VVB: 52) and I. parvus~ Olr becc\n Note the discrepancy between Brittonic and Goidelic (OIr c = (g] vs Britt. pp. A. 117) noted that this could also stand for benou or bonou. LElA: B-48~ LHEB: 411. GPC: 360~ lEW: 468. lEW: 118. belys(en) 'bundles of haulm or s1raw for thatching'. the colomaJicus of the Latin text stands for columnat. 'as far as. oolomaticus 0)(2 428 (3. lEW: 478. D. see also laubael. 84. tbhi. GPC: 256. Pedersen. 183-1. bechan~ OB becan. first attested in 1707. bet. epica pagina MC 1a. bard' < IE *gUer(.. Consider also Welsh "'yell 'little' in toponymies. The etymology is still not clear. Ir. and ZCP 39 (1982). D\\'yfeclt 'Small Dwy' (as opposed to Dwyfor 'Big Dwy·). 'as far as' See be'. bichan.. GMW: 196. hican. and *g"ed-~ for a useful summary see LElA. fila J 56 bichet see bih. 'as far as. Fox.2) bann see dib. *"'heidh-. betid n m 'the Christian world. Ir bith < Celt.6) be??o W. /I Studi e saggi linguistici 20 (1980).'schlangen'. for a different derivation « *barzdo.b. culpable' Hapax in Welsh. the gloss was compared to W bar 'top.110. securis Ox2 42 a (4. Schrijver: 323. E. OB bit. stoBen' in lEW: 112. VVB: 51 barr gl. Several etymologies have heen suggested for these words (hy Zinlmer. see bet. B. be??u gl. poetir" [barddol] An "01 derivative of bard(d) ·poet. until' DB hichit. This reading was considered by J. As was suggested.421 fn. LElA: 8-20). 151.. o. 'bardit:. behet hirmain guidauc Chad 4 behet cam dubr Chad 4 '\"'" 1930. S. bicctt 'jusqu'a'. Per l'etimologia di celt. Hamp. cf.. bichet. crest' (OIr barr). pp. Isaac: 393. *hltei-d-. 86-7.cus. 242 biheit hcitham ir cguin hittoi ir hunc MP 2J' (241) bihit prep. Beach. DGVB: 82f.14 15 DGVB: 84. which according to GPC: 271 is a loan from English bares... apparently to IE *bhares. LElA: B-49. *bardos.

La t. PECA: 14. PECA: 15. gyos-.'. bloaz~ cf. IE ·bis-(t)[i. Lewis: 1926. OCV: 57 and 64.nJred (1860-1: 209. This compound consists of b/eu 'hair. digitus. Schrij\'er: 246~ LElA: B-47-8. 290. has ug gl. palma MP 23 a (245) both see an niboth anhod/aun bracaut n m 'hra~~et' rhra~nd. GPC: 302. Zirnmcr. ~wool bearing' Hapax in Welsh. See also AEW: 339. DGVB: 86~ Elsie: 149~ GPC: 291~ LElA: B-59. gentem J 57 362~ VVB: 57 bissei n 'an intercalary < Lat. cf. from IE *gllis-ti-s. irbissei Comp 10 bit n ID 'fooo' (!) MW byd. Pokorny in ZCP 18 (1930) p. hairs.16 bihit. 69. VVB: 57 anit arber bft gl. Language 7 (1931). GPC: 361. allux. hliden. See also honed. rr. LElA: B-20. bess[et] (or bese. inues. LHEB: 684~ VGK: I. etc.14) bis n m 'finger' [bys] MW bys(s). VVB: 54 ir bis bichan MP 238 (241) ir bis hihi erguid MP 238 (241) his! n m 'bile. melonoolia Ang 68 a GPC: 299. U53--6~ VGK: I. fur'. later blew. bis gl. VGK: 1. 1061 connected this with MW blowd 'farina'. Then. for a possihle connection with IE *bhle. OCV: 202~ PECA: 15~ G. lEW: 102. and Thurneyscn: 1890a. *bit-. bas < Celt.'Gezweig. co iced 'province"). Hamp in Celtica 10 (1973). Ir hunad GPC does not consider this instance. OB bis (bes) in innbisiou. bun). bis truit gI. MB bloez. DGVB: 84. 327~ OPC: 284~ E. *boJsa. 84 iT du bisl gl. boned gl. who rejected Stokes' reading he. 111) should be possihly ahandoned in favour of a connection with IE *glJes-. ennbisiou. which was linked by G. *bo. Williams (1933: 116). apc: 2R6~ LHEE: 'na"\\'nrcf~: I. 151-2~ lEW: 716~ LElA: M-56. see OCV) gl. obscure~ the renex of the root-vowel makes the ('ornish affinities of this entry very likely. bohed gl. W bJau'd. 93. OC b1i~en.c adj. VGK: I. where it is suggested" that the word stands for pelnhed == Ir. OB unblot gl. The attempt to consider this word as helonging to a substratum (J. hra~awdl MW brachaut. binfic gl. bisse(ctus) or bissei Comp 3 dB)" (Latin -1) hit niritarner rann. fist' (bos) W bos~ B h6z. see also bonhed n m 'stock. a loan from 6g~ ML: 198.'Wolle' (lEW: 721 without this instance).279 to IE *mel. GPe: 272. and porthedig. DGVB: 83. VVB: 54 11 bloidin n f 'year' (blwyddyn I MW blwydyn. nobility. OC bes gl. however. bliadain < vi bleid. ML: 138. VGK: I. Lane. gus.'gHinzen' (lEW: 155). aIr bos. Elsie: 101. digiti. OIr bisse (ega) Traditionally analysed as cognates of Old Norse kvistr 'branch'. OC bleu < *bleus. bon(h)cd. cf. bon(h)ed 'lineage. word. similagineln.52.of the unknown origin. OCV: 51. this instance is not mentioned in arber. which is an -edd derivative of non (Ir. 163. GPC: 349. OB bistlou. that which is borrowed or lent' [benthyg] MW benffyg... hragawt.. VVB: 55 nom irbleuporthetic gl. po rra re . MW hlollt. Lat. Russell: 1990. Laubwerk" (lEW: 480 does not list the Celtic words) in view of OIIG questa. DC bistel < rtbis-tl-. VVB: 54 ope. OB blidan. see GPC: 299 and LElA: B-117-8. this corresponds to MW bon (It)et. An -au'd derivative (on thiC\ suffix sec St. hragot: Olr hrnc(c)6it frorn Arit.7) boned n m 'stock. see LElA. cf. num uescitur J 92 bfeuporfhet. dir temi Comp16 bichet paniu pet guarid.4. farina. r)~tin!! the ~. beneficium EL: 25. 0(' hint gl. See the next. ::ltin . ME benhuec < Lat. pedi~ree" (bonedd) According to I. pedigree' (bonedd) MW bonhet. then it corresponds exactly to the glossed Lat. digitum. The word formation remains. Orr bfad < Celt. cf. did di aries Comp18 binfic n m 'loan. Ian igerae templs Ovid 38 8 . tribus J 7 bos n f 'palm of the hand. II] ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20 bloidin salt Comp 22 bloteit n ? Already Zeuss. spumaticunt Ox2 42 3 (3.'Galle'? (only Celtic and Latin). see Pennaod. hi/is.ta. Pennaod in EC 23 (1986). PECA: 13-14. beneficium Ox2 43 b (5. all from IE *nle/-. VVB: 56 bloteit gl. 79. lEW: 481. IE *~ei· ~leben'. gall' [bustl] MW bystyl. queried by Pokorny. Olr. GPC: 367.r. p. The instance is not quoted in GPe. cE. Olr lnlditlz. PECA: 15. VVB: 52. DGVB: 86.

buccula~ cf.'schwellen.Patrick's modebroth and Ir br~th Until recently the word was considered to belong to IE *bher.l . GPC: 332. PECA: 17. Bammersberger..'Rind". N. VVB: 59 brfth gl. LElA: B-106. He translates this hapax as 'voile pour Ie poitrine·. PECA: 16. spotted· Ihrithl MW brith. De Bernardo Stempel: 87-9. B breut. However. aIr braine. uitta crinalis Me 4 a. Inoch..OO: Language and History. which should not be confused with MW brnnget 'gift of the bosom or heart" (G: 78. Russell: 1995. See also the next. 173: P. cicadae Ovid 40 h bronnced? A hapax in Welsh. traditionally < IE *merk-. G. ircarnottlul bricer g1. wallen' DGVB: 91. pictam J 30 bronnbreithet n pi 'thrushes. apc: 325 briceriauc gl. the Celtic words now grouped under Pokorny's *g"er(~). VVB: 58 ir br~ni gl.275) from brag 'malt'. VVB: 97 bracaut gl. n f 'prow or ship' [breniJ MW breni. juvcncac Ovid ~R.1 (1986). OIr mrecht < *"rrik-to. Milano 1991. '''. p. VGK: I. St. est aninllls J 66 braur n ·judgemenl' (name of a letter) See brQutl~ braut Nemn bred. (ace. LElA: R-fil: K. McCone in Eriu 42 (1991). A.10) brachaut gl. 115. proreta.'tragen'. bronnced gl.373. buch n f 'cow' [buwch. for which see hr.21) bl1lch8Ut lee 19 oaVB: 89. Schmidt in Kratylos 20 (1975). OCV: 373.'die Stimme erheben' (lEW: 478. GPC: 334.t17. Hamp in EC 2. cf. merg. 'hot. Wagner in ZCP 28 (1960-1). K. but see for a different opinion Schrijver: 176 and OWAV. missel-thrushes' I hronfraith J MW bronureith. 2tl: VVB: 61 huch gl. cf. VVB: 60 is brut m i [= mihi] gl. mulsum (uel melligratum for melicratum. Campanile (in ZC'p 3. IE Vg"Oll. 38.a.0) this compound contains bronn 'sein'. LElA: B-94. 124. Jackson: 1950. VVB: 58 did braut Chad 2 brousnnou see s. GPC: 350: lEW: 482. Deus Braciara 'dieu de la biere ou du malt'. lEW: 130. p. aIr mraich. XVIII 62). Russell: 115. briger An -~r derivative of W brig 'top. flamp in BBeS 27 (1977). funke1n". OCV: JR9. According to J. DC brenniat gl. coctio. ELI: 19.(. p. H. 271 cf. MC bruit. perhaps to IE *nrer. etc. brofraith The compound consists of bron(n) 'breast" « IE *hlrreli-s. Eska: 88. GPC: 311-2. VVB: 59 cecinet bronnbreithet g1. DC brag gI. M-66. hair' < IE *bhreg.. brwt. Loth (VVB: (. bulla Ox2 43 (5. H. see bricer GPC does not con~ider 1 his. Sulla formazione delle parole nclrantico cornico. W I""clr. and breith. p. PECA: 19) the British protoform could he a result of a crossing with Latin uarca. OC brcdion gl. Y Freni Fawr. GPC: 326. 48~ lEW: 7J. buch) MW bucc. 'steif emporstehen' (lEW: 166). and ced (Irish cedac ~manteau.18 suffixes in Welsh (and their Celtic congeners). Lambert: 190. Marstrander in ZCP 7 (1910). lEW: 143f. 251.'fiimmern."1et. JO: 106. OCV: 129. 238. C. eds. E. broine A word with an uncertain etymology. melligratum Ox2 44 8 (6. sprieBen'. PECA: 17~ VGK: I. pied. 1)6-~" ()W 1\ V. the occurence of the other animal names with the final cit < *-kk.'Blbrouannou zclotipiae~ Olr hruth hcftig hewcgen.v. de Bernardo Stempel. See LElA. C bres.69. GPe: 319. p. The introduction of G tJ(Jutou into the discussion lead to the reconsideration of this traditional etymology. einweichen'. < *bhrll-to < IE *blt(e)rell- ~sich brethi"nou see m"p breJhinnou briar n m&r 4hair of head. lEW: 170. LElA: B-77. crinalis Prisc 7 b brith adj. lEW: 739. 'mottled. GPe: 324. VVB: 58-9. 1990. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. bratium. B briz. pr. Celtiherian POlisToI" 'cow stable' < Britt. According to E.3 (1974). OB hrot gl. /I A. ~ee E. 232~ V(. passionate' (hrwdl MW brwd. see also Elsie: 84). bricrriauc adj.'morschen. LElA: B-80. ope: 306-7. The extensive bibliography is given in De Bern ardo Stempel. p. See also IJronnhre. see H. Britain 4(X)-. bywch~ OC huch gl. proram J 31 brut adj. cf.could imply a certain model. for this base see also s. innamed. 'hairy' 'An -(Tl-le derivative of brictr. bardaul).1: LElA: M-67~ LHEB: 405. cf. long hair' [briger] MW bryger. voile').) bracem 'genus farris' (Pline. instance under brigerog (MW brigerawg). JlEALXeatov) Ox2 42 3 (3. 3R~ OCV: 258~ PECA: 19~ Rhys: 1873. faulen.K: II. *boukkii. p. GPC: 332). Wallman. braich. buch. II Studia lin~ istira arnica ct magistro oblata. p. 174. uacca I. zealous.3) 01 brscsut bl1lurJ n f 'judgement' (brawd] MW brawt. G PC docs not mention this instance. VGK: II. braut.

trean cant mel MP 22 h (230) dou etcrion cant hunnoid di assa . E. ratio cogit ciclos deccnnouenales XXVIII descrihi Ang 21 a c aJisuc n m 'little book' (caeog] W caeog An -og derivative of cae 'hedge. enclosure. see LElA B-I07).mennoD n pi "stalks.J MW kan-. pr. cannwyl1~ OC cantuil gl.'. pp. a hapax which contains can 'song' (see canant) . GPC: IQ7. 4RI.. card. ". VVB: 63 cahimennou gl. "[he instance is not quoted in GPC. and thc stem rap (sec s. MB cauter < Lat.laf) MW calaw. 225. 72. VGK: I.v. Williams: 19RO.'fassen. VVB: 63 o caitoir gl. 50. WG: 165 ope: 384.3) canr prep. B cailhastr No etymology for Ihis word has been offered. &c' (cf.23) cant l num. budygawl. minimenta) < IE ·kagh-. fence. indic. cantela (cf. oc~ canoris gl. a 3 pers. pI. louber. . lEW: 613~ LElA: C-83. 'hundred' (cant. VOK: I. VVB: 62 ircaiauc gL libellum Ovid 39 8 alitoir n m&f 'pubes. thus W arRap. stramentum < LaL calamus ope: 390. OB bud gl. Aeuriot that the word could be read as callastr. GPC: 418~ lEW: 192~ LElA: C-82. The instance is not quoted in ope. geflochtene Horde. MIr caither The etymology and the relationship of the words is not clear. silicurn Ang 15 b ope. VGK: I. oev: 346-7. ML: 143. oPC: 412. l-lamp in EC 14 (1974). [alaf. 'bright and melodious. cane~ MB canaff~ OIr can-~ cf. VVB: 64 cannuill gl.'singen' Elsie: 128~ GPC: 408~ lEW: 526. 96 dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1. pres. Gal: 50l. OC kalagueli gl.. C. LElA: C-17~ LHEB: 471. Etymologically.f (can. guolleuin. pp.Y. callistr n f '!'Cone which produ ces sparks when struck.20 21 budiClluJ n 'vidor. LHEB: 509). LElA: ('-31. OIr cet< IE *kl!lta 'neben.225.onr-). VGK II: 292~ WG: 4()6~ VVB: 64~ J. abwarts.36. Lamhert suggests reading contarceillt and interprets this entry as J pi passive. bradium. OB cant. GPC: 1379~ E. callestr. Then. OB cant. einfassen. culmos J 25 ca/aur n f&m 'cauldron' Icallor] MW callawr~ OC caltor gL cacabus. 193.4tl7-472. GPe: 346. Ellis Evans in BBC'S 27 (IQ78) . VGK: I.and ar-. Haycock: 10. C cellester. an -01 derivative from W buddig. pp. 46 oith gueid guar cant gl. VGK: I. 97. ending of this form (cL ncrtheint. Ir cet < IE */art6m 'hundert' < *(d)jartt6nl '(Zehncr)dekade'. buddug (MW butic) 'victorious.'Sieg' ?. JEW: 518. Olr caindel < Brit.'high'. El1is Evans in BneS 27 (197R). asse bichan MP 22 h (2~4) cantsrteint v ? 'they raise together' or 'they are closed' (?. The instance is not quoted in It was noted by L. pube Ovid 41 b ca/. can J MW cant. Lane: 246. DGVB: 94. OB caiou gl. triumphant'. see on the lattcr GPC: tR5 and De Bernardo Stempel: 76-7 with an extensive bibliography. VVB: 61 budicaul gl.i. Flechtwerk" DGVB: 94.. ML: 142.). Williams. . private parts' (cedor] MW cedor. 509~ ML: 144~ OCV: 337-8. PECA: 21. and lOll 'bright". lEW: 163. ('aerwyn Williams in BBCS 13 (1950). 121. LElA: C-24~ VGK: II. pyrites' [callestr] . D. Watkins: 1982. he argues that the form consists of a preverb~ cant. ME quaezour. Breton?) The presence of -eint. scamnhegint) caused Flcuriot to consider this form as Welsh. 1 sg 'sin. diguolouichetic. GPC: 446. COlnand ard(d). De Bernardo Stempel: 96~ DGVB: 96. bright of son~' This interpretation (accepted hy GPC) was suggested by I. cf. reeds' [c.238-9. conqueror' [buddugol] MW budugawl. etc. DGVB: 91. MB cantoel1. winner. see lo)'r. 'with' (gan ) MW can(n). lichinunt vel cantel Ox2 44 h (7. gan~ OC gur cans grueg gl. vieto Ovid 39b canam v pres. White: 77-ft nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. PECA: 20.235-6. entlang. Lat. brooch. W budd 'profit. OIr buaid (Pokorny's *bhoudhi. mit' (to Yk. MW cyllystyr. DeV: 384. t) canlou adj. P. 105 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. pubic hair. PECA: 20. Williams: 1980. candela GPC: 414~ Jackson: 1950.1) cannuill n f 'candle' [cannwyll J MW can(h)wyll. PECA: 21. loseetic. 20-21. GPC: 395 ~ callistr (01 callastr) gl. OB budicol Substantivised adjective. cantrix < IE *kan. *kogh. maritus . candela. C cans. Lat. caJdarlo GPC: 396~ LHEB: 432. De Bernardo Stempel: 96~ OOVB: 276 and 96~ D. nint. VGK: II.

etc. DGVB: 97 carreic gl.27) [Eucrdil] uxor Elidir coscoruaur gl. VGK: I. PECA: 22. 406~ VVB: 66 ircatteiraul rettcticc strotur gl. ". see also carrecou. JO: 104. cf. cf. 3) cost (as in ()B co. eerriee. Vkar. hoof. 390. coeun1 Ang 16 a 23 < */c. 3 pi 'to go (together)' [The form could be Breton] L. London 1923. 132 c8tteiraul adj. Mlr carrie < IE *kar.b. Rindc·. armee'. OC caruu . arremu n m pi 'stones' Note the unexpected plural form. DGVB: 97. the word is used throughollt the "Annnles Camriae··. lEW: 532. Lloyd Jones in nBCS (IQ21). Bartrum: 15) casulheticc adj. purple dye made from the juice of the purple·fish' Icen I MW ken(n) Cf. 430. Ir cath. MB carez. VGK: I. Aeuriot queried possible OW affinities of this form. DGVB: l20~ GPC: 569. Carubdim Me 42 a. cas. MC cara. GPC suggests earn + ? od + 0/. 93R: J. 722). cat pencon (s. casgoord n f 'retinue of attendants.. E. VGK: 1. clan. "u'1. G. W cen 'skin' (C' (. also T . als Subst. Hamp in BBCS 37 (1990). nequitiae J 86 cared gl. RI cascord maur Gen: 11 [G]urci ha Pcretur mepion Elcuther cascord maur 11arl (cf. 187 cantarteint gl. ML: 145. cf. '1Ial3' OPC: 435. VVB: 65-6 casulheticc gl. lEW: 530. see GPC: 429. GPC). sin. The English Element in Wclsh. perstruuntur Ang 17 a CIInteint v pres. an -edig derivative from ca.111. VVB: 65~ Williams: 1944. 08 carrec. cecinet n pi 'jays' [cegin] MW cegin. cared. MB cas.'harf. MB quiguin GPC: 449: Williams: 1933. PECA: 22. 'wearing a chasuble' Hapax in Welsh. GPC: 438. on these sec DGVR: 102: JEW: . scrupea] J 26 1 r arreic n pi 'gones' According to F1euriot~ this could be a Welsh plural form. magne familie VSB: j 15 (cf.tad 'gardicn·. Parry-Williams. p. or < Lat.HI/ 'chasublc' (Olr co. familia~ den coscor gl. 83. penulata MC 14 b. strafen' Fowkes: 96.to-. satilites meos Ox2 43 h (5. For the etymology and references se e carrecc and cf. 29..51 dipennant ircaru Cha d 6 cas n m 'haired' laI~1 MW cas. *tlo·eks· + cor (as in W cordd 'trihe.3. GPC: 374~ OPN: 171-5: lEW: 534. OIr caire < IE *k!i. See carrece. Olr ('ri"11) < IF *(sJkpn-(d-) 'ahspalten~ ahgespaltenc Haul. GPC: 425. ceruus~ MB caru < IE *ktyo-s "gehornl. *ll(p)n-sknrjii (ysker-): 2) Celt.. IE *kiid-.115 cecinet bronnbreithct gl. 'bun-shaped. OR ('('1I"f'''' g1.1510: lEW: 616. C carrag. family'. Hamp: 1977-8. W COJfng 'mastiff (GPC: 570). LElA: C-42. cerricc.ii."r01l0. carreic.J: 272 cared n r 'Iran8gre5sion. 'pertaining to a chair' Icadeiriol) W cadeiriol < Lat. Stokes: 1873.a. The instance is not quoted in GPC. Catu< IE *k. casu/a. cliens Several etymologies have heen considered: 1) < Britt. OPC: 553. crime' [caredd) MW karet. LElA: C-45.g . DGVB: 96 canteint gl. M[r eais . carreie. body~uard' I cos~ordd I MW coscord. Parry-Williams: 121. VVB: 65. wearing 8 chignon' Hapax in Welsh. carrec6u gl. 23. ML: 141-2) OPC: 377~ Stokes: 1873.'io/) < Lat. Stokes: 1873.K/. OC goscor gl. ceenn n m 'murex.f1l. eerriec. p. Bartrum: II) casgoord gI. PECA: 5L VGK: 11. WG: 137 carrecc gl. Harvey: 188-9. Irish Cflire 'troupe. lEW: 576. Lambert: 19848. cad~ C. 2 ncu ti rygosteis kyn h\vyf teu (see PT: 79-RO) + cor as in 2).'schmahen.22 DGVB: 96. cathedra (VVB.• 1.615. R~ OCV: 80..'kampfcn'. carreec.ot. where this word is viewed as a loan from AS. 402. e. nota Ovid 3gb CIImotsul adj. LElA: naln ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 C-22~ M. a. sella curulis Me 45 a. The instance is not quoted in GPC. cicadac Ovid 40h ope: calreCC n m&r 'stone' [aarreg] MW carree. VVB: 64 ircarnotaul bricer gl. Hirsch oder Kub' GPC: 434.gl. p. Elsie: 136~ GPC: 431.. LElA: C-275). LElA: C-20-1. scropea (leg.a. barrow. C. cathedralis (Stokes. birschkopfig. De Bernardo Stempel: 93. uitta crina lis Me 4 a. cosgor(t). PT VII. VVB: 64 cared gl..b.. sc)llla et charybde Ang 18 b canl n m 'dee r' Ics rw] MW carw. cat n f 'battle' Icad J MW cat. lEW: 576~ OCV: 252. for W carn 'cairn.. Schuppc.

cyf-(h)ogi Ito make keen or pointed. Schrijver: 2R8~ VGK: I. 120-121 tutbulc hai cenetl Chad 2 cenett. this could also have been b<Jlrowed flom qlla e~(J . B kenderf From (W) coifn. OC collel gl. Eska: 53-4. 'although.'sharf. Sec also cet. VVB: 67 ni cein guodemisauch gl.e. 1 pi (or less likely. art[ a]uum Ox2 42 h (4. etc.ir' [Cllin) MW kein. MIl' c:nlrnn ·k. White: 266 Ceis ini r loyr Comp 21 -'0 cenetl n r 'tribe. VVB: 67. B kOfll'ok see GPC: 709. in dirmygu < IE *meik. DGVB: 99 and 331. and its connection with Lat. OB (1. cf. i. 114 it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.. clan' (cenedl) MW kenetyl. even thouflh' (cyd" cyn) OW (LL) cin~ MW kin. for the first component see S. set an edge on.on see uncenett. 'skUful.c.'flimmern. VVB: 61 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. The etymology of the word. DGVB: 93~ OPC: 455. cestio) states that "l'emprunt n'est pas certain". kenedyl. imperf. kenedel. Another pos!\ibility considered by Loth is to derive this word from *ked-t-: Ir ceis 'circuit'. Q2-CJ~~ LElA: C-92: Lewis: 1956. J. in gradibus Ovid 3R h cen conj. The form is analysed as pres. ok. GPC: 454. DGVB: 100. p. 659. 168.on . and imperal. chenetdl. blinzeln' (lEW: 712-3). LElA: C-34 and OW A V.n.hed etymology. IE Yken· 'frisch hervorkommcn. keuyndyru~ C kanderu. OCV: 166 and 377~ PECA: 29~ VGK: I. Greene in Eriu 21 (lCJ69). to IE *ak-. 'fine.. D. in pagi"a regulari. Kelly. cf.. OPC: 447. Greene.io-~ the IE haekgrounds Arc ohscure. cultellus. deruen. 298: Williams: 1927. J. anfangen' GPC: 390~ lEW: 563--4~ LElA: C-16. 266 cen nit hoi loc guac inter o. According to White. . White: 21]-4~ Williams: 1980. ML: l47.v. kcnctl. GPC: 689. colle I grauio gl.1) < Britt. OC kinethel gl. Ice the dilllcuRRion of it hy P. See also chefel. ueredus Prise 11 b ~in adj. non bene passa Ovid 398 MW ('chait. LElA: C-27. Williams. Charles-Edwards in BBCS 24 (1971) p. !'calprum < Lat.C'. pp. 668. "- reis " imp. 1 sg) by I. 233. reinmicum v 110 honour. Olr ceoel < *kene-tlo.l60 ceCel gl. PT: 31.~frisch hervorkommen. e. LHEB: 605. ope: 461~ lEW: 563-4~ JO: t07~ LElA: (~-M: ()C'V: 91: PECA: 27~ Schrijver: 27 and 36~ VGK: I. et a. ML: 156. (~onlr 11 . miseris patruelibus Ovid 38 3 cemecid n m 'mill-pick. cultellus OPC: 751. mirice Ovid 408 929-30~ ope: celieell n f 'knife' (cyllelll MW kallel.a"n. 23. ope: 448~ Kelly: 47-50. GPC: 396~ LElA: C-54: Schrijver: ~75 and J95: VVB: 67 cemmein gl. GPe: 456.2) cr.3) cemmein n m (old pi) 'steps. kyllell. The second element is *mygu. dress or pick'.24 25 LElA: C-55.'.g. enspringen. cein. ] pi by White. T. cyn: OB cenit~ Olr cfa. Loth though listing it alongside the other Latin borrowings « Lat.7) ("(lImed adj. Schrijver: 36 460. cc The connection between the Brittonic and Goidelic forms (eL Ogam Ir el) was suggested by D. LHEB: 606. strides" (cam J MW cam~ MB C cam. entspringen. Leide n Leech-Book) cres A wOld wi1h no establis.'schreiten' (lEW: 43R-4). found. Pokorny in ZCP 19 (1933). 2 sl seek" (ceis-) MW ceLs(s)-.l06f.iru n m "first cousin' I cefnder(w)] MV keuynderv. on the lalter word see now LElA: C-57. VVB: 67 celleell gl. OOVB: 101-2~ ope: 65R.v. f. tool for dressing mill-stones' [cyregydd) MW kyfegydd An -ydd derivative from cyfogi. ME quen. Wiliams: 1933. LHEB: 668. kantig\ lEW: 18f.0 praise' [ceinmyg-] MW ceinmygA compound. roughen. ccluyd.3 cemecid gl. 114 oceenn gl.113 ceinmicum ucnou' ran Juv 9 (6. LHEB: 387. ~killed' (celryddl refel n m 'horse' [ceRyl) MW ceffyl~ OB pois chefel~ Olr capall There is no certainty that the word is surely Welsh and not Breton in view of the Breton eJ(smples cited by Fleuriot. 933. rohal/us is disputable. spitz. VGK: I. see De Bernardo Stempel: 95 with bibl. ind. Williams: 1980. cain. lapidaria Ox2 42h (4. CI Camanom Perhaps to IE *gheng1l. Olr cain (possibly a loan from Brittonic) < *kanio5 < IE tken. ()B l'churd. generatio~ OB chenedl. anfangen' DOVB: 104-5. ope does not consider this instance. Henry: 75. ceifn 'third cousin' « IE *kom-nepots) and derw 'true. aIr ceimm. VVB: o7~ Williams: 1929. see s. cf.

no< *nlog-.~id. cern] OW (LL) c~ecg. kennyn. dorsum Loth's reading ("pour cengl. 'with us' OB ceoten ni See cant.a. p. along'. Lubotsky (see Schrijver: 456). this word contains the prefixes *kol1t-ro.2) cet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2. carOenll1n are summarised in PECA. cingulum". II. n. GPC: 469. corrrcoli. Schrijver (ibid. An -iad derivative of (MW) cathJ 'song' (B kentel. from ·kesn. 54. OB cohiton. The word is not attested in later Welsh. tuns. ismod.0(') contains prefix *knl1'-. Himmel' is discussed.. IE Vkan. VVB: 71. Williams: 19JO. 'alon~~ as far as' Icyhlldlln I OW (LL: 122) orlech cilli/o11 dital ircecyn.218. 260) Comp 3 cihracma n 'hattlefield' Hapax in Welsh. Williams.representing lui]. OCV: 399-4(X). ci (for cei 1) is did ciman. GPC: 464. PECA: 24. Sims-Williams: 1991. 'although. GPC: 658. MW gorcheithleit. ohtain. 247. ~W kehy~tr. For the second element. ploughshare' [caib] MW caib. MB quinghenn. and IE *(e)nek. Williams: 1980.. cautium Me 51 a. see Sims-Williams. Stokes: 1860-1. evil' [cebystr] MB cabestr < Lat.7) cenninJ prep. VVB: 68) was rejected by I. cupa The difficulties in the interpretation of this word as a loan from Lat. GPC: 446 and 390. The first component of this compound (= Irish (0111. ce/tit from *ko-si/-~ the semantics was compared hy Flcuriot with Irish go siotlr 'to~ as far as'. Dl8ttock..298. DGVB: 102 cennini gl. Icehes'r~ cepister n m 'haller. oriens maior Ang 13 b ci v pres.60. PECA: 25. EL: 35. Davida canorum J 7 centhliat gl. fosarium Ox2 42b (4~3) cephilor v. GPC: 455~ LElA: C-85. VVB: 69 cep gl.c. did~ hanaud Comp 1 . nouircerricc gl. MIr eetal. GPC: 746.247 hou boit cihitun ceng if esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23 3 (246) rennin n pi 'leeks. that these words go back to *kasn-ina. DOVB: 93. see lna(. sec Loth in RC 37 (1917-1919). GPC: 389. For the etymology see Fowkes: 1958. as the vocalism shows". For -oe. keuen. PECA: 24. hoe. 587. ML: 149.'singen· (lEW: 525-6).). OC kcroin gl. casks. Schrijver: 456. Lewis: 1956. haci (Williams: 1927. 2 sg 'to have. Williams: 1930. n m 'b8tk' (celna. VVB: 70 accroenhou gl. Koch: 476 cibracma Chad 4 cihrmo n 'thrifty' OB cohrmo According to Flcuriot. VGK: I. cerwyn. kef(u)yn. even thou~h' MW ket See cen. cihutun prep. see carrecc and cf. camum 0.139. OB eehel. corre. VVB: 69 ceroenhou n pi 'mash-vats. ct dolea J 7R cerricc n m&f pi 'stones' For the etymology and references. cel conj. GPC: 710. on this sec l)c Bcrl1nrdo Stempel: q<J-IOO. VGK: 1.2 43 11 (5. DGVB: 113.ether. fn. VVB: 69-70 cepister gl. ni. P. p. . OCV: 56. who pointed out to the spelling cecg which occurs in the Book of Llan Oaf (LL: 73 truf irct"cg). }~1: ML: 146. find' See chepi. LElA: C-19. pres. 3-4 with bibliography.26 27 ren. 'to have. cf.J. cf. cephitor.96 cet ibcn med nouel Juv 3 (2. 192.. obtain. OIr cainnenn It was suggested by A. GPC: 441) < *kantlofn. For the criticism of the etymology offered in Wei: 415 « *ko-. coihiton A derivative of W cyhyd (OW LL 73 cellil) 'of equal length. 34 a cihitun.5.-ta.n GPC: 444: LHEB. copistrll. VVB: 69~ WG: 17 ircenthiliat gl. cussedness.'reichcn' (lEW: 316f). du lat. tHEE: 498. where the connection with Sanskrit asman 'Stein. harrels' Icerwyn 1 MW ccruyn. find' See chepi.. DCV: 271. Dauida canorum J 49 cep n f&DI 'pirk8Jle. allium. daffodils' [tennin) MW ceonin.(cf. < *konlbranko-nlogos. Russian cesnok 'garlic'). OC kenin euynoc gl. see canam.. tabs. 1) suggests that "the word is probably not of IE origin. DGVB: 105 and 111 cihrmo gJ.2) 1 i cennin gL cipus Ox2 42 8 (3. 606. DC chein gl. ke)'p~ Scottish Gaelic caibe SeeOWAV. hor elin cihutun hi torr MP 2J1 (24fl) hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23" (24()) centh(i)list n m 'singer' Attested twice and only in the Juvencus glosses. MW kein.2) .and the stem -.. impelS. frugi Prise. Elsie: 80.

{} imalitiduch cimarguith[i]ejt Chad 3 . LElA: C-99. OGVB: 94 and 53~ GPC: 674. blanket' [cylched] MW cylched. etc. Parry-Williams: 121. cf.lneir.b. proportionate' The word occurs twice in W. hnhilis. bucket. card gl. DGVB: 105. par est MC 4 b. cylchet~ OB colchet gl. ciman 1 adj. Olr cOfllndas < *kom + addas < ·ad-asto~. see E. The . Falileye\' in SC 29 (1995). 199. 136. 236 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22b (234) dhutun see cihitun 29 + cilcet n HI 'toverlet. Loth in ZCP 17 (1927). VGK: 1. Lambert: 1982. facing' See erc. cf.nan (= English Inan. ircilchetou gl. ope: 748. abscenia.. v. culeiJa. These have beem connected with Lat..147-152). see GPC: 673 and 6RO. GPC does not consider this instance. ML: 156. both times in MP. CO/lll1lentll/ll. and this interpretation is accepted by GP(~. VVB: 12 ~ Willia ms: ] 929. W cyfyng-. here ci/llpe""er. ordnen'.352 anu II. VVB: 11 ~ Williams: 1930.94). 212-4~ VGK: I. 3 ciluin gl. LElA: C-17R. sheet. see also ci/chetou. DGVB: 113. lEW: 3. nefariam rem. GPC suggests a derivation "cyelf. Hamp in EC 14 (1974).Y. Hamp in EC 14 (1974). urceus (ch=k). Irish col. iscimadas gl. The entry itself is perhaps a hybrid. and MW kyuochael 'to raise. 1986. lEW: 951. with a query). IE Vy(e)di· 'erhlicken. for the scepticim in regard of *lp > I. *kom·are-LJeid-. cimenllhaam v pres. t s~ 'to narrow. GPC: 2460) see A. Olr cumtlog ti~hf('n' I~yryn~-l . extol' (1) The meaning and the etymology of this entry offered hy Fleuriot was reconsidered by P. celwrn. 191. VGK: 1. vessel. 'Versteck. 'equal. par MC 4 a. pp. *k011t-ann-. with apparently Welsh reflex of the prefix. benttin~' IcyraddasJ MW kyfadas. urne m J 40 cimachabail vn 'to raise. hoy/oit. forthcoming. pitcher. agipam < Lat. cimachahail uel dimffnuim gl. haci Camp 3 ciman 2 n f 'assembly' (cyman) MW cyman~ OIr commant. 192. cyfarwyd. I will discuss this instance in SC.28 dhun(n) adj. p. 'faulty' An -iog derivative of Celt~ "kulo-.365: VVB: 72.7) ciluma n m 'pail. 199. Vendryes in RC 35 (1914). is left unexplained. blame'. agipa. and min. IE vad~ 'fcstsetzen. GPC: 676 is did ciman. E. OIr colced gl. LElA: C-166. tolletum Prisc 25 a cimadas adj. VGK: L 94. PN Cilurnum. was analysed by Lambert as SW British. and the clement . VVB: 72 and 63-4 isscimadas gl. sheets.196. < IE "~f'P. cyuarwyd~ Olr comard(a)c < Britt.IKrug. vela Ovid 38& dli8UC adj. VVB: 71 cUcet gL tapiseta Ox2448 (6. and Lat.. Hinterteil'. piacu/a .26) dlche'oll n m pI 'co"er]et!. LElA: A-13. corresponding. buris 0'12 42b (4. pp. Lambert who compared the form with Irish vn ClIfflRohoil.. blankets' See cilcet. which analyses this entry as containing the prefix *kol1r-. 'opposite. Haycock: 13. p. p. 'whole. Hamp in lIES 1 (1973). Williams considers this word as a noun rather than adjective. pact. company' is commonly analysed as a loan (rom Lat. LHEB: 668. 'suitahle. p.j. GPC: 754. culpa (Stokes in IF 12. WG: 125 cilurnl1 gl.. OB col gl. entire. lEW: 1125~ JO: 5. DGVB: 106 cimarcimeir gl. Williams: 19RO. 390. DGVB: 106. on this stem see E.25) cileet gL stratorium Ox2 448 (6.21. the Irish "'ord which denotes 'allience. OB cClfnadns gl. Both comparisons were rejected by Hamp due respectively to the formal inconsistencies and the "unusual ancestral configuration". GP~: 744. OIr cilornn gl. Mlr commann I. expert~ (cyfarwydd) MW kyvarwit.1-4. urceus Traditionally. DGVB: 106 and 99. MW cw/ 'fault. LElA: C-155 ciliauc gt scaelestus Prise 40 a dluin n 'crooked hinder part of the plough' This hapax is ommited in GPC. extol'. '. Two etymologies have been suggested for these words. GPC: 458. LElA: C-157. . DB chilorn gl. Topf. 322ff and EC 15 (1976-7) p. Stokes: 187J. 2R4 and 11. sec s. complete' (cyfan) MW kyua(n) Analysed in G PC as < (?) Britt.loit.b. 108 hoy. 112 it clu(i)s [it] dihan iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. see/us (but see J. anhysbys".1) cimarcimeir prep. LHEB: 475. J. VCiK 1.. GPe: 639. 201~ 1983. to ~(i)k~u-. The first word of this gloss. cf. lEW: 555. tub' [celwm] MW kelurn. GPC does not consider this instance. 295-6 with bibl. aduerso Ang 15 b cimarguith('lejt n m&f 'well-informed person. for the etymology of this compound « IE *(s)ku/0. sehen' GPC: 6R5.

22. 395~ VVB: 72-3 ciphillion gl. h.v. GPC does not ccnsider this instance. + pen. eoncauus Ang 16 Cl cinceu n 'concave' As it was stated by Fleuriot. and as a loan from Lat. lucubrationum perennium Me 4 b.'i GPC does not consider this instance. VVB: 155--6 nouirhircimerdridou gl. William~: 1927. Stokes: 1873. surculis MC 8 a. schnUren'. and 8-4-5. 107 isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3. which he could not explain. 'equal number' (cynifer) MW ceniuer.it Itheoricam'. 118 di cimer di aper ferrus Chad 6 eimerdrJdou n pi '1 Stokes analysed the form as containing two words. magaf. are) + pI. supcrlatiulls . though with an unexplained ~eli.a. cymharu.b.. v.. C yn-kerghen < Lat. and cf. Lambert: 19828. DGVB: 29). OGVB: 106. GPC: 734.bero. MW (T 41. see s. p.. OGVB: 106 cinceu gl. 307. cimmaitburess gl. usque sub occiduum cocli J R4 circh/n m 'circle' (cylchl MW cylch. W cymaethu 'nourish together-. Mlr commar < *kom. 'to arrange' [cymhenn-] MW cymhen-~ ME quempen This word which shC)~ Welsh characteristics and is found in the Breton gloss was not considered as ·f. (see hir) + cimer « *kom. GPC does not consider this instance. The instance is not quoted in GPC. GPC: 759. GPC: 725. ango Prise 40 a elmer n m 'connuence' [cymer] MW cimer. GPe tentatively offers a comparison of this word with W cyma 'battle.DGVB: 106 and 2S0. 107 cim~ghaam gl. VVB: 72 bet cfrchfnn frguollcunf gl. circ.259 seraul cirehl Cnn1r 2 . Stokes: 1873.13) kyn traeth~ OB cundraid~ Mlr c{)ntracht < Lat. 'althou~h not. kyrchynurird: OB circinn.. ope: 764 ~pan cimpenner aer Ang 65 a cimprre. sec DG VB. contractlls~ for a derivation CO" + *traith. this is a loan from Lat. cf.en « ? cym. Loth considered this as a compound 'long travail solitaire'. 5ubj. ML: 156.. etc. hir 'long' and the plural of cimerdrid. (. aurcimerdricheticion. 'eng. cirhin(n)~ Mlr cercend. < Lat circulus DOYB: IOH~ GPC: 747. collaclea Me 1 b. comparatill.and ninter. conquestos Me 4 b. cymar(cdig).2) cinnit conj. For the prefix. dmmsifhuress n f 'fo!ter-sister' Hapax in Welsh. dmpenner v pres. . lEW: 42-3. on the latter see DOVB: 158. 383. ammsef. IE Yanth . even th()tI~h not" Cf. (JMW: 235--6 Cinnit hays irloc guae hinnuith In pagi"a regulari COTnp 14 ciphillion n pi 'stocks. LElA: C-178. IE tbher. stem' (Ir eepp) < Lnt. MB kemper.. conflict' which is considered to be a cognate of Olr com-bag. ad plurcs sui gcncris fit l"olllparntio Prise 27 a COIlCaVIIJ.. cilnpSdlliausauc oirei gl. GPC: 753~ VVB: 72~ Stokes: 1873.. Elsie: 114.391. ? 'compa ra ti \tie" 08 comperel~ OIr c()mparit.. DGV8: I08~ GPC: 807~ LElA: C-71~ ML: 157~ VGK: I. MB kelch LElA C-167.a. cindraid gl. ". GPC: 791. DGVB: 125~ LElA: C-20)~ lluws: SOl. g: by Fleuriot (but cf.247.n(n)lls. circhinn n m 'circle' Hapax in Welsh. c(y)niuer~ Me cynyucr Contains prefix cy. VGK: I. P. ledona DNR 2v cinimer n m adj. VVB: 72 cimmaeticion gl. little trunks' (cytTyll) MW cyfyll An -yll derivative of cJff 'trunk. Williams: 19RO. See also danlcirclli"""OIi. Lambert tentatively connects this noun with MW cyfarthelid 'steady. which he compared with DB emd. collactea Me 8 a. GPC: 759). W. impers. einengen. hi. GPC: 153. but cf. cf. n. VGK: I. ciPI'IIJ (GPC': 727: LElA: C-70~ ML: 155-6).nullo Prise 27 n nirincirilcs. constant' and cyfrde/id 'beautiful't on these see GPC: 684 and 713. Is analysed by GPC as cym-maeth-ur. cOl1lpendio. . MW derivatives kyrchynyrtt. of drid. Loth in RC 32 (1911).-Y. on this see < Lat. 'aufwallen' (lEW: 123). es.cion n pi ? Hapax in Welsh. stock. ce/l~ a negative form. LElA: C-292.a. It was analysed as a cognate of W cy". cf. 387 cimmaithuress gl. see Lewis: 1956.30 31 < *kom-ingu-. DOVB: 106 Clnd Ilo~ OPC: 755~ LElA: C-UU)~ ML: 156 hClc&oucimp& gl. cindraid n 'neap tide' Cf. but see Hamp: 1982 for the identification of the IE stem. Neither Loth nor Lewis mention this among the Latin loanwords.

VVB: 77 coiliaucc gl. (h)aruspiccm. lid' [claWl] MW clawr. 14): PECA: 2(" J~: . Williams connects this word with MW glll. tabellis Ovid 388 cluis? I. Lambert acknowledges it as a loan. Pokorny hesitates between *klep. augur. cf.: C-113-4. LElA: C-114-5. GPe: 491-2. 399. Olr clar The traditional analysis derives these words from Common Celtic *klii-ro. 22. Stokes: 1873. 'lirst' Hapax in Welsh. Falileyev. see A. exact' [cythrymed] MW cythrymhet. GPC: 492. Loth suggested taking this as a loan (with metathesis) from Lat. Williams: 1980. ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a dsemic adj. prelum 1 78 t cled n f 'left' [cledd] MW cled. OC chuillioc gl. au~uries. hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 23 in ir loscetic circhl gI. GPe: 819. pistor. VVB: 74 ocloriou gl. Inser. 111 it clu(i)s [it] dlban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. cog. N. OIr cutrummae < Celt. GPC: 5J2~ lEW: 520~ LElA: ('-5<): LJ1FB: 325. St.'spiilen· (for this base see lEW: 607). OIr cle < IE *l<lei-.'frisch hervorkommen' (lEW: 564). For a different analysis. beautifur. VGK: II. quod fit super faciem torcularis gI.. divinations' fcoell MW cocl. On the other hand. coilioll. 139.s 'fair. kysswllt. cf. cf. 41q: VGK: r. White: 72-3 ni choilam hinnoid MP 22h (234) nichoilam MP 22b (238) coilisucc n m 'augur. OB coilhaanl 'fcxaminc. W cysefin (MW kesseuin. < IE *ke/-. DGVB: 112. and the influence of the authentic \\'ord cledr.T. GPC: 493.Y. sec coiloll. GPC: 533. See also cloriou. GPC: 827. cloiumn see dolumn < Celt. De Bernardo Stempel: 41. MB c]eiz. OB coc gl. augur Me 2 a. circulus [. ML: 150. See also coilanl. LElA: C-298-9. surl.1) it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. with it causing provection. coi!iOliCC. OIr cluain J.'breit beliegen.'feuche (lEW: 603) and "kltu. for the etymology see s. LElA: C-126 in guoilaut clun Chad 6 coc n f 'cook' [cog) MW coc. For a consideration of a different IE stem (·kld. planks. WG: 137 em ir cisemic gl. B kleur. Schrijver: 118.. OCV: PECA: 24. v. OB cisemic < IE *kentu-stam-. OPC: 510. Ir eel horrowcd from Brit. 49. W cysefin (lEW: 1(08). coqllllS (COCllS) DGVB: 111-2. 'schlagen. to IE *ken. etc. 'even.a. hauen'. OPC: 533. portents. lEW: 599). and *stii'stehen'. pistor Ox2 44 (6. cesseuyn). OC chuil1ioc gl. Stokes: 1873. VVB: 74 elaur guicip. GEW: 872-3. *kailo. Watkins: 1987~ 53. lEW: 601. "- cleteirou n pi 'castanets' According to Stokes. Vendrycs in RC 4fl (IQ2Q). phitonissa. Chantraine: 542-3. this could be an onomatopoetic word. P. Haycock: 13. OB cocl gl. unvcrschrt. limite levo J 26 .'heil.< IE *ka. allis et aspicio A derivative of coe/~ cte. VVB: 73. b[i]lance libra Me 12 b. C cledh. Schrijver: 182. or with the adjective derived from the verh cly"'yd 'to hear'. auch von gutcr Vorbedcutung·. 401.321. crotularum Me 103. faces.-Io. Petersburg 1998.a.oa11' gl. Isaac: 408. coyll-. 57: VVR: 7R . 1 sg 'believe' I coeli. GPC: 540.. pp. p. je cOllsultC' in etn cnifl. DOVB: 113. coil(i)ou n pi 'omens. lEW: 545. cuilliogcs gJ. see trumm. Greek XAtlQO~. de Lamas de Toledo C~aeilohrig()i. 'neigen. soothsayer' Hapax in Welsh. kyssyllt < Lat. VVB: 74 6r cled hin gl. ML: 158 cis80ltou gl. consoldo. VVB: 76 ft CDC gl. Kazansky in Yazyk i kul'tura keltov. but cf. qui primus J 70 risso/tau n pi 'connections' [cyswllt] MW kyssvllt. daur n m 'cover.)2) coilsm v pres. Lambert: 1982a. DGVB: 109.J MW coel-. lehnen' Elsie: 109. Ir crothal.32 33 cloriou n m pi 'boards. commissure hapsidum Ang 13 a I cilhremmel adj.1) clun n m 'meadow' (clun) MW clun. erotol-. *kon-trum-. 10-13.. LElA: C-142~ ML: 15L OCV: )RI~ PECA: 2R~ VGK: 1. cocus. augur An -iog derivative of coel. plates' See clour. see OWA V. VVB: 74 nouircleteirou gl.. GPC: 810. The instance is not quoted in GPe. OC kog gl. LElA. VGK: I. VVB: 73-4 cithremmet gl. darauflegen'. aIr eoic < Lat. LElA: C-248. DGVB: 109. ()(~V: 143.b.~es.

'. cane" rcorsen I MW cors(en). \vhich is analysed hy (. contains prefix com.e.4bind'. ex papyro tcxtili Me R h. In view of the frequent doubling of the letters in this manuscript (cf. . lace' (carrail MW carrycu. I-Iamp in DDCS 25 (1974). OB limn-collin gl..b. GPC: 708. fcar'. OCV: 293. 98 isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3.Meillet: lOt. 195. pp. anhyshys. carex. or Vrig.: 219 ocorsenn gl.< IE *kel4 techen' (lEW: 545). roll n coli. /I Homenaje a Antonio Tovar. VVB: 83. See also corso OPC: 566. DGVB: 119. 105. auspiciis Ovid 39b oo. 'Hasel' DGVB: 243. in media plausu Ovid 3R h MW colyn An -yn derivative of cor (MW coly. corilis Me 8 b.i. I. Mlr coli < *kosl. orn 4tressaille.. Williams in BBC'S 3 (1926). Evans in SC 10-11 (1975-6). B korz(cnn): cf. D. *1Jic. D. this stands for co .b. arundine Ovid 40a coueidid n f 'company' Icyweithydd I MW cyweithyd. erlangen' (lEW: 316). zichen. GPC: 564 cor. According 10 Campanile. SS-f) uue nem isnem intcoucr Juv 9 (<). room? According to Zeuss: 1056 and VVB: 82. MB correcnn < Lat. GPC' docs not consider this instance. Stokes: 1873. WG: 165 corruui gl. Williams: 1980. of tanl 'string'. OC coli'iden gl.. 399~ VVB: 81 orcomtantou gl. p. awn' (colyn] instance from Celt. Williams (19]3: 113) suggests a reading corn. 'hazel' (coil] MW coll(en). orcueeticc cors gl.PC' as < Britt. calallll1s.. 4R5. 'reed. GPC: 687. corilius. cannulas Me 14 h. OC korsen (MS coisen) gl.and pI. usually compared to Lat. ulcerous' I cornwydo~ I MW cornwydawc An -OtiC derivative of co. ope: 2656 refers to this instance (with a query) in the analysis of W or" "blame. the adjectives go back to *koln-anktako-. tilia. orn: Celt. car(r)ci: cf. IE *tlcgll. . see lanlou. EL: 5.< IE *kos(e)Io. ahscess. ment. 607.34 35 nouirmiinnguedou . the traditional etymology derives it from *kom-okto-. E.2) MW kyweir~ < *ko(1n)-~/ari·. 8 deep hollow sound' (?) Hapax in Welsh. LElA: C-286.19. latchet. coorn gl. corigiufn Ox2 433 (5. cf. cOllid n m 'poem" I cyn)'dd I MW cywyld)d: If cuhaid . VVB: 78 cornoitsuc adj. Fleuriot to separate the Welsh entry from the Irish word quoted above.a. C. VGK: I. LElA: e-296~ oev: 27R~ PECA: 31. VVB: 78 coli gl. romoid n m 'power' (cyfoeth) MW kyuoetb. erreichen. OCV: 32.. on which sec Ernout . these are commonly viewed as cognates. See OWAV..a. 19~{).2) couer adj. Evans (Ir.~gewahrcn. 115 gurd meint icornoid imolaut Juv 9 (7. GPC: 832. ope: 546. the meaning of coorn being thus 'applaudissement'.204-5. on which scc also E.388-91. PECA: 29. LHEB: 466.) ~a 5triking logether. cors vel pennas gl. Joseph: 51-2.l. gibberosus Prise 16 b c61gfnn gL a ristam J 26 corruui n f'thong. PECA: 25~ VGK: 1'1 124. LElA: ('-IS2: Schrijvcr: J2(l: Willinnls: 121. 'full of sores. VGK: 1. carreieu. GPC: 546. coiJiou gl. Apart from the attempt of L. LElA C-158.~bewegen. Madrid 1972. pro 74-7: GPC: 4~1: LIIED: 449-S0: Schrijver: 313-6~ VGK: I. lEW: 616. lEW: 1164. V(jK: I. Olr curchas < *kork-s-.4) COTS n f 'reed. fahrcn· (lEW: 1118(.ou see coi!(i)ou ro/ginn n m 'sting. ceenn) I. differently hy D. Haycock: 15. piipaur. LElA: C-157..~strctch'.. 'applause'.a. 'complete" [cywair I Olr coir IE *~/er. col.. or a cro~~ing of these stems."wyd ~boil. cf. orn: W. Haycock.orn. 4 reichen.668: Williams: 19RO. Evans.. with IE *enek-. . crainte'. 134 fn. Fleuriot in EC 16 (1979). UPN: 2RJ). org-no. *ne'k.32. achtgchcn' GOI: 123~ OPC': R29. and hesitates hetween a compounded form co-orn (= *cy-orn) and a simple corn. LHEB: 659. s De Bernardo Stempel: 99~ Fowkes: 96. noitauc gl. *ko-tl rkt -. bombis Me 10 a. corrigia. E. 590. clapping'. sorc' which is analysed hy GPC as containing corn 4crugyn' and elf. which contains IE Vreig. Olr cumachtae The meaning of this word is discussed by M. VVB: RJ: wc. Several etymologies for this word have been considered. ocoilou gl. He derives this corsenn n f sgl. IT colg) 'awn' < *kolgo.3) romtantou n pi 'buzzing. Deus omnipotens. i. cane" I cors I See corsenn. 28) interprets this entry as (lit. E. \vho derives it from Celtic *ko(I1I)-roreig-. OC du}' chefuidoc g). *enk. *org-n-. cowethc An -id (= -ydd) derivative of (W) cywaitlr. extorum Me 2 a.

'withered. cf. aIr cruind < *krundi-. See also crummanhuo. Loth suggested a derivation < *k(}"l-Y(Jli~. 31-R. C crom. The instance is not quoted in GPC. name Marccoual) J. enroulcr'.195. in BnCS 34 (19H7).. VVU: 90 cuall gl. OC coweid liuer (reete co~eidliuer).nan o crummanhuo gl. sickle. for the possibilities of the semantic motivations..a. genialis praeda Ovid 3gb < Lat. biegen' DGVB: 123. MW 'crooked. See cre. bent. . to IE *(s)kerb(h)-. frcnesin: C crys: Ir crith < ·ko(m)"l)idu. Stokes: 1873. curliness' [crychedd] W crychedd An -edd derivative of (MW) crych (MC crech. 197. Schrijver: 353. quick. 4 hridder DGVB: 123~ GPC: 617. cryd. see Henry: 83). 'knitted. criehed adj. 134. OB crum gl. lEW: 935~ LElA: C-253. differently ("zu lat. MIr crfathar schnciden. ar[i]dum J 27 erip see hs crip erit n m 'shivering. see G. J. etc.toroo n pi 'substances' (creadur] MW creadur. 391 crunnolunou gl. ~ieve' [crwydrJ Hapax in Welsh. LElA: C-239--40. VVB: 88 criched gl. 185 Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3 (Teman n m 'reaping-hook. lEW: 938. G Crix(s)us) < pre-Celt.'drehen. or as an authentic word. brit1le. motura. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b aeirrioo n m r pi 'relics. Lat. GPC: 619. tornatili. GPC: 836-7. does not belong here. erwydyr) 4 wandcring. speedy' (ellalll MW cuall. VVB: 88-9 ocrit gl. roaming'.'Zauberkraft worauf setzen.'drehen.or *kriJpo < IE v(s)ker.412. LElA: C-244-5. ML: 153. Vyel. orbiculata MC 4 b. olin. cr. DGVB: 124~ GPe: 622. original' (ereadigol] W creadigawl An -ed-ig-awl derivative of (MW) creu 'create' GPC: 583. DGVB: 121. this interpretation of the latter component was ~uggcsted hy Stokes (accepted hy GPC: 2644) alongside 0/ 'mark. crebrum. ruga Ovid 40 a cualladj. 'roughness. creatura. Williams: 1980. ML: 154. OB erin. 112: Ilenry: R3: lEW: 946. lEW: 9. OC croider gl. E.dj. cf. oui MCIO h. GPC: 620. biegen'. *kripso.6 L) crunnoJunou n pi 'round wheels' (?) See crunn. GPC: 578. 'round. IE ·llidhu.a.36 37 < IE ·ker. apc: 597. OB crit gl. LElA: C-234-5.. GPC: 583. VVB: 90 nouirerunnui gl. but cf. 342 and OCV: 342. s. also n m 'sudden. crea/ura. 08 croitir gl. bill-hook' [cryman] MW creman. glauben. '. VVB: 90~ Stokes. !!\\Ic\\'<. lEW: 578.17.PC": 2640). monitura] J 90 4 crin adj. . OC croadur gl.spus. Williams: 1944. baxus Ox2 42 b (4. p.1) crat see orst cresticBul. 584. AS < Celt.k' (erln) MW crin. OCV: 391. LElA: C-2J6-7. Loth in RC 32 (1911). cromman. AS crumb. crihrt"n. 113. woven' W gwcucdir. W crwydr (MW cruidir. Note the difference in orthography. tremble' [cryd I MW crid. DGVB: 124~ ope: 626~ Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). Olr cromm) erommsnhuo n pi 'reaping hooks' Note the spelling of the plural ending. LElA: C-232. considered by GPC. Hamp. < *krit~ < IE *(s)ker. 210. 498. Haycock: IO~ LElA: C-264. holy or sacred objects.cn tourcr. Mlr cromman A derivative from (W) crwm (cf. gibbler. Vendryes in RC 44 (1927). 104 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. C. J. VVB: 87 creaticaul plant gl. Lat. 1873.'vcrschrcn' DGVB: 122. Elsie: 124. circular' (erwn I erwn~ DB eron gl. 203 or teneu creaturou gl. Olr crfn cueeticc adj. VVB: 89 cruitr gl. pp. (s)kremb'drehen. Mlr cretair < *kred-ro-. which are analysed either as loans from Germanic (cf. PECA: 32. crispness. Schrijver: 374. curved'. p. pp. Williams: 1980. 'created. LHEB: 668. 296-7. VVB: 8R crin gl. n m 'winnowing fan. OB cualoeh (eL Pers. IE ·kred-dh~. VVB: 87 creman gl. < IE *(s)ker.. cribrum. creo. not in lEW: 948f. Lane in Language 8 (1932). MB croeadur < Lat. 90-96. VGK: I. VGK: I. treasures' [crair] MW creireu. cf. celeber") in VGK: I. cryman.. OCV: 213. *krei-tro. winnowinK ~hovel. timore (leg tremore) J 5 ernit. kriimmen'. PECA: 32. pp. MB croezr. bicgcn' OGVB: 123. pala J 14 ere.< IE *skeri-.ra. scropibus J 77 crunn adj. GPC: 615.dig f~weedi~J .4drehcn. maturato [leg. see LElA. vertrauen' (lEW: 580). VGK: II. Stokes: lR60--1.'Baum' (lEW: 1177). cryt. trace· (on this see (. schcidcn'.

393. custnud eticc ? '. VVB: 91. OIr {ige. 3 sg 'to leave. ked ope: 445 isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 choi/am see coi/am ms. 399. An -edig derivative of (W) gweu 'to weave'.'weben.IE *ghabh.a. mannus . diadThis instance is not found in GPC. LElA: C-18. see Falileyev in ZCP. see the scheme in Isaac: 313.22<1-3: Isaac: 312-313. further etymological connections are dubious. sec dirgatiJJe.i. Lloyd-Jones in SBeS 2 (1925). ME COUIlT. Hamp . textrix. confecta Me to a. art[ a]uum (. forthcoming. Stokes: lR73. Lewis rejected Stokes's reading custnudieticc in favour of cuslnud eticc. fax" (cedi mltel 0 'knife' This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat. consilium (*cosilium) GPC: 818. WG: 345: White: 79-84. 96 nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. ringlets' (cudyn J MW kudynn. VGK: 1. Isaac. OIr cofnid The Britt. kwlldr. let go" (dyad-) MW dyad-. LElA: C-I60. GPC: 1113: VVB: Q3.1) MW cet. rit crcis d••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8. cultrum. 291. 115-6. OC guiat gl. White: 76. . VVB: 91 cultir gl. For etymology. in condylos (nodos) Me 6 b.b. according to E. equs breuis Prisc 7 h chepi v pres. GPC: 654. Stokes: 1873. concilium. OCV: 110. Stokes 1873. ex papyro textili MC 8 b.a. OOVB: 287 pois chefel gl.b. cultrum Ox2 42b (4.'biegen'. ha chepi. the interrelationship between Brittonic and Goidelic forms is not clear. (future) 3 pi 'to complain' [cwyo-] MW cwyno. Note initial c for g. coniuerc Me' 4 h. DGVB: 186. VGK: I. etc. illis (nodis) MC 6 b. coma < IE *keu. minhBunl v pres. the involvement of thc lattcr is rejected hy G. eel/eell). kyssul. Sec also digatlna(ou). Cf also ci. WG: 323. perpetuis deflebit subsita poenis J 55 en chefe/ n m 'horse' (ceffylJ Notably spelled with ch. Le'wis: 1932.for k. p. cf. tela.233. cf.125. PECA: 34. I-Iamp in ZCP 24 (1954). GPC: 627. OC cudin gl.i. cwlltyr. cultel/us (cf. MB queinyff. GPC: 568. OCV: 44. kydyn. Williams to be a variant spelling of eosam. VVB: 91 celleell gl. VVB: 91. PECA: 56. OC cusul gl. VVB: 92 cusul Nemn .. obtain.'fassen' (lEW: 527-8) and *kagh. LHEB: 503. < IE ·~eg. 112. form could be -kei-n-.1) < Lat. lEW: 1117. dagatte v imperf. White: 122 cuinhaunt irruim mein gl. pr. MIr coltar < Lat. VGK: 1. culter Ox2 42b (4. kntipfen' see GPC: 1608. LHEB: 337. White: 20R-9 itdagatte ail gl.b. Russell: 1995. cellel gl. VVB: 92 cutinnniou gl.38 39 cutinn(n)iou n m pi 'locks.i. 2 sg 'to have. also art[a ]uum . cultel) Ox2 42b (4. 176. Isaac: 317. *kap. cephitor. inircutinniou gl. J. Alternatively it was explained as a borrowing from AS cuss 'kiss'. or cyssan 'to kiss'. OB gueg gl. VGK: II. oehmen' (lEW: 407-9). see gllorcosam. ope does not consider this instance.1 n m 'advice.6) cusam v 'chat' ? The word was considered by I. counsel' (name of 8 letter) [cusyl) MW cussyl. Eska: 55-6~ GMW: 150~ GPC: 38(r. VVB: 92 custnud eticc gl. ML: 155.'fassen. 205. ML: 155. Williams: 1980. 552. Sec cefe/. The gloss remains obscure.7) miter see the next entry m/tir n m 'coulter' MW kulldyr. hinn inguir Comp 21 chet n f m 'tribute. MB kusul D d••raut? For possible interpretations of this entry sec Williams: 19RO. GPC: 1614. PECA: 33. find" Etymologically this base points to syncretism of different roots. but the paucity of AS loan-words in early OW makes this assumption unlikely.7) GPC: 640.395 orcueeticc cors gl.'fassen' (lEW: 518).7~ E.

White: 173-175. see datI and loc. As for the interpretation of this word. gestione Me 10 a. DGVB: 274 o datsebimou gl. cliens Ovid 383 deccolion n pi 'decimals. the semantics. Lambert in Revue de philologie 57 (1983). stellen. cliens Prise 34 b dauu n m 'son-in-law. 96 dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1. The entire gloss was considered to be Welsh particularly due to the presence of the preposition o. VVB: 93.b. 375-7. then 'demangeaison ou spasme pour reje/e". VVB: 94 dBllocou n pi 'places of dehate' Hapax in Welsh. legen'. VVB: 96 dattotimb gl. OC datheluur gl. . air ddl. Stokes: 1860-1. see also De Bernardo Stempel: 105-6 with hihl. pp. ~uest' See dauu. ope: 870. 110. Lambert that in fact these instances are Latin (dafiuU5 fraudatiuus). 399. agitare J 88 das n m&f 'stack. in argulo foro Ovid 38a W degawl. member of a retinue. memher of a retinue. etc. DqVB: 127. 115. Campanile in BBeS 26 (1976). Etymologically. the phrase could be nominal. in later Welsh it occurs as a prefix (dam-..n'" 'spasm' (W tymmig). 228. VVB: 96 41 datlocou gl. Gwyn Jenkins in BBC~S 17 (195R). DGVB: 128. McCone in Eriu 43 (1992). see damcirchinnuou GPC: 884. M. Lambert: 1987. pp. LElA: D-13-4. Stokes: 1873. OB desi. ~Q4. turn·) ~ he interpreted the gloss as dattot-timb 'a loosening turn'. VVB: 95 6d~s gl. pp. for the formation cf. legen' DOVB: 136. See P.-Y. Williams: 1933.'setzen. Stokes 1873. DGVB: 130 dati gl. stellen. guesf [daw) MW daw. LElA: D-16. OC dof gl. degol An -01 derivative of de~ 'ten' < IE *dekl!t-t. Schrijver: 80~ VGK: I. animae J 18 dBmes v prete 2 sg ? The connections of this verb with MW darnu 'to separate' and tarnu 'to dry. however. 231~ VGK: I. DGVB: 1)0.40 d8m prep. GPC~: 906: E. both of which occur in the Juvencus manuscript have been suggested. dym-). a circuiting' Hapax in Welsh. in both cases is remote. VVB: 94. In general. assembly. T. stabllltl1n··. *diilno· (since O'Rahilly) < IE *don. WO: 27 ordamcirchinnuou gl. decadihus Mr' 7 h. LElA: D-16f. pp. Williams: 1933.round. 92. tenth parts' fde~()11 dBt' n m&f 'meeting. council' (dadl) MW dad(y)l. however.306. 193-7. Olr dal < *dhH-tlo-. Williams: 1980. Lambert: 1986. Mlr dam < Britt. 184 Amdifuys daul bacl patern Pad: 4 dBum n m 'son-in-law. dcifraud atuis gl. demorator Me 6 b. GPC: 883. Ilamp in ZCP 36 (1978). VVR: Q7 ordeccolion gl. .J· 'teilcn' (lEW: 175). would suggest dat = do + at in combination with dot (W dodi 'place') and li. dat (cf. K. Williams: 1980. i'th darnes ti 'in your fragment'. ambagibus J 56 dsmlTlluda/uis [Latin J Several interpretations of these two difficult glosses. mynachlog GPC: 872.2) dBmcirchineBI n 'delayer' Hapax in Welsh. E. see DGVB: 172. 39--45. Perhaps. DeV: 110. OB dad) gl. "Ie sens et la formation rappellent Ie lat. lEW: 237. far from clear.118 itdamestf gl.os 'hollsc(holdr~ see also dOlO". didalll. to IE *do: *d. '.< IE *dhe. stabulis Ang 15 h dallolimb? According to Stokes. dBul n m 'share' Hapax in Welsh. GPC: 884. h. 392. F. genec MB deuff. cf. OB damcirchinn 'fait Ie tour de' < *do-ambi + cyrchyn. (J"Rahilly in Celtica I (1946). 135~ VVB: 95 in irguorunhetic dati gJ. Loth. J()5--6. \vhich is a cognClte of Jclvll. see also the next. 4R: VVB: 96 dauu gl. It was argued by P. ~ on this word sec (iPC: ()(l4. Ir daiss < *dasto. concionator.291.-Y. PECA: 36. concio.Csetzen. ML: 94.3) dam anpatel Juv 3 (2. PECA: 39~ Rhys: lR73. Fleuriot refers to W datsaf 'stay of blood·. fora Ovid 38a dalsebimou n pi 'establishments. heap. lEW: 191. cattle-sheds' damcirchineat gl. GPC does not consider this instance. GPC: 906. Thurneysen: 1890a. apc: 916: Stokes: 187J. aceruo J 45 According to Fleuriot. W datod 'to loosen') and limb (W lIun 'hend. reckon' have been considered. pro 252-R: LElA: D-20. IE Vdhe. pp.'zehn'. file' [diS] MW das. damcirchinnuou n pi 'a going around. lEW: 238. < *do-ambi-. LHEB: 417. see circhinn.a. GPe: 900. subtrahet igni J 2 dafraudatius gl. 5-12. According to Stokes. but cf.bout' (dam-] This seems to be the only usage of dam as a prepostion. The instance is not quoted in ope.

WG: 87. 1-10 dimedichat Chad 2 bichet paniu pet guarid. etc. did di aries Comp 19 anu di iuno gl.529. love dignus Ovid 39h di 5 (particle -?) see diglniuhit diam. VVB: 91 delehid gl. Loth (contrast WG: 351) this is considered as a combination of a prefix dar. b. Populonam MC~ l1a.. OIr do < IE ·'0-.12) delu n r'image. Lambert: 1987. Friedrich. Lewis: 1926. Williams. inani Ang14 b Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7. enuein di iunoni gl.a. Mac[a]roncsos Me 49 b.. JO: 95--6. 109) was rejected in favour of 'to' hy T. IOJ-4 omnipotcils auctor tidicnncs adiaI11. lEW: 194. anu di iuno gI. pres. GPC: 930.r 10 'mystery. GMW: 35. GPC: 932. darf-. Lambert: 1983. *adiell ior.)c·hi J . Watkins: 1982. MJ: 272.i. di. 3. GPe: 892. sera Ox2 44· (6. B dleizen GPC derives this fonn from Britt. door. or directly < *dagiones. Loth in RC 26 (1915). MJ: 271 imguodant ir degion Chad 2 delehid D m 'lock.1---2) r· . Haycock: 11-2. R. OGVB: 126. 64. 1970. nomen di cretae gl. cf. *del.< IE ·del. asse bichan MP 22b (234) di mesur MP 23 a (229. 'to' The analysis of this preposition as used to denote 'from' (Caerwyn Williams: 1948. itsclf a word without an ctymology (LElA: 0-68). p. LElA: D-47-8. lEW: 182. Iterducam et Domiducam Me' II a.285--6. LElA: 0-12 di pul irderuen Chad 6 demm ". 30. 'ISly' Jdio~J f\1W diawc. Dummismatis J 80 demen D sgl. see GPC: 866 and 942. dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4. d. 'Baum') E.2) haccet. 3 sg 'to happen' [darfod] MW deru-. lEW: 1068. di assa . Cacrwyn Williams: 1948. *adiein ior. Comp 8 irnidibid ir loyr di a. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. 141.a. LHEB: 387. caucassus Me 50 h. It has been noted (LHEB: 90) that the spelling "deruid and lacou are probably due to the influence of Latin writing in Wales.4.1 h dilitau gl.'spalten.« "do-are) and personal form of the verb 'to be'.. 146. *dlekt-.1) di 4 prep. in which b and v are sometimes confused". GMW: 14S-(). nitegid. Olr delb < Celt. Watkins. Latio Ovid 39 dittihun gl. bar. 'from' 08 di. tibi soli Me 9 a. C del.3. the form houl 'sun' is Breton. 1) (surexit tutbulc . daruid Since J. GPN: 188 with bib!. pp. 'to' MW y~ OB da. Bromwich: 1980..a. 140-146. GPC: 1135. Sec di l and cf. prep 'to' DGVB: 141 and 136. Olr daur di 3 prep. munerihus Ovid J7 h hin map di ioh gl. see also didi. VVB: 98 delli gl. Suadae MC la. 332~ GPC: 943. diapcrthou gl. 131. Erytria quacque ('umea cst vel Phrigia Me II h. Proto-Indo-European Trees. a. p. Williams: 19RO. statue. cf. di < IE *de10: 105.b. LElA: D-l11 and T-81. dyle(y)th.42 43 bihit dir temi Comp 16 araut dinuadu J 0 di gl. enuein di Sibellae int hinn gI. P. pi~~rr. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38. Benveniste in Word 10 (1954). 172 ir nider uid hinn. cock. The alternative readings of this linc were suggested hy M."•• J Juv Q (1. Haycock: 9. OB darned. ding: Q{' diue gl. Brittonic Derventio.h. form) da 'good' < *dag-.259.oir. disuc adj. who inter aha suggests a connection of this word with Irish dfa". ) dierchim tir tclih Chad 2 This form frequently occurs in Chad 6 di1. '. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21-22 di 1 prep. nomen di tauro gl. in aduerso Ang 58 a degion D pi ~nobles' IdeoD I MW deon A subtantivised derivative of the adjective (pI. do. See di l • di houl gl. DGVB: 129. idol' (delw] MW delw. VGK: I. H3Y~ A well attested IE tree-name which is reconstructed (according to Benveniste) I *der-w and II dr-eu (Pokorny's *deru-.!d. ()B di. Lambert: 19R7. wonder' ? For the paleography of this difficult line see I. Lambert: 1976-7. Comp 10 . exclusa medulae 1 38 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. schnitzen' ope: 927. lEW: 214-211. B deruenn. JO: 101~ LL: xliv. Ir de. 2RR. VVB: 99 diguorguac gI.bolt' (dylaith] MW dileith. A. 'oak-tree' (derwen] MW derven.

. oithaur hinnith Comp 3 did n m 'day' [dydd) MW dit. PECA: 38.1) gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.. VVB: 99 diAuc g1. 42. 195-6 irdicn_chiriueticion gl. OCV: 141. ML: 160. For the form. perfect'. 2~n--1: VVB: 102 irdigatma gl. v.. lEW: 184. Still another possibility noted by Williams is to read this as in bonn 'melodiously' . ope: 998. etc. Williams (1927 : 260) suggested the reading of the ending as -einr in view of OW e = lei].(neg. GPC: 934.. Russell: 1990. 109 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4. did. anti cf. DGVB: 229: Lambert: 1982. cf. VVB: 101 fonnaul difrit gl. GMW: fiO. OC deC OB dcd. it is derived from IE *gel1:J.31 and 38. Haycock: 13. Williams suggests a link with MW diuan 'immaculate.. pp. J. hinnuith Camp 11 pet guarid. lEW: 564). lEW: 775. j Juv 9 (1. dyd(d).. White: 187-8. digstma n I r 'enclosure for animals. VGK: I.Ju Juv 9 (4.1) dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4. Sec also the next entry. see White: 175-6. See also the next.Y. oPC: 1119. cephitor. area Ovid 37h digntma gl.O. expers Ox2 45 3 (8. GPC: 992. DeV: 197. lEW: 526). 110 guotiapaur oinler dic. 41. see also gllotiapallr oi.. deficient. Lat.. conari (IE *ken· 'sich mtihen" thus J. and the form of the substantive verb. sec also diu Sill. cf. Lambert this stands for dich(i)riu-etic-ion. see also DOB: II. VGK: 1. According to F. segncm J 93 dib8nn? If the word is dibann.2) didaul gl. Stokes: 1873. GPC: 791. pi 1 According to P. pp. 'without a share. Olr dla < *diieu-. hanaud Comp 1 is did ciman. 3 5g 'to make' For the interpretations of the verbal syntax. n. 'to make. fustuarium Me 41 a. dificiuou gl. circus' t . diffic~ C dyfygy < Lat. related to Lat. ME deuaff This form of the verb contains *do-. GPC: 967. 3 sg A personal form of eli l (see s. expers Ox2 47 3 (11. see GMW: 61. haci Comp 3 irdid hinnuith Comp 9 irdid. omnipotens auctor tidicones adiam. Lindeman p..1) dibid v pres. pp. The word is analysed ns a combination of the prefix di. DOVB: 132. ex·per(t)-s. Lindeman in nocs 29 (1981). LHEB: 4~7..~ for the etymology see tii'RGtis. LI-IEB: 351. LloydJones in BBeS 2 (1925). PEe'A: 37. Lindeman. a derivative of dechreu 'beginning'. For the etymology see the next entry.3) diliciuou n pi 'lack. dyt.) + IE *oku-s 'schnell' DGVB: 143.V.r••[. Watkins: 1982. Elsie: 86. Williams: 1980. or a lengthened grade of *kan.a. WG: 83 ismod. Williams: 1980.17) didu prep. Occurs twice in Welsh. E.and the stem is found in ffrydio.1) didsu/adj. VVB : l(XJ didaul gl.f 69~ VVB: IOl "\ "- dironetent v prete (1) Impers. 103.472-7. Watkins: 1982. Lloyd-Jones. Comp 9 dibu l' prete 3 51 '10 rome' See s.GPC: 1026. I. Elsie: 87. I. Williams: 1980. GMW: 134.H'. A -fa derivative from (MW) dyad. cL MW deu.44 45 < di. 452 Imidibid ir loyr dLa.2) GMW: 151. did Comp 18 did braut Chad 2 dicnchiriuetitjon adj. who does not explain the gloss. GPC: 1t I~. dificill1rl GPC: 993.48. 45R. dibid. see S.e. deprived or (diddawll MW did(d)awl < *di (IE *de-) + daul.6--8 pan diconetent ir. dispendia J 4 difrit n m 'a heatin. LElA: D-64. 507. GMW: J27. 138. want· (difTy~ I MW diffyg. 3 sg 'to come' [deuaf) MW dib-. though no grounds or better suggestions are given. VGK: II. I"lamp in EC 14 (1974). The form is then analysed as an impersonal preterite. and hoth times in the same text. ()5R: J. Hapax in Welsh..111-2 it clu(i)s [it] dib~n iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. dill".Ito give birth to'. 1. to do' Traditionally analysed as a derivative of a Celtic Ykiin-. 104. 507-12. Williams: 1980.. circus Ovid JR h .v). principales Prisc16 b dirones v prel. Rhys: 1873.1) dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3. differently by Fleuriot.'singen' (GPC. 495" where Lambert's correction is doubted. pers.O. F. JO: 106.

I. p. 2110~ P.237. f. aboJitione Me 40 a. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995).(Greek /)vs-).). 'hun~ry. MJ: 271. . O. 169-170. and etymology werc left unexplained..342) as a development *mag-s (s-subjunctive) > ·max-. p. permit" (dyad.. Irish snuad (LElA: 5-154). cf. irdigatmaou gl. ret] eliqua Ox2 44b (7. lne word was considered alongside OB deliu. etc.n. Lambert this word shows confusion of two sterns: ·diguolou-etic (ef. diliu~ OB diliu (?) diguoloai~he'k lna(ou). excerpsimus . or otherwise considercd to represent rf] (F. putative -OSlI11 .. see s.v.20) diguedhllm adj. . Williams in BBCS 10 (1941). This perhaps contains di-. Following J.v. \\'hich is a calque on Lat. could be used to denote intervocal -g.'r { 46 47 dig. era8e" [dil-) MW dil-: Olr do-lega < Celt. livor daemonis J 15 dinBut n 'pipe. p. dilill and OC disliu by Fleuriot (DGVB: 134 and 142). llewych 'light' < ?Britt. ?) I pi (1 s~ ?) 'to extract. OD d. di-olo 'decouvert') and *fouich-etic (W llewychu 'briller'. according to P. . According to GPC: 1014. Lamhcrt in EC~ 17 (19RO). GPC: 1113. 15a diguormechis . t . du sg. MB dinou). which is explained as a result of douhling of [h) after di. p. DGVB: 141. W d.).'groB'. Thurneysen: 1890. 'to pour. 3 sg 'to add' OB doguormach 'addition' in doguormaheticion. final' [diwethaf] MW diwethaf A *-samo. conduit' Hapax in Welsh. Lindeman in BBCS 32 (19R5).(cf. F.. exc('rl'ere~ he also notes. Lindeman).40 diguormechis lucas MP 22b (234) dilein" (vn) ? 6to delete. v. ] I. VVB: 102 diguolouichetic gl. pret. OIr do-formaig Hapax in Welsh which contains V*mag. v. The semantic shift. lEW: 708-9. adiectionem i.. (cadarnhol) -g(w)o-llewychedig.. 197-R) interprets the prefix as the equivalent of Irish do. GPC does not consider this instance.-Y. Strachan (in RC 2H (1907).i.'m. White: 115-9 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 diTKslisse v pluperfect 3 sg 'to leave. form of the verb. IE Vleg.was explained by J. C denewy.R~ White: 257 dirlimprosuni v pluperfect (pret.. dfliu gJ.(MJ) or compared to the forms like dybll. (JO). proditus Ovid 41 b diguorinBch n 'addition' See diguormechis. VVB: 103 dilein gl. ·di·leg-n. White: 182-3~ Williams: 1930. zergehen' (lEW: 657) ope: 1012~ LElA: D-]61. dirgatisse) and a stem found in W lIil1ll'rO. colJegimus Ant! 12 n dirue. sfar"in~' 'Japax in \Vel"h.·. ) MW dyadu Etymologically. water-pipe. de plus-quc-parfait de J"indicatif. -aSU'11 . degurmehi te. etc. moy. Loth in RC 29 (190R). flow.. O. GPC: 1060.v. Rhys (1873: 466) this could be analysed as a derivative from W dinou.. Lamhert has shown that the word corresponds to Irish toI011l1llrati.(MW ry. VGK: 11. pp. and IE *snii. */ug-isk.(Thurneysen). choose' L. -ch.h. GPC: 21RO~ Lamhert: 19Rfl.-tropfeln. 1re sg.< IE *meg(h). Feuchtigkeif (lEW: 9710. cognate with gioiu (see s. GPC: 1059 issed diguedbam oJ] Camp 15 Since Stokes's edition (1860-1: 211-2.derivative from diued.{"'·""Jl) lah~'i. hllt cf. di + gadu pcrmif (on this see Isaac: 329) with the affirmative particle -r. 6last. 205. GPC suggests di. VVB: 104) this word wa~ analysed as di(privative) + fill 'colour'. ultimate. Recently P. \vith a prefix liir. 163f. that ula dcsinencc -osun-.O. stream out' (ef. pp. LElA: M-8. concesserat MC R a. sickern. lliwied. yJeug-. GPC: 1020. a la Ir~ pers.562.172-4 dirlimprosuni gJ.. J..-Y. GPC: 986. est ccrtaincment rcquivalent du gall. 'bright. StoKes: 1873.Y. go/au. Note the presence of p. Loth (RC 40 (J923). digat4 adj.ou n pi 'enclosures for animals' A plural of digatma. degurme(h). is a scribal error for -u-. 3 pi 'to disjudge' (difrod-) MW difrawt A compound of di· and brollt (see s.. GPe: 1001. r. cf. I09~ P.··. p. 198 diguormach gl. and gluiuhit which he analysis as a 2 pi imp. circus Ovid 3g b diglniuhit ? According to J. JO: 100. 348.e pronom d'emphase affixe est d'aiJlcurs normalcment -.f.("n("('. see s.b. Loth. pipinnis (for bipennis) Ox2 42 h (4.2) diprotsnt v pres. diU" n m '~ham~. pp.).~ti81 adj.l~t' . for the further references. this contains di. Lambert: 1982. diriuationem Prise.-Y.). GMW: 166.(s)le11. Fleuriot suggested that this stands for dirlil"prOSflll (.and an clement which is found in WedliH'.404. DGVB: 144. Ir ro) inserted after the prevern.'nicl3en. VVB: 104 dinaut gJ. etc.. F. it is also noted that -ch. VVB: 102 hac diglninhit gl. dirgatissc locclau gJ. DGVB: 148..retic. et mod. Sec also dagatte. he divides the gloss into di (verbal particle). reproBC'h' (diliw] MW diliw.""'rfi( (~tfW r!\'nt'("'. Lambert in EC 27 (1990). shining' ? Hapax in Welsh.

VVB: 106 o disci gl. and sui < Lat. OIr dead. Loth's reading . Williams: 1980. Fowkes: 1958. for the fern.a.edh· 'ftihren'. *durii < IE *dhyr.b. GPe lists the word as a hapax. then I&no great host". Bromwich: 1980. GPC: 1076. DG VB: 20R).48 A . 398. LElA: D-181. exanclata MC 3 a. DGVB: 226 int dosseheitic gl. He admits. 38. Loth as a loan from Lat. < ('cit. LElA: D-98). for the stem cf. ()O dOli: (llr delli. GPC: 1149. 369. diwed. sec Schrijver: 37.0re. but cf. He holds that the word consists of a negative or adversative prefix (di.v. Bromwich in her commentary to I. ctc. GPC:r 1051. disc 'Jus < disculU5 DGVB: 144. dew.77. 'sucked ou t. B doT. Sec also c/alill nnd ardo11und. sugo. shout' is not a suitable comparanda. ~2: VVA: 111 . This could be Latin. doctrina.12) n f'dish. diu num.< (or a cognate of) Lat. *d01110J (-fi) < IE *d0I11h 2 -o-. W 5ugno. LElA: D-98.2) dluithruim n 'lever' The suggestion of W. GPC docs not consider this entry.n = W rhwyf = Lat. DaB: 44. di 4 ) + VlJ. card.(()(I1)~ sec also dill. Stokes: IR60-1. Instead he refers to MIr discir 'fierce' and doescair 'mean'. VVB: 108 doctrin gl. DGVB: 146~ LHEB: 479-80: Parry-Williams: 121. diued n m 'end' (diwedd) ~52: VGK: I. VGK: I. pp. discis) di~1 < Lat. C. and is perhaps an authcntic word.7 doiumn gl.in view of B dleizenn. The entry is analysed by GPC 8S *di + sugn + edig. subjected' (dofedi~) W dovedig. 'tamed. did. drained' Hapax in Welsh. m 'two" (dati) OW (LL) dou. -Iraheitic. Stokes: 1873.'TOr'. LEIA~ D-29. GPC: 1038. dofedig An -edig derivative of (MW) do! 'tame' (MB doff. this is a loan from Latin (/0". metallum Ox2 42 h (4. According to J. It was argued by Jackson. lit. 876 (Phillimore: 166) dosseheitic adj. Williams in BBCS 2 (1923). f 'two' See dou. ML: 162. however. Me dor~ Olr dorus. Williams. d0I110). IE *duyo-. VGK: I.v. L. uber-nachten' (lEW: 1170--1). diad < di (see s. lEW: 913. VVB: 101 ithrirdiuail gL glabella medietas MC 9 b. doiumn? According to I. Lat. 08 disc « Lat. cf. It is not. GPC: 1047. and rui. Pokorny's *d~. . *do--ro-l}es--t < IE *yes. lEW: 278-9. card. Russell: 1990. VVB: 105. gutatirn Ang 15 b dou num. LElA: 5-201. renlllS. plate' (dysgl) MW dyskyl. -hegetic. Schrijvcr: dor gl.b. Apparently. Williams' discussion notes that the meaning 'mean' is attested for Irish discir. or dy. solis (ML: 208). "- MW diuet.. Me deweth. R. cf. dOCIUS. B divez. 97-8 isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3. d(l < Celt. and the stern *SCOT· 'host'. JO: 99. According to Pokorny.nos cloillm" (VVB: IRI) should be abandoned. 72. Watkins: 1982.beam I oar'. VVB: III ordomctic gl. vectc movcri J 90 doctrin? This word was analysed hy J.1 lists this entry as dOJseheeitic. WG: 251 ho dined Chad 2 diu suI n m 'Sunday' MW dywsu] The form contains diu 'day" sec S. lEW: 1115-6. that the double final ~r is unparalleled. 70. and the meaning 'fierce' does not fit the context. The stem was compared to that of diddos 'watertight' (see GPC': 9(9). doro < Celt. I.'verweilen. 1-2. 'drippin~' It was suggested by L. Sce also elf'll"'. 'weight . trickle' ((iPC: 1077. who notcd that W disgyr ~scream. \vith no etymology provided). Flcuriot's analysis suggcsts a derivation from *dleikt. ). The gloss remains ohscure. VVB: lOR. 80. dos 'drop. diwet. however.. 41-4. formation consider LElA: D-6 Stokes: 1813. la nee J 59 dissuncgnetic Idj. VVB: 106 dissuncgnetic gl. dillith stands for tluit: W tlawd. 97. listed by Lewis. poor' This segmentation of the line was suggested by I. Williams. GPC: 1072. Williams: 1929. wohnen. Stokes was to read luitll for dluith (llwyllt 'a weigh t').8. diruestiat gl..5) dometic adj. Flcuriot that the word contains the stem dOJ and the suffix -elletic (cf. Jackson: 1950. see Elsie: 57.. 226 or mchir dluithruim gl. that these two Irish words are unrelated (cf. super ualuam Ox2 44:1 (f). The etymology is obscure. Irish suig. lEW: 199-200. domito Ovid 39:1 dor n f 'door' (dor J MW dor. astructio Me 40 a. gueith diu sui inm6n AC i. iad derivative from Celt. Rhys. *duyo. jejunam J 64 di~irr 4<) n 'common. GPC: 1056. MW deu: C' dow. W doeth < Lat.

VVB: 112 dou trean gl. according to Pedersen (VGK: II. VGK: 1. B ugent) < IE ·'li~t. dou (see dou). brambles. denfi. G. 'black' [du] OW (AC. (Greek bQ£o~. 129. Loth. GPC: 989.3) int dou pimp MP 22b (230) b dOll punt MP 22 (234) b dOll eterinn MP 22 (234) dou~. VVB: 113--4 drus gl. processu Ang. with a syncope of the first vowel. Df'lIo. GPC: 1107. Olr dub. Schrijver. LHEB: 336. VVB: 114 ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. LElA: D-210. GPe: 1096. GPC: 938 douceint torth Chad 3 ha douceint torth Chad 3 ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 douhollce. cruel' rdur J MW dur. see lEW: 215) was recently queried by P. MB haczl < IE *segh. OW (LL). Me darat. B dir. GPC: 1097. dumetum. bissem Ang 47 a dou trean haur gl. p. MW du. spinis J 56 drissi gl..'schlagen' (lEW: 117). Fleuriot CDGVB: 274-5). Greene: SQ4.. VVB: 113 6rd "rissi gl. OPC: 1089~ lEW: 278-9. Olr dur < Lat. PECA: 41. see De Bernardo Stempel: 110-1 with further bibliography. dyfin.-{) and 538-9. OIr driss gl.. Schrijver: 413. LElA: D-191. v.50 51 same protoform as OW dor. PECA: 40. dur adj.8.. lEW: 228. halten' (*~rl~"'lii) . DC dreis g1. and ugain(t) 'twenty' (aIr fiche. DGVB: 153. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3. VVB: 113 guarirdreb gl. cf. ML: dur gl.nf nOID. LElA: B-34. DGVE: 151. LElA: D-IR2.handle· rhaeddel] MW hacddcl.(ydhell-). 61b dnts n m 'door-way. lEW: 264. OC dll~ gl. Elsie: R3. for an underlying form *dllbLJo. pi 'cut away' Hapax in Welsh. dub see du dubeneticion adj. PECA: 41. dumas J 87 162~ VVB: 114 E e prOD. this goes back to the edil n f 'plflll~h . OC dlly gl. thornbushes' [drysi] MW drys(s)i. to IE *bhei. G Dubis A derivative of IE *dhubh.V. 59b douid see •••erdutoa ti pint•••• dreb n? According t~ ]. 'hard. LHEB: ~75 eo quod ipse narrauit generationem Christi hcnHd duititft J 0 DGVB: 232 is douhouceint gl. see S.'i are thoroughly ohscure". Schrijver: 410.s 'zwanzig'. Olr dorus < IE ·d1t~or. piece'. DGVB: 152.~ This interpretation of this entry was offered by L. 'hell glanzen'. LElA: D-223~.20-25. pOSe 3 sg 'its' lei) . bisse Ang 56 a har dou trean gl. "the details of the reconstruction of drw. 404. OCV: 209..8. LHEB: 275. deugein(t) A compound. this is a word for 'las'. Schrijver: 331. duruJ GPC: 1099. Stokes: 1813. vepres A widely accepted derivation from ·dris. a cognate of W difyn 'fragment. C ugens. o e leidim gl. OB du.n' num. See also the next. The presence of a Welsh article allows us to consider this form as Welsh. door' fdIV!) MW drws. 'forty' [deugain] MW deu vgein. claustrum J 66 du adj. lEW: 1177. though the Breton form must be identical.'to cut to pieces'. VGK: 1. canl.. 'forty' See douceint. OPC: 905. HB) Dub-. gurgulionibus cxsectis Me 42 3. However.see E.'festhaltcn.to. < IE *dei·. dris(si). 20). XL Ang. LElA: 0-64.116 ir du bisl gl. arel. lEW: 185. Olr dia. duiutit n m 'divinity' MW dwydit A -tit derivative of OW (LL) (Juiu. LElA: D--6. de tribulis J 27 drissi gl. hi I . for the etymology and further bibliography see s. Cowgill in MUnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 46 (1985). OB drisoc gl. . dira Ovid 41 h drissi n pi 'briers.. Hamp in SC 18/19 (1983/4). see GPC: 1101.. niger. uepres. pp. meloncolia Ang 6R a w.80. etc. edito Me 3 a. OCV: 302.'Tur".

IE *albho. PECA: 45. C ef~ Ir som.ic") shows the omission of copula. 135. MW eliw)u.. *rei. p. GPC: 1209. etc. W. triquodru111 see I. Schrijvcr: 259. 217. RClchcllcry in Fe 11 (IQfl4~~) pro 111--112. IJ)~ consider. Hamp: 1919. to IE V011t. Koch in BBCS 38 (1991).'weiG' (lEW: 30) GPC: 1205.(lEW: 2R I): the quotation from the luvencus glosses ("thafs ir cise11. ungula. etc. luxury' . 08 aHin gl. Hamp in BBCS 36 (1989). cf. ferula.20-2. OaVB: 157~ Elsie: 102. Fleuriot as an impersonal form of W eirifaf.'eins'. where IE Ye11t. VGK: 11. 6. Williams. GPC: 1196. p. T. LHEB: 387. GPC does not em pron. *o/fno < rE *el-. di. LElA: A-J4. Schrijver: 134. 5RO) issem ir .68-9. W eir. E. DGVB: 156.266 haccet.a. ang~-inii from IE -hJ'Jt·u. 'biegen' --. T. GOI: 47~ apc: 1206. unguis. hinnuith issid digucdham 011 in pagina regulari (·omp 15 em ir cisemic gl. 7) egid v pres. GPC: 1262. angulus. scm < IE *seln. lEW: 985-6. OB eguin gl. White: 109-10. but see LElA: A-60). etc. DGVB: 276. G Albi(o)-. VVB: 117. qui primus 1 70 issemi anu gl. pp. unguis. cf. independent 3 sg 'he. or from the IE demonstrative *e.Lat. Pokorny.lc. etc. nouacula Ox2 42 h (4. Williams: 1929.59. present form.~ A compound containing the affected form of ala! 'herd of cattle. Krogmann in ZCP 21 (IQ1R).~nahren'. if' (ef) MW ew. Aspekte der germanischen und keltischen Religion im Zeugnis der Sprache. travel' According to I. 579~ WG: 273 isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 (see Watkins: 19Q7. W. ulna~ OR olin 'coude. elyflu. Loth in RC 45 (1928) p. OC elin gJ. 164. p. Sec r. dies Ang 54 a elbid n DI f 'world' (elfydd] MW eluit.87-9. H. Olr umae < Celt. Williams: 1927. wealth. reifl. Genius Me 11 a. nitegid. Meid.?) '10 more. The instance is not quoted in GPC. VVB: 116 elinn gl. 127-30. LElA: R-31). cf. (cf.nmhert: 19R2a. 08 em. e. 2 sg (3 sg . Ir Albu < *olbiio-. Hessen in ZCP 9 (1913) p. Alternatively. Stokes: 1873. Williams in nncs 10.< *o1n-eio·. MIT a/om. e. Watkins: 1997. however.'spaltcn. 173. < IE *al. oaVB: 50. pp. Jones in BBeS 9 (1938). See also J. *omiio. brass. Schrijver: 326. 115. e~incarn gl. (Pokorny's ·onogh-.52 ~ 53 GPC: 1804. impel'!l. elin gJ. due to the facts that 1) independent form could not be expected in W after a negative particle. 4R--Q. Watkins suggests that this is a 2 sg. 109 and ZCP 45 (1992). hitter· (Pedersen.a.'fOt' is postulated. <llso I. pp. stipa Ox2 42b (4.137. (1940/1).7) elinou n pi 'elbows. A.f'number' (Olr dram) < *ad-rimo-. hor elin MP 23 3 (246) elinn n f 'razor' (ellyn J MW ellyn. DGVB: 157 melinou uel elinou gI. T. 2) other forms with -id suggest a relativizing suffix and 3) there is no need to consider in all the cases the omission of loyr. which contains a reflex of IE *(o)r. See elin. who was followed by GMW. --. this is connected with consider this instance. v. abspalten' (douhted in LElA). lEW: 307~ LElA U-IR~ LHEB: 595: OCV: 56~ PECA: 42. Watkins: 1987. I. . see also Hamp: 1977-8. 10290 12 h sec E. present. J. efydd. 394. Hamp in BBCS 28 (1980). Olr ingen < Celt. GOI: 2R5: GPe: 117()~ lEW q02-4~ LElA: S-16q~ VGK: II.(lEW: 60.Lat.b. mela Me R a. cf.e.1) emedou n m pi 'bronze.·. a pI of elin. VVB: 115. this is a 3 sg..o r111itl . The instance is not quoted in GPC. traditionally. GPC: ] 209~ Williams: 1980.'roh.59. lEW: 780. forearm' [elin) MW elin. 107. copper' [erydd) MW euy(d)d.1) e'im/u n m 'great host' [elynu) elin n m&f 'elbow. and lu 'host'. angle' in tri-olinoc~ aIr uilen < Britt. 109 dicones ih~u dicJimlu pbctid Juv 9 (4. 'Nagel'). eliflu . Comp 8 nitegid ad serenn ara)) Comp 17 eguin n m&r 'nail of the finger or toe' [ewin) MW ewin. OCV: 58 and 64. cardinales Ang 15 a ellesheticion ? According to Stokes and Loth. Olr altain < IE *(s)p(h)el. 4-5 edil gl. forearms' The presence of an 08 form olin caused Fleriot to consider this form as Welsh. 22 fn. GMW: 119. 'to count' [eirif-) This entry was considered by L. Elsie: 87 eirimotor gl. Koch in Emania 9 (1991). see s. p.. VGK: 1. DGVB: 169. E. SC'C' Watkins. VVB: 115. OC euuin gJ. lEW: 888-9. eluyd.It~' 'music'. lEW: 26. For the form l"ullid in BN Lat. adungem. WG: 131 ir eguin MP 23a (241) eirimo'or v pres. pers. GOl: 130. VGK: I. 170. on trionoloc gl. see also elinoll. VVB: 116 ellesheticion gl. ulna. Innsbruck 1991 gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.

08 en.166. For a a derivation *ando-daTi-ko.38. Stern in ZC'P 5 (1905) p. WG: IJ6 troi enmeituou gl. flamp: 1974. For the root he suggests a connection with OIr leim (W lIam) 'to leap". ask for. signs. VGK: 1. 3 s~ 'to seck. VVB: 118 ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 emid n m 'bronze. ein(i)on. VVB: 119 nacenbfd gl. White: 9~. 10) enmeituou n pi 'nods. innun. on this difficult base. 10. Ir indcin According to 11. I ) rntp n m 'rIfe' (wynfhl MW vinpn_ vvnpn.. VVB: 120. *ak~I·f1to-. nouiremid gl. rostru/n vel clauufn Ox2 42b (4. A. Hamp: 1973.'in' . emenyn.sn n m&f 'anvil' (eingion I MW cin(g)on. aeris Me 4 b.269-70 Salt emmi guollig hinnitb if bloidin hunnuith Comp 19 en prep ·'in' (1) IE *en. oev: 367-8. chilhocra leg. pp. VVB: 119. ask for. aincch .8) emmi guollig v pres. lEW: 775-6: PECA: 42. ym-.'scharf.32. see White. babtuta Ox2 42 8 (3. ereit.3 sg 'to seek.1 (. aera Ovid 388 < *(ep)-eni-Hoku-ii. emmeni gl. ereis. 347.81-3. DGVB: 160.. Schrijver: 351. the root of which he compares to Greek 1tfVOJUll. incudo Ox2 42 h (4. cJanus: MB (h)ihil < Celt. lEW: 779. imma. oemid gl. meaning 'to prevent. epill n m&f 'auger. et totaln facieln mealn Ox2 41 h ( I. pp.. VGK: I. Aguid. he notes.'SaJbe' (= *n3ngU-1J): see also emmeni.lfU~H<'{(') offered hy L. ope: 1173. VGK: 1. OB enmeitiam gl. Pedersen this goes back to *'Jdhi-pon. wvn~h: nc ~neh PI. Ir smcitThe connection with Greek f. with a prefix (Ir 10-. Itcrducam et Domiducam Me II a. emmi (with no reflexive force) stands for W am-. LElA: U-24. IE *(s)l'en-(d). Erytria quaequc C'umca est vcl Phrigia Me II b. VVB: 117 ir emedou gl. borer. nulla J 71 enderic n m 'bullock. 5-6. hints' (amnaidl MW amnaid. butirum. cf. lEW: 312. 'opposite' See arci11leir DGVB: 165 emeninn n m 'butter' (ymenyn] MW emenin. ebyll. WG: 151. Donostia: San Sebastian 1989. ope: 1213~ LElA: A-76~ LHEB: 508.5) enuein n pi 'names' See anu.b. 402 was rejected by Vcndrycs. cnuein di iunoni gl. LHEB: 587.-Y.r with a probable Basque connection (see M. GMWL: 296. White: 183-4 rit crcis d••raul inadaut prescn Juv <} (H.e. rC(llIest' Sec erehinl. ann. 865-7) and with an unexpected preservation of -nd. kantig' GPC: 1155. White: 270: Williams: 1980. clrtUllS. H. Midlr a(i)nder. spanncn' (lEW: 9RR). 46. and cf. IE *ak. brass. GPC: 1190.4) ercimeir prep. VGK: r. IE *ok u. em-~ OB em.'zichcn. p. Stokes: 1860-1.(cf. vitu 1 J 0 us ercimeir gl. per nutus Ovid JR h enn.261-270. For further possi bilities for the interpretation and their possible draw. Diccionario etimol6gico vasco.a. B annoer. 291 considers this as an intensive prefix. gimlet. sec Chantraine: 881-2. According to I.'schen' DGVB: 160. ~bull)calr MW (h)enderic. i. request' See erehint. cf. Williams.. cnuein di Sibellac int hinn gl. GPC: 97. An -ig derivative. OCV: 333. Olr imb < IE *'J~-en. OC obil (for cbit?) gl. P. I ) ercis v pret.see Hamp: 1977-8. See also OWAV. piercer' lebilll MW chill. Williams: ]927. that OIr im I imm in relative clauses becomes imme. contra Ang 60 a ercit v imp. 75. lEW: 19.el. lEW: 777. backs. chilhoern gJ.55 DGVB: 216. Tovar.54 . LElA: 5-141. OGVB: 157). 3 sg -to prevent' (1) Hapax in Welsh. naQina: OR cnen uucrt: Olr cncch.96-7 namercit mi ncp leguenid hcnoid J uv . 16 sive enderfc gl. wimble. cf. DC amanen gl.. emmeni n m 'butter' See emeninn. Lambert in EC ~27 (1990). copper' (elydd) See emedou. PEC~I\: 4L VVB: 121 epill gl.1. Schrijver: 394. 114 ennian gl. p. ex aere MC 46 b. PECA: 8. Jackson: 1950. I Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia: Diputaci6n Foral de Guipuzcoa. steer. MW OM (n)eir 'heifer'. anticipate'. emncid. Pedersen in JCS 1 (1950). enderic . W gwo-). in.b. spitz. VB: 120. VVB: 119-120 haln hoi cncp gl.

pI. GPC: 179. 70. 1-. OW fionauc gl. ) dierchim tir telih Chad 2 erguid prep.. < Lat.. apc: 127().. DeV: 63. pr.(cf. GPC lists this entry as Brcton conlparanda. 444~ n m sgl. MB felch alongside with Irish selg is traced to *Jpelgil-. Toporov. . ML: 167.. IE Vperk-. 92) gl. See atar. PECA: 43-4. PE('A: 46. For the IE etymon..'see.. : . facialis GPC: 1280. edau. OC fodic gl. VGK: I..'. rosarium Prise 24 a rox·~loves' (monl MW f(f)ion... Elsie: 109.. ffawt. 6R: VVB: 12ft l1ouirfinnou gl. r_~_ . for the semantics... Ir escir 'ridge' For the difficulties of the derivation from *eks-kara. see Isaac: 326.1 ~ __ J: "~ _=_ . Pedersen as cognates of Lat._. 112 estid gl.. ~ ~_~. _ _~ . LElA: A-97.. esC'eir n f 'limb' (esgair) MW.. 2 sg 'reap again· A . theatro Ovid 3811 etem n m 'thread. see V. VVB: 126. for hlhl t. yam' (edao) Hapax in Welsh. luck' (fTawd) MW herwyt. ope: 1200..a. 20J a faut gl. Siovar' A-D.. For various possibilities for its interpretation see OWAV. OIr ast· < Britt. . IE V·'J~id..a.. fionou n pi 'roses.. VVB: 124 a hir etem gl. eskeir. ef. GPC: 1301-2~ LElA: S-172~ lEW: 9R9.. heruit: OB heruid < Celt. pila MC 38 a.: .... . GPC: 1242. See also heruid. _. t.236-7. see Williams: 1930. It is not attested in MW and W. WO: 414-5 guotan amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23 8 (241) MW faud. see DGVB: 170. DGVB: 138. Ir sonn < IE *sp(h)endh. arch-... rnsnrum t\1(~ <) h.. 'according to' (herwydd) F fsut n f m 'fate... see fionoll. aitheamh 'fathom' < Celt..sk-. VGK: 1... Irish cara) see PECA. purple . ·ari-uid-. bitten'.'ausbreiten' GPC: 1163.. DGVB: 170 n6 ir felchou gl. VVB: 125 feciaul gl. Williams: 1933... lEW: 821... n. see OWAV.. (f)\ . a fortuna Prise 24 b feciaul n 'napkin placed over the face of a dead person' errei see nam hint erre.. fascia J 91 felchou n pi 'spleen' According to Fleuriot.44. . DGVB: . OC elescher (possibly for uel escher.. Prusskii yazyk. . .. __ .. see LE IA: S-R 1. IE ysed.. rods' (ffonJ MW edeu.. esgeir. VB: 272. DGV8: 171 fionauc gl. crouitorio Ox2 41 b (l...~ etlol? This gloss is obscure. ffyn.l3~ cf. LElA: A-86.. Lane: 249. cf. Olr arcn < *arka < ·pr.. 132. rosarium~ Mlr sion These words were analysed hy H... White: 266-R acet met gl. 255. retunde J 77 erchim vn 'to seek. cf. JO: 96.. VVB: 123 ceng ir esceir MP 23 8 (246) estid n 'seat' (eistedd) MW eistydd. ML: 167. etc. White: 299 (surexit tutbulc . etc. DGVB: 17t~ GPC: t2RQ~ E.. placentarum Ang 55 a finn n pi 'sticks. see also ercit and cf. Schrijvcr: Stokes: 1873. Moscow: Nauka 1975. VVB: 115 etlol g1..56 57 with aeddfed (GPC: 36). "{amp in CMCS IH (I()H9). VGK: I. .: . agit eterin illud MP 22b (234) ir pimphet eterin MP 22b (234) dOll eterinn MP 22 b (234) See also foionouc. 3qR~ VGK: I. 413. . . *estied.. falll" . t S-115~ _.. which cannot he used as a solid argument against the presence of this word in OW.. DGVB: 167. the word could be Breton. though it is preceeded by the Welsh article. gurth cimarch. see Williams: 1944. 403 finn gl. VVB: 123. felix < LuI. Gael.'Holzcimer'. . dr.PC' dot'S not consider this instnl1l'l'. Craster: 135) etmet " imp.. 244.. VVB: 123. VGK: I. see also [onnaul and cf. ask for. 'bird' fionlluc n 'rose garden' An . tibia. ~ . Elsie: 135. pp. lEW: 824. 113-5~ LElA: Schrijver: 2Rl. ..< Celt. ()('V: 140. [0"". GPC: 1860. VGK: I. request' [arch-] MW erch-. -eks. *etami-. cf. in el herwydd.h..sed·.. Stokes: lR73.. (.. instita longa Ovid 378 eterin(n) MW ffon. auc derivative of fion.pion.. MB archass. . IE vpet. DGVB: 210.'sitzen' (lEW: 884). 'fragen._~_~:_. OB estid.56.

(f)frwyn. see A. (iPC': 1. Rowland in CMCS 26 (1993). 402-3) was to consider this as a sg. 58-9. DaVB: 171 foionouc gl. p. Bromwich: 1980" 95-8. fonnau/adj. fertilitas Ox2 46h (10. the radical is Breton. not registered in GPe.io.98-9. Rehel). A. fistula (si]bilatrix MC 62 b. Breeze in Notes and Queries 236 (1991).3. ferculum Me 14 b. 'pertaining to a stick or spear' Hapax in Welsh~ an -awl / -of derivative of [onn. paglum Ox2 43 A (5.91. aIr sibal(l) The Brittonic words are usually considered as loans from Lat. ML: 17R: Schrijver: 160: VGK: 1. cleft. Hamp. GPC does not consider this instance.a. GPe: 1292. GPC: 1324-5.3.V. cds. vittae tcnues Ovid 37" G gllblllu adj. GrossmCln.. VVB: 126 fistl gablau gl. shackle. [renlon.§ Iuniou 0 r pi 'band. fructus (W ({. GPC: 1904~ E. Texts and Transmission (submitted for puhlication). fustuarium Me 41 a. [JGVB: 17. E. 221: VVB: 12R fruinn gl. VGK: J. DB fleriot gI. this could be a bretonised Welsh form .1302. ML: 171. OC flair glo oder.1.3). fistula Jsi)hilatll.1) fruinn gl.l. Gabelung. prolific'. 225. OB funiou gl. 236-7 and 467). rosetum Prisc 35 b fonn'1 The suggestion of Stokes (1873. pp. Falileyev in Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages.6) Cl j franc n m 'foreign merfenary' MW franc < MLat [rancus This interpretation and derivation forwarded and advocated by I. Hamp). 95 mi am franc Juv 3 (2. hcrc W (1675) [[rwyth'onaidd 'fruitful. OIr srfan < Lat. bonds" (hual) MW hual. /lagro < fragTo DOVB: 171. !!rl·vythloll 'productive. consider the attempts to see in it a verb (VVB: 127) or the dispute ahout the formation of the adjective (Rhys: 1873. Rees in BBCS 18 (1958-{)(). fertilc' (GPC: 1320).\ ~1C (.Hlla. Williams was challenged by A. PECA: 46.ir n . OPC: .~ h. Schrijver and E. cf. pp. 149-51 and in BBCS 37 (1991).). fibula Ox2 43 (5. oe. 1. In her note len ny Rowland argues for the traditional interpretation of this lexeme. J. Breeze who considers this as a loan from AS franca 'javelin. conlpes Ox2 43<l (5. 259~ LElA: S-I04-5: LI-IEB: 276. p. EL: 17. form of the plural finn (see s.4) fual gl.2) Hapax in Welsh. Williams in BBCS 7 (1935).11) Iminn n m&f 'bridle. olacem Me 14 8.3) fralldll'uis see dsmfraudaJu. fruidlonaid gl. funis DGVB: 172.n·rth). Stoke": 1~7J.v. Stokes: 1813.58 rlSll n 'fistula' 59 the discussion of the form is very controversial.402. without specifying it (LI~EB: 276). San. fihula.a. LElA: S-IR6. 404. VVB: 128 a mein funiou gl. Loth maintflincd. VGK: I. fruyn. rudentibus < Lat. GPC: 1310. and the dialect variation (E.. IUIII n f m 'fetter. Bachcllery in EC R(IY5H). pp. LHEB: 597. pp. Haarmann. by the influence of the Latin original (P. locell vel fonn gJ. Schrijvcr).. I am going to reconsider the suggestion of Stokes in SC. Chicago Linguistic Society.220-1. VVB: 127 Connaul difrit gl. foionouc n 'rose garden' (1) Though the form of the suffix looks Welsh.. AP: 53: E. see also ruinn. finn 'stick'. restraint' (fTrwyn I MW fruin. See [ionou. II R. EL. 'smell. Mini-laws. Williams: 1980. 21-5. I. ML: 168.1 nnd cf. ML: 171. see s. The unexpectcd vocalism was explained (differently) by P. Gahcl' see lEW: 40Y. For the discussion of this entries and the arguments for the "Cornish symptoms" they betray. spear'. T. que redolet < Lat. see Williams: 1980. n. fionauc. GPe: 1319. MB hual~ cf. For the Latin context ~c~ Stokes. F1euriot points to the possible Breton origin of this entry. and nnt a plural form. forthcoming. frcnu"1 Ox2 43" (5. The troublesome initial in OW was explained by a "fluctuating changc". W ffistwla was borrowed from English (GPC: 1290). DCV: 335."\70. stink' Imair) MW ffleir. fillet' (". Stokes: 1873. < Latin fIStula. Cf. . gyve. forked' (~anawl fnlirllnnsld ? Thou£h the stem of the word is an apparent Joan from Lat. as J. Olr RaJ"" < IE *R"ahh(o)ln~ 'Astgabel. Papers fr0l11 the Eleventh Regional Meet!!!g. for a different view see ML and LElA. Chicago 1975. 366-8.uo) MW ffun. 'split open. The semantic aspect as it was noted by Loth (VVB: 127) makes this assumption ra ther dubious. mature. ML: 168. Hamp. 404: VVB: 12H fistl gablau cl. B. Vance.b. MW gaflaw An -ow derivative of *gohl (all Kohl gl. 223. alternatively. pp. The word perhaps also occurs in Juv 3 (1. VVB: 12R fual gl. VVB: 126 flairmaur gl.

5 gilb gl. OB guoiam. sharp·pointed instrument. ope: 2012. VVB: 129 .1998). MC' glas. IE *gelebh. nehmen' (lEW: 407 f. r 'point· (gylfin) MW gyluin. lEW: 432: LI·IEO: 1. forthcoming). lEW: 425. 194. schimmern' lEW: 429.'schaben'. OB PN Regulbium. VGK: I. DeV: 338.J10 5.12). Olr gulha < Britt. when plo. WG: 100 in irgaem Chad 3 gam? gerthi gl. PECA: 48. foratoriu. Craster as ~." Ox2 42 h (4. GPe: 1380 does not list this example under gar.05. fetter. knife' (gylf] MW gelef. munctorium. Loth analyses this word as 'gouffre'. gylyf. iacinctinum.404. nippers' [gefel] MW geuel. this could be an abbreviation for Lat. DeV: 157. he writes.60 61 MW icrthi. see OWA V. Schrijver: 101 and 108-10. LHEB: 417. see gilb and also the next. gylfin. chain' (gefyn] MW geuyn. VVB: 129 gebin g1. < IE *glrrl. *gulbfno. sec Parry-Williarns. < Britt. IE yg(e)i. B garz(h)ou. ostrum Prise 14 h gil? ? . PNRB: 440. dolabra Ox2 42b (4. PECA: 51-2. VVB: 130: WG: RJ gins g1. 'blue. OPC: 1794.G gillstum 'woad': OIr glas Parry· Williams: 121. Those assumptions are based on the presupposition that the preceeding ha stands for the later 0. sec Schrijver: 173 for the form of the root. lEW: 409. rostrum. 10: 95 and D. Sec also gilbi". cf. 118. Schnee' DGVB: 196. St. Giamon[ios]. gaeaf. IE *ghabh. contrast VVB: 129. (g)erthi.< IE *ghel:l.) should be perhaps considered here. 'hervorsteeken' (lEW: 440). see gab/au. generario (Zimmer. DOVB: 178 and 175. *gllibio-.'fork' by GPe. 609. a (learned !) loan from Latin genere. According to Zeuss (1061). Ir gart The word was tentatively considered as a loan from AS gierd by ope. 1-1. Stokes: 1873. for the discussion of 1he similar cases with somewhat different approach. orgarn gl. n r 'sharp stick or olher pointed instrument formerly used for prodding and etrh'in~ oxen.~. p. in preparation.em n m 'winter' (gaeal] MW gayaf. griin' (lEW: 4. This dry stylus gloss was found and read by H.'fassen (Fessel)' (lEW: 368) GPC: 1386. or h. Most recently. Ir gem. green' [glas) OW (LL) and MW glas. PECA: 47. VVB: 110. The traditional interpretation of this entry considers this as a Latin word for 'sonin-law.~/lillllil. tgiiam·. alternatively. < *glllsto. gili gl. For a possihle Irish influence.5) gebin n m 'gyve. shackle. lEW: 367. GPC: 1386. Lambert: 1982. ga(i)m ) t. geluin.'. Dr Paul Russell and the compiler of the present CJlossary re-cxnrnined this en try (13. pincers.7) gi/b n m 'sharp point. culleo Me 39 b. MB gevel The word is compared with MW gafl 'fork' and was considered to go back to IE *ghabh(o)lo. For a derivation from IE *gh er. Elsie: 101. OCV: 201. Olr gebend < IE *g£m. OC geluin gl. VGK: I. LHEB: 596. barathri coeno J 81 ~erth. see Schrijver: 17J for the identification of the IE stem: De Bernardo Stempel: 117. OC goyf gl.U. and as an early loan from Germanic in PECA. ox ~oad' (icrthi) Schrijvcr: 17J: VGK: . LHEB: 559. E. e~p. Parry-Williams: 12L VVB: 130: White: . ()Ir gla". This instance \vill he discussed in a paper hy Falileyev and Russell. gennec gl. ope: 1368. schimmcrn. G. the first three letters are definitely gil. g. garan. this stands for garr 'coes' ('leg'). VVB: 130 gflbin gl. gaeaw. cacrula .-').'gHinzen.'fassen. G Pt': 14(0) and stli""i"l. Surexit tutbulc filius liuit hagener tutri (Chad 2) gennec-7 J. Latin context 3. consisting of glon (MWC'B gl(l". DB glas gl. medio Ovid 378 gebel n r'tongs. OC garthou gl.. LHEB: 359.5 gebel gl. Williams: 1929. stimulus. OC geuel hoern gl.a. gefyn. Zimmer has argued in favour of analysing this word as a Welsh hapax. OB golbin. iure Dx2 42 h (4. gclh.. see s. PECA: 48. secaliu111 Ox 2 42<t «('raster: 136. famine sancto J 5 g/ss adj.4) gilbin n m According to I. glosses roslnlll1.102 o glanstlinnim gl. i. Lat. Williams (1929: 5. VGK: I. OCV: 219-20.. 66. see also Zeuss: 1054 for the identification with MW garr. the last letter looks like a small It. OPC: 1401. where this is rendered as 'milieu'). hyemps. DGVB: 172. VVB: 129. VVB: 129 lathar~uc 1. 118: Williams: 1929. DGVB: 176. ghjn~.'Winter.527. Jenkins in BBCS 28 (1980). acumine J 70 gilbin gl. see Lambert: 1976-7.'glanzcn.79.r· gener? .5) glsnst/innim vn 'pure I holy speakin~' A hapax. however. Olr gulhan < Britt. v. GPC: 1794.

I. . and not . Watkins: 1982. G Gobannitio. 'continuous. GPC: 1534. contrast VVB: 225. and liu 'colour'.. IE *ghlei. officina Prise.130 gloiu gl. gloew.112 gobaiJ gl. which he compared with OC goufJan gl. suggested hy Williams. see also glas. also DeV: 270. OC grud gl. Jackson's note.67. WG: 98. VGK: 1. cf.~ 'cross'. Another possibility is to connect this instance with W. OC gof gI. see De Bernardo Stempel: 117-8 with further literature. GPC: 1404 gJasliu gl. see also grefiat GPC: 1523. These are traditionally derived from *goban(n)-. 13 gIJ8C guapeli n m&r 'saddle. accepted hesitantly hy GPC in view of K. Stokes: 1873. GPC: 1529. that the form is Kl'lulou. cf. see also the next. VGK: I. aIr gob(a)e. Stokes was accepted by J. glauci J 75 glas gl. The interpretation of this hapax is that of I.8) MW gobell The word is analysed hy GPC as "go -II.4) guopell gJ.6. OCV: Ill.. Williams: 19RO. PECA: 53.'von gew(llbten K(lrperteilcn. sudaris Ox2 4J. 117 piouboi' int groisauc Juv 9 (M.267. gnte' [gndell) MW gradell < Lat. Loth. gridiron.doff. und Germ:. tinea. MW grud(d).b. maxilla. Williams. lorge' [gerail] MW geueil. OC~V: 44... < Lat. guac. pad' rgobellJ .71.! . LHEB: 325./ -"(1-. Jackson: 1950. where it is stated that the connection· of this word with Irish gresaeh. Lambert: 1982a . grois8uc adj. see JO.uh. PECA: 51 offers no etymology for the latter and quotes only B gQo~an. Haycock: 15--6.192. geueyl The pos~ibility of considering this form as Welsh is based on the presence of an epenthetic vowel (Aeuriot).1I n m 'the (lear or a liquid' (gloyw] MW gloyw. \'OCffIlJ (UOCIIS). glitu and gloiu.5) + clf. gra tella for cTatelJa GPC: 1518. elldo. ML: 175-5 ad ir loc. GP(~: 1552. is historically impossihle.t (). lEW: 462.! D r'smithy. Stokes: IR73 . faher I. I. graphill111.1) This entry was analysed by Stokes as a plural of goudon. gwag: OB guac < Lat. 34b goudonou n pi 'moths' . graphillm + iatl. GPC does not consider this instance. Williams: 1929. Haycock. 5 gratell gl. GPC: 1417. GPC: 1536. Olr graif < Lat. p8D. VVB: 131. ultia Ox2 41. hyacinthinum] DNR IV gletu? This reading by W. ML: 114. ML: 174.31. "- grate" n m&f 'grindle.nnhyshys pel'''. unceasin~' (?) .b. R.a. Hapax in Welsh.5 grudou gl. Williams: 142Q. cror. VVO: 130 gletu gl. yalina Me 5 b. liquidum J 86 glu. GPC: 1386~ GPN: 351. VVB: 132 guapeJi gl. bakestone. DGVB: 1R1. 22. DGVB: 199.v. nur Kelt.2) grudou n pi 'cheeks' [~ruddJ glo. OIr gruad < IE *Rhrolld. 86 and 11.62 63 greliat n m 'title-deed' glas gt viridis J 72 glas gl. 10: 106 grefiat guctig Chad 2 grephiou n pi 'styles' [graifTt J glBsliu n & adj. Williams (1933: 117) pointed to the possible readings gletu. 388 nouirgoudonou gL tinearum MC 2 a. aIr glc < *gJoi-f:!o-s. The form gofail in voce has been also considered as Welsh. The etymology is not clear. VVB: IJI grephiou gl. graticula Ox2 42b (4. OB gloeu. A derivative of W gof (OW LL gof) 'smith'. v. . GPC: 1411. iacirtrum [leg. DGVB: 177.' see digJlliuhit goba. Comp 5 ir loe guac Camp 6. ocellos Ovid 3R h adj. with the unclear further connections. Williams noted. Note the spelling -Ii for . 17 irloc guac Camp 14 irIoc quae Comp 9 loc guac Comp 12. gl ebis J 56 MW graifft. and this is disclissed by M.t (5. 'empty' l~wa~J MW gwac. and the varintion -liO. PECA: 50. 'blue colour' [glasliw] MW glasliw The compositum contains glas 'blue'. stilos Me 5 b. See s.(lEW: 432).

Schrijver: 112. Schrijver: 216. see DGVB: 276 and 181-2. groom' in gUR. iuuenem J 32 gusmBm y pres. however. maessid. Williams: 1980.1 guas marchauc gl. OIr forccnn A combination of the prefix guor I guor with the word for 'head" I'('"n" see s. It was argucd. stipulationcs. MB goupener An -. Schrijvcr: 407.) (rishan. see oev: 342).41. chwerth-. vass-. a. MB huerzin < IE *s~lard. guoroiou.38f. which is attested only in Celtic and Slavic. LHEB: 533. J" Vendrycs in EC 3 . Ir. *ljo-sto. hapsidum cxtrcmequc Ang 1. inti j7ccht so. see ESSYa: 4. annhuariat. OB Ran Guarai. 77. OW (Gen. E. IE *kerd. adultcr Ovid 41 a gUBS MW gwar(a)e. anhuariatan. see gflarai. oi rodiodlir guar un sHab 'on ne fait pas de sens avec une seule syllable'. p. MIr !ochruJ" explained as *"([')0kr d -Sll -. I 51 '10 laugh' ((hwardd-] MW chward-.< IE *upo-Jtho·. 406. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi (Ang 21 a. fahren· (lEW: ) IHf): for the set-phrase. guar" un . flammeo Me 44 a. chwarae / gwarae. VVB: 134 gubennid gl. gue. and pimmunt. VGK: I. -"n llll K'eith.niguardam Juv 3 (2. According to Stokes. cf. gl. WG: 100 . GPC: 1417-8. VVB: 133 guaroiou gl. games' (gwarwy J MW guarvy. occasion' r~waithl MW gweith. IR. GPC: 1577 and 841. thcatra] Ovid 38h gUBr phenn n m 'end. Olr foss < Celt. n m&f 'play. Elsie: 108. v. This is a cognate of ()C gr"gis (MS grug'. MW gwregis. J" Loth treats them separately (just question marks). n-nln/crlll 'on this occnsion. circus < glloro. OW (Ae) gueit 'hattie' < IE *~legh. MB gourffcnn. 'otter' See guor. MB choary.'under-head". VVB: 133. ope: 1589. that there is no need to reconstruct this IE stem. this is 'throwing of the covering'. Is identical with guar 1. OB guocrisiuou This form is quoted as OB by GPC: 1701. 1005) DGVB: 199. 117 . according to P. frolics. DGVB: 182. aries ithou guar kalendis ianuariis Comp 18 guarirdreb gl. 412. edito Me 3 a. cf.ou n pi 'plays. 42 inom ir guccrissou gl. guaroioll. gwarwyfa: OB guarima gl. lEW: 1040.. + *-ma. ftPB: 432-3.96 I!"aro. gusI'd p8~2? l MW gohen(n)yd(d). guarima. ceruical Ox2 44" (6. . Vendryes in EC 3 (1938). the Celtic namcs for \belf arc thus considered to show the same semantic change as their cognates in Slavic: the latter nrc analysed as a suhstantivized prepositions. OCV: 403. plaYRrounds' [gwarwyfa] MW gwarwyua. cf. 194 pimmunt. cf. oith gueid guar cant gl. amusement.I gwa. Vstd.1) 504~ White: 78.1. Hamp in Eriu .-Y. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a gual' see strudugusr grJan.(lEW. see s. VVB: 133 eicentem gu~rd gl. belts' (gwregysau) . teathra [leg.'Jachen'. VGK: 1. J. theatre' [parae J DGVB: 182. The meaning 'avec' of guar in this gloss was compared with its usage in the gloss on fo 18 of the same manuscript. guar2 prep. cf" Irishfuirech < ·fo-rig. cf. 'with' The sequence guar un . GPC: 843-4. stable-boy' I~W8S] OW (LL) and MW guas. for c~ wa. DC hI>er~in gl. v. chawarae. aIso the nex t . lEW: 1106. ope: 1589. Sec also RlIc. OB guos gl. Lambert "sont de deux scribes diff~rents·'. p. LElA: C-66.I. DOB: 531 where the enry is rendered as 'out of'). LElA: C-239: PECA: 5.v.a. C guas: G. Stokes: 1873.fi marchauc 'groom. PECA: 67. DGVB: 276 and IR6-7: (fPC: 1564: Williams: 14XO. guarai g]. . Old Church Slavonic 'IPb3h \through".16 (19R5). scena Ovid 38:1 gUBS see also slI'uduguar gubennid n m&f 'pillow.maou n pi 'plays. cf. II.25) guecriStiiou n pi 'girdles. risus. DGVB: IR5: lEW: 579. Me hwary No etymology~ VGK suggests *worigo. see guaroimaou. cushion' (gohennydd) ? Stokes connects this (for gwarth 'covering') with guard 2 .'bewegen.1: VGK: I.64 65 gual't prep.d derivative of * ~l()·kuenn. VVB: 133 guaroimaou [sic] gl. VVB: 13. Lambert: 1982.. see guardt • Stokes: 187. now'.434. ziehen. guaroimaoll.1 a (1938). p.d n f 'time.th. GPC: 1590. cf.'gorten'. theatris Ovid JR 3 guaro.as a protoform. LHEB: 69. ope: 1483 hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunccant Comp 22-3 n m 'boy.1. see pc"". VVB: 133 oguard gl. termination' (gorfTenl MW gorffen. bolster. gvarycu See guarai.

66
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)

67

gueimmonou n pi 'seaweeds' (gwymon] OB gumouo; C gumman; OIr (emm This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1769. The Celtic forms were tentatively considered by J. Pokorny in his entry *ueib-, *lJi-m-b- (to *lJeip-, y.eib- 'drehen'), see lEW: 1132 which follows T. O'Rahilly (in Eriu 13, 1940-2, p. 163). E. Hamp notes that the better established IE root is *y.eip-, and proposes north-western European *lJis-mon-, allowing for contamination *yipsma- x *,:!is-lnon. The other suggestions are 1) to analyse these as cognates of Sanskrit vapat; (VGK: I, 93), or 2) to discuss them with reference to IE *yes- 'futtern, schmausen' (R. Thurneysen in KZ 48 (1918), p.67). DGVB: 186; E. Hamp in BECS 28 (1979), p.213; E. Hamp in Eriu 39 (1988), p. 194; lEW: 1132 guiemonou gl. marinis herbis Ang 16 a gueith n m 'battle' [gwaith]
Used throughout the "Annales Cambriae", cf. gueith cair legion (s.a. 613), gueith hirford (s.a. 760), etc. Note the following exceptional spellings in AC: gueiht (s.a. 750, "the h of this word is added above the line", Phillimore: 161, fn. 2); gueit (s.a. 848); gueith (s.a. 157; &'the e of this word added above the line", Phillimore: 157, fn. 5). The word is well·attested in this meaning in the later Welsh. For the etymology see S.v. gueid.

< Celt. *LJo·leg- , IE ylegh- ·(sich) legen, liegen' DGVB: 238; L. Fleuriot in EC II (1964/5), p. 15(); GPC~: 162R-9; lEW: fJ5R-9: LHEB: 446; oev: 346: PECA: 55: Schrijvcr: 6R; V(,K: I. 9R and II. )AO: VVB: 135 gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 44 11 (6.25)
guell adj. 'better' (gwell J MW gwelL guell: C gwel, B gwell Perhaps to IE *yel-, etc., ·wollen. wahlen' (lEW: (137), see the discussion in
GPN: 272f. GPC: 16~O; VGK: II, 12l: VVB: I.lS anbiic gucll gl. magister auc Ox2 46 h (10.26)

Kuerc/aud n f&m 'meadow"
MW gueirclaud, gweirclod

Igweir~lod(d)J

The compound contains a reflex of Celt. *yesro- (Olr fer, W gwair) 'grass' (see E. Hamp in Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 12 (196Y). rr. 156-7, and pp. 158-69 for an inventory of IE *tles-~ cf. P. Stiles in KZ 9R (19R5), pp. 295-301), and claK'dd ·ditch, gutter, trench' (C kledh, cleatll ·ditch, trench', B kreuz, OIr clad < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, haucn' (Elsie: RR: GPC: 491: E. 'lamp, Cia,,,: Lucus a non Lucendo. 11K. J. Klar et 01., cds .. A Celtic Florilegium. Lawrence 1997. pp. 4(}-1: lEW: 545ff; LElA: C-I09). See OWAV. GPC: 1622~ VVB: 136 guerclaud gl. prato Ox2 41 h (I. I ~)

pel n m 'gnss' [gwellt] OW (LL) guell; MW guelt, gwellt; OB guelt; OIr gelt < Britt. *ljelt- (cf. HPB: 239). Though the words are found in Pokorny's entry *rJel- 'Haar, Wolle' (cf. guiJlihim), it was also noted that these could belong to IE *gel- ·verschlingen' (lEW: 365); for the connection with MW gwyllt 'wild' with an extensive bibliography, see Sims-Williams, and contrast Schrijver. See OWA V. DGVB: 1878; Elsie: 100; GPC: 1632; lEW: 1139; Schrijver: 60, 67; Sims-Williams: 1981,224-7; VGK: ],96; Williams: 1980,106 eet treidin gllel haguid J uv 9 (2.2)
gue/en n 'calendar or religious festivals' OB guiler, guiteri; Olr. (elire
The word occurs twice in Welsh, and both times in the Computus Fraglnent. < Lat. uigi!iarium or an -eri derivative of W gwyl « Lat. vigilia, ML: 176, cf. Schrijver: 225). DGVB: 191; GPC: 1161; Lambert: 1983, 123; Williams: 1927,267 in irgueleri. Camp 16 i:n irgueleri Comp 17 , Rueli n m 'bed' (gwely) MW gueli, gwely, DC gueli gl. lectum I. lectulum, liein gueli gl. sindo, kala gueli gl. ~tramentum, dillat gueli gl. fulcra

guerin n m&f 'people' (gwerinJ MW guerin, gwerin: OB guerin gl. in duas fnctioncs: Olr foircnn gl. factio < *{iorfllii , IE *yer- 'hindcn. anreihen·. see Schrijver: 12Q for *Ua- / *u c -. DGVB: 189: GPC: 1643: lEW: 1151: LJ-IEB: fl05: J. Pokorny in KZ 45 (IQI3). pp.36o-1: VGK: L 375: J. Vendrycs in RC' JJ (1912), r.47J: VVI3: 1.17 guerin gT. factio J 24 guetid v pres. 3 sg 'to speak" The interpretation is that of I. Williams. according to which the form is a cognnte of dyu'edyd, etc. The IE backgrounds arc disputahle: *Ur/- of this form was c1Clim cd by GPC to he a varinnt of IE *Urd- (Sanskrit ,·ndali). \vhieh is not in lEW. Bromwich: 1980,99-100: (,PC: 1152: White: 110; Willillnls: 14HO. (}l) dou nam riceus unguctid Juv J (3.3)
4

guetig adv•., prep., conj. 'after(wards)' See guotig and cf. JO: 102-3. rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2 dimcdichat guetig hit did braut Chad 2 grefiat guetig Chad 2 Iluiannuin n m
'sprin~~ (~wanwynl

MW guah"nuyn. guayanuhin. gtlahanuyn,

gUClcnhucn.

g\v:lnh"·yn.

~\va(ca)n(n)-

/1

"

.

~/'

.s:'

68

69

wyn; OC guaintoin gl. ver < *,!esanteno-, IE vyes- 'Frilhling' GPC: 1575; lEW: 1174; LHEB: 361; 137 o guiannuin gl. vere Ovid 40b

guin n m 'wine' r~win J MW gvin, gwin, OC guin fellet gl. accetum, MB guin, guyn, Olr nn

oev:

200; PECA: 53; VGK: I, 74; VVB:

< Lat. vil1um
GPC: 1662; ML: 175; OCV: 371-2; PECA: 57~ VGK: I, 210; VVB: 138-9 guin gl. uinum Ox2 44 a (6.20)

f..

guich(i)r t adj. 'violent, fierce, (brave)' [gwychr]

MW guychir, gwychyr; OB guichr gl. ferinus; OIr feuchir, feuchuir The entry is traditionally connected with IE *,!eik- 'energische, bes. feindselige Kraft3uBerung'. The -ch- is left unexplained. See also the next entry. DGVB: 190; GPC: 1749; lEW: 1129; Loth in RC 38 (1920-1), p.299; VGK: I, 122; VVB: 137 guichir gl. effrenus J 27 guichr gl. effera J 69
guichr'- n (name of. letter) See guich(i)r1•

gui[ n?] cip n f 'wine-press, wine-vat' A hapax in Welsh. The compound consists of gu;n (see s.v.), and £",." Lat. cupa. GPC: 1664; Stokes: 1860-1, 222; VVB: IJ7-R claur guicip gl. prelum (quod fit super faciem torcularis) J 78 guinlsnn n f 'vineyard; vine' (gwinllan I MW gwinllan See guin, and lann (it/ann). GPC: 1665; Stokes: 1860-1,221; WG: 73; VVB: guinlann gl. uitis J 77

'ves~e"

<

I~q

guichr Nemn
guid n coli. 'tree(s)' [gwydd] MW guit, guyt, gwyd; OC guiden gl. arbor, OB guid, OIr fid, G. vidu< IE *'lidhu- 'Baum' DGVB: 190; ope: 1753; lEW: 1177; oev: 290; PECA: 56; VGK: I. 41; Williams: 1980,106 cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)

guir· n m 'law' [gwirJ MW guir, gwir; OC guirion gl. verax; OB guir; G Covirus; aIr ffr < Celt. *LJiros < IE *l.Jero·s 'wahr' (lEW: 1166) GPC: 1666; JO: 99-100; MJ: 271; DeV: 186; PECA: 57: VGK: I. 50: WG: 75 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 gui,.J- adj. 'true' r~wir) See guir·; see also t••erdutou t1 guird•••• ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21 issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.h. guird adj. 'green' rgwyrdd] MW guirt, gwyrd; OC guirt gl. viridis. MB guczr: Ir urdai < Lat. viridis OPC: 1762; LHEB: 58; ML: 177; oev: 210; PEC~A: 5R; VGK: I, 214: VVB: 140 guird gl. herbida Me 6 a.a. puirdglll... adj. 'sea*~reen, dark-~reen' 1~~·yrddl.~1 MW gwyrd(d)las; B gurlas See guird, gIllS. ope: 1783; Lambert: 1982a, 22; VVB: 140 oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a. nouirgu1rdglas gl. sali resplendcntis Me 3 a.a. /JuirdJiu n & adj. 'green (colour)' (gwyrddliw J MW gwirtliv, gwyrdliw, gwyrtliw; the ()W form not considered hy GPC' This compound contains guird 'green', and fill 'colour'. See Rllird, hll and cf.
glas/ill. GPC: 1783 guirctliu gl graminCtJrll nNR I'"

goil.t adj. 'merry, glad' [gwylad) MW gwylat An -at derivation from guiJ, see guiled.
GPC: 1760; VVB: 138 guilat gl. hilaris Ox2 45 3 (8.18)

piled n m 'modesty' (gwyleddl MW gvilet, gwyled; OB guiled gl. honestas; aIr fele gl. honestas An -edd derivative of Celt. *'leiiv- (MW gwyl, guyl 'modest', cf. Irish [fa/); for the further history of this etymon see VGK: I, 181 and (differently) T. F. O'Rahilly in Celtica 1 (1950), p. 365 f. This word was recently considered by E. Hamp (in BBCS 28 (1980), p. 213) who analyses it as a participle in *-10- of the root *lJei- 'drehen, biegen', on which see lEW: 1120. Cf. also anguil. DGVB: 191; GPC: 1761; VVB: 138 6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
"\ ".

guillihim n m 'sheep-shears. stissors' (gwellau] MW guelliu, guelle(u), gwellau; MB guelteff A~dcrivative from gwallt 'hair" (OC gols, OB guolt) < IE *uel- 'Haar, Wolle'; note the suffix. See also gulan.
GP(": 16~1~ lEW: 1139; VVB: IJR guillihim gl. forceps Ox2 42b (4.8)

70

71

guirdou n pi 'miracles, signs' [gwyrth] MW guirth, gwyrth; OIr firtu < Lat. virtus ope: 1786; ML: 177; Williams: 1980,109 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)

De Bernardo Stempel: 112~ DGVB: 193: Elsie: 145; GOI: 64; 207; PECA: 49~ VGK: I, 60, 128~ VVB: 141 guJip gJ. fluctibus in Jiquidis J 60 gulip gJ. lequefacta (timore) J 60
guobri adj. 'dignified, honourable" Igofri I MW gowri, gofri

ope:

1685; DeV:

pith see quith guithennou n f pi 'veins' [gwith(i)en J MW gwyth(i)en A -en derivative, cf. W gwyth (MW guyth, gwyth(i), DC guid gl. vena, Olr [eith 'vein·; OB goed (Leiden Leech-Book) does not belong here. According to J. Pokorny this is a loan from Lat. vitta; according to E. Campanile the words go back to ·witt;- "d' ignoto etyma". For the discussion of the (proto-)forms, see E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.201-4. GPC: 1791; lEW: 1122~ OCV: 60; PECA: 56; VGK: I, 14; VVB: 140 guithtnn6u gl. uenae J 43
guithl8un adj. 'angry, furious' (gwythlon] MW gwythlawn, gwythlon A -faun (see s.v. reulaun) derivative of W gwyth, for this see guoguith, guithennou. GPC: 1792; VVB: 141 or guithlaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51

The word contains a prefix gllo « *tIO) and the stem hri ~honour' (C brv, 08 cumbri, uuobr;, MB hry, Olr brfg) < *8"cr-i-, Vg"('r- 'schwer· (lEW: 477: US: 185;
VGK: L 101 and 11,6(1). L. Fleuriot in EC 20 (19H3) pr. ll4-{); VVB: 142 guobri gl. gravis Ovid 40 a

ope: 1432,323; LHEB: 456; LElA: 8-90;

guobrisch adj. comp. 'more dignified' Comparative degree of gllobri, sec s. v. GPC: 1432; LHEB: 448, 459; VVB: 142 guobriach gJ. sapientior Ovid 37 h guoceleseticc adj. 'tickled'

Hapax in Welsh; an -(i)edig derivative of W goglai,4j 'tickle·. gnKleis;o 'to tickle' < go + clais (cf. OIr clas) < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, hallen', see GPC: 4R9; lEW: 545; LElA: C-114. See also guerclaud.

gulan n m 'wool, down, soft hair' [gwlan] MW gwlan; OC g)uan gl. lana; MB glan; OIr olann from British < Celt. ·~I:1nii- < *LJel- cHaar, Wolle' De Bernardo Stempel: 134; GPC: 1680; lEW: 1139; LElA: 0-19; DeV: 360; PECA: 49; Schrijver: 177; VGK: 1,158; VVB: 141 gulan.gl. lana Ovid 401

ope:

1437; VVB: 142

natoid guocelcscticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. b.
guodemis8uch v pret. 2 pi 'to sufTer, bear, tolerate" r~oddcf.1 MW god(d)cf; C godhaf. B gonzav; Olr fodaimI. Williams suggested reading gllodenlisoltch instead of the previouslv accepted guodeimisauclt. Etymologically, Celt. *tlo-danl- to IE Vde/n~"~. dnnl;J: zilhmen, bandigen'.
4

go/at n f 'country, kingdom' (gwlad]
OW (LL) gulat, MW gulat, gulad, gwlad, gwlat; cf. OW (Oen: 10) gu)etic; DC gulat gl. patria; 08 guletic~ OIr flaith < Celt. ·yla-ti-, < lE ·gal- 'stark sein' OGVB: 193~ GPe: 1676~ lEW: 1112; oev: 310; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 171-2; VGK: I, 157; VVB: 14J ~ WG: 82 fssft padfu it~u gulat gi, celsi thronus est cui regia coeli J 19
pled n r 'feast' [gwleddl MW gulet, gwled; OC Ceenguled, cf. G. Vlido-rix; aIr fled < Celt. ~,/ida < IE "~ldQ, VLJel- 'wollen, wahlen' (lEW: 1137) De Bernardo Stempel: Ill; DOVB: 193; GPC: 1682; VVB: 141 gul~d gl. pompae J 86 gulip adj. 'liquid, ~el' Igw.yb) MW gulip, gwlyp'l gwlyb; DB gulip, OC glihor gl. humor; Olr fliuch < IE -flilc-fl-. V'dr'''. 'fcuchL naB· (lEW: 1145)

GPC: 1425; lEW: 199-200: LElA: D-IO; V(,K: II, 295. J74~ VVB: 142: White: 186; Williams: 1929,5 ni ccin guodemisauch gl. non hene passel Ovid J9:l

guogs/tou? Stokes considered this to be gila-galt 'energy', cf. gafft ? Stokes: 1873, 409~ VVB: 142 guogaitou gJ. fulcris Me 61 b.b. guoguith adj. 'vanquished'

, ..

~

Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix guo- and the stem found in OW (lI"gllcant~ see s.v.
GPC: 1517; VVB: 142

guoguith gl. victtls Ovid 41 a
Kuoi/aut n m 'hoftom, ha.. e' r~waelod'

()W (LL) gurei)ant. MW gwaChl\\'t: MB gOOf'lcd. ~'1(~ gnlc\;

The word is perhaps a derivative of lieu 'light'. WG: 247) was claimed to be more persuasive. let fall. Schrijver: 132. and 8"il1' 4labour. pp. sllperstitiose Possibly a cognate of Irish sret". In his 1943 paper I. which according to R. DGVB: 219~ GPC: 149. cf. *ld o .'(sich) legen' (lEW: 658). cf. 24J-4~ cf. aIr !orgnent. gor-. Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953).v.. LHEB: 50J~ VVB: 145~ Williams: I<}JJ. White: Ig8~ Williams: 1980. J. i. Ill. "~o-eks·rong. see also guorit. VVB: 143-4. which is exceptiollClI for this period. see Williams: 19.circhl Comp 2 guOl1lut v pret . GPC: 1550. gllor.1) Kuordiminntiu. guOI guorennieu 0 pi 'fractions" ounces' OB doguorennnam gl. 'I gaoled vn 4to retreat from. gwor-] OW (LL) guar. then 'I do not keep guard'. Voretovirus. The word is analysed hy GPC' as Ro·gre. fn.155-6 VVB: 132 Intrited retec. 'over' [gor-. ~rhe one chosen by GPC is to see in it the same clement as in danRos. naVB: 198. Cl'Il. p. For the etymology. 4to watch over' (1) Accordi ng 10 I. IE *kell. Williams compared the cos in cO. gwar. gwared(-). Another possihility (I. WiJlicl ms. G. 31. ". DB guor-. set free' I 'release' [gollyog-] MW go))ug.-. 124~ E.~ the second element is attested in the law-texts (GMWL: 16J-4).Williams. 118-20 inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.417. the word is quoted in lEW: 1111 in the en1ry .e1lt-) 4 l' ~ the clement -illS is thus left unexplained. Lloyd Jones (to IE ·'onk I jenk). dry and liquid measure of uncertain capacity'. Williams: 1980. V(.lor-". GMW: 188. and means 4hig vat or vessel. Parry· Williams: 121. White: 302-3 ni guo. toil' (OB i11'gIl08"il". sg 'to deliver. GPC: 173 and 1459.. MW gar. guorhir seraul. Parry. Etymologically. gordiwynt According to GPC. Sec also elisa!. relit ]oyr _. 287 Ian Worfrit. pail. Bromwich: 9J~ GPC: 56R~ White: 7J-5~ Williams in BBC·S II (1943). differently by J. extension' l~orffrydJ OW LL 56lanworfrit. which according to cal with the word for 'death' (OPC: 2091). pcrfundo Hapax in Welsh.-. Brnmwich. And the KUorrosJlm 11 r"f \\' ~nr\vac .295. Ir for < Celt.\'l'O. Ilaycock: IJ~ Watkins: 19R2. Williams. drop. exertion' This word is found (twice) only in the Juvcncus 9. uacuum J 65 popelJ see goBpel. < ] E • uper. < ? gor~ + di.1) is to see in this word a cognate of W rhall" cf. 92-3 niguorcosam Juv 3 (1. gollw(n)g < Celt. pessi· mus. oguordiminntius gl. J. 9~ Williams: 19RO. 2551ann gurfrit. 'entirely empty or . elend'. zea GPC~: 1473. 3 . J. dillisor. see retec.3) nitguorgnim molim map mcir Juv <) (9.lJai. E. GOI: 513. VVB: 144 guollu ng 1. GPe: 1549. Hamp in SC 7 (1972). Lat. pitcher.K: II. and llaith.10. ab invito Ovid 39h or.n n m 'the west' (gorllewin] MW gollewin. cf. PECA: 90-1: see rann. J.224. gives "excellent sense in the englyn". air 8"(11'. cf.1. Stokes: 1860-1. gollewein. ruid gl. cf. pp.. Loth in RC 41 (1924). H. GPC: 1483 isit petguarcd pard guor frit nim MP 2J Cl (241) KllorKnim n 'great toil. tuh. apc: 1489. White: 292-5. as in gor!r"t « *{. Morris Jones's alternative explanation (IE *upo-ped-lo. Schrijver: 115 73 stem is cos-~ the latter allows for a multiple interpretation. vcrkundigen' (lEW: 5(6). avoid' [goleithi-] MW goleith Etymologically.(~ee s.Haw ~t() "'atch over' (see gosgnr). GPC: 1474: LI-lEB: J71: VVB: 1~5 is xxx ha guorcnnieu guotig MP 22 h (2JO) guonr. oberhalb' (lEW: 1105). 540f). GPC: 1457. C gor.81-2.. 08 gurprit gl.4feierlich sprechen.(neg) + *'''('/It-.'tiber. OC renniat gl. 110 anguorit anguoraut lu\' 9 (5. See Schrijver: 434.'oid' prep.'ltou'g and postulated cO. GPC: 1582.2) pres. usque sub occiduum coeli J 84 guoJlung "n 'to let go MW gordyfynt.gnim molim trintaut Juv <} (5.·. guaret(-). Lloyd Jones in BBCS 1 (1923) 7. contains go-. Williams: 1980. see loyr. 124. p.. DGVB: 148. this vcrh contains preposition (prefix?) guor-.. Lat.'l.9) K"orK"sc. cf. see also guar and guor- cosom. Note the plural ending. according to Parry-Williams: 122 this instance shows Irish interference. OIr fo-reith < -¥o-re. 114. to save' [gwared-] MW guaraud.in view of Lat.fi n m 'perverseness" repu~nance' r~orddyrlnt I in guoilaut clun Chad 6 f 1. GPC: 1448.t 0 m 'addition.< IE *legh. LElA: 5-93-5 for etymology. 62. WG: 40 bet circhinn frg60lleuni gl. 1 ~g 'to talk' (1).e.3) ope could be identi- f guolleu. See also afncibret OGV8: 202.).adj.72 A derivative of (M)W gwael 'miserable'. Loth in RC 39 (1922).'schwach. gorllewin This reading (instead of the earlier guolleuni) was suggested by T. for this see LElA: R-7. pro 400--40. ilfccurro. 215 guorfric MW (g)orffrit~ cf.

. Loth in RC 36 (1915). Lloyd-Jones (cf.according to J. pp. p. Hamp: 1977/78.> *yor-ymod.74 75 P. p. Melia. cds. 2) fn. J()3: Williams: IQJ. The spelling however. see S. hall' [gorsedd] MW gOJ5(s)et.1) 1 I Meaning unclear.('1usepet. guted < Britt. ~uotiapaur oimer (didu) ? The reading of the line.Y.is superseded by that of E. W godrig: on the latter see (.)1. IRI: OCV: 31J~ PErA: )9: Sims·Wil1itlm~: 1<)<.30-1 and 139. Lamhert as "des guotndinou": for the considerations on the etymology of this \vord and the meaning of the Latin context. 'too much. OPC) to analyse this word as *upor-tttbhimod.615-7.r ? ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 Kuol1lnlretic adj. 115 nouinnguo/tricusegetic/ion gl. 1 1 L. eKprimi tur Ang 15 a '\"'" guortholle. D. Celtic Cul1ure.l04. ~gch()gcn seine.)~ The presence of the second prefix (*-en.2) guonnod adj. Russell in Eriu 39 (1988). Henry: 132: lEW: 1120: Loth in RC . 'noisy' Hapa)E in Welsh.64-5. MB gueun: British PN Vagniacis. Lambert 1983. DOVE: 141 and 332. On the other 1 OGVB: 190. Hamp) presupposes the antiquity of the term. 7. )' dOll 5ee J. impel'S. Hamp who considers here a chain ·uks-mod > *ymod. H. campus: OB goen.c.. E. p.'\6 (IQ1:<'). Henry (lnd accepted by Loth. Lloyd-Jones in BHeS 2 (1925). Its relationship to Lat.1 (1950). OPC: 1492. T.ban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.lI~-. Lewis. a dan. F.PC': 142. see s. W gorl·vag (GPC: 1504 does not mention this instance) is analysed as containing prefix gor-.. Williams (1930: 244) == () dan~ on () da".'stechen spitz'. DGVD: 200 and 224-5~ Lamhert: 19X2a.1. (g)wedi. Instead he suggests that the gloss contains not a prefix. pp. and corresponds to W y orwac 'au vide'. was suggested hy I. superfluous' [gonnod] MW gormod The suggestion of J. 110: LElA: T-7f1: LHEB: 455. 72-~: (fPC: 1603: E. The reading is suggested by H. to save' See guora WI. OIr forad The word contains a prefix *~or.1 DGVB: 200. see also P. IE ysed.. 'after' fgwedi J MW (g)wedy.()n ? guol'!e"giT v pres. *LJo-tig. pp. is noteworthy.. E. Schrijver: 113: VGK: L J75: VVD: 146 is xxx ha guorennicu guotig MP 22 h (230) ~lIotodinou ? hand. lEW: I016~ Lamhert: IQX6.V. H4: VVI3: 145 in irguorunhetic datI gl. 109-10 guotiapaur oimcr didu Juv () (4. and guac. Sims-Williams. Fleuriot in EC 2~ (19R6). in arguto foro Ovid JR:l gu(o)tan prep. MB krrrrrn) ~noise'. I: L(lmhert: 19HJ.6-7 and PKM: 170. 290 is *LJog-nii from IE *y . Matonis. WG: 78. cf. Russell's comments. P. Lloyd-Jones in BBCS 2 (1925). 396. The gloss is rendered hy P. 1 porsed n m&r 'assembly. Sec also (Iidll. P.' di !!uoun hen lann ('had (l . for the etymology of the latter see Schrijver: 423.. 3 sg '10 deliver. Williams. but rather a preposition di. MW gwawn gwcun. contrast WG: 95 (lnd J. IE *(s)teig. 08 guet(i) or guet(ig) gl. nec delata diu J 4 guoun n r'meadow" [gwaun) W gorseng-. see Lambert: 19R2a. J. OB guotric. Williams: 19RO. 1I0KlIJ is disputable. The traditional reconstruction which was suggested first hy V. White: 102-3 anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5. Caerwyn Williams in BBC'S 1. VVB: 145 149~ Schrijvcr: 116~ WG: 399 irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22h (23R) ho hinnoid guotan amcibfret MP 23:1 (241) 1 1 guo'.3) guotig prep. GPC: 160R. hieme ethesiarurn n(ltll Allg 6H h ~lI()tr. Some Celtic Otherworld Terms. gW8rsangThis form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1495. see Haycock: 12 for the further suggestions. Sec OW A V. Olr fan 1 guorsengir gl. p. secundum. Hamp in BBC'S 26 (1976). inani Ang 14 b GPe: 1502.607.. cf.' v pres. GPC: 1495~ Hamp: 1917-8. or *uks. 'under' Following WG and I. MB goursez. DGVB: 199 OW (LL) guoun.117 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20. 112-3 it clu(i)s (it] d.and the stem sed-. pp. 131 diguorguac gl. p. which is far frorn clear. Celtic Language. Williams: 1980. Loth"s criticism of the theory of the second prefix could be adequate if the word is a later coinage see Sims-Williams.Y.. Sec also guetig in 1 which i-affection is indicated. excessive. Olr t. Lewis in BBCS II (1944L p. who compared this entry with W diorwac.g-: Illig.'sitzen (lEW: 884 f.13. guorsed. GMW: 209. J. // A. It contains a prefix guor.v. Ford & Bailie: Van Nuys 1990. Lambert rejects the reading of Fleuriot. OC gucn gl. 12-3.according to E. An -edig derivative of Rorl~n (cf. Morris Jones. Lambert: 19H7.and the radical sang. '10 press' [gorsang-] ('C. 12(i inn() ir guotodinou gl. court..

ir SCfenn C"ornp 10 gurth 'in comparison with. DGVB: 203.. JO: 101-2. mercurius gl. gordwf 111aU. 08 lar: but see S. sambuca Ox2 43a (5. gllr (MW lnf. ZilnmeL Gallisch I)IVERTOMV. Luhotsky. see guar. + elf.95 mitelu nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1..'ik. appetitofium Ox2 4J" (5. OB gur. or lon~s for somethinJt· Hapax in Welsh. hut the orthography of Rurt triehiti makes this assumption dubious..(sec Rur/") + (\10rclr. hns heen fecentlv considered by St. *ter. ()Ir free/l1orc.v. gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.5) gurmaur adj. J. n. C'omp 7 tI.3) gurrhie adj. Schrijver: 151. LHEB: 337. tocharisch A U·01l/-Wrll. the second cJenlent here is for 'vcnt. venare).orl _ri<.e. "!. Sound Law and Analogy. OC. GPe·: 1499: Hamp: i<J77-X.3) gurth cimsrch vn 'to address..253-4: Williams: 1927. 08 gurth Me (w)orth. 267-R~ White: R4-5 gurt trichiti nacgcnci C'0J11P 16 gur tum n m 'over~rowth.263 is gur tUln tarnctor ir Inc guac haihid pos. in Welsh. VGK: I. OIr fer < IE *yiro .h.\lick'.1) irgur hunnuid . White that it is possible to connect this entry with MW verb Kwrth(dd)rych.. kymrisch /lower.1). A rather tentative suggestion of I. MJ: 271-2. 15-21. 'RJ!ain~t th£'m' (?) The form is analysed as a vcrh (gllrt". tun' GPe: 1688-90. 'female' A cognate of W gwraig. *ljreg. lEW: 1168. gwr.f. 'opposite' See Klir/ l • and KlIrtlrre/. 'against' [wrthl MW wrth.. GMW: 213. 127) 11 is used here to indicate a dipththong. celebrat Me 4 b. Isaac: 333-4. ()13 < IE *110110. nno flo" [~orthwfl . see erchi.I. Williams: 1980. White: 270-1 guragun tage Chad 2 gurd prep. consistes [i. PECA: 59.V. o'er. Elsie: 148. ~nhvshvs.rs. E. DGVB: 325.1 pi "to make' [gwn-) 77 a calque on de-cido. Thi~ \\'ord finds a perfect match in W gu'r/lrgJlarclr.. pr. 12~ St. guor. Williams. Williams: 1927. '"ery great. helghati gl. r('elc [)IVERT()MV. contra quemvis] Ovid 39b . DaB: 537. Schrijver: 158.. 161. s 'Mann' (lEW: 1177) DGVB: 201.151-89).. OCV: 106. VVB: 147 gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5. WilJianls "'ith thnt of Juv. LL: xliv. Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953). though GPC does not quote this example. MB gruec.·wirken. i. v.it-i (PIE dative or locative of the root-noun *~ct-). VVB: 147-8 strotur gurehic gl. sec s. p. MW gur. pp. OOVB: 2R4. LHEB: 337. cf. ask' I~wrth~)'farch. PECA: 53. c. tor. cf..h) De Bernardo Stempel: 115. 126-148 gurt paup gl. according to P. lEW: IOX2: [JliVR: J25 nnd 334). cr.i. gwrth-trychi-di (cp. Zimmer: alongside a tentatively offered proto-form for the riaulish word as *di. IE *lJerg-. It was noted hy F. increment' W gorthwf. Schrijver (in Eriu 45 (1994). 2 sg 'to decide' (?) Hapa. VGK: It 42. 3 s~ 'to oppose. According to Loth (RC 36 (1915). see s.'hlickcn'.2) A comhination of ~II".e. VVB: 148. 115 for the meaning.124-5. Evans in BBCS 17 (1958). GPe: 1693.. pp.(sec RUf.O v pres. ed .'schwcllen') he elahoratcs several other suggestions. Amsterdanl ." Kurth 1 prep.. greg. E.\f . lEW: 21. haeet isgurth. lEW: 1074) perhaps Kurthdo v pres. lEW: 1156. and (l persona) form of the verh ·to .a. and mallr ~big'. inquire. pp.'. The origin is uncertain. imp.+ *tler-Ioy-/nn. conl-I'"/0... Williams in Celtica 3 (1956).n. 145.arch. 3 pl. According to Flcuriot.43-44. the Celtic forms reflect Celt. p. wenden".) The gloss has heen rendered as 'head of the council': sec also ('en". WG: 406. GPC: 1718. According to I. Ir fri(th) The traditional reconstruction derives this preposition from IE *LJer-t 'drehen. huge' [gorfawr) MW goruaur A combination of intensive prefix gor. 'atcording to' [wrth) See gllrt. S.vflr" ·cut' (IE *trrllk-. compared with' 2 Sec gurth t • Ameen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: -"' gun prep. resist' I prep. DGVB: 311. See also gurd.(IE V/eyl/. It is analysed as gl~'r/Jr. GPC: 1715: VVB: 149 gurtharet gl. OC grueg.Atlanta: Rodopi 19Y7. GPC: 1698. C. Willillms nn the connection of this Welsh word with G (Coligny) VERTOMV.'rciben'.. 'look upon· (with the root < IE *derk. which \vns corllpnfed hy I.. D. Analysed hy GPC as gu.. pp. GPC': 1725-fl penngurthcimarch gl. /1 A. GPC: 1478. VGK: 1. ~'jth the ~tem Jr.(... 76 gur n m 'man' [gwr) OW (LL) gur.. Williams: 1980.c'. primas Prise 37 a gurthBret n 'one who strives. guragun v.(Ope: 1459).

Loth and V. . cry": MB crih).-Y.529: Lamhert: 19R7.J. uuc).: 44. Stokes: 1860-1. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a plan see guofllll H hal conj.289 considered this entry as a preposition (see S. sepulti Ovid 39" gurth(rJet" pres.l~ ~'1(' tl.~ h a. ha erip 'who combs' Most interpretations of this entry consider it as a gloss over elln. excuticndus] erit Ovid 39:1 hac orachmonou gl.1). According to Aeuriot. Willianls.0. Recently P. 'hut. VVB: 149. JOO ha crip gl. I-Iaycock: I L Lambert: 1976-7. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h hac diglniuhit gl. \vhich suggests the meaning '(lnd' (Lamhert: I97(}--7.Y. According to .42) argues for its interpretation as a conjunction. Watkins (Wat~ins: 1982. wool-card. A. Hamp: 1975-6. ha crip. r : /1. Isaac (in progress). curry-comh·. sec s. VVB: RR. and crih as a personal form of the \vord 'to comb'. 79 2) is xxx ha guorcnnicll MP 22h (230). It was suggested by E. T. Sec hal. however. Comp 9 harodes Chad 7 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha hcinn cihunn MP 22h (234) ha~ exclamative particle See a ha arcibrenou gl.Y. hacen conj. see S. that the form should be segmented as pigurlh ret ("what star against-which runs the moon"). followed by verb. i.261 passerenn. Hamp: 1973. hac in irgueleri Comp 16 hacboi gl.v. 120). Contrary to I. Larnhcrt h(ls reconsidered this in favour of H. parthed. in Compo this is "either a scribal error for gurthret or a variant of it (cp. 107 dicones pater haritncd presen Juv 9 (3. GPC: 1501 o gurucheltoii g1. .s2Y: Williafns: IYHO. pigurthet.. v..:: that it is synonymous with it". l~his \\'(lS not considered hy Fleuriot (DGVB: 207) as a Welsh form. who considered this instance as a relative pronoun. retrograde' [?gwrthred-] MW gwrthred-.3: Williams: 1930. 'Iod· (with ~8riou5 interpretations) I) un harned Jrapuil haper Juv 9 (9. GPC: 1131. 65. B hogcn Several analyses of this word have hccn offered. let] eliqlla Ox2 44 h (7. .~O: \Vr.18 come'). this form could be also Breton. this is a variant of the preposition 0 'of. prefix gor-. 'and' See al. parthred) or I . Williams 1933: 115 gurthdo gl. loyr in Comp 4 I ! proche/leroa n pi 'heights" [goruchelder] MW goruchelder Contains base ucheJ (see s. Falileyev and G.1 hacefl gl.V. 529: Lewis: 1926. run opposite. this could be perhaps considered as Welsh.e. hut as it is folhn\'ed by a Welsh \\·ord. C hagen. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b ha chepi. 3) ha hanner gl. 'and' See hal. and suffix -der. see DGVB: 5: ope: 594. and ('rip (n m&f 'comh.v. and cf.. Morris-Jones Stl~!!csts Cl protoform *aggis(.1 hac conj. 11(1«(').v. excusiendus (leg. Hamp. dodrantis (Ang IJ h). )) ha4 relative particle See hai and also a'5. in which case the verb is a simplex ret-. according to I. however' f ha~en ) MW hagen. IJcnry. 'qui pcignc'. the first part is identical \\lith a(c). Williams (Williams: 1980. GPC: IXII: Henry: )0): VVR: l. gener haluidt iuguret Chad 2 douceint torth ha maharuin Chad 3 ha douceint torth Chad 3 ha huch Chad 3 ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 h[a maha]ruin Chad 4 ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 cet treidin gue' haguid Juv 9 (2. see relec. I.. deffectum gl.V. haci Comp 3 irloc quac habid pOJt . gurth GPC: 1720. ha crip. Williams.91-2. 3 sg 'to run back. Williams: 1927. ha J prep. Lewis's reading. hoi.lli. pecrine and rendered this phrase as the combination of the conjunction 'and' (a). Lamhert that this is a gloss over pectens: he nnalyses ha as a relative particle. pectens Ovid 42. gurth + rhed-.nnlhert this stnnds for 'Clnd·. 231). This instance is not quoted in GPC. DGVB: 215. According toJ. It \vas suggested hy P.. Lambert: 1976-7. is did ciman. MW erih.1) ha 2 conj. See also !1ac. White: 98-7.2) un harned flapuiJ baper Juv 9 (9. This instance will be discussed in an article by A. the next.. obsistit J 3 l ). h:lb("h. hinn inguir Camp 21 hagener tutd Chad 2~ but see S.20) ~ . har dou trean gl. 'or' ? According to P.

this word which is not attested in later Welsh contains ac 'and' and et (as in nogyt. cf. W. J.v. ay According to P.~X~ VVB: 151 moment ha hanner gl. : MW han. G. VGK: I. GMW: 63.'ftir sich. LElA: 5-19' Schrijver: 460. GPC: 176~ Haycock: 14~ Williams: 19XO.a. superlatiuus multo Prisc 27 a hail relative parlirle MW ae.10) VVB: 151 . hBnaud prep. GMW: 231~ GPe: 5.. pp.139-l41. For the ~ uloss hanther see hanner hared n m&f 'song. alium Me 51 a.. This instance is taken as the scrihc's mistakc for (1"(1111. pp. Williams.. Schrijver. Loth in RC 43 (1926) pp. horog ·dirty·) 0 B haloc gl. GPC: 30. 'different. Isaac: 3X(l~ LElA: S-14-15. Schrijver in Briu 45 (1994).'that (which)'. ad l ). Ir ar < *agro. scmuncias horarum Ang 1. VV8: 34-5 hair gI.·lreiben (lEW: 4) DGVB: 58.1. '. lEW: 90S) DGVB: 206. nitegid. G.(2 44h (7. ha. VGK: 1. P. vanish' Prefix ad. MW halauc. ysel11. di.71 ' in irham Chad 3 han adj. IE '*ag. see ha. o.216. other' (han I t. 3 sg '10 pass away. Stokes: IX7. Irish a n. o. Isaac: 57. 25R-9. VGK: 1. MW hanner~ OB hanter. 'and hBm n m 'summer' (hart MW haf~ OB ham. for the MW forms ~ee GMW: 145.<2 46a (9. 217: LElA: A-49. C.tero. sec s. 103. OIr salach < IE *501. Hamp: 1982. Howels in SC 1 (1966).'cins' (lEW: 9(2). Hamp in BBC:S 2R (1979). which does not mention the ()W instllflce. schrcien' (cf. Williams: 1927. abgesondcrf.V. Camp 8 Haeet isgurth. VGK: I. 178-9~ WG: 287 ir serenn. p. See a. 3 sg m 'out from/of him I if See han. dung. verse' raraifh) ha' see 80r is aenc:umha' ha'ou n pi 'filth. cf. -- h8m = (h)s'm 'and my'.265 haccet. GMW: 59. Comp 11 iT loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 17 hai bid im guar phenn circbl naunecant Camp 22 tir telih haioid ilau elcu Chad 2 hai 2 'and his'.0.80 hscet see hac(c)el hac(c)et conj. manure' Hapax in Welsh. cephitor. DGVB: 205. LElA: S-16. p. and (with guttural suffix.1) hathid v pres.72. OB air. Samon[ios).< IE *selli. sce I~am tlert: 1984a. C areth: Olr airccht LElA: A-43. LElA: A-82. this is the only adjectival usage of 110" 4scparation' in Wclsh < *selli. Williams: 1927.a. lEW: 879. noget) 'so'. LHEB: 461. 216-7~ lEW: 907. 186-7. and the development of • hoi (n-) to hai and a is explained by the loss of stress. Camp 10 hac&aucimp& gl. cladis 0. 46. Comp 7 ir loe guac haibid post. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4t b (1. GPC: 37. I. Camp 8 iT serenn hai bid in eir cimeir . hanter JO: 107 tutbulc hai cenet] Ch ad 2 hair n r 'war. stercora 0.. 407~ VVJ3: 1)1 han gl.1 h dou punt petguar hanthcr scrihl MP 22 h (234) < IE *s1!. see h. GPC: lROH~ E. ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt C'omp 20 haur see allr .133--6. .(sec S. MC haf. 10: 96. lugubri. and notcs the ohscurity of the "'ord fnnnation. Sec also anter1netetic. DGVB: 206~ Elsie: 88~ GPC: 1815-6. hanaud Comp I hanner n m 'hair (hanner) Ow (lL).'schmutziggrau'. 1.217. battle' reer] MW aer. ai. lEW: H60). ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir . Lloyd. Jones in BBCS 11 (1944). and the form of the verh 'to he'.28) 9 I'll A ng . A cognate of OIr sal 'salett~'.0. LHEB: 503. sec also Izanalld GPC: 1818. did. hai bu in arcimeir. m ham hoi enep gl. GPC: 181R~ Schrijvcr: 195~ Williams: 1<J27. considers here IF *rek'briillcn. < IE *S1!1IJ. this could go back to ·sosin.271 . J. D. o. air sam RI so' According to I. aIr sain~ according to GPC. VVB: 150 halou gl. Verogri. ismod. 5) MW araith.(*JeI11· 4Sommcr'. De Bernardo Stempel: 156~ DGVB: 2{)7~ GPC: IH2L 'Iarnp: 14X2. 114 it cluis it humil inharcd crlmed Juv 9 (7.

lEW: 907.'\ and II. VVB: 15. hendat.. .03: VCiK: J. see GPC: 2332).. 3. GPC: 18. ensenden. LElA: 5-84.b. (iPC·: IHS2-J.&Ioslassen.\"0-.1) hep prep_ 'without' IhebJ OW (LL) heh. malnma (PECA: 76). Sec "cp. sestcrtium MP 2J h (2. 400: White: 99-100. WG: 404 hep amgnauhot gl. hepp philologia gl. Haarmann: 123. aduerto Me 45 h. etc. sec also the next. 131: Lamhert: 19R7.)~ see also s.1: VVB: 15.10. DC hendat gl. IE V selg. pr. OB hentatot gl. DGVB: 232. or on heTuill: C' hCT\vyth DGVB: 210. Mlr sech< IE *sek". C haneth~ MB henoez EL: 40.'sagen' GMW: 154.w'·noXI. Be tad) < IE *tata. Olr sech < IE *sek". GOI: 5. Seno-.<1. 'aus' DGVB: 167. WG: 387. hervit. derived from IE *ma. 3 sg 'to say' (heh-I MW heh.OB a olguo gl.28) henmam n f 'gnndmother' [henfam] MW henvam. uicit Me 14 h. GPC: 1861. hepp marcia gl." This instance could he OB as well. venare Ovid 38· hen see hends' henC"sssou n pi 'antiquities' . sen) < IE *sen.'. m 'to hunl' See helghaJi. in scxtario MP 22 h (230) is trimuccint hestaur mel MP 22 h (231) . VGK: I. herp philologia gl. 41. lEW: 900. hepp Gcometria gl. LJIEB: 514. proscipio Me 4(1 a. pertulerim MC~ 11 a. C heh. persecutor. hendat.. VVB: 15] hi hestaur mel gl. and mam (MW mom. VGK: 1. 1851. Lamhert: 19RJ.. White: 268-9 helghati gl.a. LHEB: 467.h. OC mam.. Percurslls hrellitcr tcrrarunl sitlls M(' 51 n.1: WC. VVI3: 15. auus Ox2 43 b (5. hepp marcia gl. v. 12. VVB: 152 hencassou gl. lEW: 292. name Seigovae < Britt.. Me (verb) ~elghya. heruid prep. hestaur < Lat. 402-J.a. heh. GPe: 1202. venator. henfam The compound contains OW hen 'old'.h. 2. DeV: 76-7.. nosccre MC~ IJ <1. Ir. end' lelthaf) < *. paternus auus (?). PECA: 62. habira Ox2 43 b (5. Z sg 'to hunt' [hel. H<1mp in E(~ R (llJ5R-9). GPC': IR..1) . heruuyd. E. 3 pi 'without then. Lamhert: 19RI. 'Nacht' r. ausgieBen' DGVB: 68.v. and tat 'father' (OC tal. DGVB: 209~ Elsie: 94~ GPC: 1850. helhpur gI. 1 f. Stokes: 1860-1.. p. VVB 152-3 henmam gl.. helghB(Ii) v imp.a. 129. McCone In Enu 46 (1995). monimenta J 49 henda' n m 'grandfather' [hendad] MW I}entat~ hendat~ hendad. lEW: R97. n 'extremljy. Elsie: 10.'Lallwort ftir Mutter' (lEW: 694).1.. 13R. sine mente Ovid JR h hepdud prep.. *l1ri-yid-. Ef": 5-60.hcstaur gJ.l .. Irish selg. GPC: 1844. ego ipsa rcragraui Me' 47 a. GPC: IR60. LElA: 5-80. ML: 17R. 2<Jl is hcpdud gJ. Hamp: 1975/6. eithaf. henoid Juv 3 (1.1. 79. in uenando Me 39 a. VVB: 152. werfen. LElA: 5-62-64. WG: 176 biheit he[iltham ir eguin MP 23a (241) (iMW: 221.10: lEW: R97. Je:rtar. sum her Geometria gl.a. OB etam < IE *eghs. 'accordin~ to" after" I herwydd I MW herwyt. her\vir. . intcllexcram conspicari Me II 3.3.1. probably In the tnbe.217-8. herp Marcianc gl.. VVB: 152 hendat gl..taur n r&m 'measure or quantity' Ihestorl MW hestawr.404.u. 106. PECA: 62. I()(): William~: IYRU. MW hep. ow (LL) eithaf. on this see K. hcr\vyd: < Celt.'alt'. see s. MW hen~ G. 'to-night' [henol MW heno(eth). Lambert: 1987. indagatione~ MB (verb) (h)emholch.. he/11th.: 415 herufd duiutft J 0 he. 93.('k"-t~.1.) MW hel-.'Lallwort' (lEW: 1056). VGK: I. '.295.fi analy!ied as a loan from Lat. sine quibus Ang 15 h hepp v pres. 40H. see also er8uid. [ . auus The compound contains O\y hen 'old' (OW (Gen: 10) [R]iderch hen. VVB: 151. MW eithaw..'folgcn'.1 hepp Philologia gl.82 8. LL hen(n). B hep. DC helhiat gl.28) ope: henoid adv. OCV: 116. ·selg·. A brittonised lrish form (OIr senchas. he/cluJ inhelcha gl.10. IE *. lEW: 762: V( j K: 94-5 and *. Stokes: 1873. Thurneysen: 1890a. 146. Dumngual hen.

J.? I. ut arithmrticfl Prise )4 h: the \\lord fnl1o\ving hi. hinnuith. love dignus Ovid 39b hinnith prone demonstr. etc. m sg 'this' (hyn) MW hyn(n)~ CB hen(n). lEW: 891.er Wil1inrnc. pos. heuei[th] gl. VVB: 154. bynaf Superlative of hen. guorhir scrllu1. MW hir. 190f. prinit hinnoid MP 22 h (234) ni choilam hinnoid amser MP 22 h (234) ho hinnoid MP 23 a (241) is moi hinnoid MP 23 a (246) hinnuilh prone demonstr.1) hi hestaur mel gl. Williams in BBCS 2 (1925). amhiniog. hir 2 definite article The follo\\'ing two instances arc considered herr: Intrited retec. they' See hinnith. 'it.(246) hi 2 prep 'to. DOVB: 208~ GOI: 304. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 ir loe guac hinnith. they' See hinnith. its' [eil MW (h)i. those. 22-3. is . Williams in BBCS 3 (1926).. 51. hinn inguir Comp 21 iT nider uid hinn Comp 22 irhinn issid crIst gl.2 42a (2. I..hilli. Another possibilit)' is perhaps to consider this as a reduplicated pronoun 'she'. The amended form heuei[th] was compared with W hywaith (hy + gwaith) 'beneficial. .. easy' (Z: 1061. Far from clear. Comp 6 Salt emmi guollig hinnith Comp 19 hinnoid prone demonstr. in. VGK: 1. patricius qui sedit iuxta regem in sede (after sede) Ox2 46 (9. 2~q) hir doguonimereticaith J!1.b. GPC: 1186 isem hichet triuceint torth Chad 4 cihutun hi torr MP 23. irdid hinnuith Comp 9 retit loyr irdid.. but cf. DGVB: 216. MW hiniog. See .303-306. hinnuith Comp 11 irloc guac hinnuith Comp 14 issem ir . her. lEW: 891-2. according to GPC: 1987. y'se(i)· 'entsenden. hUfl110id.circhl C'onlp 2 (c. in pagina regular. Irish sin A word with a disputable etymology. OIr i. ut si dicas Anton ille Me 43 b. 'it.: t<·)27... irhinn issid ille gl. that. WG: 298 ha chepi. Klingenschmidt: 219: VVB: 155 pan diconetent iT. Watkins: 1957. lord' [hynaC] MW hyneif. superior. in sextario MP 22b (230) hih. hin map di iob gl. see s. GPC: 1914~ LHEB: 279. non dificile 0. those. hini or hem. .. VVB: 155: WG: 84 a hir etem gl.. 39~~ I. instita longa Ovid 37 a nouirhircimcrdridou gl. pp. 8 amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23 (241) hin n 'side. they' (hynny) MW hynny(d). Mlr sfn < IE 'lSi. e MB (h)e < *esiiis . See also hiflnoid. retit loyr . ETytria quncquc Cumea cst vel Phrigia Me 11 b. y. VGK: II. Williams: 1930. and 11.b. hestoriou n pi 'measures of quantity' See hestaur.74.. Williams (I. lucubrationum percnnium Me' 4 h. ir hestoriou oleu MP 22b (231) heuei[th] ~(not 1) difficult (1)' MS heuei.84 85 hinn prone demonstr. for a summary1 sec LElA. hendat. VVB: 154). Christus quem J 81 enuein di Sibcllae int hinn gl.e. LElA: S-113.122-3. henne. OB henneth (DGVB: 2(9) should be excluded. in (1)' MW y. that. MW hyweith is first attested in the R 1222. 244-5) has considered several possibilities of interpretation of tbis passage . 'it.. fa1len 1 Elsie: 110. v. pp. CB hir~ G (Ecritu)siri: Olr sir < Celt. hu""oid. OB i. see also it . LHEB: 641-2. 'long. his conclusion was to take it as yn ei.< IE *sero-.a. 'binden" GPC: 1867~ Harvey: 192. Schrijver: 31. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20 hint see na(m) hint errei hir· adj. 56-7 or cled hin gl. VVB: 155. Loth in RC 41 (1924).. tall' (hir] OW (LL) hir.32) "\ . etc. pp. hinnoid.26) hit pron. those. GPC: 1869. chier. nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.2. werfen. 3 sg 'his. GPC: 1972-3~ lEW: 905: LElA: 5-111. VVB: 154-5 a hinham g1. OPC: 1976-7. edge' Hapax in Welsh. LElA: 5-115: VGK: I. limite levo J 26 hinhsm n m 'head. *siro. that.

Russell that the base form for this (and the other) conj.10) holoinou n pi 'wheels' Could be Welsh or Breton. DGVB: 235. Ox2 41 h (1. WG: 446. MW (h)oll~ Me oj. hid.rticle See it. oil. but see LHEB: 479. MJ: 272. (conjunctive) 3 sg f'she (her. MW huyc.'ydeu. huch. quem J 51 R7 (h)oedeu. Lambert. this could stand for . 08 hui. OC hoeh gl. 1860-1.139. ni. oellz 'difficulty'.30-8. See also the next.---------------------------_. GOI: 231. apart from' (onid] See anit GPC: 2648. Olr soce < Celt.212. Williams (1930: 237). Stokes rejects this possibility. GPC: 1949. Williams. (h).·Y. MW hyd. DGVB: 212. . In the corrigenda (ibid. OIr sith< ·si-tu. hit. See ir. glomerarium Ox2 43 8 (5. Elsie: 78: GPC: 2646. it) too' (hithau] MW hithe(u). out of' (oj "\" . Sau'. It was argued b)' P. Russell in BBCS 30 (1983). apcr. 'ir (oj MW o(t) . 367. GPC: 262R refers to this entry in the discussion of W. hue. hOll nit. rotis Ang 12 b honit conj. MW wynteu. MW (mase) ynteu According to I. The former view wins the support of P. un(n) It was suggested (Stokes.24 and 97R). pronoun was the 3 pl. See olin. uilc < *(05)0/-£0. GPe: 1879. 3) 'scarcity'..'dariiber hinaus'._86 Breton. hoid hoitou hau bein atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22 h (234) hit prep. hwch. 'from. WG: 84 hit did braut Chad 2 hit ni conj. IE ySlI-s ~Hausschwcin. hloimol gl. yny. Williams: 1927. tan tum ne [. LElA: 0-21. (h)oethell. entire' (011 J OW (Ll).. JO: 106. PEC'A: M ha huch Chad 3 hui pron. hou nit hloidin salt C"omp 22 huch n m f'sow' (hwch) OW (LL) huch. Oir oil. *slIkko-.. 08 itou. MB huy: Olr sf < C~clt. see Lambert: 1981. P. Me ythe cf. lEW: 891. to IE *ili. OIr 6 IE *all. Schrijver: 323: VGK: II. himnn see ir.'herab. GPC: 1928. 2 pi 'you' (chwil MW chwi. G ollo-~ cf. 213-4. pp. this may have the force of 'also' in the text rather than 'then'. According to I. ho diued Chad 2 8 hOT elin cihutun hi torr MP 23 (246) 8 ho hinnoid MP 23 (241) hoitnu ? A verv difficult word. ir hou conj. hfronn gl. See OOB: 483. GMW: 244. GPN: 237. or (h)w)'tlrell.~ihr' MW hyny.'entsenden. aD hoch gl. hyt. pers. wcg von' See also 0. "onil. 'except. ct total" facieln mean. 266 hit niritarnher irdid hinnui th Camp 8 hit niritarner rann. p. ] unquam J 5 J hor (ho+r). biheit heitham ir eguin hiUoi ir hune MP 23 8 (241) hithou pron.5) ho prep. 290). 'unlD' hoi adj. DGVB: 212.273 hoid hoitou hou hcin atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22" (2J4) hou boit cihitun ccng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 2J" (246) hou nit conj. lEW: IOJR. hOll. WG: 272-3 aries hithou Comp 13 aries ithou Com p 18 hloimo/? VVB: 156 suggests seeing here a cognate of W lIu 'host'. Possihle interpretations therefore include 1) 'difficulties". See hit. MB (h)oll. pp.. S~/rS-. IE yse(i). DOVB: 213-4 holoinou gJ. he reconstructs 3 sg f as *hih-t:Jf. fallen'. porctls. 2) 'plenty'. 'until' OW (LL) hit. VVB 156 ham hoi enep gl. 'except' Sec anit. DGVB: 210. Williams: 1927. werfen. Jackson states that the meaning and etymology of this word is unknown. 'whole. LElA: S-15R: O('V: 255-5. oni. C why. ope: 2611~ lEW: 72: Williams: 1930. See O. see (h)o. VVB: 156-7 honft riamrfllJi gl. however. 218) that this could also stand for yr hwnn. ganz' (lEW: (}79): differently in lEW (to *0/. GPC: 1948. irbissei Comp 10 hitt verbal p.or *(o5)ol-no· to IE *solo· 'wohlhehalten. 08 het. where K. LElA: 5-120. nit ir nider uid hinn.

~amr).2) Ii/dO/Ie n (pi ?) 'pagan temple" hun renexive marker '(one) selr [hun] MW hun. denote \hrlndlc'. WiI. gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv <) (7. GPC: 2000. mercurius gl. 392 statcs that he cannot explain this gloss.88 89 i' pron. 114 it cluis it hurnil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. hune see une hunnoid pron. hon(n)o See flinnirh. l·his nlll<. 'humble' MW ufyl.a. 1 sg 'I' See d. cimp&illiaus3uc oirci gl. fani Hapax in Welsh. GPC: 850. -. 2~4-5) flr"/. then 'one year old anirna". PECA: 66. lEW: 514.?) 'to drink' (yr-) MW yu-.in view of Lat. (Rhys: 7lJ. 196. iehnlinn? According to Loth. see a summary in LElA. he (him). DGVB: 217~ GPC: 2009: Isanc: 210~ Stokes: IR73. hunnoid. 13l)~ Lambert: 19R7. OCV: 189..a. E. ad phares sui gcneris fit comparatio Prise 27 a i 2 prep.K: L 6): VVB: I)(}' iar gJ. icctlim sis gl. 'that. OIr indidaJtaigac gJ. infixed genitive 3 sg Sec hni iecllim sis ? Stokcs: IR73. LElA: 5-101-2. GPC: 1931. ML: 214. pos. sua ui Ang 15 b isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3. IR: lEW: 2<n: ()('V: 22. OIr seol Several etymologies for this word have been forwarded. in fanis Me 7 h. I -j pron. see GMW: 89f. he (him). hum ilis LHEB: 276. etc. idol < Lat. demonstr. VVB: 157 ishut gl. p. *ieros < *pfp·ero. the Irish form is then not convincingly explained. humilis. VGK: I. nnd Ie 'housc· (see telll). 483.h.th.". 'his. it' MW hun(n)u.1) iar n f 'hen' liar) MW yar. hunnuid.2.1) < Lat. GPC: 1937.i.. uffil. she (her).394. huil n f 'sail' (name of a letter) [hwyl] MW huyl. she (her). apollo MC' 5. hinnu. I pl. Genius Me II a. demonstr. Hamp in Eriu 40 (19R9). uvel. p. hinnuith. GPC: 1911 dittihun gl. OC yar gl. Olr ihid < IE *p6(i)-/pf· \trinken' Elsie: R9~ CiMWL: 292: lEW: R3<)-40: White: 212-5: Williams: Il)RO.. Q6 cet ibcn med nouelJuv -" (2.. Iiams: 1980. iar. alcs J R2 iben v imperf. AS segl). MB uvel. Most recently P.3) gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7. idnltlln. it was often considered to be a borrowing from Germanic (OHG segal. hwyl. For Stokes's equntion (llS: 22. cu-. . it' See hinnith. *siglo-. CB ev-. haioid ilau clcu Chad 2 it c1u(i)s [it] diban iciman guorscd Juv CJ Elsie: 149~ GOI: 254. Rhys. ipsa Me 51 b.. irgur hunnuid . hut sec Watkins: 19R2. 168f. \Jahr'.~) \\'ith Latv. ho\\'evcr. 14R: PEC": 105: Schrijvcr: 104-): V(. gallina.3) issemi anu gl. hinnoid. 40 for the interpretation of this i as i J ). Ii"" . ('1) for ('""lilri". who offcred Celt. LElA: U-25. 'in' See hit. OB idolti. nirinciriles. tibi soli Me 9 a.~: T.Wcl'\h enllyn 'anything eatcn or drunk \\'ith hrca<i'.a.t. ()'Rahiltv in Eriu 13 (1942). This was noted hy O'Rahilly (sec also . A compound. LElA: S-88-89. quae Me 63 3. etc. (past subj. pipio. Schrijver reconstructed Celt.rUmprosuni -j pron. VVB: IO(). and a useful summnry. OC huuel gl. Klingenschmidt: 219 h ir pimphet eterin diguormechis lucas hegit hunnoid MP 22 (234) b dou eterinn cant hunnoid MP 22 (234) hunnuid pron. celebrat Me 4 b. hinnoid. V\lB: 15R inir[i]dolte gl. VGK: I. this could he ielr" (= Ir ig 'anncau') + 'hoisson': according to J. According to Pokorny this goes hack to IE *iero-. quos J 19 hui gl. Schrijver: 357. VGK: II. 'that.a. see Schrijvcr: 104--5.a. Olr umal (6. VVB: 157 huil (Nemn) humil adj. Mlr eidn Several etymologies have heen suggested. uwil. cf. ifhe \grouse'.3. mi mihun gl. its' See l1i 2 • OGVB: 275 and 216 : Lambert: 19RI. pen. 282. 2HR o i nerth gl.

in I prep.i. see E. Olr imb To IE "amblti..calcd.90 Cf. MJ: 272. The verb. apparently. iactata J ()() immottimoll \'n pi (?) ·to touch: handle. Morris Jones)..14: LEI/\ ): (~-)3: \Vhitc: ~7 immit eel irnimer bichan guttln irnl<lUr nirner MP 22 h (2J~) immotetin ? fymodi. LHEB: 479. 'to say (to each other)' '"\ "- J. see linisanf. DGVB: 279. WG: 405 nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 illisusaur'in pluralit y1 MW lIuossauc According to Fleuriot. cclo. 1'his \\'OHi could he the plural form of the vn y". DGVB: 50~ (. gh1eddi ~ etc. MWC yn.~ridu im/adunJ vn (?) 'to light· I ymladd-I MW ymlad-. I. Lat. ad plures sui generis fit eomparatio Prise 27 a im prep. Morphologically it is perhaps a plurnl vn \vith (l rcncxive prefix. thus J.. a verb in the impersonal. verhtillcn'. White (White: 145) mentions inter alia a possibility of reading this phrase as val i dydduch 'as (it) may lead'.(lEW: 34). p.*g""edh. VVB: 162. \Vatkin~: fl)'\7: \V(. Gwenogvryn Evans (LL: xlv). E. mo\'('· ? I ~'m()di-I 11. 240). leads thee'. infixed pronoun: for the etymology. MW celli 'hide. we should rend il1"11('1 ccli. GPe: 2227 nirinciriles. Several other connections have been ~ forwarded. ·.: (. go' (then "they came together"). subj . According to J.10. Lewis: 1932~ 111-2.'ziehen' (lEW: 220). cf. Williams in BBCS 13 (1950).. Williarns (Willianls: 19.O\vcnogvryn Evans (witb much hesitation) read this word as . DOVB: 218.(W. Stokes: IH7.\'Ill-yd-gc/: thel1 .lf.1 for .h.242 and 269.. maintai ni ng d = (b) .mguodBnl v pret. Isaac: 3JJ~ LL: xliv.'bergen. *. allinebat Me R a. suspite). sanus. PKM: 245.-... See 10.\'. bibl. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. As was recently suggested by G. Thurncyscn (1980): 205-6). geslicltfaliollc. and cf. this stands for *in liausauc.""n-of-('lill. which is argued to belong to a pattern CONJUNCTION + PARTICLE + ?PRONOUN + VERB. White: JO(. Cl derivative ~ cf. DGVI3: ~ 219. attritu Ang 15 h inJmisline v imperf. cmlndA cOJnhination of n rcnexivc prefix i". nlotus od<lruJl1 MC' «.: 404 OB~ prep.1: VVR: ltd imrnotctin . Stokes: 1873.112 irnmotimou gl. (~mwedd(. iehnlinn gl. Parry-Williams: 122. thus I. Parry. p. MB en: Olr in < IE *en.fd 4 . from IE *kel. White: It)2-4. Hamp in Eriu 28 (1977). this is to he cOJllp<lrcd \\'jth \V y".1. 231../.h. ymlynThe form contnins a reflexive prefix. The latter is an -Que derivative of lialls. 'prayer'.. 11. GWML: 297 imladunl gl.d.2. em-. 08 iae gl. similar to the (later) attested y-ryngdun(nt).·um-herum. Lewis rejected Stokcs's re<lding i"". then d = [d]. See also am. I nstcad he suggested the reading which is quoted here. sec ott. for the etymology see Schrijver: 103-4 with." 1: "VO: 162. see JO.) h. According to R.9) JO: 101. 2010~ VVB: 159 jechuit Nemn . where the meaning and etymology of this word was claimed to be unknown. this should be read as y vel yth c5ybwg 'as . 'around' (1) MW am~ OB am.4in ': see also . pupis gl. naunecant Comp 22 ima/iliduch 1 This passage freom Chad 3 has been read in several different ways.ottilli01l !!1.od: Fleuriot suggests the devisioJ1 . goes back to IE *deuk.()I: ~21: IF\V: . see s. MJ: 271.'edafflosay~.3)."' sg.395. OB a". Following I. G. tlntl a . LL: xliv. 3 sg.Williams.. 41. See also the previous entry. v. Isaac.\\'ith the vcrh I(/)tld-~ sec ledit.' Sec ttlC next entry. p. ansa Ox2 53 8 (4. 'to smear' I ynllyn-1 MW emlyn-. (·ollid this stClIH. 3 sg 'to hide' The line where this form occurs has caused a dispute. GPC. H. 163f.("'. immit eel v pres. or a confusion of the two stems."""oIC(.201 imguodant ir degion C~had 2 iechui' n m 'health' (name of a letter) (iechyd) MW iechyt~ Me yehes An -yd derivate of W ioch (DC iach gl.l'.~ \\lith il11111rl == Olr ilnhcd 4hc<1ucoup· and. 3 sil. 'between them' This entry is traditionally considered as a case of metathesis of the form.PC: 455: lEW: )5. conceal". ()I r (. Hamp in Eriu 24 (1973). Williams) and *{ledh· 'to lead. Jenkins and Owen (JO: 116) interpret this as y vel yth 0youch. Isaac in EC 30 (1994). LC\\'js \\'ould sec in i""nrl 'ym my(j' (Lewis: 1926..nguotant and connected it with dy. nGVR: 22J and 221 ~ FI~il': 10(. F. G.(jllll) 'to nHlvc'. JO: 104-5. hai bid ~m guar phenn circhl. DGVB: 217. this could be a copyist's error for itridu. VVI3: 161. imalitiduch cimarguith[i)ejt Chad 3 . 'in' (yn I Gin.? I According to 1'.od. White: 209-211 immisline gl. Isaac: 365. \\'hich is attested olll~' in Modern Welsh. 3 pl. p. sec also White..145. amb-.

rahicrn (vcntorurn) J 64 .'er('d. Wiliams: 19RO. Camp 7 in eir cimeir ... pal". than \\'ith Mod'" . p.1 (1942).4 see \ if/iaBsBur . in ranis Me 7 b.1) inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8. In irtritid urd Comp 1 Intrited retec Camp 2 in triti urd Comp 5 ir loc guac hinnith.0""". mcdullis J 51 q I . where the word is analysed as a loan from AS IlIlW. in pagina regulari Comp 6 hai bu in arcimeir .. 117 ibith gl. Bind.nle. ad. GMW: 72: Lewis: 1956.. that thc \vord (ns \\'('lIllS ?Lnfinised . in uenando Me 39 a. 121 int dosseheitic gl.-Rom. 'I This instance is considered to be in origin the demonstrative pronoun.. ModB ind.. 302.0. see DGVB: 15Q. s.b. 'there~. issi. p. It wns suggested by I. )'no~ Olr and LElA: A-15~ Wiliams: 1927. :P' nnr".-j:.3) inircuitinniou gl. extincta J 78 initoid gl. VGK: II. tayr in Comp 4 .b.~ and cf. maculata J 7R initoid gl. dihilis. (?) For the analysis of this form nnd its MW parallels see J. .] nrdentlor In ruborem Ang 13 u Inom ir guecrissou gl.2) interedou pi ? According to W. in 2 adv. III'''''''' Nt't' 111/". ncc delata diu J 4 int adverbial particle OB int.. ilia J 35 opermedintcredou gl.4vermcngen. part) MW yn. . 137~ Lambert: 19R7. 23.. F. Olr (h)fth (·pap.1 ·f t I ('f. Stokes equated this form with 08 cnhit gl. ('xfa hut more likely is the pi of . iwd~ OC iot gl. ent Lambert: 1982a.. 583. gl. 299 in pan aed hid.v. cf. 'mad' Iynryd I MW ynuyt W.I. i f t init conj. hci der SpCiSC7uhcreitung·. lr · See also S.261 passerenn. noted oy JAckson. porrid~c' I uwd I MW iwt. in-helcha gI. poftrtgc') gl. 198~ Watkins and Mac (~ana: 25. in triti urd Comp 4 iot n m 'pap. puis. gl. initoid gl. ion condy1os Me 6 b. Lambert: 19R7. sec. contrast VCiK: 1.hen' [yDa) W yna.a. 7. 115 nouinnguotricuscgeticion gl. iutta < *ieyto-. ad ir lee. VVB: 202 pcrmedintcrcdoll gl. DGVB: 22.uv. Strachan in RC' 28 (1907). IE Vicu. potta~c. For the 08 form.21. derivative fr(lm . ~ . hapsidum extremque Ang 13 a inno ir guotodinou gl.2) uuc nem ismcl1 intcoucr Juv Q (9. guac. . OIr ind 'The origin of this particle is not clear. inbith adj. l~. Stokes in TPhS IRR5 . Williarns thnt this could he C1 H\\'clshiScltion" of Irish GMWL: 299. 150. ()'Rahilly in f~:riu 1. Comp 14 in pagina regulari Comp 15 hac in irgueleri Camp 16 hai bid in irgueleri Camp 17 in ir salt Comp 20 Ceis inir loyr Camp 21 in ois oison Chad 2 in irham Chad 3 in irgaem Chad 3 in ireguorunhetic datI. cpo o1lguedoll gl.. LHEB: 55.93 92 in ir loscetic circhl. gutatim Ang I) b piouboi int groisauc luv () (R... the interpretation of which presents difficulties as \\'~II. Stokes ( IH60-1: 215 and 21'4) this upcrhaps stand for . / part.1) rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.. also it and t he previous ent ry. hieme ethesiarum flatu 68 b . pigurthet.. W. i. Williams: 193J.\'.103: Williams: 193J. sec helo\\') (l~r('cs hhcttcr with ()C' inf.'nr·. plus: G. which is vcrv unlikclv.n~ particle? .1l/rrRuec!"fI. pre~sus J 92 inn predicative particle (cr. in arguto foro Ovid 38it cluis humi1 inhared cclmed Juv 9 (7.··.5-6. . OB iot. . If \\'(1.0.n J B dye rbi al pa rticle See into inguir Comp 2l .·erh. inir[i)dolte gl. Camp 11 in pagina reguJarf Camp 12 Is aries isid in arecimei r aries Comp 12 in eircimeir Joe guac Comp 13 In pagina regular. 183~ Lambert: 19R1. circulus [.

pottage' See iot ioturn gl.a. Comp 9 hit niritarncr rann. (FS J. ius Ox2 449 (6. 26. gnomonurn stilis MC' 46 a. h. 326-44.2 428 (3. lEW: 508. Jones in SC 10/11 (1975-76). Jud).il. nou iraurlcou gl. Me en. cxtorllfll M(' 2 (1.65. hieme ethesiarum flatu Ang 68 b ir parth alall gl.h. pp. cautium Me 51 a.i. 177~ WG: 191-4 amserpanalos irnauou remanserunt iii gl.a. quamis ad nonas portiones tria rcmanserunt Ang 14a in ir loscetic circhl gl.a. see aWAY L. irhissci C'onlp I() hacet isgurth. nouirhircimcrdridou gl..ll. inir[ijdoltc gl. nouirgoudonou gl. ir serenn Comp I (J retit loyr irdid. glahcl1a mcdictils MC l) h. VGK: 1. ir tri .ou n m yeu~ r 'yok.'Joch' or < Latin . PECA: 68.i. B. Aeuriot. with n > r.] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a "inom ir guecrissou gl.h. VVB: 165.. Thurneysen in Anzeiger fUr indogermanische Spraeh.a..". J. iugum 0. irhinn issid illc gl. coiliotl g1.. pultum 0. hapsidum extremeque Ang 13 a no ir felchou gl.1) iotum n 'pap.lH): seC' i"". VVB: 164-5.a~. HPB: 238. acris MC' 4 b.. pp. hai bu in arcimeir.t eel. uitta crillalis MC' 4 a.'Steinplatte'...118. VGK: II. n. nouirerunnui g1. 91~ GOI: 39. his litoribus abiens Ang 62 b In irtritid urd Comp 1 ir ir Iri ui. WG: 109 iou gl. meloncolia Ang 68 a ir lanu gL aestum Ang 68 a inn6 ir guotodinou gl.. nouirguirdglas gl.n. trui ir unolion gl.a. yeu. hirunn. 98.a.6) < IE ·iugo. rer monades Me' 7 h. hinnuith Comp 15 hac in irguelcri Comp 16 ir lac guac Comp 17 ir loc gunc hai hid in irguclcri ('omp 17 ir bloidin hunnuith ('ornp 20 in ir salt Comp 20 Ccis inir loyr Cornp 21 imguodant ir degion Chad 2 ill irham Chad 3 in irgacm Chad 3 di pul irdcrucn Chnd 6 dipcnnant ircaru ('had 6 nouirrniinngucdou . iugum. acv: 156-7. oithaur hinnith Camp 4 ad ir loc.306. pugillarcm rnginarll MC' 6 h. "Vocabularium Cornicum") ieu gl. in condylos M(' () h. relchrat M(' 4 b. 'r. ircarnotaul hriccr gl.Ul(l)(. MP 22 11 (230) ir petguar pimp MP 22 h (230) ir hcstoriou oleu MP 22 h (23 I) ir pirnphct ctcrin MP 22 h (234) irnimcr hichan MP 22 h (2. irpoul1oraur g1.a. nouirfionou gl. Hofmann in Glotta 25 (1936). inircutinnioll gl.. DC (Welsh?. aur. Pokorny in ZCP 17 (1928). /I EC 23 (1986). in 5. placentarum Ang 55 a ir du bisl gl..und Altertumskunde 26 (1910) p. mcrclirius gl.1~) ir his hichan MP 2J ll (241 ) . VGK: I..3. o.. iugum.h. PECA: 68.4.la.a. See also 'r and cf. nouirc1eteirou gl. guac Comp 5 ir loe guac hinnith Comp 6 ir serenn.2 42 b (4. hinnuith C'omp II irloc guae hinnuith Comp 14 issem ir . nouirccrricc gl. ithrirdiuail gl. a. Comp 7 ir loc guac haibid post. J. o. y. Comp 8 irdid hinn uil h Camp 9 irloc quae Com p 9 Irnidibid ir loyr di.u. iav.b. MB G ]OUYI. sclla cllrulis MC 45 a.----- - 94 FEW: V. p..e. Jackson: 75-6. irril. irgur hunl1uid . LHEB: 441. p. sali rcsplcndcntis MC' . GPC: 2002. Comp 2 pan dieonetent ir. ut si diens Anton il1c M(' 4J h.h. guarirdrcb gl. Brittonica et Gallica. oui Me 10 b.e' (iau) Veriugodumnus MW iau. ircattciraul rcttetice strotur gl.. (coleferum) ius Ox2 428 (3. nouircmid gl. GPN: 357-8.8) iotllm gl..73-4. lEW: 507.'H6hle' . crotularum MC' 10 a. 277. rosarum MC" 9 h.h. J.-----~----. 1/ Sache art und Wort. irmaur nimcr MP 22 h (2. Schrijver: 340. Hubschmied (jr) Bezeichnungen fur ~Kaninchen' .a.16) . tincarum MC' 2 a. R. M. Olr ind. lucuhrationunl pcrcnniurn MC' 4 h. Gen~ve: Zurich 1943.r t definite article [yr) MW yr. CA )xvii-I1(X~ GMW: 24~ R.. a nThe defcnite article goes back to a demonstrative pron. in fanis MC' 7 h. p. WG: 42 iot gl. circulus [. cdito MC' J a. aev: 374. an. KGP: 227.

Sec aho\'e. nullum pulverem Ovid 3~ 8 irdigatmaou gl. DB gurstli(n). in arguto foro Ovid 38 15 ir emedou gl. Ofr sluindid For the connection with Lat. X. OB iscl. 'for' [yrl MW vr. d..1--4) notlnvithstandillg the scepticism of LElA.v . circus Ovid 39 11 ireaiauc gl. 297. er~ OB ir . and belo\\' DGVB: 232~ GPC: 2033~ VGK: I. MJ: 272. Caerwyn Wiliams In BBCS 11 (1944) p. This instance is not quoted in GPC. per). qui primus J 70 ir tir gl. proram J 31 euinhaunt irruim mein J 55 em ir cisemic gl. Christus quem J 81 irtfum gJ. 50: VVB: 16H: W(i: 24H o isel gl._ .glinau irleiLl gl. yr (er). is prep. DGVB: 230. ct < IE *it(h). prep. VGK: I. This instance is not quoted in GP('. I S. usque sub occiduum eoeH J 84 irdicnchiriueticion gl. Lewis: 1956.. Davida canorum J 7 Ir breni gl. Williams. DGVB: 233 isselach gl.. )2H.259-60 i ir tri ui..'Furr (lEW: 790). nummum J 80 irhinn issid crfst gl. submersior Ang () I a istlinnit v pres. libellum Ovid 39 • b . 10: 103-4. a~d this is the only q~oted ~xamp~e for this meaning. humili Ang 15 a rrero~ition ir 2 causal conj. III and cr. ~ GMW: 219.(' (VC1K: f. area Ovid 31 8 nom irbleuporthetic gl.ff. sec Schri. for a different treatment. confused in Welsh··. MC" ysse1: Olr fscl See is.inc. sec Willianls: I <JXO. DGVB: 232 isclach gl. White: 105 istlinnit gl. 50 uuc nem isnem intcoucr Juv () (Q.h. ti ncta Ovid 40· a ironguedou gl. see also the next. DGVB: 228. fundu m J 73 irmesur gl. 'under. immisline gl. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21 naf" ir ni be C85 igridu Chad 2 t isselach adj.. loquitur J 4 irJ prep. advocating a double treattncnt of *spl-. 'throu~h. cdc.~- 96 ir maul MP 23 1 (241) ir eguin MP 23 8 (241) ir hune MP 23 8 (241) ir bis MP 23 8 (241) ir esceir MP 23 11 (247) h . vela Ovid 38 iransceth gl. Stee\'er rf al. Comp 9 iT hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20 ir oider uid hinn. Schrijver: 435-H: Stokes: IHAO-1. GPC quotes this instance as Welsh. this form was considered hy Flcuriot as ultimately W. The instances quoted from JU\' q (lllo". on account for. VVB: 168. p. Romanaque pectora OVId 39 11 iranamou gl.(lEW: 2H5)~ sec also }. splent!c.v . it. 'low· lisell MW is(s)el. nlinchat Me H a. Comp 2 itl preverbal particle OB it. compo 'lower· As opposed to iselach. throughout. ex humili J 5 i~fielach adj. La!. abrupta J 81 (Reading: Stokes: 1865. DGVB 2()2~ Isane: 232~ LElA: S-13H~ LIIEB: 527. MW is.. compo 'lower' As opposed to isselach. It was noted by I.. 18 Irnidibid iT loyr dLa. Vred. Olr IS < IE *ped-sll-. 411) bet circhinn frguolleuni gl. 161~ Parry-Williams: 121. principales Prise 16 b 97 is prone (infixed) 3 sg. Sec ahove. exta Ovid 41 ircenthiliat gl. during' (er] GPC lists this under er (C cr. Wh~' Synt. sec S. E. this form \\'a~ considered hy Flcuriot as possibly Welsh. 209. helow' [is I OW (LL) is.. 'low· The form was considered Welsh by Fleuriot due to the presence of the o in this gloss. ys. DGVB: 232 and 275 6 issei gl. he toole th is to have the force of Ir ar 'for. . Ilanlr. sec s. Loth in RC' ~18 (1920-21). See also isseI. aUf. GPC: 2031. intcriorcs Ang 12 h issei adj.r . Ian ige rae templa OVid 38 8 in irguorunhetic datI gl. aera Ovid 38 8 ircilchetou gl.2) ise/adj.t~ Needs PIHlllnlog\'. g»'ar (ar) a~e . mendae Ovid 40 irtinetic gl. GPC: 1221: lEW: 810~ Williams: 1927.ver. The word is traditionally denved from IE *per das Hlna~sfuhren tiher'". Sec ahovc. that Utile prepositions ar.. irdigatma gl. 3 s~ 'to proclaim" MW (CA) sdlinet. J. J. DGVR: 2~4~ E.

diffussa J 70 . If it is Welsh.167-8. if adverbial partirle 08 it. 397 left this gloss ullexplained.98 Papers from the Parascssion on Diachronic Syntax. Stokes: 1860--1. VGK: 1. cOlnpar~ a.?). cf. Stokes: 1873. Eska: 66. VVB: 168 itdarnestr gl. W iU'f('h (0(' yore" gl. Lc\\'is. VVB: 169 ithr prep. OC~ C"'I11(-): G C~arnh(): Ofr camOl The name of a letter in uAlphahct of Ncmnills" . See also into DaVB: 234. Isaac in EC 30 (1994).v. aT ? Stokes: 1873. 210. 289. Isaac: 391-2. "'hich rcmnins altogether unclear." itlann n f '8 threshing-Ooor' (ydlan] MW ydlan.412. White: 119-20 amal itercludant gL ut subigant J 32 ca. VB: 278-80. MB ez The origin is not clear.a..1. lacJadsi ar Me 9 a. glabella medietas MC 9 b.&zwischen . (lull particularly K. Stokes: IH7J. ('aprea. 3. the meaning is adduced from the Latin context. cr. VGK: 1. Hamp: 1979. intr-. iyn:hetl /ais 2 ? This gloss was found hy II.41). Itercludant allows for the two segmentations. 3 pi 'to block. VB: 286--7 it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. obscura J 36 iUrRcheir n r 'femel e roe-d eer' Iiwrch] MW yerchel.1) itdagatte ail gl. total/til' ucncratioflc slipplicall\ ~fC 1~ h . ('aprell. which do not find parallels elswhere.hinein". MB eth) < IE *pitu.h. Zeu~s: 1059 kam (Nemn) itercludllnt y pres. The first clement is the name for 'corn" . ytlan~ OIr ithlaind (Oat.3. agitare J 88 it clu(i)s [it] drban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. It was suggested (White) that that the gloss is Irish.'Trank" Speisc' (DGVB: 167. Chicago 1976. GPN: J21~ LElA: C'-2(}: VVB: 63. ithr) + cludant (cludd.a. iter (see s.d"m? L. 348-64. itlann gl. G. pp. 9Q An -ell derivative.~ '. Dc Bernardo Stempel: 109-10. ()B iorch gl. 397 left this gloss uncxplained. OIr etir.49-S0. Hamp in EC 23 (1986). cut off' (1) A very difficult gloss. laeidum t(ran)s diem gl. FlclIriot queried the Welsh nffiflitics of the \\·ord. Lewis: 1932. OGVB: 2J6 Tafa < IE *'}ter. Lambert: 1987. lEW: 313.) A compositum. iudeoit? ~ lllis gloss is obscure~ see Stokes: 1860-1. ~between· [ythrJ OW (VSB: 315). and cf. messis. C inter. DGVB: 94-5~ GPC: 396. see De Bernardo Stempel for the further anda and bibliography.'ns identified with MW 'curvus' by Zeuss: GPC does not consider cxnnlplc in its treCltfnent of W cal" < *(s)kalllh· 'krUmmcn. pp. 401 iurgchcll gl. yntre. or it ercludant. 21X~ VV13: 170 hlis gl. kalcndis prinllim nHlrtiis Ang )~ h ilhaD see hi_hoD /s. coniucrc Me 4 b. iudeoit gl. PECA: 64. MW ythr. caprca Me 12 h.306. for the second part see lann t. DGVB: 227.424. lEW: 794. 112 lais gl. p. Inclad dii Me 9 a.. hicgcn' (lEW: YIX: PEC'A: 20).'l'icr aus der (jruppc dcr J~che·.a. Witczak in Flistorisclle Sprach~orschung 107 (1994). then Itl. L lac/ad di? Stokes: IR7J.s' adj. cf. ()WAV. VVB: 169. For Cl different approach see E. OB entr-.1) it cluis it humiJ inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. cter. evil' (name of a letter) OW (LL) and MW cam: 08 camln. lac/ads. area J 14 289~ VGK: I. CI en lac. sec lEW: SLl OC'V: 254: PECA: 1()6~ Schrijvcr: 61 ~ VGK: 1.b.140-1. laxus GPC: 2081~ ML: lRO~ VGK: I. pp. 'loose" (liaes) MW lIaes: Olr lax < Lat. I"rca) < IE *i ork .1) K kam n 'wrong. 231 ~ VVB: 169 ithrirduail gl. GPC: 204J: VVB: 169. T. MW}'f (cL OC hitaduer gl. .

LElA: S-126. British (Vindo)-Iand(a). The instance was considered as Welsh hy GPC'. This instance is not quoted in GPC. pauimentum. Olr lam < Celt. I) leidim vn 'to moisten' (lieith.'mud' with the Welsh termination _QlIC This entry is not given in Thurneysen: 1890a or Parry-Williams as an Irish or an "irishised" gloss in the Juvencus manuscript. Loth (Stokes: 1860-1. 97 namcreit mi ncp leguenid henoid . secuJario Ox2 42h (4. ~nd ~~r which is hesitantly compared with W gwyr. OC leic gl. caedo: M(~ latha~ MIr slaidid A well-attested word in Celtic~ without etymology. ML: IRI. ML: IRJ. *latlclliio-. 3 s~ 'to strike. reulsun and cr.] MW 1(I)av. Stokes and J. GPC: 22R4.291.. 113) Ieee-e. pulsat Ovid 3R~ (Williams: 19J3. Steppe' (lEW: 675). OPC: 2111: VVB: 172 lauhael gl.. Elsie: ]06~ GPC: 2079. and cf. IBabBel n r 'hand-halthel' MW llaw vvwell . aet[h]ra . lIewenyd. Ian. sickern.'breit und flach' De Bernardo Stempel: 123. manus. see also the next. o PC' mentions the possibility of the Welsh affinities of this entry. lIawr. lIether~ OC lithcren gl. VGK: I. 'church. IE y/oll. 1(1)aw~ 1(1)8u. lai3per gl. DGVB: 274-5: OPC: 2150 and 20QL lEW: 657: VGKL: II.. Olr lar < */oro. zergchcn'. now' (llaDw] MW lIanw."62 () (' k'idirn gl. maritae J 80 lefet? J. PECA: 73.. locc/su. VVB: 171 Isun see s. 'swampy' (Irish word showing Welsh features] According to K. Schrijver: 17R.2) Welsh context.'gieBen.7) nc\\' milk'. YpCI. aestum Ang 68 a latarauc adj. v. l'hc form is compared with B /eiz. 257: Lf'lEB: 287~ oev: J29~ PECA: 74~ VKG: I. fordaliu11' Ox2 42<1 (3. 20n...l-: plii. who criticises the analysis of W. aIr lann . W /Iairll (Ir. Koch in EC' 24 (1987). The word IS translated as petlt-Iall. MB leizyaff This was considered hy Fleuriot to he a Welsh form flppnrently hecause of the WG: 82 haioid ilau eleu Chad 2 "\ . flieBen'. OB 10m in lomrod. . VGK: I. OCV: 56-7. balle/. LHEB: 416~ MJ: 270. Loth (VVB: 172) compares this entry \\'ith W flr!ritll 'rnilk. De Bernardo Stempel: 123. OCV: 72.. C.'hreit und nacho aushreiten'. GPC: 2109~ Lf-IEB: 387~ VGK: I. which is "'characteristically Cornish in orthography" (LHEB: 55). Stevenson: 3. OB lor gl. 101 laiiJwer? This gloss... n f 'laywoman' IlIey~esI MW Icic. DGVB: 246. also DOVB: 236).f. laiclIs < Lat. 630. leg-). church-yard' [Ilan] OW (LL) and MW I(l)an. lefel gl. < IE */cg-Io-. anhodlsun /aur n m 'Ooor'l place' (llawr I MW laur.i.8) lanu n m 'tide. lEW: 805-6. this word "~as ~he look of an Irish derivative of the stem lath. 100 ' . barathri coeoo J 81 U • ledit v pres. Williarns: I <JHO. IE Vpei~. 71 latharauc I. GPC: 2095-6. OB lanu The word is preceded by a Welsh article and identical with OB. For the ety~ologies of the components of this compound see lau.'freies Land. Williams: 1933. DOVB: 244. oev: 324~ PECA: 72. lIywcnyd. Schrijver: 163. ()B litcrenn~ ()Ir liter < Lat.JllV 3 (3. See OWAV. < IE ·pl1}lJo. hit. DC lof gl.17J~ Williams: 19RO. 4H laur gl. VVB: 171 lann gl. sartago Ox2 42 b (4. littera: for the Celtic for!'t1s (without this OW instance) see LHEB: 399. Jackson: 1950. *lama .3) lann gl. DOVB: 236 . Kuith/8un. /su n 'hand' Ina. (I)led-: OB ladam gl. PEt'A: 71: VVB: 172 leeces gl. Y/eg. aula celi 1 15 Isnn 1 n 'frying paD' Etymologically identical with IannI. Heide. g~nnec gl. laicus GPC: 2172-3~ LHEB: 605. ] 13 ledit gl. 1(I)eye. . Jackson. VGK: II. VVB: 171. heat' (liad-I MW (I)lad-.·erhelltcn. Me' lowene. alann..~tr()pfen. GPC: 2104. JO: 96-7. DGVB: 2J7~ GPC: 211R~ lEW: R06~ J. is analysed by J. See OWAV. GPC: 2094. r Jepuenid n m 'joy' (llawenyddl MW IIcuenit.vpel. genicBen' (lEW: (55). cf. p.ontains faith 'Iai.J MW IIcithaw. Loth (VVB: 170) as a compound which c. lacticula Ox2 42 8 (3. Craster's reading) lann t n . pfli. Elsie: 102. OB LOlluinid < Britt.224. 53. Etymologically.8. proccssu 1\ ng 61 h . IE *lendh. I07-R nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3. T. littera. DC lor gl. Craster: 135.< IE *p/iiro. DGVB: 236-7. lEW: 798 ir lanu gl. For the orthography cE. platca Ang 51 b leder n pi 'letters' (llythyrJ MW lIyther.

OCV: 147. glossator prohahly took the I fltin "'ord for a proper nanlC. VVB: 173 orbardaulleteinepp gl. cortina Me 62 a. cloth' (lliain J MW Iycyn. p. Linus . cf. DGVB: 244: GPC: 22J4~ LI-IEB: (loR: Stokes: IR65. Ir. VVB: 172 b . DGVB: 241.~n~ Stokes: lR73. DGVB: 242~ GPC: 2173~ lEW: n91~ PECA: 72: VVB: 174 gueli liein gl. pp. ~ . ·anfCfll ~fC ~ 3..Orcl in IF 100 (1995). Hamp (ZCP 4(1 (1994). P. vessel' [llestr] MW llester. MW 1(I)ygat~ OC~ lagat gl.25) limnint" pres. */fsan!n. lIestyr. DB a(l)all.'Lein' in lEW: on this entry see no. Lamhert in EC 17 (1980). the further connections are obscure.a. Isaac: 374. 12). see s. commodum.~) liein n m 'linen. aIr lethenach This compound contains let (lied 'breadth.indol. OB lestr Traditionally < Celt. pallae Me 5 b. VVB: 173 lenn gl. Hittite Etymological Dictionary.(::= Lat. veil" [lien] MW Hen. oculus: MB lagat < IE *Ieuk.rface' (lIedwyneb] MW lIetwyneb. DC les gl. MW 1(l)uch. lichou n pi 'lakes. enepp. ausglc iten·: see. 178.79-80. 1(I)iaws~ on lios g1. " ( leueJirc ? According to Stokes. OCV: 4()~ PECA: VGK: 11. mantilc E.1. cf. OCV: 128. Romanaqaue pectora Ovid 39 DGVB: 245. Fleuriot. 122--4 and the references cited there. Iliain: OB lien gl. durch N~sse glitschiger Boden. 6R: VVB: 188 morliaus gl. thcsc (cf.<. vol.270.36 dilicat dipul retinoc Chad 6 I I leJtir n m 'cup. LHEB: 337.'schlcimig.26) lisus n m&f 'multitude. IHO for a comparison of this form with Ir. 75-6. 38R. swamps. veksla. crowd' [lIiaws I MW lIyaus. DGVB: 240. palu( de ls Ox2 44 h (7..268-70'. width'. Loth. see also arall.(= Umbr.inc. or 'half' according to L. Ir leas For the connection with Greek 1tOAU~. rati J 61 l~'einepp n m 'page. GPC: 2159. Olr Ifa < IE *ple-ias-t-. dish. ypel-.v V. lini ~1(' 4." h. PECA: 71.~ LElA: s-t. vekslu < *les-tlo-)~ cf. PECA: 71~ VGK: I~ 81~ VVB: 173 lestir gl. who followed Ebel. this is lau 'lice' \. see PECA. 'jc pourris·. Elsie: 111~ GOI: 235-6~ GPC: 2t74~ Loth in Re' :'7 (lqI7-9).b. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994).-Y. 2 p. OC len gl. p. 422: VVR: 174 lichou gl. noulin gl. 'other(s)' MW (pl. LL) licat.'one of a pair' see J. . quam multos Ovid J9~ lisuS8UC see il1i8US8UC lieRt n m&f 'SOllrl'e of ri"er or welle « '("'eel 11I~'~Rdl les n m 'benefit. so Stokes. polish' IlIyfnwJ MW lIyfn (hut see Williams: 19JJ. OB letenep. GPe: 2091. R4~ VVB: 175. differently by P. for the derivation from IE *Heelt. DB escei lenn gl. DOVB: 166 and 240. OIr alaile < *a!a1li-. lEW: 680. DGVB: 241 ~ GOI: 120. ~rhc . manutcrgium I. lEW: 833.non ('light. LL) luch. Hamp in Historische Sprachforschung 101 (1988). licin. laCllJ) should be vicwed as horrowings from North (·Central) EUfopcCln suhstratum.'Ieuchten' GPC: 2261~ lEW: 687. logo. and the Brittonic words "must sh()\v connation '\lith another cty. 1(I)\vch: OB loch.386. GPC: 2151.nn gl.a. for einepp. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. linter). Stokes: lR73. lentllfn: Olr siemon lsnlooth' Traditionally. navis. < IE *(s)lei. For the formation see Hamp and cf.n. L. 39-9~ VGK: I. pleraquc nomina: MC lues. however.a lenn gl.: fhe forms arc found in the entry *lino. PECA: 71 nirinciriles. I0l11raid. Loth considered th i5 as an -icc derivative of leues = *Iogas. pp.. epica pagina Me 1 a. aIr lestar was borrowed from Brittonic. E. DGVB: 242. marshes' [lIwch I OW (HB. Iyes: cf. pelll 'Mengc' (lEW: ROO) DGVB: 243. Puhvel.Iro. 41J~ VGK: I. Aeuriot in EC 23 (1986). pp. Fleuriot connects it with OB 'oed 'sordide' and MW lIoedd. sec L<1'nhert: I<">X2a. VVB: 173 Icucsicc gl. cortina~ G lenna~ Olr lenn These Celtic words are derived from Celt. liein duilof gl. caricofc"l. 179. Elsie: IJ2~ GPC: 2255~ lEW: 6o:.102 leiJl pron. White: 120 linint gl. 117): ()B li. L. OC lester gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prisc 27 a OW (HB. OPC: 2156. *linda.v. 3 pi 'to make smooth. tonoent J 44 lin proper name. lenn gI. pp. 21 and 22. GPC: 21 RI discusses this \vord in their entry dcdirfltC'd to \V IIi" 'flcl:x·.n: 0(' liein gllcli gl.glinau irleill gl. Ie!!. sagum. saga Ox2 4411 (6. Schrijver: 321. OCV: 347. Campanile derives thcse words from Britt. + esic (ysig 'fretting'). pa]]am J 30 lenn gl. host. Olr loch According to E. cuhile Ox2 44~ (6. advantage' (Ies] MW lies. 103 lenD n r 'curtain. Mouton 1984. OPC: 2139~ Hamp: 1974.) lleill. Stokes: 1873. shining·?)"". ·'es-tro. manlltergiu. VGK where < ·'ent.. also Lat.

flasch' (lEW: 833) De Bernardo Stempel: 125-6. roseo colore Ang 17 a liu gl. Pedersen (VGK: II. referring to Bedigeiduran uab Llyr. 51 6 rud liu gJ. According to P. DOVB: 243. This etymology is queried in ope. P. nicf3en': for a different explanation see aWAY.104 105 liniSllnt v pret. frequens J 18 t MW 110. Williams: 1929. GPC: 2275. Quelle'.V. natales Ovid J9h liu n m 'colour. liuou n pi 'rudders. GPC: 2273. MB leue: Olr Ineg According to H. lEW: 675.'rinnen.(on these and the etymological lay-out. Jackson: 19~O. VVB: 175 linisant gl.408 noulirou gJ. EL: 41. Harvey. wo: 107 liuou gl. litolsidou n pi 'feast-days.evi(lti()n for 10c 'monastery'. abundance'. which compares this to Olr /ftl. Stokes: 1860-1. lEW: 664. lEW: 654. Litavi·. 71-2: MI. to IE ·(s)lei. According to K. R.. Studies in the Llandaff Charters. O'Rahilly in Eriu 13 (1942). LHEB: 535. ()~. Thurneysen read the word as linmaur and considered it as Irish (cf. 199R) hy Dr. 154-5~ PEC A: 7J. OCV: 320-1. pp. VGK: 1.. OaVB: 14. pp. 212. lEW: 965. lEW: 836. 'hiipfen.-NaB. 116). and the criticism by J. rodi 42 8 (context 2. tillers" (lIywJ MW 1(I)yw. gratia J 25 t . aIr innaluac gl. VVB: MW Ileisw. cE. Jixiuim DGVB: 244. ('religious settlement'. Loth in RC 44 (IQ27). OB liou gl. Pokorny in ZCP 24 (1954) p. durch Nasse glitschiger Boden. fn. on this word see S. J. Thurneysen: 1890a. cenito/aidall) who followed Zeuss: 1057. \/plat· -breit. uitulus. l{nmar 'nombreux'). litim. VGK: 1.'Ieicht in Bcwegung und Oc\\'ichf (lEW. (. Schrijver: 309-310. PECA: 72: VGK: J. 154-5). See also immisline.267. 118. G. OC leu gl.22: VVB: 177 )6 sive enderfc gl.v. Williams (contrast VVB: 68.naur. gubernaculorum Traditionally. Stokes: 1873. 3 pi 'to infect. OPC: 2192. OB lin. oceans' (llyrJ MW Jlyr. GPC: 2272. in lacis lacunisque Ang 16 b lirou n pi 'seas. see s. see GPN: 217-R). v. OPC: 2176. IE *(J)/f~ 'hUiulich for the semantic development which is found in the instance taken from the Juvencus glosses see I-Iamp: 1977-R. F. ope: 2287. Williams: 1933. 121 f). common in LL. OC lin in pisclin.ur adj.267-R: oev: 258-9. J. OieBen'.) . I. DB lisiu. B lid. DOVB: 142. EL: 41: GPC: 2202. An Early Welsh Microcosm. ] This should perhaps be luithmawr from luilh" (cE. and -aeth. 22) < */iipego· to IE *Iiip. the recent examination of this gloss (13. O'RahiJly (in Eriu 13 (1942). see also aleulinn. OPC: 2196. fo.m is a~t~-h. see A. Olr lend. ML: 99.a. Lambert: 19828. this is a ~'terme poetique qui designe lui aussi des entites mythi· ques".'Kuh' (lEW: 654). < *logioJ (cf. Lambert.218. clauus.. Olr If < */f-yo-. j. According to Stokes. VVB: 176 dilitau gl. loch euhic gl. vitulus J 0 01 10 2 'church. leisso. GPN: 217.6-7 litolaidou gl.181. lauare J 98 linnoue. lixam Ox2 44b (7. lotion. (colour of) complexion or skin' (lIiwl MW lIyu. Pokorny lists these forms under *Ieig. Iliw. OC loch gl. the W.20) lita" n 'Latium' MW lIydaw. 177. lixa < Lat. The second i. Litu. etc. Jackson. PEC'A: 71: VGK: 1. Alternatively T. Mlr ler < -li·. abbey. White: 186. pod. Schrijver has argued in favour of Pedersen's interpretation. Thc form is analysed as containing suffixes ·0/.U n ID 'lye. pools' [llyn) OW (LL) and MW lynn. OIr Letha < IE *p{Jo'!ia. to IE */eg"h. 'festival'. VVB: 10 t n m 'calr (110 J 176 lissiu gl. defile' (llyn-] MW llyn·. ligones J 25 liS5. VGK: 11. J. 93 litimaur gl. US: 253.n n pi (a plural dublet) 'lakes. apc: 2149. lEW: 663. OC liu gJ.61. it was accepted by OPC. London 1()7R. Loth in RC 44 (1927). Latio Ovid 39b . ncuum. OPC analyses this hapax as containing (MW) llydK' 'host" compa nyt perhaps connected with (MW) lledw 'plenty. DB linda< IE '*[endh. from IE *p/ell.: lR2 In gl. Vie. helm~.·Y. pp. however. Most recentlv P. F. The gl(lsS is perhaps Latin. 'populous' Several interpretations of this difficult word have been considered. aequorurn Me 51 b. s. there arc smfliler illegihle lettcrs under the upper loop of the c. see W. PECA: 88. birthdays' The present reading and interpretation of this hapax was suggested by I. ausgleiten'.1(. T. The instance is considered as Welsh by GPC.'schleimig. hchcn' (lEW: 667). DGVB: 241. (60). ' gie8en. color. O(~V: 208. grelin. The second component is . 37f. LHEB: 451.21. "the i between t and m is very faint [. Russell and myself has shown that it should he read as loe. luidt). hinnulus. monastery" A dry stylus gloss on Lat. pp. tl.. Davies.21: Craster: 1.37 linnoue in gl.o. decoction' [lieisw] oev: IJ2. OIr lenaid Perhaps. VV8: 176. p. Husiu gl. still exists. GPC: 2252~ Harvey: 192.

Ir loc < Lat.. 395. pp. ope: 2199 loiraul gl. loinou D pi 'bushes. 8. VVB: 177 dirgatisse locclau gl.-Y. IE ylellg.. lignum by Loth and Lewis. loch (menech). OB loc . this could stand for Lat. Stokes: 1873. 'Iunart [iloerol] An -01 derivative of W JJoer. pigurthet.361 luchauc gl. Illid. 49-50 retit loyr Comp 2 passerenn. LHEB: 465. Jones considered this word to be authentic and suggested *lllgno. Stokes: 1873. ipsa [i. locus.. this compound contains 1011 (for lell. and the second part of it allows for the two etymological interpretations. 219. on this stem see Hamp: IQR2. cf.r. loyr in Comp 4 Irnidihid ir loyr Comp 6 relit loyr Comp II Ceis inir loyr Comp 21 Juchsuc adj. Olr luhgort The compound contains a continuntion of Celt. loitret. lichf DGVB: 245. Jock). Lambert: 1987. *gn. charred' Ilosgetig] MW lIosgedic. Comp 6.. brakes' [liwyo] OW (LL) luhyn. concesserat Me 8 a. while P. virgllltllnl~ n linrz. bringen· (lEW: 12Rf). fo IF . loee/au? Stokes suggests reading foc faun or IDee/au.84.K: 1. /0 2 . Russell in CMCS 9 (1985). guac. ferculum Me 14 b. OCV: 326. the gloss remains obscure. linea~e" family" (lIwyth J MW luith.'brcchcn' DGVB: 214. lEW: 687. OC luir gl.5) lo]'r n f'moon' (lloer) MW lIocr. OB loin. Ileufer As was noted by GPC. VVB: 178 louber Nemn louhi? The gloss is obscure. lIoskeddig. by ope.'tragen. Vleuk. p. VVB: 177 and 127 locell vel fonn gl.73 haluidt iuguret Chad 2 luith grethi Chad 3 luird n m 'vegetable or kitchen garden' (lluarth) MW Illarth. VGK II. DGVB: 244. 17 irloc guac Comp 14 irloc quae Camp 9 loe guac Comp 12. GPC: 2244.. I"ilh n m 'tribe. The instance is listed as W. 10: 97-8~ lEW: 68(1~ LHEB: 405: DeV: Q()--I: PECA: 73. IIwyth~ OB loit. or 'flow·. EL: 41~ ope: 2202~ ML: 182 ir loe.1'-. B logel < Lat. lose < *luk-sk·. see Inyr). paluster Prise 26 a luidl. lorell n m&f 'litter' [Iogell ) MW Hogell.) < IE *1('.b.'Ieuchten. umfnssen' (IE\V: 442). licht'). PECA: 75. 'burnt. 402. arsura. 'muddy' (llycho~I MW lIychavc An -ouc derivative of OW (Nennius. OB loir < */ugrii. OCV: 33.b. The instance is listed as Welsh hy ope. 13 3 107 DGVB: 223.'hcrh' ()Ir f. to IE leuk.. See also 10. frutices Ovid 37b loirau/adj. VVB: 177 loinou gJ. PECA: 73. MW liven.o-. cntrindrn': flnd ('elt. Comp 5 ir Joe guac. etc .(IE V/euk. sbrubs. cf. see loyr. OB loscitic.240 and 247. ML: 182. ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a louber n m 'light' (name of a letter) [lIeufer I MW lIeuuer.-Ieuchten. circulus [. holoit. D.~('r· ·~r('ir('n. OB loc"~ aIr loch~ sec licholl. rosarium Ox2 42 b (4. Jones in TPhS 1953. 292 10 gl./. Schrijver: 357. OIr lucht < *luX t-. 246.'Ieuchten. ML: 183. GPC: 2211 in ir loscetic circhl gl. EL: 41. . IlIir~ G luxtos.. GPC: 2198. VVB: 178 louhi gl.106 10 ? According to P.e. /ocellus DGVB: 244~ GPe: 2203. DGVB: 246.gaf" OC lose gt.. see GPC: 2234) llichiein. Ilwyn. OC logel gI. f~s"('n.c adj. M. PECA: 74. progenies.. 431. 10. P. OC luporchguit gl. vitulusJ Ovid 38 8 lo~ n f 'place' [lIog] MW 1(I)oc. VGK: 1. 44-5.(=::: E. DGVB: 247-8 and 244~ GPC: 22)0~ lEW: 653~ VC. lEW: 690. ·nhschfilcTl. Lambert. lichf. *Iuh. cf. loculus. *!.. and was described as "unklar'" by Pedersen.27. luna. GPC: 2248. monath Ang 55 a los~et. lescsit An -tdig derivative of Welsh lIosg: llo. VGK: 1. Elsie: 112.. Russell suggested a derivation from */ukno. GPC: 2167-8. cf. flistoria Brittonum.her. loeo (in PN) The word was considered as a loan from Lat. OC' leid gl. see also datlocou and cf. Ir.

ma~ar. see also merion. W. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. defective' [moel] MW moel. On dating and archaism in the Pedeir keinc. Eska. leled to hal. MIT mae] < ·. 'bald.20) mair gl. deceptus Ovid 4l h msnnuclenn ? The word. me. pp. Capkov~.. GPC: 2312. p.< IE ·. 01l1l0li). GPC: 2311. OC' rnah gJ. V. VVB: 180 mair gl. Stokes: 1873. 99. 49-50. which is a hapax in Welsh. 109 ope: 2215. /I Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.nai/. OIr -mm. om· cial' [maer) OW (LL) mair. praepositlls.-Y. LElA: M-6-7. was considered hy J. 11l011l1cio/(1111l).35) maessid D pi 'fields' IAllesJ OW (LL) rnais. OCV: 296. H. the further etymological connection arc douhtful. VVB: 180 nitguorgnim moUrn map meir Juv 9 (9..PC: 320: LrIA: R--Rl: VVB: 5R. DC mair gl. GPC: 2293~ lEW: 690. oev: 96~ PECA: 76. 1997. Williams: 1980. VVB: 179 map brethinnou n pi 'swaddling-tlothes ll mail g1. lEW: 709. responsible for land supervision and the selection or dues. Ahlqvist. to me' ['ID] MW m. or derivative from Inaen 'stone'. (iPC follo\\'s the rcadin!! offered in HW and interprets this word as n f? 'handful (of !!rain). cf. . 6 Clerigh. Lewis in BEeS 4 (1928).a. OB -m. horti Me 50 a.J1EB: 641. LElA: M-8.erritorial .-.. ()R mah. */11ok"o. n. N. 564. maenawr. Fleuriot (DGVB: 251) considers this word in his discussion of OB lnaloilloc.) D~n do Oide. 1974. I. maenaul The word occurs twice in Welsh (see also . mas) + oen 'Iamb'. mutilum Me 42 b.) Hispano-GalloBrittonica. aIr mace < Britt. note the spelling ai for oe. 263. officer. 1 sg 'my. MW maer. of a bold leader'.i.~-------------------~---~-- -- -- 108 DGVB: 247.'yn > haJl1en > haJen. EL: 15. Loth (VVB: 180) suggests a comparison with Irish mel/a. WG: 114 ha maharuin Chad 3 h[a maha]ruin Chad 4 ./1 (A. 405.3. G. E. LElA: M-l. handful or armful (of corn). L.26. wether' [maharen] MW mahar(a)en. Davies: 1982. "The compound consists of 1nap 'son' (sec s. GPC: 2474-5.nni. Olr mag. MW hrell1y11(11) lc1oth. fig. myhyr 'spears. -arills) luith see laidt M m prone pel'S. hut see I. LHEB: 445. GPC: 2293. mar~ cf. Brcc7c in ZCP 47 (1995). The word is hesitantly compared by GPe with Welsh mehyr.< IE *".. *mtg(h). prepossitus Ox2 46 8 (9. GPC: 2349. VGK: 1.'groB'. l"his loan is not attested in any of the studies of Latin borrowings in Welsh. lEW: 691. eds..10) mair n m 'one of the administrative officers of the court (in the Welsh laws). PKM: xviii-xx. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4l b (1. (or from ?) Olr hran. from Lat. Slow and uneven change. p. II (J. DGVB: 253. ()('V: 79. Schrijver: 216. p.) and (pI.a. Stokes in TPhS lRR5-7. lEW: 690.naphrith . R. R. 96-7 mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1. cf. Hamp. m)'baren According to WG. DGVB: 250. GPC: 2321.136... LElA: M-7. PECA: 75. love dignus Ovid 39 h m8h8R1in n m 'nm. Gaulish -magus. Notes de celtibere. steward. p.·hauen. Dublin: Institiuid Teangeolafochta Eireann. OW (Harl). BaudiS: 144. eds. pI. bart.1) ham hoI eneti gl. and the phonetic development of the last syllable is there paral. Schrijver: 146-5..215-6. MW maes~ OB maes. p. GPC: 2310 Ostendit ista cosripsio nobilitateln mainaur med deminih Chad 6 < Lat. meir. sheaf. mail adj. Rhvs's reading is accepted though queried by W. abhauen'. MW mab. Considered by GPC (with a question mark) as an -owr (hist. . G\\'cnogvryn Evans (hesitantly) as a diminutive of banu' 'a sucking pig·~ the initial consonant was explained hy Baudi~ as a result of nasal mutation. LL: xlv ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 map n m 'son' (mab) OW (LL) rneibion. OB mair. malgueretic gl.< *mas-~ro 'male' (~ Lat. map. maior.9) hin map di iob gl.< Celt. M.nd 8dministntlve unit' (mlenor) MW rnaynaur. MaCasi(a)m < Britt. msinswr n f 'distria. ML: 1M3.) hrrthifl1l01l. spear.248.3) namercit Juv 3 (3. sce A. 389 f maessid gl. 9()~ (. I)avies. PECA: 75: YCiK: L 128. '. ad suum praeposituln Ox2 45 3 (8.. Mlr m~er < Lat. 1995. Jacobs. Geraint Gruffydd. plana Ang 17 a malgueretic ? J. Lane: 253~ P.v. filius. 2. woollen cloth' < *bratlino·. Magurix. *mages-tu· < IE ·meg(Ft)-. Richards in EC 13 (1972) p . Lambert. pI. LllEB: 354.a~"os 'jung' DGVB: 249. VVB: 178 luird gl. Essays in Memory of C. . *1nopo.

nhrnt-. DaVB: 251. lEW: 707. VVB: 181 mas gl. LElA: M-20. lEW: 704. OIr mil (gen.'etwas abstccken. substance. GPC: 2394. mBul n r&m 'thumb' [bawd) MW baut. for a sceptical evaluation of the comparison with Annenian motn 'finger' (Meillet. m-e·t.35 map brethinnou gl. ahmesscn·). lEW: 703. p. Haycock: 16. dimension' (main') MW meynt. (j Mcdugcllos ('!)~ Ir rnic. great' (mawr] OW (LL) maur. irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7 . VGK: 1. GPN: 114-6. OB marh. Ofr mass < Lat.. VVB: 182 ir maut MP 238 (241) .49. etc. *nlei. lEW: 703.a. maur. (*". DGVB: 254. this stands for mapbrith(i)onnou or mapbrithinnou. ML: 185. Thomas. dulcis) for these see DGVB: 2s8~ lEW: 711-2 (s. OIr m~r.58-9. G. Joseph: 54~ LElA: M-32: Schrijvcr: 175. gracilis. T. MW mawr. metallum Ox2 42b (4. adulter Ovid 41 8 n r'mass of metal. PECA: 81. MB mel. vecte maveri J 90 flairmaur gl. stagnum.e-. mcd. apc: 2294.l10. messen. sicera Ox2 44 3 (6. 37~ VVB: 182 med nouel Juv 3 (2. meint. OIr med < IE *111cd. cf OW map brethinnou. nectare. OC muer.. G.'mild. p. 50.'Pferd' (lEW: 700.i. See also litimaur. Kelly: 46. GPC: 2357. marchauc. MJ: 272 dimedichat Chad 2 mein adj. KGP: 242. abundaDce' [mas] MW mas. A.3) mel n m 'honey' (mel] MW mel. mela) < IE *meli-l 'Honig' DGVB: 253. LElA: M-50. MB meut Without established etymology. Parry-Williams: 122. Russell: 1990. matter. Sec also lninl. 08 mel gl.10) hi hcstaur mel MP 22h (2JO) is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 22 h (231) ". see E.292 m8ur adj.1I Kelty i kel'tskije jazyki. Me marrec. Henry: 200-1. mor < IE *mi·. 7 for the reading and contrast VVB. 120 marcach An ·-dko. aequester. nl-e-l. GPe: 2370. MIr marc) < IE *marko. VGK: 1. abmessen'. Williams who considered this instance as a verb. mel. On the Irish word see D.4) mIlS un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. Watkins argues for its interpretation as a nOlln. Me myns~ on mcnt. VVB: 181 guas marchauc gJ. mild' (Oe nllli" gl. conabula (leg cunabula) J 8 mBrchauc n m 'horseman' [marchog) MW marchawc. onnou gl. I. Kelly: 45-7. traditionally analysed as Y/nedd. Solta). 'fine. Greene. Parry-Williams. Makajev. OB mor. Contrary to I. GPC: 2379~ GPN: 223-8. maS5a. ermesscn' (lEW: 705). GPC: 2323. p. H. GPC: 241R. T.'groB. Harvey: 1991. possession' [meddJ MW met. DB mar(c)hog gl. equus. ansehnlich'. 110 III ope: 2294. LElA: M-18. /I Ch. see the discussion and bibliography in 10. gracilcnta Me 4 b.l < IE *InedhuGPC: 2394. 265. Pokorny hesitantly lists this entry in his *me-. Parry-Williams in BBCS 1 (1922). VGK: I. 191.1) medichat D '8 ruling. PECA: 78.I. ed. The War Chariot as Described in Irish Literature. 'big. in cunis Ovid 39b mapbrith . a mein funiou gl. Williams in ODCS 7 (1933).2) med gl. H. control' Hapax in Welsh.v. LElA: M-23. (Gen) maur. DGVB: 251.. Moscow: Nauka 1974 G~: pp.V. Olr mcit < IE *. GPC: 2322. flairmaur. G Su-meli. messen.:.i. lEW: 723. see Williams: 1929.'mcssen.derivative of march 'horse' (DC march gl. Elsie: 82. LElA: M-48~ VGK: I. rvittae] tenucs Ovid 37<1 meint n m&r 'size.+ -yclt.+ -ad. weich. mcd.42: White: lOO~ Williams: 1980. Lane: 253). Armjano-kertskije izoglossy. see s. cf.'etwas abstecken. VVB: 182 or maur dluithruim gl. Parry-Williams in OBCS 1 (1922). DGVB: 259. London 1972. olacem Me 14 a. onnou n pi 'swaddling-clothes' According to T. OC mel gl..20) med 2 n ? m 'authority. H. gurmaur. OB mas gI. maro-. The Iron Age in the Irish Sea Province. Me mcth. slender' rmain J MW mein Compared (hesitantly) hy GPC to W Inu'yn 'tender. For the etymology sec nled 2 • GPC: 2400~ JO: I05-{}. J. VVB: 183 mein gl. KGP: 77-80.a. 247. VVB: IRJ trcan cant mel MP 22h (2. *mo. LElA: M-49~ Watkins: 1982. T. OB Inoin gl. OIr med l n m 'mead' (meddl MW met. PECA: 81. lieblich'). 110 mapbrith .

DC milin gI. flauus < Britt.. VVB: lR6 minci gl. giluium Ox2 43a (5. PECA: 78 melinou uel elinou gl. Loth connects the Brittonic words with the IE base ·mh/-nt. Lewis the reading .198-9.R < Lat mensura (MLat. VVB: 184 mellhionou gl. pp. Me mynnas. < Lat. me. 110-1 ~ Stokes: IH7.ny.2) mi mihun gl.b.u1'eddoll). MB men nat < IE *l1lendh. Loth in RC 45 (J928).a. see PECA: 106) dowomisurami gl. collar' (mwnciJ MW mynci. 3 sg 'to want. actores J 78 mesur n m 'unit 01 measurement' (mesur] MW mes(s)ur.1.a. mil prone pen. Jackson: 1950.383.97. myn(n)-.ind. Lambert. ad Jjbram MP 23 1 (229) . PECA: 78. Haarmann: 124. molendinum. ope: 2420.1. p. see J. OB misur in doguomisuram.. K81es' (mantol] MW mantawl. 112 me/in IdJ. fuluus I.a. claim" (mynn-) MW min(n)-. Vendryes in EC (1 (1953-4). 137. Olr rno GPC: 1271. f1auus. 'yellow' [melyn J OW (LL) melen. Williams: 1980. 10: 107. See ~(-. menn'.a. uiolas Me 8 b. J. LElA: M-25-6. and this was compared with DB nino Lamhert: 1982a. however. LElA: M-72: Parry-WiJ1iams: 122. VGK: I. cf Olr muince. melyn. GPC: 2422. 22~ Lewis: 19. ·melino. WilJiams: 1980.1) rit pucsaun mi ditri"taut Juv 9 (7.. LElA: M-75. v. GPC: 2SIO~ lEW: 74R~ J. ML: 186. DaVB: 261.u/ n f 'balance. me' [mil MW my. OIr mulenn It was noted by fleuriot that the form could be ow. m. JEW: 702. cardin ales Ang 15 a .1) melinou n pi '(com)mills' (melin] MW melin. uoco Me II a. This compound was considered to contain IE *. mesura). 2. nunc ego quem J 3 ismf Christus J S4 mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1. VVB: 184 menntauJ gl.iinglledoll (W "'i" .a. the similar suggestions for the history of Middle High German me/de. VVB: 185 irmesur g1. and *kagh.2 prone pOSe I sg 'my' (ry J MW fy. see s.2) issmi gl. GPC: 2452. GPC: 253~: LElA: M -SJ--4: . LHEB: 596. Ichhaft sein' (lEW: 730) GPC: 2537. J. bilance Me 12 b.. nummum J 80 di mesur gJ. LElA: M-41.-Y. mi. Stokes: 1873. Vendryes in EC 1 (1936).. LHEB: 331. Hals· (lEW: 747). EJsie: 114.257. molina DGVB: 254. coiliou gl. meint).ne- r . Me my. miinnguedou n pi ? According to H.. ipsa Me 51 b. OCV: 288. p. B rna. White: 100-1 nis minn tuthulc Chad 2 minn n 'crown. DOVB: 259. ho\vever. 115 ismi gl.~: VVR: l(.12. compensabo. 44. OC (Book of Tobit. mel/hionou n pi 'clovers. 337 and ct. mi phiJologia gl. independliDI 1 sg 'I. VVB: 185.1. ipsa Me 51 b.nllnnKliedoli offered oy Stokes (accepted by Loth) is wrong.(1. ML: 187. perhaps horrowed from Welsh.v. LHEB: 604. 'nth in R. . According to P. OB milin gl. cf. OIr me < IE Cl ·. PECA: 78 melin gl. the entry could he read as niinglledoll.. MB melchonenn This plant-name is sometimes considered to belong to IE *meli-t 'Honig'. DGVB: 147. n m 'hames. trefoils' [meillion] MW meill(i)on. 250. einfasscn' (JEW: SIR).n01l0· tNacken.·rddnll or . DeV: 210. DGVB: 257. 109). mi mihun gl. GPC: 2409. OB me (1: see Lambert: 1986. OIr mesar mine.. Instead he suggests I1.3. 113 Elsie: 105. MW melin.'seinen Sinn worauf richten. perhaps to IE *meli-t 'Honig'.2) micoueidid Juv 3 (. OC melin gl.'fassen. DB monto) For the absence of the relation of these words to G mantalo-. DeV: 393. 3R7~ VVB: 190 nouirmiinnguedou .i. PECA: 106. molam. ML: 186. see lEW: 724.95 miteJu Juv 3 (1. melin.(see S.3) namercit mi nep Jeguenid hClloid Juv 3 (3. VGK: I. GPC: 2440. merion n pi 'omtials. considers this entry as DB. intemerata Me II a. stewards' See maer merion gl. wreath of nowers' The word is attested only in M(~ and could he also the next. hnrrcl\ving from Irish ". mel. va. 396. GPe: 2346. OB molin gI. monile J 26 minn v pres. 16. cxtorum Me 2 3. GPN: 68.

matertera < Celt. minoou gl. LElA: M-18.nn minnou gl. to IE *me-. 408. oev: 6O~ PECA: 81. lEW: 716. PECA: 80. *mdtrVk". see molim. minn gl. Hamp: 1973. 120 is moi hinnoid MP 23a (246) mo/aut n m 'pnlise. ope: 2499 11Ut. 129.5) f modreped n pi 'aunts' I modryb I MW modryb(ed). see LElA. 'how' [mood] MW mod. MR mar . ham" (morddwydl MW mortuit. many' See meint. mord(r)wyt. morthuyl.nartulus (MLat. 193 moys altaur gl. 08 mor. GPC: 2472. Lamhert: 1987. Schrijver due to the phonetic difficulties. v. DoVB: 261. VVB: 189 mormeluet gl. 3 mor dru. seta Ox2 42b (4. p. more' [mwy] MW muy.n". LHEB: 665~ ML: 188: VGK: I. how (~reat).a.'zcrmamcn. GOI: 237.1. WG: 153 omorduit gl. ebeno (Leidcn) muin n m 'treasure" (name of a letter) (mwynJ MW mwyn.114 minn gl. mahlen'. ansehnlich'. femur. cephitor. mofn < *. MB mOT. OB roui. matertere m[e]re Ox2 43b (5. VB: 249. ~44-·~: VVR: IR9 muin Ncmn \ . ML: 188 ismod. serta Me 9 a. catenum Prisc 12 a muhit n m r and adj.a. 'ebony" (muchudd) MW muchud.'wechscln.a.h. mwrthwl. wreaths of Dowen' See m. muchyu Word without etymology. tcstudinum Me 51 a. molawd An ·oK'd derivative of rno/(im) . ~ marl exclamative particle 'so (great). and the problems related to its interpretation (McManus: 156-7). Loth in RC"' 40 (142. VVB: 187 modreped gl. mormeluet n pi 'sea snails' (mor-falwod I W morfalwen (sg. Schrijver: 197 and 213. dish" L. sertum MC 7 b. hamper.9) muhit g1. morthol n m 'hammer.) This compound contains nlor 'sea' (OW (LL). 'bigger. GPC: 2661 pamint gI. OIr rnolFor the possibilities of etymological analysis. 78-9. see GPC: 2330. comp. GPC: 2519: lEW: 710: LElA: M-59-flO:. VVB: 188-9.nel.J. Olr mafn. VGK: L 7()~ VVB: 188. 239.3) riitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9. GPC: 2479 gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7. GPe: 2473. See DGVB: 260-1. molaud. quam J 31 mod adv.1). femine Me 51 a.b. myrthwl.ne.29) moi adj.'MeeT' (lEW: 748. LElA: M-25. LElA: M-62. Olr muir) < IE *mori. OC modereb abar~ mam gl. quam multos Ovid 39a morl n 'sea" see mormeluet morduit n m&f 'thi~h(-bone). mwy. GPC: 2479.. White: 299-301 ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5. 08 motTep gl. DGVB: 260. mint 'much. exaltation' [molawdJ moys n 'basket. hut cf.. . LHEB: 257. Lambert: 1982. haunch. malle'" rmorthwyl J MW morthwl. DGVB: 261.. OB mod. MB morzat The traditional connection with OHG fnuriot 'thigh' (then < *morieitii) was queried recently by P. CA: 165. VGK: I. Irish ogam letter-name . mui..3) molim vn 'to pulse' (mol-) MW mol-. cf. Hamp in ZCP 46 (1994). GPC: 2488. MW mOT. eheu Ovid 39a morliaus gl. MB mclhued) < IE *. sec s. matertera.-no. rr. but see E. oe morpoit gl. to IE *mater· 'Mutter'.'groB. Olr roo < *. Fleuriot noted that this word could he 08 as well. and "leluet 'snail' (DC melpen. cf. did. VI11Ci. oev: 86. lEW: 700. VVB: lR9.a. stemmata MC 10 a. 293. LHEB: 288. GMW: 38 and 43. OC~ mOT. lEW: 704. 66 and II. larger. *nlortlilo ?) EL: 42~ GPC: 2494. myrthyl: M(' morthal. GPC: 2515. minnou n pi 'crowns. GPC: 2489~ Stokes: 1873. MB meuliff. LElA: M-56. PECA: 78. hanaud Comp 1 115 This can be an unaccented form of fna"r.. MB morzol < Lat. WG: 113 morthoI gl. 11). Olr mod < Lat. *mo. such (af [mor) MW mor. modus DGVB: 258. sertum Me 6 b. schlagen.'i MW molaut. tauschcn'. VGK: I.ntiills. CA XXXII. SchrijveT: 240. GPC: 2485.. WG: 253-4 mortru gl.

116

117

muiss n r&m 'basket, hamper, dish' [mwys] MW mwys; DC muis gL mensa, OIr mfas < Lat. mensa; see also mOJ5. DGVB: 260; GPC: 2523; LElA: M-47; LHEB: 543; ML: 189; 82; Stokes: 1873, 407; VGK: 1, 208-9; VVB: 189 muiss gl. disci Me 46 a.b. munutolBU n 'twigs' Hapax in Welsh. OB minutolou gl. samentis < Lat. minutal(ia) OOVB: 257; GPC: 2502; ML: 188; VVB: 190 munutolau gi. fornilium Ox2 44b (7.27)

oev: 365; PECA:

nam 'except" [nam(n) I ? Was considered as a suspension of nom11,"ill (MJ: 272, for this word see now AP: 43 and E. Hamp in BBCS 30 (1983), p. 288) or na""nll; (10: 103), see s.v. GPC: 2551 considers this as belonging to na1".\''' and cites examples from MW and W (nom, nanl" 'except'). It was suggested hy St. Zimmer (forthcoming) that the word belongs to the previous syntagm. and he translates the passage as '(un) cheval. trois vaches, (plus) precisement trois vaches qui viennent de veler". nanl iT ni be cas igridu Chad 2 nam hint erre; ? This difficult gloss caused dispute. According to L. Fleuriot, this could contain nam, into and errei (for rei 'kind'?). Alternatively. P.-Y. Lambert sees here naf1'hint = W namyn, and er-rei = ir-r~i, MW y rei, translating Lat. quaJ. DaB: 522; oaVB: 263; Lambert: 1982, 204 nam hint errei gl. sed quas Prise 34 a nsmmu; adv. 'only' MW namwy; Olr namma See na, ,noi. GMW: 233; GPe: 2551; LElA: N-2-3; VVB: 191 h6nft namrfnji gl. tantum ne r... ] unquam J 51 nant see pennant nat negative particle (in a relative clause) (na(d) I MW na(d); MB nad Sec na. DGVB: 262: GPC: 2544; VB: 276; VVB: 191 natoid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. h.
nsunecsnt n 'cycle of nineteen years" Hapax in Welsh. GMW glosses "Olltler as '19' and "ollneca,,1 as 'a cycle of 19 years'. ope (with a query) lists this as a noun 'cycle or period of nineteen years'. and this is the rendering of P.- Y. Lamhcrt. 'pcriode de dix-neuf ans', cf. Ir. nofdecdae. Following Quiggin I. Williams compares this with B "onfldec '19'. and refers to WG: 232 for the suffix -anI. cf. Evans: 1976-R. 237. It was also suggested (1. Loth in RC 34 (1913), p. 147) that the second clement could he cant 'cercle·. cf. DGVB: 95, but see Lambert: 1984,33, where it is tentatively argued fOf a po~sihle -t- derivation. The formation finds a perfect match in OB noudeca"t. Etymologicaliy, nOli 'nine' and deg 'ten', for the etymologies see "011011, deccolion. DOVB: 264; GMW: 45; GPC~: 255H; (Jfccnc: 540; Lamhcrt: IlJX3, 12H; Lamhert: 1984, 33; Sehrijver: 212; Williams: 1927, 272 circhl naunecant. Comp 23

mur n m '".11' [mur] MW mur, MB mur; OIr mur < Lat. murus The instance could be Irish as well. GPC: 2502; ML: 189; Haf"\'ey: 191; LElA: M-76; VVB: 190 moenia aul .i. mur bethlem J 1

N
n pron. (infixed) I pi 'us' See an. Haycock: 12; J. T. Koch in Eriu 38 (1987), p.165 fn. 21; Watkins: 1982, 43 anguorit anguoraut J uv 9 (5.2) anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5,2)

na negall"e particle [na(c)] MW na(d); Me na(g); DB na(c); OIr na(ch) See also not, nammui. GPC: 2545; Williams: 1980,96-7 gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16 namercit J uv 3 (3 1)
I

na(m) bill' 1 Obscure, Bint was suggested (DGVB: 63) to be a form of the verb 'to be'. DGVB: 263 na[m] bint gl. tan turn dissyllaba Prisco 34a

nam n m 'lord' [nan MW naf J. Loth in Archiv fur celtische Lexikographie iii (1905-7), p. 39 derives this form which does not have any im mediate cognates in the other Celtic languages from
*nahho- (cf. English navt'); see R. Fowkes for the semantic evaluation. Grc: 2548; Fowkes: 1958, 2-3; Williams: 1980, 98
tinn n!.lln ririPlle: 11M allPti£1 Til U 1. (1 1)

118
n8UOU num. pi 'nine' lnaw] MW nau; OB nau; OIr nof-n < IE *neY1}- (GOI: 247~ LElA: N-19; VGK: I, 61) The Welsh affinity of this entry is based on the preceeding definite article. This instance is not quoted in GPC. DGVB: 264 amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gI. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14a

119

nerth n m&f 'strength' (nerth) MW nerth; OB ncrth gl. robur; G. ncrto-. Olr nert < Celt. *ncr-to- < IE *ner- '(magische) Lehenkraft. Mann'. This instance is not quoted in ope. For the gloss. cf. W n nertll 'hy the pCl\vcr of. hy. through, with the help of. See also ncrtheint, ncrthiti. DGVB: 275 and 266; GPC: 2571; GPN: 237; lEW: 765; LElA: N-IO: J. Loth in RC 41 (1924), pr. 207-R: VOK: I. 136.414 a i ncrth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b nertheinl v pres. 3 pi 'to make stron~(er), reinforce' (nerthaf: nerthRul MW nerth-; cf. air nertaigid A -hall derivative of nerth: sec s. v. a. nd cf. ,,('rthiti. ope: 2572; VGK: II. J]8; VVI3: 192; Whitc: 121 ncrthcint gl. armant J R9
nerthi(tJ) v imp. 2 s~ (or pres. 2 sg) 'to make strong(er), reinforte, ~frengthen'

nedim n , 4a dze, a~e' (neddyf] MW nedif, ned(d)yf~ MB ezeCf
A derivative of the verb reflected in W naddu 'to cut' (= Ir snad-), on these see GPC: 2548 and LElA: 5-146; to IE *(s)nadh- 'einschneiden, schnitzen' (lEW: 972-3). GPC: 2561; VGK: I, 165~ VVB: 192 nedim gl. sscia Ox2 42b (4.3)
nem n f&m 'lleaven' (nel) MW new, nef; OC nef gl. celum; OB nem; aIr nem IE *nebh- 'feucht, Wasser' (lEW: 315)

I ncrthaf:

nerthu I

DGVB: 265; GPC: 2561; LElA: N-8; OCV: 32; PECA: 82; VGK: 1,255 uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2) uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)

MW ncrth-; MB nerziff; Olr nertA dcrivative of "erth ~ see s. v. and cf. "ertheint. GPC: 2S72~ Lamhert: 19R7. 29S~ VGK: II. JJ7~ VVB: 192: White: 26R nerthiti gl. hortabcrc Ovid 39 h
nes adj. comp. 'nearer' [nes J

nemheun.llr 'at all' This very di fficult sequence was considered by several authors. According to G PC (which follows 8 . Rees) this hapax perhaps contains neb (see s.v. nep(p», mewn (OIr medon. < IE ·medhi- ~mittlerer', lEW: 706, LElA: M-28), and aur (see s.v.) Bromwich: 94~ ope: 2569~ B. Rees in BBCS 20 (1963), p.125; Watkins: 1982, 40~ Williams: 1980, 93-4 niguorcosam nembeunaur henoid Juv 3 (1.1)
nep(p) proD. "someone, anyone' OW (LL). MW neb~ OB nep; G. nepon; OIr nech < IE ·ne-kllo-s~ see also nepun DOVB: 265; GOI: 311; GPC: 2560; LElA: N--6; VGK: 11,211-2; VVB: 192; WO: 312-4 nep gI. oe quem] 70 namercit mi nep leguenid henoid Juv 3 (3.1) panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.

MW nes; MCB ncs, OIr nessa; G neddamon < IE *ned- 'zusammcndrchen. kniipfen' DGVB: 234 and 266: GPC: 2573: lEW: 75H~ LElA: N-12: V(,K: I. 4RO issid ncs gl. imfcriora Ang HI h
nil pron. pcrs. t pi 'we, us' (ni) MW ni, ny, MC~ ny, OB ni~ Olr sni < IE *ne- 'wir' (lEW: 75R) DGVB: 102; Elsie: 144~ GPC: 2581~ LElA: S-150; VGK: 11,168: VVB: 193 cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 h isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b nouni gl. nostrum MC 44 b.h. ni 2 negative particle 'not' (ni( d))

nepun pron. 'someone, anyone, somebody' MW nebun. neb un; 08 nep un alall; Me nep onon Contains ntp and un 'one', see s.v.v. DGVB: 265f~ GPC: 2560; VVB: 192
nepun gl.. qua Ovid ~8b

MW ny(t); MC ny(ns); OB ni(t). nc(t); G ne-: Olr ni. nf; cf. C'I nc *1] (Wortnegation)~ sec also nit. DGVB: 267-9; DaB: 526-7~ Elsie: 116; OMW: 173-4: GOI: 15)~ GPC': 2581: lEW: 756; LElA: N-14; VGK: I. 250 II. 252f.: VVB: 193: WG: 422-4 Oraur. ni hois. ir loc guac hinnith. in pagi"n regulari Cn,np 5 nitarnhcr C'omp 8 haccet. nitegid. dLa. C~omp 8. Irnidihid ir loyr di.a. C'omr l) niritarn(h )er Comp 10 cen nit boi lor !!tlnr i,,'f'" 0, ct a. in pa~~;"0 rf~lll'il";. f'OJllf' t 2

< *ne (Satznegation). <

120
Cinnit hoys irloc guac hinnuith In pagina regulari Camp 14 nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17 ir nider uid hinn. bOll nit bloidin salt Comp 21 nam ir oi be cas igridu Chad 2 nis minn Tutbulc Chad 2 niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1) nieana[m] Juv 3 (2.1) niguardam Juv 3 (2.1) nicusam Juv 3 (2.1) nit arcup betid hicouid canlon Juv 9 (2.1) nisacup nis arcup leder J uv 9 (3.3) nisacup ois arcup leder J uv 9 (3.3) ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3) ni choilam hinnoid MP 22b (234) nichoilam MP 22b (238) oi cein guodemisauch gI. non bene passa Ovid 398 nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
nihn (n.me of • letter)

121

nom 2 ?
This entry is very controversial. According to Zeuss (p. 1(55) /lon, here glosses te,npla and corresponds to W n»1 'sacrum, sacellum'; this was accepted (with modifications) by Loth. H. Lewis connected this word with W neuadd 'hair (see s.v. nOllodoll). Fleuriot keeps to the traditional interpretation, thus 'sacred place, temple'. P.-Y. Lambert, following W. Stokes and J-1. Bradshaw, suggests seeing here a particle introducing genitive (see also nOll, etc.); this is not accepted in OOB: 528 and cf. scepticism of GPC'. OGVB: 271; GPC: 2596; VVB 194-5; Lambert: 1982a, 23-4; H. Lewis in BBCS 15 (1953), pp. 121-2 nom irbleuporthetic gl. lanigerae templa Ovid JR:l

nos n f 'night' [nos] MW nos, DC nos gl. nox, OB nos; cf. air innocht < *nokt-stu, IE *nek"-(t-), *nok"-(t-) 'Nacht'; for tra nos, cf. C ternOJ, MW trannoeth. OOVB: 271; Elsie: 115; GPC: 2597; lEW: 762; OCV: 198; PECA: 123 tra nos Comp 13
R3~

VGK: I,

This entry in the so-called "Alphabet of Nemnius" is usually compared with an ogam letter-name nin, without etymology, on this see McManus: 151-3.
LElA: N-17; VVB: 193 nihn Nemn
niinpedDI1 see mlinnguedDu

notuid n f 'needle, pin' [nodwydd] MW not(t)wyd; MC nasweth, MB nodocz; aIr snathat < IE *(s)ne- 'weben, spinnen'; cf. W nyddll 'to spin', GPC: 2590; lEW: 973; LElA: 5-148-9; VGK: I. R5; VVB: 195
notuid gl. acus Ox2 42 h (4.8)

nim n 'measure'
I. Williams hesitated between the readings nim or nun, with the line over the last two letters. His suggestion was to consider this as an abbreviation for nimer (see s.v.) which he translates (1930,245) as'mesur'. Williams: 1930,244 guor frit nim M P 23& (241)

nou? A higly controversial entry. G PC' refers to neu 'or", and preverhal particle. P. - y.
Lambert connects it with OW (LL) ynfnu. See the literature cited here and also

s. v.v. nOln 1-2.
GPC: 2599; Lambert: 1982a; Lambert: IQR7. 28R: VVB: 195 nouirmiinnguedoll .i. coiliou gl. cxtorurn Me 2 a.a. nouirgoudonou gl. tinearum Me 2 a.h. nouirguirdglas gl. sali resplendentis Me J (l.n. nouiremid gl. aeris MC-' 4 h.a.
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucuhrationllm perennium Me 4 h.a. nouirfionou gl. rosarum Me 9 h.h. nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 10 3.a. nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 0 b.a. nouni gl. nostrum Me 44 b.b. noulin gl. lini Me 45 b.a. nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonum stilis MC' 46 a.a. nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a. nouJirou gl. aequnrum Me 51 h.a.

nimer n r&m 'number" (niCer) MW niuer, nifer, OB nimer~ Ofr nuimir < Lat numerus; see also nim. DGVB: 268; GPe: 2582; Haarmann: 125; ML: 107, 190; LElA: N-24f; VVB: 193 irnimer bichan MP 22b (238) irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) maior nimer gI. grauior numerus J 91 (I). See nou and cf. nom 2 . DGVB: 211; GPC: 2596; Lambert: 1982a, 25; Lambert: 1984,185-6 Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum Ang 13 a no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a inno ir guoloJinou gl. elhc~iarum Ang 68 b
nOll

nom l ? Scribal error for

nou conj. 'or' Inell I

MW

nCll~ ()lr n{l.

",i

The troublesome ending was 1) compared to that of the notorious /Jestr. The lack of an expected i-affection in the first element (for which cf. sllbtiolioribus elcmentis Ang 15 b . ed' (1) Hapax in Welsh. ex papyro textili Me R h. obtonso [leg. MJ: 272. Lambert in EC· 23 (J9R6). pp. famine sancto J 5 6 guiled gl. processu Ang 61 b or ree issid pellaham gI. gurgulionihus cxsectis MC 42 3. dc tribulis J 27 6r teu gl. nocte ceca Ang 50 a o e leidim gI. VB: 290-1 o gurucheltoii gl.b. oguard gl. ohtuso] J 37 6das gl. Caerwyn Williams in Y Traethodydd 135 (1980). o o prep. OW. by' [oJ OW (LL.122 123 GPe: 2515. cf. from. formidinc Berne 167 (see P. VVB: 196 nouodou gl. tabellis Ovid 38 il ordometic gl. timore (leg trcnlore) J 5 o glanstlinnirn gl.. OIr 6. E. noun (B.2) nouidligi adj. rosen colore Ang 17 a or timuil gI.? 'newly-tal. GPC: 2557. fronte duclli J 51 opermedintcredou gl.a. see OWAV. nouidIigi. flammco MC 44 a. *nom-o-d (with queries) and refers to a putative nom gl.3. cimp& il1iflusauc oirei gl. lld plnres !\ui ~cneris fit cnmp. oguirdglas gl. Lewis~in BUeS 15 (1953). GPC: 2599~ JO: l03~ LHEB: 607. JIR and 125.46-7. salo Me 3 a. H. 303. inguinihusquc Ovid 4t h nirinciriles. pp. 23. ordeccoIion gl. weg von' (differently VGK: 1. pp. "SC 28 (1994).a. LHEB: 50.a. 115 nouinnguotricusegetiion gl. the word is usually compared with anawell 'clear' found only in "The Book of Taliesin'" (T. o. DGVB: 213. ex acre Me 46 b. femine MC 51 3. humili Ang 15 a o i nerth gl. orcueeticc cors gl. palatia Me 7 a. lEW: 72.. 'of. mirice Ovid 40 3 o guiannuin gl. Schulze-Thulin). 'bright. ab invito Ovid 39h ocorsenn gl. 41.121-2. clear' Hapax in Welsh.-Y.438) See ho. See J. see nom 2 • GPC: 25-75. For the interpretation of this term as an Irish entry. orcomtantou gl. pp. a superioribus continentur Ang Rib omort gl. mcdullis J 51 ordamcirchinnuou gl.h. harundine Ovid 403 oceenn gl. represented by W newydd 'oe w. Schulze-Thulin). rota Ovid 37h ocloriou gl. LElA: 0-1. scropibus J 77 or maur dluithruim gl. hanoud. Lewis) derives the W forms from Britt. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a p issei gl.339--40) or bissei Comp 3 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 ocrit gl. puhc Ovid 41 h hac orachmonou gl. see Philimore: 168) ~as explained by 1) orthographical inconsistency or generally variable state of it in OW and 2) the influence of the Latin context preceeding it (8. pudore J 5 o isel J 5 or cled hln gl. P. dccadibus MC 7 h. Williams: 1933.b. sua ui Ang 15 b or teneu creaturou gl. vecte moveri J 90 orbardaul Icteinepp gl. OW (AC) neguid in gueith dinas neguid. pI. MW 0. Lambert: 1987.a. Schulze-Thulin. (10) and 2) e~plained as a Latinism.tratin Prise 21 a nouooou n pi 'halls' [neuadd] MW neuad GPC (which follows H. orgarn gl. omorduit gl. temp/a. HB). hombis MC' 10 a. ua IE *QU. a flection of n. It was noted that the latter word should be perhaps amended to nowe([ (G: 26). s. Lambert: 1987. wiCh. orduhenecticion abalbrouannou gl. this word is analysed as a compound of the two elements. GPC: 2005-L1. ambagidus J 50 o discI gl. domito Ovid 39 3 ocoilou gl.aur.615. auspiciis Ovid 39h oguordiminntius gl.119-80.-Y. Haycock: 14~ Williams: 1980. 080. and 10 'calf' (see 10 1). limite levo J 26 6rd'rlssi gl.a. mature. oemid gl. 96 med nouel Juv 3 (2. B. lance J 59 o crummanhuo gl. Lamhert in EC 27 (1990).8). cpica pagina Me la. nec delata diu J 4 noue! adj. LElA: N-l1. stabulis Ang 15 b o rud liu gl. tres uache nouidligi Chad 2 o datsebimou gI.a. deffectum gl. medio Ovid 37il o olin gl. aceruo J 45 or guithlam tal gl. p.'herab.287. JO: 99.b. verc Ovid 40 h o caitoir gl. 921. Lambert: 19828.

see I. because" See ollr. oleum. Williams: 142lJ. etc. VGK: 1.. ora. Loth in RC 40 (1923). VVB: 197-8 ocet gl.v. cos 07(2 43 a (4. dygyfor listed under Pokorny's *er. 'geben.to. 6is. i.. Olr 'es.464. LElA: 0-6-7.6) 125 DGVB: 156 and 276.271 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20 'l). onnpresen gl. cf. CClcrwyn William!"" . ·ok oraur conj. lEW: 10. erion gl. JO: 107. VVB: 198 ocoluin gl. PECA: 66~ VGK: J. see aWAY.and suffix -glled. ochcul gl. he turned hack to the reading offered in the manuscript.8) oimer see guotiap8ur oimer didu onguedou? According to 1. CI rd. cf. LHEB: 405. Loth" onn~lledou of the text perhaps stands for nUJ11ngliedoll. orr. Olr or The attempts to see in this word a loan from Lat.(I EW: 328).124 oee' n f 'harrow' (oged] MW oget. lEW: 775. 'eigh t' [wyth I MW wvth~ OB eith. Williams in BSe"S 4 (1928). see oiJ. 0. 137-141. lEW: 22. p. VVB: 199 o olin gl. fulumain < IE *e/. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a or bissei pan dcconctent ir. space' (oed] MW oet.. in ois oison Chad 2 oil n f&m 'time. VGK: I. See also crunIl0l"nOIl. DGVB: 273. 'scharf. LElA O-IQ.< IE to. Loth (VVB: 199) translates this as 'instrument a creuser". IE *ondlr.t. sharpness'. see also uilh. seculum. Cf. Stokes: 1873. p. cotes pro cautes < IE *ak. aged. holoinoll. rota Ovid 37b 011 pron. Williams: 1927. ok . for the . cemecid. 'all' See hoi. DC huis gl. see LElA. lEW: 18. the form in the MS is ongllcdoll. Ir. St'c J.e. DB oit~ OIr aes This word is derived in lEW from < onnpresen? A very difficult word. LElA: ()-26~ VYB: IY9 or Nemn *ai-to. PECA: R4. Greek dXoVll 'pierre ~ aiguiser' (Chantraine: 43).. GPe: 237 oleu n m 'oil' [olew] MW olew. VGK: I. LElA: A-21. LElA: A-21. century' (oes) MW oes. aIr olae does not quote this instance. and compares (following Stokes: IR65. and och. later. sugge. VVB: 148 ir hestoriou oleu MP 22 h (211) olin n f&m 'wheel' [olwyn] MW olwyn. olellll1n) EL: 12. Eska~ 40. and also oisou. hinnuith issid diguedham all in pagina regular. [.CEgge.. Williams. point. 'since. and the second .r. 6es. OIr ocht. 194. 122. OPC": 2651. 1. raster Ox2 42b (4.Ih num. 'excrements d·animaux·. Schrijver: 350 oith gueid guar cant gl. ora meet serious phonetic difficulties. ca psus Ox2 42" (4. period. foratorium Ox2 42 it (4. oed. DaVB: 213-4. Me eath. H ironguedou gl. pp. Olr. .4) or n f&m 'limit. According to I.412. ML: 191.lior.iand lin. zuteilen'.with W pres 'a qui est aigu'. MJ: 273. 422) the first part of this word with Irish onn cpierre'. IE Vai. 56 in ois oisou Chad 2 oev: 197.lacht'. and considers here W cwl 'corl' (in fact a late loan from English cow!). DGVB: 274~ GPC: 47. 375~ VVB: 199. lEW: 11. ~ difficulties of derivation and further literature. CI aiuisa§ < *a. E. LHEB: J67. ('omp 15 ochcul? An obscure word. 412 och gladi gl.'biegen' (lEW: 308). oisou n pi 'ages. centurie!' See ois. Lloyd-Jones in ZCP 7 (1910). Far from clear. issem ir ... GPe: 2641. oram. WG: 204 for the final -d. VVB: 198 hesitantly translates it as 'coffre de voiture. however. on an" a or. o/ell1n (MLat. Jackson: 1975'6. For the authentic origin of the word and its connection with MW eryr. GPe: 2627. yr. MB oguet *okra. 44. cr. sting a connection with Greek OVTOc. see also S. Gerat mit Spitzen'. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 < IE oeh n m&r 'ed~e' (awch) This entry is usually compared with MW awch 'edge. boundary' (name of 8 letter) lorl MW or. OC oleu gl. Greene: 540. DGVB: 275~ ope: 2620..2) oro/uin n r 'whetstone' [agslen. mochera J to < Lat. chariot couvert'.e. calenJ MW agalen~ 08 ocoloin gl. DaYB: 277 and 164. G.. cf. oxtumeto[s] < Celt~ "oxl. exta Ovid 41 a ois n f '8ge. als. GPe: 2638. GPC: 2644. spitz'. OB orion gl. diauc and cf. J.

and an. ope: 2667. 63-4. Hamp: 1975n6. VVB: 201 ir paTth alnll gl. cf. for a possibility of crossing \vith an authentic word.v. VVB: 200 considers the second element as the name for 'bronze. pron. p. GOI: 289. Me pan~ Olr cuin or can Apparently from IE *ktto-~ the connection with Goidelic is still disputable. OB parth~ OC *parth deduced from ahard. pigurthct.304-8. which does not list this OW example. what for. note that the word is masc. 'their' ? OW (LL). pp.a. interrogBti. N. Comp 3-5 bichet paniu pet guarid. Pedersen connects these Celtic words with Armenian uirn and traces it to IE *ordh.e Bnd relative 'which. See also Isaac: 438-9. fallen" (lEW: 825) and refers to Greek 1ttwt6~ and Avestan tiitd-( < *ptiitd-). in pagina regulari Comp 5 pamint gl.16) ot v imp. GMW: 79-80~ ope: 267R~ LElA: C-29 Or bissei ~ diconetcnt ir. yrd. brass. quoduis Me 43 a. this is a combination of or « Lat. E. what' [pa) MW pa. R.lnl MP 2:r' (~·ll) . mallet' [(g)orddJ MW orth. orubimnit gl. quoduis Me 43 a. be of value' GMW: 77. ir Joe guac hinnith. DGVB: 271. pa (sec s. LElA considers these forms as "proprement celtique et d'origine inconnue". OB pan. guac. papedpinnac gl. 3 pl. hurl'." . v. copper". aharh: Mlr pairt < Lat. toile Ang 9 a ou pron poss. aurum) and "dunker" ubimnit. cclsi thronus cst cui regia coeli J 19 padiu gl. oithaur hinnith passerenn. GPC: 1255 hac&oucimp& g1. loyr in ~ aed bid. nGVB: 281. toile (Ang 58 b) GPC tentatively derives this word from IE *pet. quam is ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14 a in pan aed bid. 'throw' (Fleuriot) [od-j MW ott-~ cf. papedpinnac gl.. issi.. pp. VGK: I. 'to snow or sleet. did di aries Comp 18 papedpinnac see pa. VVB: 200. G ordo(vices).'auf etwas los. hie.. OU.) + di. patupinnacc gl. II J. Jacobs. VVB: 201 pa~serenn. ni hois. quid ? J 37 panepp gl. MW eu~ DB ou DGVB: 279. See also pan 2 • DOVB: 280.393. LElA: ('-272 amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. loyr in Comp 4 pard.~'. guac. maleus. 3 sg pres. Stokes: 1874. 1995. J. DGVB: 66.(1). quid Ovid 41 8 pant pron.5) om n (name of • letter) '1 This instance was compared by Zeuss with W om 'blame'.. fliegen. C'aerwyn Williams in BBCS 23 (1969).11 (01 snow). pe~ 08 pe <: IE *k"a· ope: 2661. litorihus nhiell~ Ang 62 h teir pctgurcd p(tTt MP 2:l tl (241) isit prtguarcd p. part. for which cf. 'whence. auricalcu m Ox2 428 (2. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. pinnac papep see pa. that' (pan) MW pan~ Olr can Perhaps to pi (see s. ope: 1468. OIr ord H. OB ot a te gl. ped. Hamp: 1975/76. for this word see GPC: 2656. superlatiuus multo Prisc 21 a pan 2 pron. Olr an. Eska. malleus Ox2 42 b (4. quis Me 7 a.2) ombimni' ? According to Stokes (1865: 422). 292~ GPC: 2677. E. pedd p . in triti urd. why' (paddiw) MW padyu.298.b. Caerwyn Williams. H. See also pan I. Me py. 6Of. Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica. in Irish..262 Oraur. 'to he present. cds.oder niederstiirzen. Comp 4 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.126 Notulae. ~ec LElA: P-2. GMW: 234~ GOl: 509. see LElA. KG?: 252. 127 ord n 1 'hammer. OOVB: 279~ GPC: 2616 ot ti gl.h. 08 ord eMS or) gl. pigurthet. Lewis in BBCS 6 (1931). r. parth n m 'part' (parth) OW (LL) and MW parth./conj. loc. Williams: 1927. quam J 31 papep bi gl. pa diw According to J. ord. 217-33~ WG: 293 ISSft padiu itau gulat gl. quocumque Me 14 a..62. ad ir. VVB: 199 ord gl. Geraint Gruffydd. VVB: 200~ Zeuss: 1059 om Nemn padiu 'to whom.). 'when 1 (pan) MW pan. GPC: 2694-5~ ML: 191~ LElA: 1'-2 and ('-77~ ()('V: Hfl: PEe'A: (. pars (portis). Lewis: 1956. pp. LElA: 0-29. 144.b. ad ir loc.

(Owain. ped per 0 m 'chief. R.b. partuncul gl. Hamp in EBCS 17 (1958). 'everyone. Olr cenn. MC peth. for the etymology. A superlative degree of pell 'far'. cf. 109 dicones ihesu dieJimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4. MB pez. pinnae pBUp pron. Williams: 1980. petia terrae. G nanto. shovel'. pop.'gehogen' GP(~: 2551: lEW: 7('4~ PEC'I\: R2). VVB: 202 pelechi gl. Lloyd-Jones in Eriu 16 (1952). Rhys (1813: 467). papep bi gl. pcrging . Hamp: 1973. contra quemvis] Ovid 39b pbetid pennllnt According to I. Schrijver: 261 papedpinnac gl. OIr cach < IE *kuok"o. see also popptu.5-o~ OCV: 40: PE(~A: 86 penngurthcimarch g). vessel' [padell] OW (LL) petill. peir GPC suggests a connection of this with the verb para/: peri 'to cause. WG: 127 amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2 pelechi 0 pi 'cudgels. E. long' rpelll MW pell~ Me pell. Dublin 1968. claure J 94 pel/shllm adj.with no exact parallel in the other IE languages. GPC: 2789. (LL) and MW pen(n). MW paub. which contains pen (sec s. to make· . line 283) pardwgyl y kyfryw 'the partuncuI of the saddle' = 'hinder part of the saddle'. see s. quoduis Me 43 a. MW pal 'spade.41 (ew a guant penpalacll). Elsie: 93. J. (head of a) valley" I pennant I MW pennant GPC considers this as a compound. pett-. v. DB pell < IE *k"el·s~n-. Williams: 1980. The word is not otherwise attested. but the last letter must be Il". capud. VGK: I. pcb. femorale Ox2 43 a (5. 158-161. patella GPC: 2665. OCV: 388. superl.128 129 part see pard partuncul n 'hinder part' According to J. for the e1ample found in the Juvencus glosses. pyth. this is an -aell derivative from *pal. see GPC: 2688. see pel. GPC: 2726~ LElA: (~---(. < IE *nlll-IO. cf. DaVS: 283. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 h penn 0 m 'head' [pen] OW (Gen: 12) pennissel. 123-1JI. however. w.< IE */. it was noted by Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1."('1-. GPC: 2723. Williams. pawb. ~tafTs' r parth see pard parth (name of a letter) See parth. Williams: 19RO.v. this corresponds to MW pardwngyl. See. 120 un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. L. G penno < Celt. MW padell~ DC padelhoern gl.e. M. GOI: 311~ GPC: 2703. MW peth. VGK: I. LElA: C-281. ML: 192. LL: xliii: MJ: 271.. Lat. JO: 99. GPC: 2671.. 'the farthest' < Lat. object' [pe'h] ' \ III. primas Prise J7 a 0 m 'uplaod. pen 'top. sartago The only other known record of this word is found in RRC 11.3) Due to its presence in a Welsh context the word was considered as Welsh hy Fleuriot. a set of examples listed in GPC: 2727 S. consistes [i. pp. Elsie: 103. Watkins: 1982. ed. OC pup. ope: 2670. everybody' [pawb) OW (LL) paup. this is a scribal error. lEW: 640. IE *k"er. Thomson.'fern" pep see pll. 12. *k"enno. DGVB: 287. 'far. DGVB: 278 and 282 o ree issid pellaham gl. clubs. sumrnit". 128. OB pop. GPe does not consider this instance.v. 232.1) ped n m 'thing.) and nanl 'v(lllcy' (OC nans.88-91. quid ? J 37 pel adj. pp. Pict. Rowland: 514. 08 pel/ant. paup. lord' (pair] MW per. 187 and II.'machen' (lEW: 641). See also Rllrth ci111arch. 212~ VVB: 202 gurt paup gl. French piece < IE *k"esd-. 216) that the form in the MS is "apparently papep. parth Nemn pIItel n f 'bowl.3) DGVB: 282. particularly LL 78 irenn nant eilion. LElA: C-3. 96 mi amfranc dam anpalel Juv 3 (2. GPC: 2754 dipennant ircaru Chad 6 patupinnac see pa. hoe' (perltin I MW pergy(n)g. OB pen(n). lEW: 645.1) perc-ig n m 'mattock. OIr cuit. 37. OC pen gl. PECA: 84. cf.. to ·kuo-. VGK: I. yk"eJ. not considered in GPC: 2723. the word is then betid.

DGVB: 284~ GPe: 2110. The etymology of Irish gllidid and the outcome of *g"'h in (·chic. Olr cuithe < Lat. OB petguare. Wieshaden: Dr. scC' GPC: 1!J27~ Greene: 542: Hirunuma: 42 ir pimphet eterin MP 22 h (234) petgulJred num. 08 petguaT~ OIr cethair. pit. p. card. did di aries Comp 18 leir petguared part unc MP 238 (241) petguared pards MP 23 8 (241) """'1'_ pinnac(c) prone '(who)soever. fn. Elsie: 97. p. 'fourth' (pedwerydd] MW pedwerit. see Hamp: 1975(6. Watkins: 1982. McCone: 56. 239. loyr Comp 4- . C'the three last letters are very doubtful" (Stokes: 1860-1. D. 21-30. tubicine tusco Ovid . II. 14a. pi pron relB tit'e '(against) which' < IE *k"i(c!). piht'l1: :\flr "'pCIl petguarid see petgusred . G pinpctos: Olr c6iced An *-(e)to~ derivaivc of the cardinal numeral '5'.b.- peteu n m 'well. GMW: 80-1. 37: VVB: 2().. 42-3~ Williams: 19RO. Mayrhofer. pump. 422). Wiliams in ZCP 21 (1938). quocumque Me 14 a. GPC: 2774. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a According to Fleuriot.1: (.. VVB: 202 peteu gJ. DGVB: 284. pynag.2) pipenn n f 'pip~" fubc' Ipihl'nl OW (LI. pymp. 'fifty' [pumwnt] MW pynlwnt.9) petguar nUIII.6~ ope: 2771. Sec also I'a. MW pyprl1.h. ML: 195. ML: 200. VVB: 203 biehet pani u pet guarid.-kollll1.. 135. eds. I. Co\\'gill. pigurthet. Stokes: 1865. petwared. pcig vel bach gl. eds. pimmunt. VVB: 202. pieu A combination of pi (sec pui). 116-7 piouhoi int grnisauc Juv <) (R. card. . and contrast DGVB: 285~ GMW: 80-1. VVB: 202-3 ir petguar pimp MP 22b (230) petguar hanther scribl MP 22b (234) pimp num. Owen. medullis J 51 ~. G petuar(ios) < *petYQrit-~ see petguar and perguarid. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976). un . and 3 ~g. EL: 12~ GPC: 2959. lUI. pcm(h)ct. Pfeiffer. ord.' 131 piipllur n m 'piper' Hapax in Welsh~ an -Qwr derivative of pih. pp. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1980. Jenkins.l. gl. pyeuwu. GPC: 2793~ VVB: 204. where the readings piSl'olir and tihicine are offered) is now accepted. pempe-. OB permed. penlpc-: ()Ir «lie < IE *penk"e 4ftinr~ for an explanlltioJl of the Irish vocalism. DGVB: 2R3: Elsie: 95. See OWAV. Rhys: lR7J. passerenn. Ludwig Reichert Verlag 1980. m 'four' (pedwar] MW pedw8r. G pinpe-. tank.) pibrnn. 65 for the analysis of this passage (cf. Schrijver: 122. 23J~ Williams: I()J. GPC compares this with W. ". Willillms's rcading (contrast VVB and Zeuss: 1056. ord. ligo Prise 35 a penned n m 'gut(s).02. see Schrijver: 288. VGK: I. guar. petveryd.~ int dou pimp MP 22 h (230) hint tri pitnp MP 22 h (230) ir petguar pimp MP 22 h (230) pimphet num. Icnitedl MW bcnnnc. permedius nGVB: 284. lEW: 642. Lautgcschichte und Etymologic. ad puteum Ox2 41 b (1. ilia J 35 opennedinteredou gl. patupinnacc gl. intestine' (perfedd] OW (LL) and MW perued. L8mbcrt: 19R2. cord. 309-11 ~ Hirunuma: 41-2. tbis is a compound consisting of par (= Ir car 'javelin') and caine 'branch'. 196. 194. LElA: C-282. quoduis Me 43 a.1S h pimmunt num. OGVB: 286. 'fifth' [pumed) MW pym(h)et. Greene: )()9. b(y)nnac: Me pcnnk. gweilging and does not provide etymology. penn!!: ()B pcnnac DGVB: 2H. Schrijver: 285 and 288. tHEB: 668. Peters. cistern. form of the verh 4hc·. GPC: 2113. see pipe"" I. mud' [pydew] MW pydew. who owns" (piau) MW pyeu. OPC: 2(02). OPC: 279L I-Iaycock: 15. LElA: C-86. O. where a deriv(ltion from IF *I"~lk"· is offered. Me aberveth. sec W. 'five' (pump) MW pimp. ?:. pimhed: MB pempct. puteus.301 permedinter~dou gl. 130 ~ J.1. (what)~oever' Ihynna~. M. p. J. Caerwyn Williams in SBeS 23 (1969). pres. GPC: 2929. ope: 292R: lEW: HOR: K(jP: 256: LElA: C-143~ LHEB: 496: Sehrijvcr: 27: VGK: I. permidit < Lat.'fiinfzig' See also guor. LHEB: 397. The Welsh Law of Women. Greene: 539. 213. E. 08 pem(p). 11M.~': J. cf.PC: 364 and 2644 papedpinnac gl. DGVB: 284. Greene: 542.205. M. VKG: II. lEW: HOB. For the hesitation on the form of the IE suffix. Lewis in BBC'S IJ (195()). pymhwflC ()B pinllnont < *pil11pont < IE *penk"i. pp. G petuar< ·petlJores < IE *"ue1llo.. 113 piipaur tuscois gl. p. E. piou(bol) 'to whom belongs.'vier'.

VVB: 206 pressuir gl. VGK: I. v pres. VGK: I. tube' < Lat. 207. VVB: 204 creaticaul plant gI. *pipa (1). antclla Ox2 43~ (5. If chefel is Welsh (see cefe'. if it is a pluperfect. p.3) poulloraur n 'writing-fablet' Apart from this occurrcnce in the OW glosses. pus. Haycock: 11.226 133 popptu gl. GPC': 2879. then pois chelel could mean 'cheval lourd'. mannus . pipennou gl. pugi/(/)arGPC: 2790. present· GPC: 2877. ML: 196. VVB: 205 postoloin gl. Accoding to LElA (T-92) it is preferable. PECA: 88. prinit v pres.1) rit ercis d••• raut inadaut prescn Juv 9 (R.b. see S. 128. ML: 200 pois chefel gl. Williams in ZCP 21. OB tu (DGVB: 324) Me tu. 192. see S. diutino (see I. guuprineticion. however. adfixa Me 4 b. < Lat. see also reu/aun. LHEB: 496. VVB: 203 pipenn reu laon gL st[i]ria J 14 GPC: 2RSO. DGVB: 290~ LElA: C-229. VGK: I. Thurneysen in KZ 59 (1932) pp. ~1 (lnd 41. (pres.b. presen n f m 'the world' (presen) MW prcs(s)en(t) < Lat. < Lat. paup. though the separate treatment of the entries seems still possible.Iuv () (7)) GPC: 2818. compri: 0(' prinit in eaid prinit. 8Uhstativised 'pillow.v. this could be OW too. cf. The second element (W tu. VVB: 205. An ·ako. GPC: 2293. The etymology of the word is F1~ yet unknown. OCV: 347-8. LElA: C-l28. tibia is offered. Wiliams: 1933. (future) impers. 'constant. MW poptu GPC lists this entry a5 a compound. this is an imperfect. H: White: 206-7: \VCltkinC\: lQR2.b. DC 8dj. OB prin. W pwys (B. Schenker in lEW: 1018. GPC considers this instance as B retoR. There are two major possibilities for interpretation of this form. . MC poys. Stokes: IR73.11 prlll/owr. the word is found only "The Book of Talesin". 503.i. Haycock: 15: Loth in RC 2<1 (ICJOR). OGVB: 286~ ope: 2829. ML: 19R dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3. VVB: 205 plumauc gl. OIr tofb) is listed under *(s)teigU . pluma. planto GPC: 2817-8. Parry-Wiliams: 122. ML: 19R. r. Arm. cf. White: 100 prinit hinnoid MP 22 b (234) pucsBun v imperf.essels. apc: 2794 hesitates about the link with the previous en try. Williams. aIr p6laire. planta postoloin n m 'saddle-crupper' (postolwyn I W postolwyn < Lat. puluinare Ox2 44 8 (6. 20R. dutts' A plural form of pipenn. see Lambert. LHEB: 416. PECA: R9. 116.'Schulter. Olr eland < Lat.25) r 'weight' [pwys) MW pvys. White).derivative from of plu(f) < Lat. For the first part. pensum DGVB: 70.'kaufen' GMV: 119. Olr chl(i)m.281 and 291. to follow VG K (]. I pluperfect (?) 1 sg 'to love. GPC: 2953. OIr cren< IE *k"rei. 116) where a comparison with Lat. WG: 109 irpoulloraur gl. cushion' [p'uog] MW pJuoc~ OB plumoc~ DC plufoc gl. pauez). prcssvcl. arterias Me 14 b. MIr pis Fleuriot hesitated as to whether it was not a Breton word (peus). Parry-Wiliams: 122. VVB: 205. liS Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut . pipennou n pi '. subj. 222. . 're8Ihered'. chfjel) . posti/e1la GPC: 2862. this could be a metathe~ siscd spelling for *PUCQJll1l (Loth. VVB: 206~ WG: 332.?) 'to plant' [plann-] MW plano-. continuous' (preswyll MW pres(s)wyl. pugillarem paginam MC 6 b. White: 122 pl~nt h6nn6r gl. pW)'s~ OB puis. amhifarium MC 12 h. VGK: I.b.u) .in disapriner. 08 prcsquor g1.302) OOVB: 289. LElA: P-II. According to I. lEW: 64R. 3 sg 'to huy' (pryn. VVB: 205. '. 393. fodie ntur J 88 plum. plant n pi 'children' (plant] OW (LL) and MW plant.132 An -en derivative from pib 'pipe. See also WG: 422. desire' (?) MW puchaw ? ope: 2926 does not list this instance in the entry dedicated to puchaf.v.) MW pryn-. Lambert: 1982. T 25. ML: 201. 1) pressuir adj. genialis praeda Ovid 38b plant honn". GPC: 2794~ ML: 195. 16-8. 'cheval de somme'. equs breuis Prise 7 b pois n m popptu n m 'et'ery ~ide' [pop. LHEB: 503. ML: 195. LElA: C-112. < Lat. puluinar. Williams: 19RO. R.

LElA: R-7: lEW: 817: Schrijvcr: 177. ~. OB Raduueten. rag-. or teneu creaturou gl. lEW: 815. see guoguith and cf.H. Parry-William~: 123. rasc(ll)/-: see aWAY. ML: 200. pondo) < AS pund. raeadyr. gurgulionibus exscctis Me 42 orgarn gl. cf.. raskel. GPC: 3035.. Olr rath To IE *per.10. lEW: 637. cataracts' [rhaeadr I MW rayadyr.1) punt n I 'pound' [punt] MW pun(n). LElA: R-7 mentions a possihility that Irish ran" \quatrain. *r. VGK: I.MP 23 9 (229) ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. -. ex papyro textili Me R b. London 1923. Interrogative 'what' (pwy] MW pwy. 404.. 'before (himf rrhsll-) OW (LL) rae. LElA: C-92.3. contra Loth. nocte ceca Ang SO a har dou trean gl. p. GPC: 2946-7.. See also ran. Schrijver: 178._. VVB: 208 rasel gl. ordecoolion gl. pp. DGVB: 126. pa. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b or ree issid pellaham gl. 'some' 'rhoi J MW reL MC'R r('~ rf. GPC: 3030. domito Ovid 39 ft hac orachmonou gl. torrcntum J 2X R 'r definite . VVB: 206 hint c punt . Me ras. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b or bissi Comp 3 bihit dir 1emi Comp 16 orbardaul leteinepp gl. ML: 201. The English Element in Welsh. 134 ". b(1rnbi~ MC to a. G Suratus. miseris patruelibus Ovid 3R..'verkaufen. J. 135 pui proll.'Ih n rann n f 'share. GPC: 2929. VVB: 2()7~ wc.b. 220. racdam gl. orau. E. Dc Bernardo Stempel: 135-6. VVB: 206 pui gl. medio Ovid 37 ft dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. I ree prnn.a/ro~). Loth. GMW: 14. MW rac-.'vorwarts. guilhlann. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h 3. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b or tirnuil gL. LHEB: J37. Ox2 42 h (4. Caerwyn Williams in EC (l (1953-4). 11-20. 01 r riathor gl. Williams this could he a cognate of Ir ra"" 4verse' rather than of W rltan 'part. Hamp: 1975/6. C puns. LHEB: 317. DaVB: 293. tOTTens < Celt. OB racdom A 3 sg personal form of W r(h)ag. 490 un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. raschil < Lat.(l-7: VVR: 20R rcatir gl. orcueetic con.: 401. Schrijver: 224. rasp' (rhasgl) MW racsgyl.. V. rheeidr. *riatrf (sg.. DGVB: 29J~ GPC: 2995: LElA: R-R. epics pagina Me la.. quith could stand here for guith. OB pou.a. VVB: ZOR rat Nemn reatir n pi 'waterfalls. SchTijver: 25R.- : ~. ope: 299R.rt icle See . hintiberbringcn' (lEW: HI7).'verkaufen. share'. C pyw.).. sibi J 67 ran n 'verse' (1) According to I. PECA: 59. OCV: 175. Williams: 1980.v. cf. voran'. contribution' (rhanJ MW rann. lEW *kllti. gl.'worauf aehten' GPC: 2948. OIr pond « Lat. lEW: 3. insanus. strophe' is etymologically identical with Ir rann 'division.. 3R5. Me ran. see also s.ro. to IE *re. VO K: I. raedam prep. 113 ceinmicum ucnou ran Juv 9 (6. OIr cia < IE *kuei-. LElA: C-93. OB ran(n). decadibus Me 7 h. - . ran. 292. '. hinilberbringen'. varn.. 49. p8rr~ sec ra"".b.'FlicBcn' apc: 2997.\ ordometic gl. cf.-_-------------~-~~----~. VGK: I. to IE *per. OC gurbulloc gl.r. Parry-Williams. Olr ciall < ·k"e~-. punt. quid Ovid 41 a puil n mall 'wisdom' (pwyll] MW pwyll.. f.. orcomt:tntou ttl. irbissci Comp 10 rasel n f 'spokeshave. this is now considered to be an English borrowing. ()Ir rc . < IE *pro-ko-. sartun. 30. 59.2) dou punt MP 22b (234) Q HI 'IDger' (1) (name of a letter) As it was suggested by Zeuss. VGK: II. T. VGK: L 52 hit niritarncr rann.o. Zeuss: 1059 quith Nemn q. LElA: P-12.3) rat n m 'grace (name of a letter) (rhad) MW rad. De Bernardo Stempel: 136. Olr ran(n) < * IE *pfsnii-. cf. . LElA: R-2R. VVB: 206.

Williams: 1980. Loth in RC' 30 (190Q). hinnuith Comp 11 retit loyr irdid.-Y. G ad-reticio A vn in wee.. Lambert is accepted by DOB and GPC. ryuerthi~ OB rehirthi gl. Vendryes in RC 32 (1911).. ML: 201. Parry.heeni. patrii] J 57 raith). 'icy' Etymologically. LElA: R-5~ PECA: 90. J.. 116 pipenn reu latIn gl. gllithlolln. N. a. PECA: 90 Intrited retec Comp 2 RI~-4). Joseph: 33~ lEW: 79R.'vorwart. Loth in RC 42 (1925). See also rei. Watkins: 1972. 437. 'ferny' (rhedynog] OW (VSB: 72) redinauc. rhyeni.. /I J.see lEW: 850. Parry-Williams: 122~ Williams: 1933. 'some' (rhail This interpretation by P. Camp 11 retteticc adj. Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica.. Lambert. GMW: 157.296. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a retit v pres. VVB: 209 reid gl.v. < IE *pr:Jti. Jones in BBCS 9 (1938). OC redegua gl. in pagina regulari. OCV: 34. n.136 The etymology is speculative.)relin? The last letters of the word are preserved on the margin of the manuscript. OB row. 'icc-fuJI'. J. fOT nn extensive hihliogrnphy see Isaac. 203-4~ Watkins: 1972-4. C'omp 2 retit loyr irdid. DGVB: 278 and 295. see E. Eska. LElA: R-36. p. also liES 2 (1974). cf.) See rctee and gllrthret. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995. PKM: 165-7).'1 (on this suffix seae VGK: 11. ice'. MIT . Lambert: 1982. Hamp in JIES 1 (1973).259 Intrited retec. cf. rhyferthi I MW ryuerthwy. Jackson: 1975--6.ned. see s. 202 nirinciriles cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. p. Me resek. VGK: I. perhaps a cognate of OW rann. DGVB: 296. Gratis. malina: Olr roharta To IE Vhlrer. 212 -retin J 20 reulsun adj. DGVB: 294. see s. 110 gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5. LElA: R-23~ White: I06~ Williams: 1921. Elsie: 133. tTa'i. and -Iolln 'fuJI' < IE *pel(. voran' (lEW: . filcx. MW redynawc An -or derivative of Cell. VOTn. 131-3. see l-lamp: 19R2. pp. 68. hinnuith cen nit hoi loe guac inter o.. 215-223. < ·prellsu'o-.41-4. OIr rethid. LElA R-I0 or ree issid pellaham gL a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b 117 regensu/adj.'tragen'. see T.circhl. IE ·ret(h). OB retec. patris (leg.1) aIr ro. 224. Huws: 501. guorhir seraul. reid n m&r 'spear' [rhaicldJ MW rheiddiau. as \vell ClS the general spelling inconsistencies. retee. stri]ria J 14 ri particle MW ry. seJla curulis Me 45 a. 6.v. Sims-Williams: 1991 31. < *ret-ek. Jacobs. J. ru-~ remed8ut n m 'wonder" I rhyteddod] MW reuedawt. spicum Me 62 b. p. also locclall. ". pro 1-~6 hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp R In niritarnher Comp R hit niritarncr rann. ry wedawt. GPC: 3044. Isaac: 387-RR. For the quality of the vowel in the suffix consider the dispute hetwccn Watkins and Jackson. riberthi gJ. Elsie: 97).. GPC: 3047~ Ll-IEB: 293. rell (W rhett' 'frost.(MW . OC rcdcn g1. this was used for the dating of Chad 6.v. retit loyr . (. VVB: 209 ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. rhienawl < ·pro-gen-al. 10-1 dipul retinoe Chad 6 7 rei pron. irhissci Comp 10 < *pro. P.a. See also riCfllS. for the formation cf MW ehedec 'fly'. 'parenta'" (rhien(i)ol] W riennoll. VVB: 209 ir regenaul gl. 3 s~ 'to turn' I rhed. ()Ir relld. De Bernardo Stempel: 131. GPC: 3030. ancestors'. Geraint Gruffydd. cursus. GPC: 3043. radius GPC: 3093. R. oPC: 3030. De Bernardo Stempel: 123. the form allows for a variety of interpretations \vhich are conveniently collected in the \vnrks referred to.38) derivative of ri. W rieni 'parents. red-. It "PelS stl~~('sted thClt the fnrnl i~ (l retinoc adj. Hillen'. 99. allhodla. ryfedawt An -0". 95--6~ cf. reidyeu < Lat.'gieBen. DaB: 527. lEW: 866. Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. See ree. pp. redyeu. (] ro retec vn 'to run' Irhedecl MW ret-.-Y. rit(ec). (MW rcdyn. 235.1).Williams: 122. malina DNR 2v riceus v ? Due to the ohscurity of the line where this word occurs..'Iaufen· (lEW: 86{j). LHEB: 453. Eska: 90~ GMW: 166. 'running' Hapax in Welsh. For the etymology.. riberlhi n m 'spring tide" I rhyfcrthwy. ct a. see Russell: 1990. see s. 20R. Stokes: 1860-1. p. eds.

Williams: 1980. see the literature cited helow.. patrii pecoris J 45 rohodriS8UC ? An -aue derivative.. pret. OB ruet.raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8. 'red' I rhudd] OW (LL). p. liu. MW each 'red' is a loan from MLat. OIr reid The traditional connection of the Celtic words with IE *reidh. roseo colore Ang 17 a rodcoch adj. lEW: 317. Lambert: 1982. ('1\: . mid adj. 107 dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3. lEW: 867. cf. inheritance' . Williams: 1980. JO: 102 (with Bihl).. cf.Ocraint Gruffydd. B rankout. < IE Vreu--. MW rud.3) Elsie: 99. MJ: 272. all from Lat.denoting potentiality). Various etymological e~planations of this verb have been offered. 3 51 '10 give' [rhod-] MW rod-.114-5' rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut luv 9 (7. VVB: 210. VGK: II. a cognate of god 'adulter.Y. See also ahruid. lEW: 872: LElA: R-147: ()CV: 209: PECA: 91. from gwedd. rlld: the second element.. -roud-: Olr rtiad < IE *roudho. 10 ringuedaulion gl. rudcoch gl. Isaac: 365. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994).. 47~).. 156. Loth in RC 46 (1929) p.~~4. indo (with ry. cf.ermanic cognates (Gothic garaidido 'arranged" English ready. VGK: I. causor. Lambert: 1982. ~ispano-Gallo-Britto­ nica. W rhyngu bodd rhywun 'to reach someone's pleasaure' > 'to please someone'. purpureum DNR 1v Tit particle See rio The identification of . 'easy' [rhwydd] MW rwyd. OC rud gl. cf. impers.). 14..Y. pp.( with the preverbal particle yt was deemed implausible by Scbrijver. secret' (cf. god-res. .182-3. 116--20 rohodrisauc gl. Schrijver. DaB: II.. P. pride' for which ope: 1420 provides no etymology. N. Eska. ruher: OB rudd: G. P.. 24 and 29-30. VVB: 211 roenhol dei patris gl. nirinciriles~ cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. glasliu. Lane: 260. cf." 139 3 sg. renkout 'faHoir'.2) rit ercis d. DGVB: 297. 98-9 dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3. GMW: lIR-9. R. For the sernantics. 87 d 14) '(when) the protection is needed'. cds .'rof nGVB: 300. LElA: R-53) and guedoJ. GMW: 166.v. 6. LHEB: 50. reg-. 'purple red' I rhuddgoch J MW rudgoch For the first element of this compound. or. A. patronymic'. or derive it from IE *do.. in -us. igneum DNR 1v . Williams in BBCS 1 (1921). MB reiff .1) rodes " pret. rodesi' " pret. 'form'.1) rindr v pre!.. CA: 121 where a segmentation rhy-go-tres is offered. White: 88-92 and 102. arcana Ovid 38b roenhol? Until recently this entry has been considered as an adjective. see s. ryuet < *ro-medI. etc. 'red colour' (rhuddliw) MW ruddliu See rud. who consideres this to be "no more than a possihiJity" and insists on closer links with the (. OIr run. rudliu gl. Watkins that 1his is a mistake for ringuedolion.199. from cael. II J. Lambert (Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. MW rhyodres 'display. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995. The most recent analysis of this word hy P. pi (1) 'virtuous' [rhinweddol] MW rinwedawl This compound is traditionally analysed as containing a form which corresponds to W rhin 'virtue. ogganio Prise 17 b rod adj. less convincing.. J. harodes Chad 7 rudliu n & adj. see DGVB: 297. 3 sg 'to give' [rhod-) See the next. . 'to need' [rhyng-J MW ryng-. 23 d 9). Isaac: 441. See al~o the previous entry. P. originally meaning 'kingdom· > 'patrimony. rwyt. 'to speak'. necessitatis meae (Wh. pp.138 ~. affectation'. adj. or 3 sg. pp. 96-1(0) analysis this instance as a noun cognate with OB roi(a)nt. Watkins: 1972--4. perhaps connected with Me keusel 'to speak'. Lamhert suggests rlty. pp. VGK: Il. MB an pez a ranquer 'ce qu'il faut'. pres. White: lR4-5 rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2 rimed n 'wonders' (rhyfedd] MW ryfed. DGVB: 299.: ~R6. foee. It was claimed by T. Elsie: 12L GMWL: 260. needs' in neich roiccu a Jess gl. 'of a lineage. from IE ·~et. cf. Williams: 1933. also Early Irish ro-icc les meaning 'attains to the benefit (of). J. rifed. Lambert in BBeS 36 (1989). Williams: 1980.'fahrcn· has heen recently queried by P.117.'gebeo' (\Vr. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a ringuedalJlioD subst. 548. 196-7.. 174 () rud liu gl. ro-n-ecar less inna diten (MI.-Y... Jacohs. OW (LL). which consider its relationship with Sanskrit ra 'give' (Vendryes). Lloyd Jones in DDCS (1921).

()Ir. ruinn gl. It could he analysed as a *-sag. scriptura MC 38 b._-~. ()(~V: J14.. VGK: I. DGVB: 301. .- --_. pulmo. LElA R-16. snore' < Lat. tripus 62 a. Stokes: 1873. OB romb (MS rob) gl.. Schrijver: 224-5. ML: 203. ML: 205.-Y. smen < IE Vreig. Parry-Williams.for . 408.'t scrihl n 'scruple' I a unit of currency J MW ysgryhyl. 08"'5 See also nis. ML) EL: 4H. 44: 11. Thoncus~ note the spelling ·ntn..a. 140 DGVB: 225~ 300. on scarat gl..615: VVB: 214 scircnn gl. Jeril'lI/r"" T.. Orr salt < Lt\ t .b. DOB: 456.. GMWL: 261.. Sims-Williams. . White: 297-9 runtniau gl._-_ . scriven: C scriven. MB scaff._-~ . VVB: 212-3. cf.. a...-". LHEB: 330.. allinebat Me 8 a. l' ~(. (~hnrlcs-F(h\'nrds in ORCS 24 (1<)72). 3 pi 'to IiKhten' rys~afnh·1 MW yscafnhau. scahcllllm~ MB scahcll < Lat. i in this word stands for II [uJ.. OC scauel gl. scoro. Lambert (Lambert: 1986. II.. the same loan in the other C~eltic languages. 20R: VVB: 214: White: 121 scamnhegint gl.-------------------------_.. DGVB: 206. it' MW ·s. Lambert: 1982.\nllll.-Y. OC sccucns gl. This is not found in Haarmann and EL.<:cr. PECA: 9J: Stokes: lR60--1. glomus Prisc 13 a romp n m 'auger' (rhwmp) MW rump < Lat. LHEB: 503.FIA: . Sec also P.. Ir . stertore Me 57 b. ('MW1. 112).. 3 51 (iDrDed~ 'him. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 22 scsmeJI n f 'bench' ysgafelll r W ysgafell.a.: ~02. VB: 262 nis minn Chad 2 nisacup nis arcup le<3er Juv 9 (3.. See fruinn. VVB: 213.3) nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.5 minn n m f 'bridle' This reading [f]Tu. 21 ()~ VVB: 214 scipaur gl. LElA: S-IR Salt emmi guollig hinnith ir hloidin hunnuith C~omp 19 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 21 ir nideruid hinn. . 'splinter.. VVB: 214 scamell gl.. _. Parry-Williams: 1922~ 123: Sims-Williams: 1991. DGVB: 302: GMWL: 303: LHEB: 56: VCiK: I. 193 haloiu aur. Otherwise this could he an -awr derivative of the word horrowed from Lat. 'binden~ lEW: 862.ap.au n pi I Tn 'snore' [rhwDc] MW rwnc 'snarl. WG: 136 cuinhaunt irruim mein J 5. JEW: 861. stella Ox2 44 h (7. Mlr scam For a summary of etymological suggestions~ see LElA. uacuum J 65 58~ 141 mimmeln n pi 'bonds' (rbwym] MWruym < ·reig. 1 "FR: hQ~ I. PEC'A: 9J. cf.-. scriptura Me 39 h..I reig. leg. cscryhyl. s1erope. horrea J 14 scire. GMW: 55. cscrihil: cf. r(h)ombus.4) mnm. cf. scsmnhegint v pres. scriipII/'l1n. DOVB: 299.22) scrihenn n f 'writing' rysgrifenl MW yscrivcn.. ML: 215: VVB: 215 scribenn gl. • f sgl. Lambert and was accepted in DOB. lath' rys~yren J MW escheren.. . ncn.derivative of *skarnno. VGK: I. s '.rl/II'" ~ EL.. B skirienn. stiua which was rendered by Fleuriot as 'manche de charrue' was alternatively explained as an abbreviated catchword in a Latin gloss by P..pron. escubaur: C scibor The word was considered by Loth (ML) to he a loan from Lat.ruid gl. gl. VVB: 213 rump gl. diiudicarc < IE *sker..a. ungulum Ox2 42b (4. aIr scrib < Lat. 2S~ Stokes: 1860-1. 87.nn was suggested by P.. scrcpul < Lat. senhrllunt (Jca".'light' ~ with no estahlished further connections. scribendLElA: S-54. LElA: S-31~ LHEB: 45~~ OCV: 50.. As \vas noted hy T. VVB: 212 guollung I. lellant J 4 scipBur n f 'barn' rysgubor] MW cscubor.'schnciden'~ lEW: 9JRf. GMWL: 302: LElA: S-56: ML: 216..~scoparill1n. scribenn gl. n 'saltus Lunae' 15111t) 08 salt. __.3) immisline gl.I *skabno._ --.

pp. See strotllr. hence perhaps strudur guar (or guas). seuydlog. VVB: 215 sich gl. Lambert: 1982. from IE ystrll. ML: 206.('Sichel. LHEB: 605. lEW: 1119. 'stal1}' (senwl. C8rd. see s. LElA: S-60. such n r 'ploughshare' See JulI. see also S5~renn. 373. septies octoni Ang 59 a selsic n I 'black-pudding. 205 sebedlauc gl. According to Craster (Craster: 135).946--7.ice qui est fix~. p. struduguar gl. siccus DGVB: 304. Camp 7 ir sereno hai bid in eir cimeir . Comp 11 nitegid ad sereno arall Comp 11 serr n m 'hillhook' (serr) MW ser~ OB ser gl.6) serr gl. septem. E. B silsig < Lat. lEW: 911-2). air serr < Lat. G Sirona. o. essential' (sylwedd] W sylwedd. passerenn. adsecula Prise 34 b seith num.260). fiscina (fuscina). arentis Me 13 a.5) struduguar ? Stokes: 1865. 'dry' [sychl MW sych. strotur gurehic gl. Greene: 540. 210. E. MIr secc . *stabellum GMWL: 304. 176. 78 ir sereno. C.'greis. ML: 215. gurid < IE *yegJr'bewegen' (GPC: 1563.12) 1 DGVB: 304. Gal: 95. 'Iidus' (in Comp. Schrijver: 423. WG: 125 serf gl. This form could be also Breton. tridinium < Lat. DGVB: 305. In view of slrntllr Rlirehic J. E. slralura. -01] An -awll-of « ·-alos) derivative of ser 'star'. VGK: 1. PECA: 54). Olr ser < IE ·ster. such gl. or < Lat. LHEB: 290. krummer Haken'.219. OB seith < IE *sept'tJ 'sieben'. Bachellery in Be 11 (1964-5). samhuca Ox2 43 a (5. LI-IEA: 2R3-4. lEW: 1037. LElA: 5-182.. 5~rra or < IE ·se'pti. DGVB: 305 and 306-7 silgued gl. vomis J 25 s. all'. Zimmer: 152. strutiu n pi 'the old' air sruith Contra Thurneysen: 1890a. Lambert: 1982. VGK: L 204. See OWAV. lucani[ C]3 Ox2 428 (3. 'seven' (saith] MW seith.1) senlu/adj. ML: 217. VVB: 216 ad stebfll gl. see .a.a. OC steren gl. perhaps cognate with OB strot. OC steucl gl. Hamp in Annales de Bretagnc 79 (1972). 'star' Used for sidus. (alee J 77 .. VVB: 211 ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. sevylyac < ·sabetlo. creidinem Ang 59 b sserenn n f sgl. p.C'h adj. LElA: S-95. place' 143 < Lat. VVB: 2]5. bas) with a suffix which corresponds to MW gwailh. station8ry' [sefydlOl] MW sefydlog. VGK: I. OB solgued The word was treated as a loan from Lat. aIr srathar < Lat. p. ML: 206. on this stem see Schrijver. VGK: 1.94. Scrijver: 453. DGVB: 305. GMWL: 267. ML: 209. v. sel1a Ox2 42 a (2.'Stem'. the reading is strlldllguar. 93 this should he considered as an OW form. Hamp in EC 14 (1974). hai bu in arcimeir. sich. (1) 'star'. antiquam gentcm J (.0. PECA: 96. Loth suggested (VVB: 217-18) reading this entry as strullir ~llnJ 'selle d'homme'.) (seren] MW ser(en). LElA S-189. 422 suggests amendation to stru/UT guar. cf. LHEB: 530. VGK: I.'ieren". GMWL: 267. silgued n m 'substance. 197. 'standing. V(jK: I. uoscera Ox2 42b (4. se11a curulis Me 45 a. sausage' [selsigl MW selsig. see serenn seraul circhl Camp 2 serenn n r sKi. see also the next. VVB: 215 petguar hanther scribl MP 22b (234) sebedlllu~ adj. pigurthct. ad limina J 52 strotur n r'saddle' (ystrodur] MW estrodur. PECA: 96. 08 sterenu. stella. not stella (Williams: 1927.122. Me sec1l~ 08 $Cch.142 5-53. VVB: 217 strutiu gJ. oev: 401. ML: 21R.. VVB: 215 selsic gl. lEW: 909 iseith uith C·is seith uith) gl. salsicia EL: 46. DGVB: 30?~ lEW: 1021~ LElA: 5-90. OCV: 33. DGVB: 309. 08 sol gl. loyr in Comp 4 stebill n r pi 'rooms' (ystafell) MW estauel(l). solea or Joltun (ML: 204. seyth.

Olr socc.285).337. LHEB: 55.(lEW: 1071--4.3) the next. fest. MW tal. of the (MW) berthid 'wonder. Ok.'to rub off. For the interpretations of douid. VVB: 218. See also such.ge n m ·peace' (tang) MW tang. pp. cr. Williams: 1927. SOCCU. swmwl. see huch. fides Me 63 b.144 suh n 145 r 'ploughsh.138. and offers the interpretation of the former as teg[irn]. LElA: T-30. ti. I. Keltoromanisches. then teyrnwi. lion p. Zeuss: 1059 surg Nemn < IE *terhj-trorn. VVR: 21R 6r guithJaun tal gl. 112-3. 91.) 3 sg. VGK: I..'glanzen.. . and n. IE ·ter.106-7 t•• erd. VGK: 1. with tee (W teg) 'beautiful'. DGVB: 310.3) VVB: 218. 'to count' [tarn. impers. crnnpllto (pIlIO .. however.foratorium) Ox2 42 h (4.lg. ef. Hamp in EC 20 (1983). ) See above. OC tal gl. 134. Schrijver: 399. tanc. tantou gJ. gl. GPC: 274. Olr tarathar t£QEtQOV~ MLat. impers. ziehen. Lat. Schrijver: 87. lEW: 1068~ KGP: 275. Lat. OIr t~t < IE *ten. GMWL: 210. lEW: 1061.r 2 • Haycock: 10-11. Loth identified this instance with T. WilJiams. to count' (tarn"l MW tarn. p. See also gu. power' is commonly analysed as an -idJ-ud derivative of berth « IE *bher. Berdutou. lEW: 1066. ti. spannen' DOVS: 311. this line could be read as tiberdutou ti guir douid "Thy glories (riches).a.b. pron. T . cf. fides Me 63 b. this stands for tegglli.6) A. Stokes: 1873.dou ti guird. aureus Ovid 39 tl \ .·sich zusammenziehen. 'to reckon" '0 compute.re' [swch] MW such.219. weiB'. tarater n m 'auger' [taradr] MW taradyr. PECA: 95-6. to coun1'). front' [tal] frons. cf. DGVB: 317. OB talar. ). LElA: S-158-9.. LElA: T-18D-2. VVB: 219. dicht werden' GPN: 261~ JO: 102. stimulus An intermediary form ·stum'blU5 « *slimilus) should be posited (for Romance.~g. vomer < Lat.COach. swml] MWswmbyl < Lat. Loth in RC 22 (1901). cratere Me 59 a. Uthe svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW·'. Thurneysen. lEW: 139). sec also According'to I. G tanco- hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp 8 niritarn(h)er Comp 10 teg . OW (LL). a true Lord". MB tarazr.uis '? According to VVB.l17-9. Dev: 142 and 156. Halle: Max Niemeyer 1884.1) SfJrg (name 0' 8 letter) This letter-name was compared by Zeuss with 08 personal name Eusorchet. to trim. VVB: 219 tantou gl. and guis = Ir [is 'visio·. see REW: 12.enlc. 91. Jackson.r(rO. Brett' . Comp 7 tarnher v pres. o.32 and 38. E. R.. nacher Boden. subj. Zimmer: 152-3 suh gl. 218 sumpl gI. Hamp in Fe 20 (IQHJ). Winiams. or vernacular.J.. See aWAY. fn .'dehnen. 32. uomer Ox2 42 b (4. J.f 'beau a voir'. Watkins: 1982. Juv 9 (2. J. accepts Zeuss·s (Zeuss: 1058) reading of the latter element as standing for W gwi"'g.119. Haarmann. VVB: 219 talcipp gl. scapa uel rostrum (i.. cf..b. stimulus Ox2 42b (4.408. tantoo n pi 'chord~. E.. p. ML: 209. White: 165 '. ~ < IE ". Schrijver: R4-~.. tarader. p. fronte duelli J 51 sumpl n m 'goad' (swmbwl. lEW: 1038. 114 teg guis. see Haycock and Watlcins. Williams: 1929. OIr talam < IE ·. Stokes: 1873. the Welsh forms arc not quoted). William~: 1931. tellu. cip. Note the exceptional development of st-. wipe dry. Williams: 1980. 2.410. clean. 19 agwin tal kibedd. 330. ML: 210.Bammesberger in EC tR (1981) pp. (objed. B SOUC'hi OC soch 81.ri. pI. LElA: T-55. taratrum is a Celtic loan. strioKs' I tant I MW tant. VGK: 1. 263-5 is gur tum tarnetor ir loc guac haibid post. 76. WG: 82 tarater gl. For the etymological summ ary see OW A V . VVB: tslcipp n 'bowl' The word was compared with Olr ttil-ell/the. GMWL: 273. See tal. LL: xliv guragun t age Chad 2 'III n m "orehead. m 'him' immit eel irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) t•• erdlllou fi guird•••• tsmetor v pres. R. As was noted by K.. LHEB: 531. DB tanntou.'to cleanse. VVB: 219.. ML: 208-9.

The first part of this compound (OC Ii gl.3. who suggests *tesres or *tisras. PECA: 99. Stokes: 1865. the further study allowed for the reconstruction of PIE *t1. tanow. solicitos Ovid 38 3 terni v or vn 'to reckon.h 2 -eu. OW (Asser) lig.v. rejected by Schrijver). DOVB: 311. teu. IE ·(s)teg. Williams: 1927. 'thick' (tew J MW tew.235 and 292. P.2) lenea Idj. cf. p. 147 leir name card. 2 sg 'you" See ti I. VGK: 1. te.'das Helfen. Zcuss: 1063 tiis gl. OC tenei'en gl. Schrijver: 455). til prone pers. 'troubled ones' [d. VVB: 220 terrnin gl. Lamhert apparently considers this gloss a~ OB. If the latter is the same as W ban 'top' (Olr benn) .'decken' (lEW: 1013).). toile Ang 59 a ti J see '~t/H~·erdu'ou Ii guird•••• tiis? The word was compared by J. --'-'- .239..Y.-_.26) limu.a. MIr termonn < Lat. confusion' (Mlr mesc-) < IE *mei-k'mischcn· (lEW: 7L4). the dropping of the lenited -[ finds correspondences in the same text. Alternatively.. terminus GMWL: 274. Ir teglach < *tego-s/ougo-. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). Watkins considers this as a personal form of the verh (2 sing. pers. tarnetor). cf. ty\vylL ()B tcmocl~ cf. (La Graufesenque) tidres is uncertain. 99. or isid: issi.. lEW: 1091. or "tenh1-y. 1860-1.2(18 bihit dir terni Comp 16 teu adj. pp._. terfysg) MW terfysg'l Olr tairmesc An ·et. The most recent treatment is that of P. ora Me 48 a. LElA: T-53. DGVB: 312.c derivative from (W) mysg. lEW: 1057. VVB: 220 teir petgured part unc (gl. agitare 1 R8 omnipotens auctor tidicones adianl.341-5. Schrijver. 0. Haycock: 244. LElA: T-26. lEW: 1069. Williams: 1980.. tarfl. obtusoJ 1 37 lelu n m 'retinue' [teuloJ MW teulu._ . familia. termin gl.59 (fn."••[. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b lennin n AI 'boundary' [terfynJ MW teroyn. LHEB: 440~ LElA: T-39. Olr tu < IE *tll 'duo. VGK: I._. ora Me 48 a .t('nchr~(': Jr temrl . cf. 318-25. The reading of G. OC teilu gl. terwyn. see particularly Cowgill and McCone. LElA: T-155-7 gurt trichiti nacgenei C'omp 16 ftdarnestf gl. DCV: 80. VVB: 221. C ty. 2). venare Ovid 3R ft nerthiti gl. obtonso [leg. --. McCone: 10.84 and 99. T. LElA: T-76. teylu.. to compute. _.. Lane: 263. Schrijver derives the Welsh form from *tanalj!o. 2 SK 'you' (til OB ti. GMWL: 275..'vorspringende Spitze' (lEW: 96.b. v. the second. 127-8. to count' According to I. and ban 'part. 232.-------------------""--~--. lennisceticioll adj. 421 termisceticion gl. LElA: B-36. __ . domus.. lEW: 1097.). The other interpretation of this entry takes into consideration a possible reference to the cross. sec also t••erdlltoll ti guird•••• . PECA: 99. Olr tiug < IE *tegu· 'dick' Elsie: 138. MB teo. DCV: 59.(see s.IE ·slougo. WG: 131 6r teu gl. pl. Cowgill in Language 33. OC /uu. Stokes. See also trio w. latus. I 'three' MW teir. teyspan 'a coverlet'. de Bernardo Stempel: 143). Watkins: 1987. Dienen' (lEW: 96). OIr slog. Schrijver: 68.(Joseph: 40. MacC'ana in SC 10/11 (1975/ 6). A. GMWL: 276. ] Juv 9 ( 1. then to IE *bend. Sehrijver: 85 and 297 or teneu creaturou gl. Williams. staptuln Ox2 44a (6.. No 3 (1957). OIr tech) goes back to tl£g05. ML: 211. "iti: tritid. region'. __ .. P. pres). tertia pars unciae) MP 23 8 (241) leirban n 'three parts (of the world?)' A combination of teir (see s. Williams: 1980. MB tanau. 188-9 Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 LElA: T-14. OIr tanae The non-Celtic cognates are given under IE ·tenu-s 'dOnn' in lEW. DGVB: 311 ot ti gl. helghati gl. White: 304-5.1 adj. The most recent analysis by P. VGK: II. fif'Hi~n" !!'. tibi soli Me 9 a.-. VVB: 220--1.. (MW I/u. Loth with W teiJ-han 'coussin'. 'thin' [tenau I MW tcneu. DGVB: 278. sluag) . aIr te6ir This form has caused a longing dispute. hortahere Ovid 39h li 2 pron. VVB: 220. 95 mitelu Juv 3 (1... 31. OB teir.1) dittihun gl. 'dark' (tywyllJ W ty\vill. this is a verhal noun.(mase.'mixture. pp. VGK: 1. J.(Hamp: 1965.

see frat traU'. G trian-. this instance in the text denotes 'tu mewn'. 246.248 dou trean gI. trans. traetare~ for the quantity of a. for the preservation of -s. 255. see LHEB: 637. colour' VVB: 221. Williams: 1933. 83. . PECA: 100. 216. force'. fe"Q For the etymological summary see OWAV. GMWL: 279. Lat. LElA: T-65.'starr. Williams: 1980. VVB: 222. W cengel ·girth. Lat. Olr tort < lJat. Greene: 520. According to Fleuriot. see s. OC tor gl. aIr tr~chtaid < Lat. lEW: 1018. 189 Amtrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 trennid adv. a subjunctive form could be expected. tar < *triins < IE *ter. VGK: I. torta treidin v pres. OB tonn gI. According to ]. 'palm' ? Itorl MW tor. LElA: T-141-2.221. (fraction) 'one third" [traean) MW trayan. GOI: 530-1. GO): 39.' ~. aIr in tremdid gl. YGK: 1. Elsie: 81. these words as well as OB trus were borrowed from LHt. Stokes: 1860-1.. OB troian. see trio DGVB: 32. VGK: 1. Elsie: 90.. lEW: 1024.v. Schrijver: 322 or timuil gl. OB tros The name of a letter in "Alphahet of Nemnius" WHS identified with MW (CA) traus by Zeuss and compared with 08 tros by Loth. IE 'Item. De Bernardo Stempel: 144-5. HPB: 598.. tiber . MW tra. MW tiT.66. torgegil This compound is traditionally analysed as containing tor 'belly'. 114 irtinetic gl. MW traus.raeth-) MW traeth-. ML: 148). LElA: T-74ff. 105-6 cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2. cf. cf. WO: 168 ir tonnou gl. see LHEB: 405~ LElA: T-122. DGVB: 311. The word has been analysed as a derivative of *tcsV·. cf. 'over. Williams: 1980. p.f 'might. Iympha. DGVB: 315. uentris lora Ox2 43. but see E. this compound contains trei. OCV: 35. Mlr tonn Etymology is uncertain~ for a summary. bissem Ang 47 a dOll trean haur gl. OIr. tincta Ovid 4()A tir n m 'land' [tir] OW (LL) tir.83 hi torr MP 23 a (246) torth n f 'Ioar J torlh) MW torth. and cigel. ML: 148. tellus. bisse Ang 56 a har dOll trean gl. to IE *(s)ter.337.(5. see tir. MB tir. GOI: 250. OCV: 196. Olr trian < *triano from *tris-ano. lEW: 1092. ?) 3 pi 'to relate" recite" [. torgyngl. OB tra . 229. tertias duas uni us hore A ng 65 b trean cant mel MP 22 b (230) '''.' . VYB: 222 torcigel gl. 129-130 tra nos Comp 13 tl'8US n (name of a letter) OW (LL). cing(u)/a (GPC: 450.4) torr n f 'belly' 1. lEW: 972 and 1082. E. tinetic? MW Du Hir Tynnedic (7) Cf. OE tar. It was noted by K. lEW: 1063-4.. postridie A comhination of the word for ·dety· (see s.. oocte ceca Ang 50 a GMWL: 278. Williams. LElA: T-I09.~~~~. Hamp who notes that the base could perhaps be eliminated by 'dry'.'hindurch. LHEB: 55. (imperf. see Williams: 1930. saddle-girth' < Lat. GMWL: 278. VYB: 223. VVB: 223. OIr tarr-. VGK: II. VVB. aequora J 60 J. tor.2) treisguen n 'holy power' ? According to I. VGK: 1. did). DGVB: 322-4. beyond' .. venter. LElA: T-33~ OCV: 56. PECA: 100. steif sein'.'.233 douccint torth ha maharuin in irhaf Chad 3 douceint torth in irgaem Chad 3 iscm hichet triuceint torth Chad 4 till prep. LElA: T-117. . Jackson that '·the svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW". OIr tfr < IE *te(: )rsl. 1. cf.148 149 < ·temil-(j)o-. nod a prero~iti()n *trrn (remodelled). card. see LElA. As the form follows eet. 88. VGK: I. PECA: 101. holy' (see GPe: 1770). troean. OC tir gl. Wiliams. White: 121. ML: 211. trayn. fundum J 73 lOIJDOU n pi 'wa"es' (Ion) MW ton. Williams: 1930. subj. 'day after tomorrow" rtrennydd) W trennyd. trean num. LElA: T-48.weg' DGVB: 317 and 321. Hamp in EC 32 (1996). tyr. 222 tir teJih Chad 2 ir tir gI. v. tingo 'dye. GMWL: 278. MCB torth. and gllenn 'white. Zeuss: 1059 traus Nemn tordgel n r 'saddle-girth' Itol'lengl) MW torgengl.'dunkel' DGVB: 278. lEW: 1075. LElA: T-28-9.

J. lEW: 1073. 'sixty' See tri. 3 x 20. trite. Lambert.. Schrijver: trui ir unolion gl. postridie Me 7 a. then see ugeinl. DGVB: 232. num. Old. humanit~tis. card. 202. -_. See also citltremmet. MW trwy.2) inungueid gualed trintaut Juv 9 (8. cf. where "ae. Camp 5 S~e "0"" trifid num. rani. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). see trLt. trege. VVB: 224~ WG: 404 ni guor gnim molirn trintaut JuW' 9 (5. Lanlhcrt: 19R4. Olr tr6caire A *-cor.393.nt. l~R) derives this adjective from *(rllkfi-f1l0-. a nxia 1 63 trit. trimuceint ist teils nach '70' teils nach '20' umgebildet" and lEW: 1075. Elsie: 104~ lEW: 1095. Stokes: 1873. Iris' 8dj. Hirunuma: 41.--------151 150 LElA: T-135. Lambert: 1984. DGVB 326-1.3) rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7. VVB: 223-4 trennid gl. Hirunuma: 41. lri num. the presence of -m. see VVB: 224. see also O.< IE *trelld-. per monades Me 7 b. Lambert: 1984. LElA: T-29. GMW: 46. G tritos . VVB: 224 ir ir tri ui. Le. tip'?). trugarawc.is explained as a consonantal glide. Olr trom Traditionally. 362.-Y. See also Ir. 'sixty' OW triucennau (DGVE) possibly for ·trimuceintau In irtritid urd Camp 1 Intrited retce Comp 2 triuceinl num. for the etymology see then VGK: 11. M. trimuceint 'Dekade tiber 20 hinaus'. GOI: 40. OB (s)trom. troi enmeituou gl. 11 and LElA. tri. 'merciful' (trogaro~1 263~ LElA: T-154. aegrurn J 88 trybann n (?) 'limit' ? MW tryfan According to I. CA: 165. Greene: 542. OB tru[ed] gl.b. ----. B trugarek. LElA: T-154. LElA: T-126. 'sad' (tro J Since Zeuss's edition was considered as a numeral denoting '30'. Heidelberg 1960. in Inti urd. 31. *trei-. this is Cl comhinatinl1 of fry· (intensive). 37-43. *trlldslno. trinitalem MW tru. An alternative explanation forwarded by E. tlnd Ctop. p . C tru~ Olr truag For an etymological summary see LElA. 'heavy' (trwm) MW trwm. DGVB: 324. mitia J 42 lro. Olr trist < Lat. cf.'drei' nGVB: 320.36. VVB: 224 is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 221» (231) mntlJul n f ~nilJ' [trindod] MW trindod. drwy.b. DGVB: 320. ·(rrs < IE ·'rins. abrupta J 81 trumrn gl. Hamp (EC 21. eheu Ovid 393 troc8r8U€ adj. DGVB: Sec Schrijver for the details and 246-7~ ML: 213 319~ lEW: 1076. however. p. 'third' trifid. trindaut~ OIr trind6it < Lat. per nutus Ovid 3S b tro adj. m 'three' (tril MW tri. KGP: VGK: I. Williams. has shown that apparently this form denotes '60'.'hindurcfl. ord. trum. Williams: 1930. G. Szernerenyi. MW trugarog. where trim < ·trem 'durch'.tiio-. to IE *ter. 129-30. 232.. Schrijver: 285 and 288 -.weg'. 08 trete. tri< Celt. Le. tiber . < Celt. p. troi. 37-43. 'sad' (trisl] MWBC trist.nllce. :~ < IE *u. triti. aUf. LElA: T-151~ VGK: I. 'third' [tryd)'ddl MW trydydd.r----------------------------------------~-. 'through" [trwy ) OW (LL) trui. 08 tri. Studies in the Indo-European System of Numerals. (lS Cl vcrh. prep. VVB: 224 tnst gl. Olr tre < Celt. VGK: 1. tristis LElA: T-l46~ ML: 213. Greene: 539 and 507. 1984.. Camp 2 ir tri u MP 22 b (230) hint tri pimp MP 22b (230) trimul:ein' name rarcl. LElA: T-139f.3) trumm adj. J. 3~-]6 isem hichet triuceint torth C'hnd 4 froi prep. see (('i'''OI1.23.UCenMQu. treded C trysse. Schrijver: 448. lEW: 1090-1. OIr tn. 101. McCone: 55. Thurneysen: 1936. The recent study of the Latin text(s) by P.(?) derivative from tru. 1102. DGVB: 324. 'through" (trwYJ See trlli. see tri and cf. VVB: 226 irt r urn gl. Haycock Cliso ~ugl!('sts to consider the form o"11'\'''n". Lloyd-Jones in BHCS 14 (1952). p. VVB: 225 mortru gl. Pokorny's ·tre. VVB: 225 trucarauc gl. the heginning of the rrcvioll~ linc elf the ('n~1~'n.

In general.15 tuic gl. from Lat. CA: 187. 113 ceinmicum ucnou. 113 piipaur tuscois gl. 3H9. Williams compared this entry with Ir Ira chu 'much loved.~ ugaint see douceint ui n m 'egg' [wYJ MW wy. glebis J 56 tusrois adj. J. Quiggin in RC 38 (1920-1921). See also PECA. Lewis: 1926.152 Haycock: 244. tuslcstr g1. Haycock who notes that nOli could stand for W Ilt1H'. and lestr. FEW: 14. OB guedom. tuscensis. quocumque Me 14 a. VVB: 226 tuorchennou gl. acerram Me 14 a. acerra Me 10 b. 14. VVB.21 tuo«hennou n pi (from sgl. '. . See aWAY. thus. and suggests uch + gnou 'famous'. card. or nyddu 'to spin'.The stem could be a cognate of gnid 'work'. ligni[ci]smus Ox2 42 h (4.) 'sods' MW teguarchen. CA: 186. patupinnacc gl. LHEB: 3R7. ran Juv 9 (6. gwydyu. or with a cognate of Ir.b.a. fI. 187-8 Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: I Ilynit? Several interpretations have been offered for this word by I. theca.a. guedyf. oui Me 10 b. Stevenson: 113 suggests curbana (which occurs on the next page of the MS as well. vidubium < Celt.a. r. VVB: 227 uiidimm gl. Lewis. DGVB: 185--6. acena Me 12 a. uyth. The possibility for a different analysis of this instance is considered by M. E. Parry-Williams: 122. 16) = 'wallet'. Williams refers to MW ygnn (T). VVB: 227. Stokes: 1860-1. sickle. sweetheart'. GMWL: 289.2) uir n (name of a letter) This name of a letter in "Alphabet of Nemnius" was connected hy Zeuss with W wyr 'grand -child'. tus(s)lestr ? This compound is analysed as containing tuss < Lat. lennan 'love. Williams. ovum. Oir fidha.2) ueatiutaut beantrident This line is not clear. VGK: I. 113 ueatiutaut beantrident Juv 9 (6. VGK: r. 226 t~slestr . hedginK-bill' I~wddyf. LElA: 0-13. tywarchen(n). . I. see also Williams: 1933.300. 4 bos ug gl. 301. gwddiJ MW hudhyf. turibulum gl. WG: 107 nouircrunnui gl. palma MP 23 ft (245) MW trylenn Perhaps a combination of the intensive prefix with lenn. WiJliams: 1980. ML: 213) suggests rendering 'etruscans'. VVB: 90. Haycock: 243. I. tuslestr g1. Loth in RC 37 (1917-19). p.1. H.. 'eight' [wyth) MW vyth. PECA: 104.i. his edition 17.V. tu. p"gnlts. Haycock: 244.. tubicine 1usco Ovid 3Sb uiidimm n m 'bill-hook.< IE *01< 1ij~ 'acht'. p. Schrijver: 2R3. Elsie: 92. 'Etrusaan' VVB: 226 (cf. 219.3) ug: Latin Contraction? According to H. acerra Me 8 b. see S. Haycock: 14. 66.434. Haycock: 14. See also oi. GPC: 1607. 165. *yidLlbio~ < IE Vyidhll. or alternatively is taken as an intensive prefix. GMWL: 291. gwdyf. Williams: 1980. Try could stand for 'three' Ctriple'). n f 'gannent' Itwyg) MW twyg < Lat. OC uy gl. MB uy lEW: 763 derives the word from IE *6(LJJi~oln 'Ei'. Lewis in snes I (1923). a. 'much loved' 153 u uenou? Discussing this word. Schrijver: 299-. gudif. vlIcth. guodoh. Williams: 1980~ 188 Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 Ilylenn n 'protedfon. Parry-Williams to show non-Welsh character. reluge' 8dJ. tusletr gl. oev: 224. G~ Lat.a.'Baum' (lEW: 1177) + V"I11 'schlagen· (lEW: 117). B taouarc'hennou The form was considered by T. see lestir Stokes: I873~ 396. Williams: 1980. curbanam CH 16. Zeuss: 1059 uir Nemn uith num. very dear' (with a query). this could be a contraction for Lat. OR cith: Ir ncht < *OXto. 186-7 Amdinnit trynit try]enn Pad: 1 tu n m&I'side' [ta) MWtu See popptu. far from clear. Williams: 1980. C.

Williams: 1980~ 99-100 hfru~n gl. 'only' The sequence guar. cf.cIs' [uDol) W unawl. Lambert: 1982. Hamp in BBCS 16 (1954--{). uncenettieion gl. unoloion. un 2 • DGVB: 327. mOD. uld n f'row' [urdd] MW urd. adj. c~nettic ia an -etic derivative of canim. he translates this gloss as lchantant seules'. 194 pimmunt. lEW: IIO?. 397 untaut gl. Williams: 1980.Len unc gl.a.93. MB urz. and pimmunt. OIr ord < Lat. DGVB: 326.I. per monades Me 7 b. LHEB: 572. Haycock: 16. GMWL: 291.-Y. VGK: 1. OIr 6s. 4 . He translates the gloss as 'on exprime einquante avec un seull'. unn see urfl uno/ion n pi ·uoits. OB urdhaom (vo in -haom). congeus MP 23& (228) uncenettkion (') According to Loth (VVB: 227). 6en < IE *Hoinos. LElA: 0-11. un . See also hirunn and. guar. E. Greene: 538.2) r .154 DGVB: 237 and 156. Stokes: 1813. or otherwise a Latin word. uas To IE *upo 'unten an etwas heran'. Olr ofn. 254--0. 'one' [un] MW un.". l' 'one'.75. VVB: 228 trui ir unolion gl. VVB: 228.8. gI. septies octoni Ang 59 a In irtritid urd Comp 1 in triti urd.5 155 un l num. Lat. see s. ~. Elsie: 117. lEW: 286. See the previous entry. unl. Watkins: 1982. is . .b. orbem Me 9 b. quem J 51 dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3) inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8. solicanae Me 9 b. according to P. 'over' Dch ) MW uch. 08 un. uncia.i. Comp .1) un z nom. aard. cf. unus. Lambert "sont de deux scribes different5'''. unol An ·01 derivative from un.3) un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. LHEB: 405 iseith uith (·is seith uith) gl.. LElA: 0-31. ordo OOVB: ~28~ LElA: 0-29~ ML: 214 . biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi iT hune MP 23 8 (241) . VGK: 1.121 uuc nem isnem intcouer Juv 9 (9. LElA: 0-7. ef.33.57 and II. unitatem ML: 214.u' n m 'unity' lundod) MW undawt. pp. :i . un . vndawt < Lat. unde quinquaginta Prise'4 a uue prep.1. OB uh. lEW: 775. I unc n 'inch' < Lat. 126.

. passim.) hinl hold hois hoys int is "\"''' hint e punt gl. White. iseith uith (*is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a is douhoueeint gl. Lambert: 1987. WG: 346-50. mens est J 78 isdisl'irr rnieoueidid Juv 3 (3. Watkins and MacC'ana. McCone. The Indo-European Origins of Old Irish Nasal Presents. VGK: 11. pp. ni hois. indic. Comp 7 Hacet isgurth.. The reading of I. Main references: GMW: 136-45. 203-12.inc. quem J 54 is brut mi [= rnihiJ gl. Zeuss (p.Appendix I: . haci Comp J is gur tum zarnetor ir Inc gual' haihid posr. R. enucin di Sihcllae int hinn gl. 3 pI. indie. par est Me 4 h. VB: 320-2. Cinnit hoys irloc gual' hinnuith In pag. Dublin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1975. P. Williams 1929: 3 . ir sereno hai hid in eir cimeir . passim.na regular. Stokes p. Hernon. see also K. To IE *es. indie. 3 sg.g/inau.. indie. hoid hoitou hou hein atar ha heinn cihunn MP 22 h (2~4) Oratur. in pag.2) isahruid icinimer Juv Q (~. Isaac: 371-83. 3 sg.: A very difficult and uninterpreted gloss.na regular. Romanaque pectora Ovid 39b (1~1. quos J 19 ismf Christus gl.2) iscimadas gl. 3 sg.8. Wiesbaden (forthcoming). did. Old British. Williams is .(lEW: 340f.glinau irleill gI. A Historical Morphology and Syntax of Breton.inc*glinau Appendix II: 'To be'. indie. Phrigia Me 11 b. Comp 10 Is aries isid in arl'imeir Comp 12 isem hiehet triuceint torth Chad 4 ismi gl. § 4. int dOll pimp MP 22 h (230) is hepdud gl. personal forms :·r.h. quem J 3 fshtH gl.7.235) as hinc:glinau. hanaud Comp I is did ciman.0. Subjunctives and Futures. cephitor.419-41.inc. ir loe glial' hinnith. is xxx ha ~unrenoieu guotig MP 22 f1 (230) Pres.b. Erytria quaeque ('urnca e~t vel Pres. Comp 14 Pres. XL Ang 5q h ismod. Comp 6 Pres. o. Schrijver. ad sextarium MP 23 lt (22q) tri pimp MP 22 b (230) Imperf. 3 pI. est animus J 66 isamraud gl. Innsbruck: 1991. I . 1057) read this as hin cet/inau. indie. sine quihus Ang 15 h Pres. 3 sg. II Compendium Linguarum Celticarum.

ipsa MC 15 b. Pres. Comp 7 hoi isid Isit Pres. issft padhi ita" gtil~t gl. 35g. subj.ISS is trimueeint hestaur mel MP 22b (231) . maculata J 78 initoid gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b issem ir .0. 3 pI.(lEW: 1004 f. 3 sg. issi. iodie.b. int groi~auc luv 9 (R. I Pres. (relative) issft ia nit Pres. verum MC 13 a. Pres. 3 sg. hit J 32 cenit hoi loc guac Comp 12 piouboi.) be bein beinn bi bid \"" Imperf. imferiora Ang 81 b ~r ree issid pellaham gl. ut si dicas Anton Hie MC 43 b. 3 sg. Pres. indie. i. 3 sg. (relative) Pres. pressus J 92 bit 159 Imper. habit. Comp 8 irloc quae habid post .e. initoid gl. subj. b. o. Comp 5 issimi g1.. is . subj. extinea J 78 fnft6fd gl.b issmi gl.i. titillata MC 12 a. ad ir loc. par MC 4 s. (negative) Pres. subj. Assit [leg. indie. 3sg. 3 sg. issguir gl. 3sg. indie. iodie.exx une gl.2) nitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9. pan aed bid. Imperf. 3 sg. issid nes gl. issi g1. indie. iodie. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 irhinn issid crist g1. excutiendus) erit Ovid 39a hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir MP 23 lt (246) ir serenn. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 isscimadas gl. boit bu Pres. in triti urd. quid J 31 if Joe guac haibid post. Imperf. 3 sg.i. celsi thronu~ est cui coeli J 19 Pres.2) hacboi gl. 3 sg.a. Pres. celsi thoronus est cui regia eoeli J 19 bichet paniu pet guarid. 3 sg.a. did di aries Comp 18 nit abruid Comp 6 nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1. intemerata MC 11 a. Pres. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b Is aries isid in arcimeir Comp 12 biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune isit petguared pard guoifrit nun MP 23 1 (241) issem ir . subj. excu~iendu~ (leg. eongeus MP 23 1 (228) amser is eihun argant agit eterin illud MP 22 b (234) is moi hinnoid MP 23 1 (246) isid ni gl.e. Comp 11 ir loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 11 hou nit bloidin salt hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 22 . (relative) Pres. Compo 9 ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir . Genius MC 11 a. b. hai bu in arcimeir. iodie. To IE *std. iodie. Preterite 3 sg. nulla . 3 sg. 3 pI. 3 ~g. Imperf.b. guae. 3 5g.. Christus quem J 81 irhinn issid ille gl. adsit]. fssft padfu it~u gulat gl. Future I Pres.) itl. iodie. nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) paped bi gl. issemi anu gl. Pres.0. 01 oid To IE *bheu· (lEW: 146f. 3 ~g.a. mortalis MC 10 B.9) biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune MP 23a (241) ti r telih haioid eleu Chad 2 nataid guoceleseticc gl. o. 3 sg.

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