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ALEXANDER FALILEYEV
\
ETYMOLOGICAL GLOSSARY
OF OLD WELSH , ~
Max Niemeyer Verlag Tiibingen
2000
Gedruckt mit Unterstutzung der Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Bonn
Contents
Die Deutsche BibJiothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme
Falileev, Aleksandr I.:
Etymological glossary of Old Welsh I Alexander Falileyev. - TQbingen : Niemeyer, 2000
(Buchreihe der Zeitschrift f(ir celtische Philologie ; Rd. 18)
CJ Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH, TUbingen 2000
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ISBN 3-484-42918-6 ISSN 0931-4261
Acknowledgements
Introduction .....
List of Sources . . .
Bibliographical Abbreviations . . .
Grammatical Abbreviations . .
Language Names ..
Glossary
A ..
B ...
C ..
CH ...
D.
E.
F ..
G ....
H ..
I .
K.
L.
M
N.
O ..
P ..
Q ..
R ..
S ..
T.
U.
Appendix I .
Appendix II
VII
IX
XIV
. XVIII
.XXIV
XXV
I
1
13
20
39
39
51
57
59
78
88
99
99
108
116
122
126
J ~ 4
134
140
144
153
156
157
, ..
Acknowledgements
The research which resulted in the present Et)'nJological Glossary of Old Welsh
would have been impossible without the help of the following individuals and
institutions.
I am grateful first of all to the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung for a generous
fellowship which allowed me to conduct the research uninterrupted at the Sprach-
wissenschaftliches Institut of the Friedrich- Wilhelms- UniversiHit Bonn (Ger-
many), and for covering the printing costs of this publication.
Professor Emeritus Karl Horst Schmidt has supported my fellowship with the
Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. I am greatly indebted to Professor Schmidt for
his comments and stimulating suggestions on the various aspects of this work and
for his making my stay in Germany a most fascinating experience.
I thank Dr Paul Russell who went through the earlier version of the (;/oJsary for
his critical comments, as well as for his help and hospitality during my stay in
Oxford. Dr Graham Isaac was always ready to answer my questions; the discussions
of the problematic aspects of Old Welsh alongside the other disputahle issues of
Welsh and Celtic philology and linguistics with Dr Isaac were very important and
lead to a certain re-estimation of the views of the present author. I am grateful to Dr
Peter Smith for his readiness to help; and to Ms Sandra Pragnell for her taking the
burden of
I am grateful to Professor Stefan Zimmer. the Director. for the excellent
facilities arranged for my research at the SprachwisscnschaftJiches Institut of Bonn
University, and for the opportunity to usc his private lihrary. Frau Gudrun Eigen-
willig, the Librarian of the Institute, was always very helpful.
I am indebted to the staff of Geiriadur Pri!VJKo/ particularly to Mr
Gareth Bevan, the editor, and Mrs Mary Burdett-Jones for the possibility to check
the collection of the dictionary slips and the most generous help. I am very grateful
to Mr Andrew Hawke for his help in accessing the computerised data-hase and the
most stimulating discussions of early Welsh lexica. I would like to thRnk Professor
Geraint H. Jenkins, the Director, and the staff of the Centre for A d\'anced Welsh
and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth, for their hospitality.
Thanks are due to Professors P. Sims- Williams anll P.- Y. Lambert for their
readiness to answer my questions, and to Dr V. who put me on the right
path and first drew my attention to the gClpS in EClrly Welsh lexicography.
Needless to say. thnt the faults of this puhlication are entirely mine.
/\. Falilcyc\"
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Introduction
The present Etylnolog;cal Glo!;sary of Old We/sir is intended to offer an alphabeti-
cally arranged list of words which are found in the manuscripts transcribed before
the beginning of the Middle Welsh period, and to provide them with the most
important published references. Much work has been done hoth in the field of Old
Welsh studies and Celtic lexicography since the puhlication of J. Loth's Vocahll·
laire vieux-bretolt in 1884 which comprised the then known data of all the early
neo-Brittonic languages. Quite a few Old Welsh texts have heen edited anew;
more Old Welsh fragments have been found. Notes and articles which analyse
specific Old Welsh words and phrases appear in the journals. Old Welsh orthogra-
phy, phonology, morphology and the rudiments of syntax have been the subjects
of dissertations and scholarly research over the course of the twentieth century.
The publication of the Geiriadllr Prif),sgol eyn,ru (in progress) which considers
the Old Welsh forms with accuracy and offers an excellent historical panorama of
the development of Modern Welsh vocabulary is a major event in Welsh lexicogra-
phy. However'l it does not focus on etymological investigation" though provides its
entries with etymological comments; it does not give references to the scholarly
discussions. The present glossary intends to hridge this gap in Old Welsh etymolog-
ical studies and to offer the alphabetically ordered corpus of Old Welsh lexemes
with a bibliographical apparotuJ.
The data
Only records written down during the Old Welsh period have been used in the
compilation of the glossary. Texts which show Old Welsh orthographic features
and which were perhaps first written down during this period but which are found
in the later manuscripts are consulted; for the sake of chronological consistency
and homogeneity of the word-list" these entries are not included in the Glossary.
The non-appelative vocabulary of Old Welsh was not considered as the study of
personal names must be carried out within a different framework, while the inter-
pretation of the place-names which occur in the Old Welsh documents is a sepa-
rate problem. The same concerns the study of epithets; these \Vere used a ~ cn111-
paranda only. For (Old) Welsh glosses in MS Cotton Faustina C I see A. Pedcn in
CMCS 2 (19Rl), p. 2 0 ~ 2 ~ .
~
'.' ,',
, .
x
The sources
The sources for OW known before 1953 are conveniently summarised in K.H.
lacksoo·s Language and Hislory in Early Britain which was used as a definitive
guide for Ihis study. The only te1<t which was not used for the compilation of the
present Glossary is the Book of Llan Dav, which still requires to be comprehen-
sively discussed, and is a subject for research in its own right. The data of this very
important document is used throughout as comparanda for the research.
The compiler of the Glossary felt obliged to consider the Welsh entries which
are found in non.. OW manuscripts as well. Words which show Welsh character-
istics are found alongside Old Breton entries in several Latin texts of Breton
provenance. These, marked as ''"forme vieille galloise" by L. Fleuriot in his autho-
ritative Dictionna;re des gloses £n vieux Breton, and by a misleading "Old Breton
2" in A Dic60nary of Old Breton are listed in the Glossary. The instances where a
part of a gloss could be Breton as well are specifically indicated. Glosses .in which
all the components could be both Breton and Welsh are not considered. Forms
which show OW characteristics are found in texts of Irish provenance as well. It is
extremely difficult, if at all poS5ible, however, to assign these to a certain date or
even a language within early Neo-North.. West Brittonic, see Russell: 1995. These
are occasionally considered in the glossary, but only in the references.
The full list of used for the compilation of the glossary is given below. It
should be noted that the compiler made use of the edited and published texts only.
Only on several exceptional were manuscript readings consulted. The
focus has been laid on the collection of the published analysis of the rudiments of
Old Welsh thus the glossary could be viewed as an extended bibliography for Old
Welsh studies, rather than an authentic etymological dictionary.
Arrangement of the entries
The entries are arranged alphabetically according to the Welsh standard. The
glosses which contain more than one word are segmented; in those cases where the
segmentation could be problematic (and this applies to several particular frag-
ments of Old Welsh versification), the components of the phrases are explicitly
cross-referenced; when the segmentation is unclear, or the reading is variable, the
components of the phrase are as a complete entry. Homographic I homopho-
nic lexeme5 are treated under the different headings. Similar or identical instances
which were analysed differently are normally considered separately. Parts of com-
pounds are not treated separately; their discussion can be found in the entries
which contain 1he first element of the composite word. The forms of the verb 'to
be' are collected in the Appendi" II. and are not found in the main corpus of the
The word .i"c.gfina.. with an unclear initial is discussed in Appendix I.
XI
Structure of entry
Each entry contains the following elements:
1. First element of an entry.
1.1. The word as it is found in the manuscript or a conjectured form in the case of
an abbreviated or corrupted manuscript reading.
1.2. Grammatical characteristics of the fonn. As the OW data is salient for the
expression of gender of the noun, it is adduced from the later medieval sources,
and generally follows the treatment of the corresponding entries in the GPC. The
indication of gender is not provided for hapaxcs and plural forms.
1.3. English translation. Plural nouns are translated by plural forms. Forms of
the verbs are rendered normally by the corresponding English infinitive.
1.4. The corresponding form in Modern Welsh (if any). If the entry is a plural
noun, the singular Modern Welsh form is given for reference. If the entry is a verb.
the stem is normally given. The Mouern Welsh forms are given in square hrackets.
2. The second line of an entry gives I) a corresponding Middle Welsh formes)
and 2) Celtic c0111paranda for the entry. The earliest attested examples of etymol-
ogical correspondences of the Insular Celtic languages (Breton, Cornish and Irish)
are quoted. Old Cornish stands for the Cornish entries in "Vocahularium
cum"; the corresponding forms are cited from Graves's edition. The Continental
Celtic forms (particularly Gaulish) are also referred to.
3. The third part of each entry contnins etymological commentary. The IE proto-
forms arc normally quoted from J. Pokorny's rt,\'",o!oR;sclres
Worterbuch (1959). The Latin words (in case of hornl\vings) are given in their
classical forms or are otherwise indicated.
4. The fourth part of each entry contains bibliographical references. The list of
the bibliographical abbreviations is given below. The most important analysis of
Old Welsh orthography hy M. Lewis (As(lIdiaeth 0 Hell gan ei
chyfnharu ag ()rgraff Hen Wyddeleg, University of Wnlcs MA dissertation 1961.
unpublished), though extensively used at the preliminary stClges of the present
research, is not indicated in the references.
5. The fifth part of each entry gives the form under discussion as it occurs \vithin
its context; for the glosses the lemmas arc given. This is followed ny a reference to
the source (see the list of sources).
The Old Welsh data: some prohlcnls and desiderata
The present Ety",ological Glossary of (J/d U'e/sl, was planned as (l part of a higger
project which intends to survey various nspccfs of ()Id Welsh linguistics and r
h
ilnl.
ogy. At this point. however. it was considered appropriate to prclO\ent only the
XII
data; at a later stage the compiler will offer its analysis. During the work on the
Glossary the following problems related to the monuments of Old Welsh were
considered as desiring di scussion.
1. The Texts. As it is indicated in the section Sources (below), the majority of the
Old Welsh texts were edited and published (mostly without facsimiles) towards the
end of the nineteenth century. Moreover, the Old Welsh glosses in these editions
are normally given only with a quotation of Latin words (sometimes phrases) on
which they occur. This method of editing the remnants of Old Welsh could be
acceptable at the dawn of Welsh studies. It is obvious, however, that now there is a
demand for a comprehensive treatment of these manuscripts, which would
account for the Latin text (as well as Latin and Anglo-Saxon glosses) alongside the
Old Welsh entries proper.. Several of the Old Welsh texts have been and are being
studied in the likewise manner by the team of scholars directed by the Department
of Welsh, University College Aberystwyth (the results are yet unpublished); for
some of these texts this remains a desiderata. The other genre of Old Welsh
writing, the poetical pieces, ha'w'e been satisfactorily edited. These deserve now a
study within a broader context ()f Welsh poetics, particularly taking in considera-
tion the recen t progress in the analysis of the early Welsh poetry.
2. The Languages. Witb a few exceptions it is commonly maintained that the
remnants of Old Welsh are rather homogeneous (though naturally allowing for
linguisticrorthographic variations), It was argued for the Old Breton sources,
that some of them c<Jntain Old Welsh (as well as Old Irish) entries
alongside Old Breton. It can be argued that a parallel situation could be envisaged
for the Old Welsh texts proper; the non-Welsh element in these texts, represented
by Irish and Cornish should be extracted from the linguistic discussion, but utilised
for the analysis of the Welsh (scribal) tradition and the character of the medieval
Welsh scriprar;a. The same concerns the presence of the Anglo-Saxon element in
Old Welsh, both in the vocabulary, and in the texts themselves. This subject in
general has not received the proper attention.
The interaction of Old Wel!ih with the other important language of medieval
Wales, Latin, has been not sufficiently analysed either. Though several impor-
tant and thoroug.h studies were dedicated to the problem of the Latin borrowings
in Welsh., they unfortunately do not pay the desirable attention to the chronology
and the character of these borrowings at the earliest attested stage of the history of
this language. Not much is d()ne to elucidate Old Welsh linguistic contact with Old
Irish.
Old Welsh Le7<icology.. The material presented in the present Glossary allows
for VEl rious types of in\'es1iga tion, The study of the semantic fields, nearly absent in
, '
Welsh lexicology but veTy popular in the other linguistic traditions (Anglo-Saxon,
Baltic.. German.. lndic, Irish, Slavic, etc.), deserves primal attention. The compiler
of the tlt1empts tc bridge this gap in early Welsh lexicography with the
.' of the Ol(j agricultural vocahulary (in progress, see OWAV in
XIII
the List of It is hoped, therefore, that the other semantic fields
would draw the attention of scholars, provided that the data is already collected
and classified.
The collection of the material presented here points to a considerable amount
of hapaxes, which should be comprehensively studied. The focus could be laid
upon the semantic aspect, as well as on their morphological pecuharities. It is not
infrequent that the word could he attested only twice - once in the Old Welsh
sources, and then in the later poetry, particularly in the Red Book of flergest or in
the Book of Talicsin. These cases should he also considered. Some ohviollsly
idiomatic set-phrases occur in thc corpus of (lid Welsh.. and these should be
studied within a wider context of Welsh and C'eltic idiom.
The formal aspects of Old Welsh lexica are not sufficiently studied as \vell. It
should be noted, that there is no availahle study of Welsh morphology as a whole.
and perhaps the word-list presented in this hook could he used as a starting point
for the analysis of early Welsh morphology. The (;Io.tr;snry could be used as a
source for the future discussion of the models of Welsh word-formation: lists of the
suffixes with the indication of their productivity in Old Welsh are to be compiled.
Special attention should be paid to the possible calques on the Latin forms which
the Old Welsh words are glossing, as negligence of this factor will necessarily lead
to the distortion of the whole picture of Old Welsh morphology.
4. Old Welsh Grammar. Gral1t11lar of Old Welsh compiled hy J. T. Koch (as
reported in J. T. Koch, The Gododdin of Ancirin. C'ardiff: University of Wales
Press 1997, p. vi) is not yet availahle. It could he noted. h()\\,ever. that the tnetho-
dological (particularly chronological) approach to the trC(\tnlent of ()Id \Vclsh in
this grammar a priori differs fronl the views of the conlpilcr of the present (;/0,,\-
sary, as only the data found in the contemporary manuscripts could he relevantly
labelled as Old Welsh. Of course the publication of this (iro"""ar of (Jld n"el.'ih
will definitely open new horizons for Welsh linguistics: at the same time the
compiler of the present Glossary feels obliged to note that the notion of the
Archaic Neo-Brittonic, \vhich has been advocated by Dr Koch. though useful as an
instrument of research. needs further investigation. The two "'hich deserve
attention are I) the problem of the earlier dialectological relationships het\\'cen
the Neo-Brittonic languages. and 2) the concept of early Neo-Brittonic spelling..
There is still quite a range of grammatical aspects of Early Welsh which arc in
dispute, and the remnants of Old Welsh are no exception here. To mention just a
few of them: the presence of a morphologically deducihle future tense of the vcrh.
treatment of certain plural terminations of a noun. and the grammatical status of
specific adjectival and preverbal particles. All these issues relatcd to the (Old)
Welsh grammar and grammatical description cnuld not he disfussed in the prescnt
book. It is hoped, therefore, that the ()Id Welsh delta presented here \\'ill make
further investigation in this field more productive.
,'.
AC
CH
CIIadZ
Chid 3
List of Sources
The "Annale! Cambrlse" Bre found in Harlefan MS which fs dated to CI.
1100 (cr. LHEB: 56). The text was edited by E. Phil1imore (Phillimore: 152-169);
tbis edition i5 used. For the history of this text see K. Hughes, The Welsh Latin
Chronicles: Annores Cambriae and Related Texts. 1/ Proceedings of the British
Academy 59 (1973), p, 233-58 (see also the review of it by D. Dumville in SC 12/
13 (1917/8), p. 461-7) and The A.. text of Anna/es Cambriae. /I (D. Dumville, ed.)
K. Hughes, Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Woodbridge: The Boydell
Press 1980, p.86-100,
Glos.ses which show OW features in MS Angers 477. The text is dated by L.
Aeunot to the relevant glosses were written at the end of the tenth - begin..
ning of eleventh century by various hands, see DOVB: 8-11. See also G. Le Due,
Une glose en Anglo-Saxon gloste en Brittonique. /I EC 16 (1979), p.261-2.
Unedited; for the collection of the glosses see DOVB: 26-31; Lambert: 1983 and
1984, The references are to the MS.
The Latin Life of King Alfred composed by Asser about 890 contains several
Wel5h word5, predominantly toponyms, cf. LHEB: 53. The text was edited by
W. H. Stevenson. Asser's Life of King Alfred, Oxford 1904. See also S. Keynes,
M. Lapidge" Alfred the Great. Asser's Life of King A/fred and other
rary source!, Penguin Books 1983 for the translation and a most valuable com..
mentary..
AD OW gloss ill the so-called Colloquia Hisperica (Bodleian MS. 865, f. 93
1
) The
glos!i which is dated to tbe eleventh century was edited by E.C. Quiggin, An Old
Welsh Gloss. I! RC 38 (1920-1921), p. 15-16, cf. also Stevenson: 16. The referen..
ces are given 10 the MS (brackets - page and line in Stevenson's edition).
The ro-c:alled ISurexlt' Memorandum in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospels)
was dated to the eighth century by K.Jackson (LHEB: 42-6 with further bib1.).
According 10 D. Jenk.ins and M. Owen (JO: 83), this text was written in 830-850,
al50 Sims-Williams: 1991, 32, where a possibility to date this text earlier than
ca. 800 is noted" and D. Huws, Five Ancient Books of Wales H. M. Chadwick
Memorial Lec1ure 6, Cambridge: Department of Anglo.. Saxon, Norse, and Celtic
1985)., 1". 5 fn. 4 for Ihe date "about 800". The text was edited by D. Jenkins and
M. Owen in JO: further editions include: J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlii
with notes by J. W. M. Lindsay in EWS: 46; J. Morris Jones in MJ:
Zimmer.. forthcoming; see also D. Jenkins, Sylwadau ar y 'Surexif. /I ODeS 28
(1 930j, p. 607-11. Glan\'ille R. J. Jones, 'Tyr Telych' and Gwestfau of Cynwyl
Caeo and Cwmwd Caeo, 11 SC 28 (1994), p.81-95. The references are to JO.
A charter in mi1Ced Latin and OW in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospel5),
dated to the late Ilinch century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976), see JO
I
: 56: cf.
xv
LHEB: 46-7 for the further references). The text was edited by J. Gwenogvryn
in LL: xlv: cf. (text and Davies: 263: also HW: 214 and
PRW: 312. The references are to LL.
Chad 4 A charter in mixed Latin and OW in the Book of St. <:had (Lichfield
dated to the late ninth century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976), see JO
I
: 56: cf.
LHEB: 46-7). The text was edited hy J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlv. The
references are to LL.
ChH 6 A note in Latin and OW in the Book of Sf. Chad (Lichfield Gospels), which
establishes the boundaries of a manor near Lladybie; i!i dated to late ninth or
rurly tenth century (st.'e .'e)l: nlso I.IIFIJ: 47 And Itl72 -4, 10
(pnnlnlly) hy .r. in 1.1., p. )CIviL tht ttl(t nh""IHh i"
local place-names: no complete edition of it is avaiJClhlc; The references a re to
LL.
Chad 7 A single line in OW and Latin in the Book of St. Chad (Lichfield Gospels), dated
to the end of the eighth - beginning of the ninth century by J. Gwenogvryn Evans,
LL: xlvi (alongside Chad il). No date was suggested for it at the seminar in
Lichfield. Edited J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlvii (cf. also J0
1
: 55). References
are to LL.
Comp The Computus Fragment (Cambridge University Library MS Add. 4543). dated
by I. Williams to ca. 920 (cf. EWS: 45; LHEB: 54). Edited hy I. Williams (IQ27)
with translation and an extensive commentary. The earlier include those
by E.C. Ouiggin (1912; with translation and W. M. Lindsay (EWS: 53
with facsimile); see also J. III, The Old Computus Fragment
and Bede's Pagina Regularis: Part I. /1 Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic C"ollo-
quium, vol. 2 (19R2), p. 197-272. The references are to Williams: 1927.256 (the
number indicates the line in the edition).
DNR Six OW glosses in MS Peniarth (Bcdc·s l)r IIatura ,rr"",) dated to the first
half of the twelfth century. Edited hy I). Huws (Huws: Sill). The references arc
to the MS.
Gen The Old Welsh Genealogies which contain Old Welsh onomastics and epithets
are found in the same MS as AC. The text was edited hy E. Phillimore (Philli·
more: 169-183), and by p.e. Beutrum (BClrtrum: 9-1.':\). The latter edition iC\
The references are to the pages of the edition.
J OW glosses (several hands) in Camhridge MS Ff 4. 42 poetical
of the gospels). Edited hy Stokes (Stokes: IH60-61. p. 207-22R. cf. also Stokes:
1860-1, p. Stokes: IR73, 411-5). According to K. Jackson (LHER: 1-2.
following Bradshaw: 2RJ-4 and 4R4. cf. EWS: 16) the !!Iocoses are dated to ninth -
eleventh centuries. hut see D.Dumvil1c, Palaeogrnphical Consideration in the
Dating of Early Welsh Verse. /I nBCS 27 (1<J7R). p. 24R fn. fl. who states thelt ·'the
dating of most of the Juvencus glosses to saec. xlxi unacceptable on palaeogra-
phical grounds: they helong to the first half of the tenth century". cf. also Bishop:
258. For the hands see Bradshaw: 4R4, LHEA: 50-1 and particularly Ha r"ey:
1991 and the further bihliography cited there. The references are to the MS.
Juv 3 A poem of three stanzHS in CCtmhridgc MS rf 4,42, dated to fir't half of the tenth
century, see J. C. T. Oates, Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manu<icript
of Welsh Poetry: The Camhridge Juvenclis. II CMCS J (I tJR2). p_ R2 and fn. D.
Huws, Five (II. M. Chadwick fv1emorial Lecture n.
Camhridgc: Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse. and Celtic 19R5). p. indicates
XVI
the late ninth or early tenth century as its date. For the further references see
LHEB: 52-3 and cf. Watkins: 1982, 36-7. Edited by I. Williams, Tri Englyn y
Juvencus. II BEeS 6 (1932), p. 101-110 = Williams: 1980, p.89-100; see also
LHEB: 52 for a 1151 of the previous editions. See also J. Rowland. Early Welsh
Saga Poetry Cambridge: D. S. Brewer 1990, p. 466-7 (text). p. 510 (English
lat100), and passim. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and hne).
J•• , A poem of nine sta nz.as in Cambridge MS Ff4, 42, dated to first half of the tenth
century., see J. C. T. Oates, Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manuscript
of Welsh Poetry: The Cambridge Juvencus. /I CMCS 3 (1982), p. 82 and fn. D.
HUM, Five Ancient Books of Wales (H. M. Chadwick Memorial Lecture 6,
Cambridge: Department of Anglo·Saxon, Norse, and Celtic 1985), p. 5 indicates
tne late ninth or eerly tenth century as date. For further see
LHEB: Bromwich: 1980. 100 fn. 7; Watkins: 1982. 36-7. The poem was
edited by I. Naw Englyn y Juvencus. /I BBCS 6 (1932). p.205-224 =
WiJliams: 1980, p. ]00-121; and in Haycock: 3-16, with a Modern Welsh rende·
ring and an extensi\'e commentary; see the list of the earlier editions there. See
also J. Rowland, Ear]y Welsh Saga Poetry, Cambridge: D. S. Brewer 1990. pas-
sim. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and line).
Le.... An Old Welsh gloss in "Leiden Logical Fragment" (MS Voss. Q 2. F. 60), dated
to the tenth or ninth century (LHEB: 64). According to LHEB: 64, the language
is Breton on the assumption of the Fleury origin of the MS. The gloss was conside-
red as insular by F1euriot, DGVB: 7 (more precisely as Welsh, DaVB: 261); this
decision was based on Lindsay's observation (EWS: 22-3), where this MS is
compared with Ovid on palaeographical grounds. The gloss was edited by
W. Lindsay, A Welsh (Cornish?) Gloss in a Leyden MS./1 ZCP 1 (1897), p. 361.
The references are to the MS.
Me The OW glosses in Martianus Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mereur;; (Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge MS 153), perhaps ninth century (LHEB: 53). Edited
by W.Stokes (1873), See also Bishop: 262f. The references are to the MS.
MP The Old Welsh glosses in De Mensuris et Ponderibus (Liber Commonei, Oxonien-
. sis Prior)., Bodleian MS. Auct. F. 4.32, dated to 820 (I. Williams, Notes on Nen-
11 BEeS 7 p. 382; LHEB: 47), or 817 (EWS: 7; R. Thurneysen. Zu
Nemnius (Nennius). I! ZCP 20 (1936), p. 100 Hunt: VIII, fn. 5). Edited by Wil·
Iiams: 1930, 226-148 with a facsimile of fo 23
8
facing p. 228; the earlier editions
include Zeuss: 1060; Stokes 1860-1,237-8; for a facsimile edition, see Hunt; for
1be history of the MS., cf. A. Breen, The Liturgical Materials in MS Oxford,
Bodleian Librllry. Auc1. FA.l32.11 Archiv fUr Liturgiewissenchaft 34 (1992),
p.111-53. The references are to the MS (brackets - page in Williams: 1930).
The so·called Alph/lbet of Nemnius in Bodleian MS. Auct. F. 4.32, fo 20
8
; for the
date see cf, alsc R. Dorolez, Runica Manuscripta, Brugge: De Tempel
p.157-9, Edited by W. Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1, 236-7; cf. Zeuss: 1059).
The references are to Stokes: 1860-1.
<hid The OW &I055eS in Ovid's Ars Amatoria (Oxoniensis Prior, Bodleian MS.
Autt, F.. 4. 3l., fol. 37&-42
8
; see also above), dated to the ninth-tenth century
(Bradsttaw: EWS: 8; Hunt: XIII; LHEB: 54). Edited by W. Stokes (Stokes:
J860-t 234--6, coneC110ns p. 292, cf. Zeuss: 1054-1059; fol40
8
edited (with facs.)
ill EWS: 56). For the gloss ledit gI. pulsat (fo 38
b
) see Williams 1933: 113. The
Jcferenccs are to tile MS.
Ox2
Pad
Prise
XVII
The MS called (Bodleinn MS 572) which a Latin
text IJe Raris Pahllli... with OW (Clnd presumahly ()(') glosses dated ca. tenth
century EWS: 2": tHEA: 55). The text is edited hy W. H. Steven-
son. Stevenson: I-I L prc"iolls include: ('ra4\ter: 1.'5-6: IRfl(l--1,
238-44 (corrections on p. 29J): Zeuss: IOflO-J: for (1 fClc4\imiJe edition of a part of a
folio. sec H. de la Villemarquc in des
V (185fl). p.272 pI. J. For the Cornish comroncnt. see BHl<fshaw: 4Hfl: L.HEB:
55: J. Loth. Les gloses de 1'().to1lien.'ii.'i f'o.Hrrior sonl-elles corniqllcs? II RC 14
(1893). p. 70: VKG: I. IJ. The referencec; arc to MS (hrackets - rage and line in
Stevenson's edition).
An OW four-line verse Oil St. Pndnrn's slnff in Corpus Christi MS Il)(J (n. lIn
dnted to IOHO-IOt)() (Brndshnw: 4f1.c;). The text wnll\ edited hy I. WilliAms. An (ll<l
Welsh Verse. 2 (IQ.tI). p. (=
Williams: 1980. 181-(89). and hy M. Haycock (Haycock: 241-5). with a Modern
Welsh rendering and an extensive commentary. The references are to the edition
by I. Williams. the number indicates the line.
Glosses which show OW features in Priscian's grammar (BN lat. I029f»). dated to
the first part of the ninth century. Edited hy P.-Y. Lamhert (Lamhert: 1982: cf.
DGVB: 31 and pa,Hint). References are to the MS.
Bibliographical Abbreviations
AEW = J. de Vries, Alrno,.disches etymologisches Worterbuch. Leiden: E. J. Brill 1962.
AP = Pryde;n. Edited and annotated by I. Williams. English version by R.Brom·
wich. Dublin: The Dublin ]nstitute for Advanced Studies 1972.
BacheDery = E. Bachellery, rey. DGVB. 1/ EC 11 (1964-5), p.191-199.
Bartram ::: P. C. Bartrum, EaT/Y Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Cardiff: University of Wales
Press 1966.
BaudH = J. Gramma, of Early Welsh. Oxford 1924.
DDC = A.O.H. lannan, ed., L/yfr Du Caerfyrdd;n. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru
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BRCS = Thl! BuJitJin of ,1ft Board of Celtic Studies.
Bishop = T. A. M. Bi!hop, The Corpus Martianus Capella. II Transactions of the Cambridge
Bibfiograp1tica! 5oc;eiy 4 (1964-8), p. 257-75.
= H. Bradshaw, Corrected Papers. Cambridge 1889.
Bromwkh: 1980 =see Williams: 1980.
CA = I. Williams, Ctrn., Aneirin. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1938.
C.erwyn Williams: 1948 = J. E. Caerwyn Wil1iams, yo y Gymraeg. II BBCS 13 (1948),
p.I-IO. . ..
Chantraine = P. Chantraine" Dictionnaire etymologique de fa langue grecque. Pans: Editions
Klincks.ieck, 1917.
CMCS = Cambridge (since Winter 1993 - Cambrian) Medieval Celtic Studies.
Craster =' H. H. E. Craster" The Glosses of the Codex Oxoniensis posterior. II RC XL
( 1923) I p.
Davies =W. Da\'ies, The Latin charter·tradition in Western Britain, Brittany and Irclanu in
the earl" mediaeval period. IJ D. Whitelock, R. McKitterick and D. Dumville, eds. Ire-
land i" Eal/Y Mtdie"al Cambridge: at the University Press, 1982.
De Bernlrdo Stempel = P. De Bernardo Stempel, Die Vertretung der indogertnanischen
und rtlJ501.e-N .)onflnJtn;m Keltischtn. Innsbruck 1987. ,
DGVB = L. Aeuriot, Dicrionnaire des gloses en vieux Breton. Paris: Librairie C. Klinksieck
1964.
DOB == C. Evans, L. Aeuriot I A Dictionary of Old Breton. Toronto: Prepcorp 1985.
tc = tr/-4de5 Ct Jtique.s .
EL =11. Lewis. Y, Etlen Lddin yn y' faith Cymraeg. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru
1943.
EU =L Etn"du t.rrordd. Lerpwl: Gwasg y Brython 1945.
:Elsie =R. The of Brittonic. Bonn 1979.
'EmoDt-Mfillet = E. ErnouI, A. Meillet, Dictionnaire ttymologique de la langue laline.
Quatri!me edition. Paris: Librarie C. Klincksieck, 1959.
= 1. F_ E\k;\. (In ft"prprNntinn of the Hi.vpano·Ctftic In.vcriptinfl of Rntorrito.
Jnstitut fir Sprachwi!';senschaft 1989.
XIX
ESSYa = (0. Trubachov, ed.) Etimologicheski; slo\'o, sla'.'yan.rkikh jOlyko\·.
Nauka, 1974-.
EWS == W. M. Lindsay, Early Wel.r;h Script. Oxford, 1912.
Fowkes = R. A. Fowkes. of Cymric Etymology. /1 Lingua PO';flaniefu;'r; 6 (1957).
p.90-111.
Fowkes: 1958 =R. Fowkes, Sanscrit Evidence in Etymologies. IIIne Journal of Celtic
Studies 2 (1958), p. 1-4.
G = J. Lloyd-Jones, Geirfa barddOfliaefh gymlar f(I'mrae/(. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol
Cymru 1931-1946.
GED = W. P. Lehmann. A Gothic Etynlological Dicrionar,'. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 19R6.
GEW = H. Frisk. Griechisches etymologisches Worterbuch. Heidelherg: Carl Winter 1970.
GMW == D. Simon Evans, A (,r0111nl0r of Aliddl" »'elrh. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for
Advanced Studies 1964.
GMWL "" T. Lewis, A Glossary of Mediael'al WeI>" Lall'. Manchester: At the University
Press 1913. .
GOI =R. Thurneysen, A Gramnrar of Old Irish. Dublin: The Duhlin for Advanced
Studies 1980.
GPC = Geiriadur Prifysgo/ Cymru. Gol. gan R. J. Jones rac wedynJ gan G. A. Bevan.
Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru, 1950-.
GPN == D. Ellis Evans, Gaulish Personal NameJ. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press 19f17.
Greene = D. Greene, Celtic. /I J. Gvozdanovic, ed.. Indo-European Numeralr. Mouton de
Gruyter: Berlin I New York 1992. p. 497-554.
Haannann = H. Haarmann. Der lateinische Lehnworl.fChot'l ;m Ky,nrischen. Bonn J970.
Hamp: 1965 = E. Hamp, Evidence in Keltic. /I W. Winter. ed.. E.·idence for
The Hague 1965, p.224-235.
Hamp: 1973 = E. Hamp. Formation indoeuropeenncs second *-(H(l)k
'
·'-. II Bulle-
tin de la societe de li1lgtti5iqttc de Pari.r; oR (197.1). p. 77-Q2.
"amp: 1974 = E. Hamp. Varia. II Erill. 25. 1974. p. 25J-2R4.
"amp: 1975-6 = E. Hamp. Miscellanea Celtica. /I SC 1011 ( (1975-6). p.
Hamp: 1976-7 = E. Hamp. Notes on Old Breton. 1/ EC 15 (1976-7). p. 191-3 and 569-72.
Hamp: 1977-8 = E. I-Iamp. Intensives in Celtic and Gaulish. /I SC (l977-R).
p.10-I3.
Hamp: 1979 == E. Hamp, Celtica Indogermanica. /1 ZCP 37 (1979). p. ](l7-7.l
Hamp: 1982 ::::: E. Hamp. The Indo-European Roots *hJrrr- in the Light of Celtic <lnd
Alhanian. II ZCP 39 (1982). p. 205-IR.
Harvey = A. Harvey. The Camhridgc - Evidence of
Literary Interaction? II P.S. Ureland. G. Broderick. eds. Lan8rtagr Contnct in tire Rr;t;,'fih
Isles. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1991. p. JRI-lqR.
Haycock = M. Haycock. Blodellgerdd harddas 0 gallll cref.vddol cy""ar. Llandyhie 1994.
Henry ::::: V. Henry, Lexique ftymnlogiqllt des te"neJ les plus du breton ,noderne.
Rennes 1900.
Hirunuma = T. Hirunuma, Gaulish Ordinals. II Studio Celth'o Japonica I (,qRR). p. 39--4R.
Hunt = R. W. Hunt, Sf D/lllsla,,'s Classhook fmlll (ila.f(ol1brtrl'. (Umhrae Codicum Occi-
dentalium IV) Amsterdam 1961. -
= D. Huws, A Welsh Manuscript of Bede's /)r narum rerum. II fiReS 27 (19781,
p.491-504.
HPB = K. Jackson. A PllOnolngl' of nr('/,m. DlIl>lin: The Dllhlin In.tillltc {PI
Advllnced Studies (Q67.
JIW = J. E. I.Io!·d. ,·1 11i'ltlfy or H'olt'\, Volt,nlc ,. London '41'.
'·It. xx
lEW == J. Pokorny, Indogerrntlnisches etym%gisches Worterbuch. Bern: Francke Verlag,
1959.
IF =l"dogermani5cht ForJch"ngen.
Isaac = G. Isaac, The Verb in 'he Book of Aneirin. Studies in Syntax, Morphology and
Etyrnorog)'. TUbingen: Max Niemeyer 1996.
Jackson: 1950 = K. Jackson, Brittonica. /I JCS 1 (1950), p. 69-79.
Jack..on: ]975-6 = K. Jackson, The Date of Old Welsh Accent Shift. /1 SC 10111 (1975/6),
p.40-S3.
JCS = The Journal of eel,if S'udies.
JIES = Journal oj lndo-European Studies.
JO = D. Jenkins, M. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Part II: The
'Surexit' Memorandum. "CMCS 7 (1984), p. 91-120.
J0
1
= D. Jenkins, M. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Part I. 1/
CMCS 5 (1983), p.37-66.
Joseph = L. Joseph, The Treatment of ·CRH- and the Origin of CaRa- in Celtic. 1/ triu 33
(1982), p. 32-55.
KBr = Beit,iige zu, vergleic1tenden Sprachforschung.
Kelly == P, Kelly. The Earliest Words for 'Horse' in the Celtic Languages. II S. Davies, N. A.
Jones.. eds., Thr Horse in Cefric Culture. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1997,
p.4H3.
KGP K. H. Schmidt, Die Komposition in gallischen Personennamen. /I ZCP 26 (1957).
p.33-301.
Klin_ellKhmidt = G. Klingenschmldt, Zur Etymologie des Lateinischen. 1/ M. Mayrhofer.
M. Peters, O. Pfeiffer. eds .. Lautgeschichte und Etymologie. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig
Reicllert Verlag 1980. p. 208-222.
Kom = J. Koch. 'Gallo-Brittonic' vs. 'Insular Celtic'. /I Bretagne et pays celtiques. Rennes
1992. p.471-95..
KZ = Ztit5chrift fu' Sprachforschung.
Lamber1: 1976-7 = P.. -Y.. Lambert" Emplois de la coordination. II. Proble-
mes par 12 prep. galloise A, ag 'avec'. /I EC 15 (1976-7), p, 523-31.
Lamber1: 1931 = P...Y. Lambert, La traduction du pronom relatif Latin dans les gloses en
vieil-irlandals, (J EC 18 (1981), p.121-139.
Lambert: 1982 = P.. -Y. Lambert, Les gloses du manuscrit BN Lat. 10290. /1 lic 19 (1982),
p.173-2L3.
LIlmber1: 1982a = P"V. Lambert, Vieux-gal1ois nou, nom, inno. 1/ BBCS 30 (1982).
p.20-29.
LamMrt: 1983 =P.-Y.. Lambert, Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie /I EC 20
(1983). p.. 119-143.
Lambert: 1984 = P.-y, Lambert. 'Thirty' and ·Sixty' in Brittonic. /I CMCS 8 (1984),
p.29-43.
Lambert: 19848 = P,"y, Lambe rt, Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V Suite. /1
tc 21 (1984). p.
Lambert: 1986 =P.-Y. Lamben, The New Dictionary of Old Breton. /I CMCS 12 (1986).

Lambe..: 1917 = P.-1', Lambert.. Les gloses grammaticales brittoniques. /I EC 24 (19R7),
I p.
Lane == G. Lane.. The Germano - Celtic Vocabulary. 1/ Language 9 (1933). p. 244-264.
LElA = J, V<'fldT;.'fS, el,"fn%giqlle de l'irlalldais ancien. Dublin: The Duhlin Insti·
tute for Ad\'lInccd Studies 1959-.
XXI
Lewis: 1926 = H. Lewis. Glosau Rhydychen. II nRCS 3. part I (192ft) p. 1-4.
Lewis: 1932 = H. Lewis. Glosau Rhydychen a Chacrgrawnt. Martianus Capella. /I RB('S 6.
part 2 (1932). p. 11G-112.
Lewis: 1956 = H. Lewis, Old Welsh Syntax. /I Crlth'a 1 (195(,). p. 295-9.
LHEB = K. H, Jackson, LangliaKe and Ilb.tnry in Ear'.\' Britai". Edinhurgh: The Edinburgh
University Press. 1953.
LL = (J. Gwenogvryn Evans, J. Rhys, cds.) Tile text of the Rook of L/a" Dal'. Oxford 1893.
McCone = K. McCone, Old Irish 'three' and 'four': a question of gender. /I trill 44 (1993).
p.53-73.
McManus = D. McManus. Irish Letter-Names and their Kennings. II Eriu Jq (I Q8R).
p.127-16R.
MJ = J. Morris Jones. Taliesi". (= Y Cymmrodor. 2R) 191R.
ML = J. Loth. Les nlot,,; latins dan,; les la"Klies IJrittoniqlle,{. 1R92.
Muller = M. Muller, Lectures on the Science of Lt"'KlIaKf. Sixth edition. \' .1-2. London·
IR71.
OCV = E. Van Tassel Graves. The Old Cornish Vocabulary. University Microfilms: Ann
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()WAV = A. Falileyev. Old Web.1t Agricultural Vocabulary (in progress).
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p. 120--123.
PECA = E. Campanile. Profilo Etinlolngico del Cornico Antico. Pacini-Pisa, 1974.
Phillimore = E. Phillimore, The Annales and Old Welsh (,enealogics from Har-
Ician MS. .1859. II Y ()nrn,,.odor 9 p. 152-18J.
PKM = I. Williams. ed.. Pede;,. l\'ei11C y Caerdydd: (fWl1sg Prifysgol Cymru IQ74.
PNRB = A. L. F. Rivet. C. Smith, The Place-Nan,es of Ro,,,an Britai". Princeton: Princeton
Unlversity Press. 1979.
PRW = G. R. J. Jones, Post-Roman Wales. /I H. P. R. Finherg. cd. Tire ARrnrian nf
England and Wales. I (II), Camhridgc: At the University Press, 1972. p. 281-.'\82.
PT = 71,r Poe111S of Edited and annotated hy Sir Hor WilliClms. English version hv
J. E. Caerwyn Williams. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1 .
Quiggin = E. C. Quiggin. A Fragment of an Old Welsh II TCP R (1912).
p.407-10
R = J.Gwenogvryn Evans. ed.. The Poe,ry i" 'Ire Red Ronk of IlcrKc,H. Llanhcdrog lQ11.
He = Rl'\'lIl' Ccltiquc.
REWb = W. Meyer-LUbke. lVijrtrr1J"clr. Heidelherg.
Rhys = J. Rhys. tect",.es Oil lVe/slr PI,iloloRr. London IX74.
Rhys: IM73 = J. Rhys. Die kymrischen zu ()xford. II KIlt vii p. and
466-7.
Rowland = J. Rowland. An Early ()Id Welsh ()rthographic Feature. /I RRCS 29 (IQH I).
p.513-20.
Russell: 1990 = P. Russell. Celtic lVo,.d /-'o""at;on. Tire l'elar SlIffixe,,;. Duhlin: Institute for
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Russell: 1995 = P, Russell. Brittonic words in the /I J. EC\ka. R. (,erflint
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19Y5, p. 166-R2.
SC = Studia (·eltica.
Schrijver = P. Schrijvcr. St"dirs i" Br;';JIr Crlt;c I{;wn,.;ca! Pho"ol"RY. Amsterdam I
Atlanta: Rodopi IQ95.
,....
XXII
Sims-Williams: 1981 = P. Sims-Williams, The Development of the IndoaEuropean Voiced
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Sims-Williams: 1991 = P. Sims-Williams, The Emergence of Old Welsh, Cornish and Breton
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1929.
Stokes: 1860-1 =W. Stokes, Cambrica. II TPS 1860-1, p. 204-249.
Stokes: 1865 = W. Stokes, Bemerkungen zu der ausgabe der Oxforder glossen von Zeuss. 1/
KBr 4 (1865), p.421-3.
Stokes: 1873 =W. Stokes. The Old Welsh Glosses on Martianus Capella with some Notes on
the Juvencus-Glosses. " KBr vii (1873), p.385-416.
T =J. Gwenogvryn Evans, ed., Facsimile and Text of the Book of Tolies;n. Llanbedrog 1910.
Thumeysen: 1890 = R. Thurneysen, Notes sur quelques gloses galloises. /I RC 11 (1890),
p.203-6.
TharneyRn: l890a = R. Thurneysen, Gloses bretonnes. 1/ RC 11 (1890), p. 86-93.
TPhS = Transactions of Philological Society. London.
US = W. Stokes, Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1894.
VB = L.. FJeuriot. u vieux 8reJon. Elements d'une grammaire. Paris: Librairie C. Klinck-
sieck ]964.
VGK = H. Pedersen, V£rgitichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Gottingen: Vana
denhoeck & Ru precht. ] 909-13.
VSB = A.. W. Wade-Evans, Vitae Sanetorum Britanniat tt Genealogiae. Cardiff: University
of Wales Press Board 1944.
VVB = J. Loth, VocabuJairt v;euxabreton. Paris 1884.
Watkinl: .'57 =Af"N)'JI Watkins, Yr arddodiad HG. (h)i, in: ce. y (= yn), yn. II sacs 17
(1957), p. 137-58..
Watkins: '''1 =T.Arwyn Watkins, The Accent-Shift in Old Welsh. II H. Pilch, J. Thurow,
.. Miinchen: Max Hueber 1972, p. 201-5.
Watkins: 197%-4 == T. Arwyn Watkins, The Accent in Old Welsh - Its Quality and Develop-
ment. 11 BBeS 25 (1972-4). p. I-II.
Watkins: 1982 =T. Arwyn Watkins, Englynion y Juvencus. /I R. Geraint Gruffydd, ed.,
Bardo5. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982, p. 29-43.
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Watkins alld Mlc Cana = A. Watkins, P. Mac Cana, Cystrawennau'r Cyplad mewn Hen
Gymraeg. (l BEeS 28 (1960), p. 1-25.
WG = J. Morris Jones II WfLsh Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.
White =F.. While . .)tudi£s in morphol1nfngy "r the Early Welsh Verb. Oxford University
D. Phil. T1Jesis. lUnpublished). Oxford IlJX5.
Williams: 1927 =I. William5, The Computus Fragment. /I BBCS 3 (1927), p. 245-272.
Williams: 1'29 = J. Williams, Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. /I BBeS 5 part 1 (1929),
p.l-8.
Willi••s: 1930 = I. Williams, Glosau Rhydychen: Mesurau a phwysau. II BBeS 5 part 3
(1930), p.Z26-24S.
Willia.s: 193J = I, William;. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. 1/ BBCS h (1933), p. 112-
118.
XXIII
Williams: 1944 = I. Williams, Vocabularium Cornicum. /I BBCS II (1944), p. 1-12 and
92-100.
1980 = I. Williams, The Beginning,; nf IVel.{Jr Poetry. Edited hy R. Rrnmwich.
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p. 149-164.
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Grammatical Abbreviations
Language Names
adj. adjective ord. ordinal AS Anglo-Saxon
Me Middle C o r n i ~ h
.dy. adverb pen. personal B (Modern) Breton
Mlr Middle Irish
atnl. cardinal pi plural Britt. (Common) Brittonic
Mllat Medieval Latin
:-:.; . d. compare poSe possessive C (Modern) Cornish
MW Middle Welsh
~ . .
roll. collective prep. preposition CD Cornish and Breton ()R
Old Breton
comp. oomparati\le pres. present Celt. Common Celtic ()C
Old Cornish
conj. conj unction prete preterite CI Celtiberian ()HG
Old High German
demonstr. demonstrative prone pronoun G Gaulish ()Ir
Old Irish
r feminine
sl singular IE rndo- European ()W
Old Welsh
imp. imperative
sg'. singulative Lat. Latin
Pict. Picti!l;h
imperf. imperfect subJ. subjunctive MB Middle Breton W (Modern) Welsh
impale impersonal IUperi. superlative
m ms!CUJine v verb
name numeral VB verbal noun
IJ
"I
"
...
- .....
• J.• -'
Glossary
A
B
I
conj. 'and' r8 J
MW a, OB (h)a
IE *ad-ghe-; see also ac, /za.
DGVB: 205; Elsie: 18; ope: 1; lEW: 3 and 417; JO: 95; Lambert: 1976-7; VGK:
I, 14 and II, 160
See also ha crip, hoi.
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
aceroenhOll gJ. et dolea 1 78
II exclamative particle Ia)
MW a; MB a, C a; OIr a, a
IE *6 'Ausruf, cf. Lat. o. See also IIa.
ope: 1; lEW: 712; Lamhert: 1987.287; LElA: A-4; VVB: 28
a mcin Cuniou gl. vittre tcnucs Ovid 37:t
a hir ctem gl. instita longa Ovid J7<l
g3 prep. 'of' (?)
MW a; OB a, ha. See o.
As shown by P.- Y. Lamhert. these instances could be analysed in the entry dedi-
cated to a
1
• See, however, GMW for the occurrence of a for n in this meaning.
DGVB: 49; GMW: 205; Hamp: 1976-7, 191; IIaycock: 12: Lambert: 1976-7,529
aguirdou pan dihu JUY 9 (4.2)
omnipotcns auctor tidicones adioln.,•• [... J JUY 9 (1.1-2)
8
4
prep. 'by' (?)
According to Fleuriot, a in this gloss is Breton 'de, par-, cf. a ~ ; this could be Welsh
as well. Cf. also 0
2
.
DGVB: 56
a faut gl. a fortuna Prisc 24 h
as relative particle
See hoi.
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
anguorit anguoraut Juv <) (5.2)
2
.b.lbrou.nnou n pi 'Ad.m
l
••pplel'
A compound; tho flrRt clemont I" abal 'n",.,lc' (MW nvnl, nfnl), cf. on nhlll 111.
malum, aballen gl. OC auallen gl. G avallo, Olr ahnll gl.
malus, see D. Adams in IF 90 (1985), pp. 79-82; DGVB: 51; E. Hamp in ZCP 37
(1979), 158-166; lEW: 1-2; LElA: A-6; T. L. Markey in lIES 16 (1988),
p.49-68; oev: 294; PECA: 10. The second component is -brouannou (MW
breuant, bruant) 'neck, throat, larynx', cf. OC briansen gI. guttur, OB brehant,
Olr see OGVB: LElA: B-76; LHEB: 460; DeV: 48; PECA: 17, from
*g"rdgh.. nJ-, 'verschlingen, Schlund' (lEW: 474-6; for details of the recon-
struction, see De Bernardo Stempel: 85 and the literature cited there).
GPe: 40 and 321; Stokes: ] 404; VGK: I, 100 and 138; VVB: 29
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus exsectis Me 42 a.a.
/ab}guid.ur n f 'alphabet' [agwyddor]
MW agwyd(d)or, egwyddor; OB aceter; OIr abgiter, abgitir
< Lat. (M Lat abecetorium / abgetorium)
DGVB: 52; ope: LElA: A-8; ML: 131; B. 6 Cufv in Erin 31 (1980),
pp. 100-1 to; Williams: 1927, 257
[ab]guidaur Comp 1
abroid adj. 'dimmit' [arrwyddJ
MW atrwydd, Olr amreid
The word is analysed as a combination of a negative prefix with a Welsh word for
'easy·, see
GPC; 45; LElA: R-16; Williams: 1927,262
nit abruid Comp 6
isabmid icinimer Inv 9 (3.2)
lie conj. lag)
See aI,
acet met gl. retonde J 77
acgene; v iDlperf. 3 sg '10 need' [anghen-J
ct. MW achen, angen 'need'; CB anken 'necessity, exigency'; OIr. ecen 'need',
< IE -ank- IOZwang, N01wendigkeit'. The c of this instance was added later by the
original scribe.
De Bernardo Stempel: 107; GPC; 52; Hamp: 1977-78, 5 and (differently) in IF 84
(1979) p. 203-4; JEW: 45; Rowland: 515; White: 207-8; Williams: 1927,386
gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16
.C'up v pres. 3 sg 'II) tont.in' (7) (8chub-]
MW achub; DB acupot
J1le standard derivation from Lat. occupo and the interpretation of I. Williams
accepted hy GPC is queried by White in view of the formal and semantic difficul-
ties.
3
navo: OPC: CJ; ML: 1.'\0; White: Rfl-·7; IQRO, In7
"'SUCllp nls url'up letter J"v t) (.1 ..')
schmonou n pi 'groins' fachfenI
Wachfen
< IE *ken- 'frisch cntspringen' (lEW: 563), cr. Olr oic,,,e.
GPC: 7; LElA: A-26; VVB: 31; VGK: II. 62
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusquc Ovid 41 h
sd
t
prep. 'to'
MW at, ar; 08 ad; G nd
< IE *ad- bei, an' (lEW: 3)
DGVB: 53; GPN: 128-31; GMW: IRS; GPC: JL E. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976),
p.138-9; Hamp: 1976-7, 191; E. Hamp in IF 90 (1985), p. 70: VB: 291: Williams:
1927, 261
ad ir loc. guac Comp 5
nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17
sd
2
(?)
This could be Latin; if see ad'.
ad stebfll gl. ad limina J 52
sdsul n m 'site, place, dwelling' (addod, addawdJ
MWadawt
GPC does not provide any etymology for this entry.
GPC: .13; Williams: 19RO. 116
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (R.l)
sdismor see dism.r
sed bid v pres. 3 sg 'to reach'
I. WiUiams who offered a very detailed of this word (1927: 261) sug-
gested t\vo possibilities for its interpretation. Following Fl. Lc\\"is this could be
analysed as corresponding to W. aellr!vdd (cf. elllyH', aet" + )'\1'). Williams appar-
ently prefers the other possibility - "as the sense requires a verh meaning
to arrive' the oed may he for /raedd, seen in cvrroed(/. ("'haedd,,": for the
etymology (cf. Me het"y 'reach', MB di""(1(',';, Olr Joig-). sec F. O. Lindenlan
in BBCS J() pp. 49-50, and (differently) Isaac: 0319-20.
pan aed bid. ad ir Joe. guac. issi. in triti llrd. Comp .5
sencum see sor is aencumhal
spit vpres. 3 'to fall
< IE *ag- 'trcihcn', cf. Lat ago.
GMW: 119; GPC: 40; lEW: 4; Isaac: 334; 460, 607: VGK I: 9tl. If: ..1JR.
451: White: 103-4
agit etcrin (ogit? - see Williams: 1930.235 and cr. Loth·s doullts. VVA: .lJ) MP 22
h
(234)
hegit hunnoid 22"

I
, '.
4
ail n f 'brow, eyebrow'lael]
MWael
GPC: 36; Stokes: 1873, 390; VVB: 34
itdagatte ail gI, coniuere Me 4 b.a.
ithrirdiuail gl. glabella medietas Me 9 b.b.
ailotou n pi 'members or organs of body' [aeJod]
MW aelawt, aelod; cf. Mlr aige
< *(p)ag/-atu, vpag-
On the grounds that the word is not attested elsewhere in Breton L. FIeuriot
suggests Welsh origins of 1his entry; he does not deny the possibility of its Breton
affinities. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 57; GPC: 31 and 1342; lEW: 788; LElA: A-28; E. Zupitza in Beitrage
lur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen 25 (1899), p. 91
ailotou gJ. membra Prise 25 a
alar n m 'boredom, surfeil' (name of a letter) (alar]
Walar
The word is compared by ope to W galar 'grief (OIr galar) < IE *gha/-ar-
'Schade, Gebrechen' (lEW: 411; ope: 1373).
GPC: 74; VVB: 3S
alar Nemn
a/eulinn n m 'olive oil'
Hapax in Welsh.
Compound which contains ofeu (see oleu), and linn. The latter component = MW
llyn 'drink' (OB linnou gl. humo,es, G. linda, Olr lind) < IE *lendh.. 'NaB, QueUe'
(DGVB: 243; GPC: 2642; JEW: 675; Lane: 253; VGK: I, 37).
GPC: 2642; VVB: 199
aJeuJinn gl. oliuum J 85
• llaur n r 'altar' lallor]
MW allaur, 08 altor; OC altor g1. altare; OIr alt6ir
< Lat. aJ'are
GPC does not consider this ins1ance.
DGVB: GPC: 18; LElA: A--64; ML: 131; OCV: 324; PECA: 7; VGK: I, 203
moys allaur gl.. catenum Prise 12 a
am prep. (!) "aboul' I••] (!)
For MW om see GMW: 182; GPC: 79; see also im; for a different interpretation of
this line. which considers am as a prefix, see S.v. trybann and the literature cited
there.
Williams: 1980, 188.
Arntrybann teilbann treisguenn Pad: 2
8mal prep. and [onj. 'II!;, like, similar; accordlDI to, .'
MW fal. 08 amal; C OIr amal
5
< IE *eln- 'eins', cf. Celtic forms with 11- and Lat. similis. The entry was tenta-
tively considered as Irish by F. White, see itercludant.
OGVB: 60; GOI: 500-1; GPe: 1267, 1808; lEW: 903; LElA: S-22; VGK: I,
286; VVB: 36
amal itercludant gl. ut suhigant J 32
8meen adj. 'other, different' ramgen)
MWamgen
The form is analysed as *alnbi- + cyn, (en 'as, so' (VGK: II. 198; GPe: 777).
GPC: 86; J. WiJJiams in BBCS 7 (1933), p.36
Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3
smcib(f)rel n m 'breadth, width' (amgyfFredJ
MW amgyffret, amgyffred amgyffryd 'breadth, width'
Morphologically segmented into (aln-)cyf-rhed 713) 'running together, of
equal speed and pace', see s. V. retee; for the different explanations, see a useful
summary in White.
GPC: 87; LHEB: 484; VGK: I, 476; VVB: 36; WG: 148, 365; White: 313-9;
Williams: 1930, 243-4
amcibret ir maut MP 23
3
(241)
amcibfret ir bis MP 23
3
(241)
smdifuys adj. 'huge, awful, wonderful' [amdill'wys)
According to GPC this word a prefix (*alnbi-), and (MW) diffwv
s
'moun-
tain side, steep, heavy'; the latter is analysed (GPC: 993) as an intensive ;li- (\\lith a
query), and the base found in affwYJ 'depth. abyss'.
ope: 83; Haycock: 245; Williams: 1980, 184
Amdifuys dauJ had patern Pad: 4
amdinnit v pres. 3 sg 'to defend'
Hapax in Welsh. Perhaps a combination of *a,nbi- with a verbal stem seen in OW
dinn 'hill' (OIr dinn), possihly to IE *edent- 'Zahn· (lEW: 2R9, cf. LElA: D-90) .
oPC: Haycock: White: Williams: 1980, 186
Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: 1
amgnaubot n 'sense, reason'
Hapax in Welsh; < a,n + *gnowhnd, cf. adnohod (GMW: 14R).
GPC: LHEB: 437; Rhys: 1873,233; VVB: 36; VGK: 11,447
hep amgnaubot gl. sine mente Ovid 38
h
amgucant v pret. 3 pi (historical pres. ?) 'to dispute' r .. J
MW amwyn, amuc
IE Vll(ejik- 'encrgischc, bcs. fcindscligc sce also gllogllith.
ope: 103; JO: 98-9; MJ: 270-1; E. I-Iamp in BAC'S 30 (19R3), rp.39-4L lEW:
1128-9; Isaac: 289; F.O. Lindemann in BBC;S 2R (t9HO), pr. filJ-5: White: lR9-
191
amgucant pcl Clmtanndi Chad 2
6
aml1lud n m 'mind, intention' (amrawdd]
MW amrawd; OIr imm-raid-
< *alnbi-rad.. , IE '*h
2
roh
1
d". (Pokorny's Yredh.. , rodh- to *ar- 'fUgen, passen').
GPC: 99; lEW: Isaac: 306; LElA: R-3; VGK: II, 591-2; VVB: 37
isamraud gl.. mens est J 78
amlsis adj. 'long, trailing'
According to OPC, the only other occurrence of this word in the whole Welsh
corpus is found in the "Book of Taliesin", T. 78.23-4, cf. G: 23. Etymologically a
combination of ·ambi.. , and Jai!, see s.v.
GPC: VVB: 37
amlais gl. dimissa Ovid 39
8
amser tonj. 'because' [amser]
MWamser, OC anser (for amser) gl. tempus, OIr aimser
Following I. Williams this should be considered as a conjunction is fel can
ys.... , cf. oraur (see s.v.), Ir. ore 'because'). According to H. Pedersen this is a
-stera.. I -stera- derivative of a cognate of Irish amm 'time' with no commonly
accepted etymology (but cf.. C4-J. Guyonvarc'h in Ogam 19 (1967), p. 240f). Note
the discrepancy in the gender attribution (mase. in WC, fern. in Irish and Breton,
see Loth, RC 34 (1913), p. 162), and consider Irish amm neutral> masc. See also
the next.
GPC: LElA: A-35; Lewis: 1956, 298; OCV: 202; PECA: 8; VGK I: 80;
Williams: 1930, 236
nichoilam hinnoid amser is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22
b
(234)
'when' (= 'lime')
The instance is not quoted in GPC. See amser
1

DGVB: 62
amserpanatos imauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 148
aml.nnd; prep. 3 sg f 'about her'
Based on see MW amdanei, ymdeni
GMW: GPC: 79; JO: LL: xliii-xliv; MJ: 271
amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2
an pron. pos. 1 pi 'our' (an, ein]
MW C ME hon
GPC: 104 and Williams: 1980, 96
dam ancalaur JUY 3 (L3)
dam anpatel Juv 3 (2.3)
an nibor11 .nbodlsull ?
There are two readings of tbis gloss. According to Stokes, this could be translated
as "whether bullion or in view of OC bat ('coin', gl. nummisma), which is a
borrowing from Latin bn//o, see PECA: 12, cf. W bath. T.H. Parry-Williams in his
7
list of the words found in the Juvencus glosses which show non.. Welsh features
quotes this gloss without a commentary. P.-Y. Lambert suggests dihoth and trans-
lates the gloss as "soit malgrc cux, soit avec argent".
Lambert: 1987,300 fn. 36; Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1.. 289
an nm6th anb6dlaun gl. pars inhians nummis J 35
anamou n pi 'blemishes, defects, deronnities, wounds' (anaf)
MW anaf, MB anam, aIr anim
Traditionally considered as a continuation of IE *0110- lschmahen·, but see LElA
for a sceptical evaluation of this etymology.
GPC: 106; lEW: LElA: A-78; VVB: 39
iranamou gl. mendae Ovid 40
3
anbiic v pres. subj. 2 sg 'to be (from), come (from)' (hanfodJ
MW hanuot; MB (h)amhout, hanhout
Etymologically, han (aIr sain) 'separation', see Ita11: and the form of the verb 'be' ..
cf. Sanskrit sa,n-bltavati 'comes from Suhjunctive form + Ruell is commonly used
in the expression of greeting. White mentions a possihilitv to consider this entry as
an imperat. 2 sg. form. .
GMW: GPC: 1822; 607; VGK: II, WG: 352-3: (differently)
VVB: White: 142 and 265
anbiic guell gl. magister aue Ox2 46
h
(10.26)
anbithBul adj. 'mad' (ynfydawl]
An "0/ derivative of inhith, see s. v.
VVB: 39
anbithaul gl. fervida J 61
Bnbod/aun see an niboth Bnbodlaun
BnguBstalh80ei v pres. subj. 3 sg 'to be inconstant, waver' (anwastat-J
The form a,ui'aJfafhati is found in the Peniarth 228 (heginning of XVII c.) glossing
a/terna, l'aeil/o, so that Fleuriot's claim for a Middle Welsh correspondence is not
strictly speaking correct. L. Fleuriot notes that in MB the forms gOllestad.
are most commonly found. The form contains a negative prefix. *-.'illg·. and the
base is a cognate of Irish fossad < *lJo..statos. sec VC,K: 1,034. For the analvsis of
this form as ultimately OB, see Lamhert: 1987, 295. .
DGVB: 65; GPC: 164
anguastathaoei gl. uacillet Ang 70 b
angui/ adj. 'bold, shameless, impudent' (anwyll
MWanwyl
< Celt. *yei/a· (MW gwyl, Mlr fia/ 'modesty, shame') with a negative prefix. See
gui/ed.
GPC: 16R: Williams: 117
anguil gl. pudendas J 78
;.
, .
8
8nit 'not' (introducing a question before any element other than the v) (oni]
MWonid
According to GPC, < 0, see hou, and nit, see nit, cf. honit, hou nit.
GMW: 176; GPe: 2648-9; Isaac: 152; VGK: I, 470, 11,256; VVB: 41; WG: 424
anft arber bit gl. Dum uescitur J 92
8BKeth n m 'phantom, appearance, pretence'
Hapax in Welsh. A combination of a negative prefix an-, and (MW) (y)sgeth
'appearance', cf. MW ysge/h, gosgeth.
CA: 76; GPC: 157; VVB: 41; Williams: 1933, 113-4
iransceth gl. nullum pulverem Ovid 39
8
8Btenne'et;c adj. 'hair-reaped'
Hapax in Welsh. Consists of anter 'hair, see hanther, and metetic 'reaped' an -etic
ledig derivative of medal (cf.. OC midil gl. messor, OB dicomit; Ir. methel), < IE
*me- 'mahen'. See also elmet..
DGVB: 138; ope: 1821; lEW: 703; LElA: M-45; Stokes: 1860-1,222 and 291;
VGK: I, 162; VVB: 42
antermetetic gI. semiputata J 77
anu n m (enw]
MW env, enw; MB hanu, C hanow; OIr ainm
< IE *en(o)mt:l-, etc., 'Name'; for the details of reconstruction, see De Bernardo
Stempel: 69-70 and the literature cited there. Cf. also enuein.
Elsie: 113; GPC: 1220; lEW: 321; LElA: A-36; VGK: I, 46; VVB: 42
anu di iuno gl.. Suadae Me 1 a.b.
anu di iuno gI.. Populonarn MC 11a.a.
issemi aou gl. Genius Me 11 a.b.
SButOn.BU n pi 'perjuries' [anudon]
MWan(n)udon
< Celt. loath' (W ud(on), Olr oeth, to IE Vei- 'gehen'; see also GED:
A91), with a negative prefix. See also the next.
GPC: 160; lEW: 295; Lane: 246; LElA: 0-12; Stokes: 1860-1, 212; VVB: 42
gl.. perjuria J 21
Bnutonou n pi ·perjuries'
See anu,onau.
anutonou gl.. perjuria O\'id 42
8
sor is 8eIlCflmn., (?_
According 10 P... Y. Lambert this is a Welsh entry; he segments it into aor = aur
'heure", is, OenCI.4m (vn, cf. W yng 'etroit'), and hal (= W all 'autre, nouveau,
second·).. He lransla1e5 the passage as "puisqu'une corse de 300 stades represente
, un nouveau retrecissemenl·". This interpretation is not accepted in DOB: 392. For
a different analysis of this gloss (as OB) see DGVB: 69.
Lambert: 1984a., 195; Lambert: 1986, 107
aor.isaencumhal cursus ece stadi(orum) Ang 64 a
9
aper see sperou
sperou n pi 'mouths of river; connuences' Iaber J
OW (LL) MW aber, OC aber gl. Sc. G. inhhir
As it was noted by Fleuriot, the plural form in -Oil (Breton -;,,,,) could indicate the
Welsh provenance of this word. A derivative of IE y""er- 'tragen, bringen' (lEW:
128f), for this stem see Hamp: 1982. For the semantics, see A. Falileycv, CT I PT
VII, 23-24 kat y" aber I ioed y dygy/rane adllr "reller lind die frtihwalisische
Schlachtenkatalogtradition. II Akten des Zweiten deutschen Keltologen-Sympo-
siums. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1999. This instance is not quoted in GPC·. C'onsi-
der also aper huer (Chad 6); di aper ferrus (Chad 6); diaper istjl (('had 6); diaper
hen (Chad 6).
DGVB: 69; apc: 2; lEW: 3; F. O. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995), p. 170; L. Mac
Mathuna, Continuity and Innovation in Early Irish Words for "Water Expanse··. II
W. Meid, ed., Studicn zurn indogcrrnanischcn Wortschatz. Innsbruck 1987. p. 95;
OeV: 320; PECA: 6; P. Stalrnaszczyk, K.T. Witczak in IF 98 (1993), p. 28.
apou gl. ostia Ang 17 a
aperth n m&1 'victim, offering' IaberthJ
MW abert; Ir edbart
< Celt. *od-bher·t-, IE yhher- 'tragen, hringen' (lEW: for this see
Hamp: 1982. See also apertholl.
apc: 2; LElA: B-40; E. llamp in lIES 1 (1973). p. 320; VVB: VGK: I.. 4RO
aperth gl. victima Ovid 41h
aperthou n pi 'offerings 01 gift, prayer'
See operth.
diaperthou gl. muneribus Ovid 37
h
aprer]thou gl. sacra Ovid 38
a
srsll pron. 'another' larall)
MWC araB, OB al(l)all Gaul. Olr arail
< *alalios; IE *a/i05 'andcrer' (lEW: 25); sec also lei/.
Gal: 307-9; OGVB: GPC: 176; LElA: Schrijvcr: VB: 267
nitegid ad serenn araB Comp 17
an{ter1n m 1 'plough' [aradrI
MW aradar, aradyr; OC aradar gl. aratrum, MB arazr; Olr arathar
< Celt. *aratrom, IE *or:1-trOl" 'pntig'
Loth's attempts to consider this as a Lat. loan were criticised already by M. MUl1er
(Muller: 1,292, n. 2) and J. Rhys (Rhys: 92). consider a reference to H. Lewis in
F.G. Payne, Yr aradr Cymreig (Cardiff, 1(54) p. 13. n. I. For the gloss and its
traditional amendment, see OWA V.
ope: 175; LElA: lEW: PECA: VCiK: I, VVB: 44; WG: 126.
166
ara[terl g1. nratrum Ox2 42
h
(4.6)
10
IJI1IU' n r'prayer' [arBwd]
MW arawt; OIr or6it
< Lat oratio; for a possibili ty to consider this entry as an imperate 2 sg. form, see
White.
GPC: 117; LElA: 0-31; LHEB: 83, 124; ML: 133; VVB: 44; White: 265
araut dinuadu J 1
srber m 'to take, partake of" [arfer-]
MW aruer, arver, arfer; OIr arbeir biuth 'jouir de, profiter de'
< Britt. ·are-ber-, IE Vbher- 'tragen, bringen' (lEW: 128f).
DGVB: 71; GPC: 193-4; LElA: A-85 and B-40; Stokes: 1860-1,226-7; VGK: I,
14 and II, 412; VVB: 44; White: 288-90
arber bit gl.. num uescitur J 92
srdbrenou n pi 'buried corpses' [argyfrain]
MW argyvrein, argyfrein
< IE ·are-com-reg(i)-no-, to IE yreg- 'gerade, gerade riehten, lenken, reeken,
strecken, aufrichten'; cf. W rhain 'stiff, OIr rigin. Differently in Elsie: 124.
CA: 67; GPe: 201; lEW: 856; LElA: R-30; LHEB: 453, 587, 588; J. Loth in RC
32 (1911)., pp_ 303-4; VVo: 45
ha arcibrenou gl. sepulti Ovid 39
8
arame;,. prep. 'opposite' (argyfair]
MW DB ercemer; cf. OIr airchomair.
A combination of ar ·before' (OIr air, GPC: 174, J. E. Caewyn Williams in BBCS
11 (1944), p.14f), and Britt. *kom-ar(e)-io- (W cyfair 'direction', GPC: 675). See
also
GPC: DGVB: 162; LElA: C-163; WG: 418
in arcimeir .0. Comp 7
in eir cimeir .0. Comp It
in arcimeir aries Comp 13
in eircimeir loc guac (reading of I. Williams, Williams: 1927, 267; Quiggin and
EWS errcimeir) Comp 13
Brcup " 3 sg 'to e.reS§' (?)
Apart from these two eKamples the word is unknown in Welsh. If this entry has
something to do with dCUp (cE. GPC and see s.v.), then this could be a case for an
infixed .,.,- (cr. dirgaJisse).
GPC: 181 Haycock: Williams: 1980, 107; White: 87
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
nisacup nis arcup leder JU\I 9 (3.3)
archrn.'fJu n pi 'shoes' [archen.d]
MW archenat DC orchi nat gL calciamentem; MB archenat; OIr aerann
Moms-lones's attempt 10 in this word < *park.. a metaphesis of *karp- (Lat.
carpiscl.JJum) is no longer accepted; another suggestion (see OCV) considers a
11
metaphesis to ·ork-, ark-, cf. Lat. oerea.
GPC: 180; LElA: A-12; OCV: 344; PECA: 84; Stokes: 1873, 392; VGK: II, 35;
VVB: 45; WG: 161
archenatou gl. calcei MC 5 b.b.
ardiu?
This gloss has caused a dispute. According to W. Stokes, ar diu stands for or duiu
'on God'. J. Loth translates it as "iI approche. i1 pressc", considering or = are-,
and diu, 3 sg. indo pres of the verb 'to come', dyuo/. T. I-I. Parry-Williams suggests
(with a query) that this could be "some form of the vcrh 'to be·"'.
Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1, 221; VVB: 45
ardiu gl. instat J 68
ardomaul'those who tame'
Hapax in Welsh; W. Stokes's idea that this word refers to Lat. docifis of the text
was rejected by H. Lewis in favour of argente(.'i) the word is segmented into ar-
'before, in front of', dom, and of. For the etymology, see do"reti(' and cf. douli.
GPC: 188; lEW: 200; Lewis: 1932, Ill; Stokes: 187J, 397; VVB: 45-6
ardomaul gl. argente(s) Me 9 a.h.
n m 'money, coin' [arian(t))
MW aryant, ariant; OC argans gl. argentarius, OB argant. argent: G
argento-, arcanto- in Argentomagus, arcantodan(os). Pict. Argentocoxos
(Dian Cassius 76.16); air argat
< Celt. *arganto-, cf. Lat. argentum. For the details of reconstruction see De
Bernardo Stempel: 77-8 and the literature cited therc
DGVB: 72; GPC: 203; lEW: 64; LElA: A-88; LHEB: 467; OCV: 1Ll; PECA: Qr;
VGK: I, 104; VVB: 46
is cihun argant MP 22
h
(234)
aries n r'Aries'
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat aries.
Williams: 1927,267
aries hithou Comp 13
aries ithou Comp 18
pet guarid. did di aries Comp19
arm n m&f 'weapon, arm" (name of a letter) larf)
MW arf; C arv; OIr arm
< Lat. anna
OPC: LElA: A-89; ML: 134; VVB: 47
arm Nemn
armel n 'bracelet"
This loan from Lat. o"n;/lo is attestcd only in uOxoniensis Posteriof'. and in PT
(I, 5 cant armeJJ ym arffct); cf. G: 42.
GPC: ML: lR; VVH: 47
nrmcl gl. armcllll ()x2 4Y'
, ".
12
arpe'eficion adj. pitiable'
Hapax in Welsh; < *ar-pat-, as in diasbad, < IE *kUit-, etc. 'schiitteln, beuteln'
(lEW: 632)
OPC: 177; VVB: 47; 1. Williams in BBCS 13 (1950), p. 203
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38
8
asse n 'as' (1)
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Latin as, assis.
VVB: 49
di assa .i. asse bichan - MP 22
b
(234)
• ,.il n 'building, premises' (1)
According to VVB: 49, this (as well as OB alta!), consists, contra Zeuss: 1059, of
or = Ir. aith, and tal = Ir taile 'salaire'. On the OB form see DGVB: 76. I will
discuss this entry elsewhere. GPC does not consider this instance.
atai) gl. vicem Ovid 42
a
.tsr n pi 'birds' (adar)
MW adar(en); see also eJerinn.
< Britt. t(p)arar- < IE '*pet- 'auf etwas los- oder niedersttirzen, fliegen, fallen'.
Ct hataned in hi hatoned (Ovid, VVB: 151. Elsie: 82; GPC: 12; Hamp in SC 12-13
(197718), p. 14; lEW: VVB: 49
hau bein atar MP 22
b
(234)
• fos v prel. (1) 3 sg 'to leave' (?)
This entry was interpreted by P.-Y. Lambert as a passive preterite form of the verb
at- Ito leave', thus ato[i)s = MW adwys (adaw). Etymologically, *ate-au-, yay-
'gern haben' (lEW: 77), for the semantic evaluation, see Isaac: 306. The instance
is not quoted in GPC.
GPC: Lambert: 1984a, 187; Lambert: 1986,107
amserpanatos irnauou rernanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14a
suI n r'hour' [8M]
MW awr, DB or, MB eur; Olr uar
< Lal. hOTa; see also oraur, aur, and cf. aor is aencumhal.
DGVB: 277; GPC: 242; LElA: U-9; LHEB: 307; ML: 135; WO: 95
dou lrean haur gI. bisse Ang 56 a
ir ir lri ui. aur Comp 3
pan diconetent ir.. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
BUr n 'bour'
II wa5 noted by Fleriot that this form in an otherwise Breton gloss "presente une
graphie (fapparence gall." See Dur
l

DGVB: 321 and 77
tripepTannaur. III.. petl, plin dt gl. hore trium Ang 65 b
."r' II ! or" Cneme I letter) (allr1
According to and Loth. this corresponds to W aur 'or', a loan from Latin
13
(aurum, cf. Ir or). GPC: 237, s.v. aur does not consider this instance.
VVB: 50
aur Ncmn
aurcimerdricheticion (?)
The compositum is a hapax in Welsh. According to Stokes. this contains allr
'hour', ci,ner (W cyler, OIr cO'l1ai,) 'opposite situation' and drichetion, which is
treated as "the pI. of the part. pass. of drichu, now drycllli 'to make apparent'''.
Loth explained this as aur-co," +air-drichticioll. On etymology of drychu, etc. , see
LElA: D-56; for eyfer see s.v. arci,neir and LElA: for the prefix .. see
eifnerdridou; see also aur·. GPC does not consider this instance .
Stokes: 1873, 407; VVB: 50
aurcimerdricheticion gl. orospica leg. horoscopa (?) Me 46 h.a.
Burleou n pi 'watches'
OB orlegh, orleg, orleh
This was considered by Stokes to be a compound of aur 'hour' (see s.v.) and l(l)e
'place', cf DGVB: 238 and 278. J. Loth (and now P.-Y. Lambert) suggests, that
this could be viewed as a borrowing, < Lat. horologilun. GPC does not consider
this instance.
DGVB: 278; Lambert: 1982a, 22; J. Loth in RC 32 (1911), p. 305; Stokes: 1873,
406
nou iraurleou gl. gnomonum stilis Me 46 a.a.
8
bacl n r'staff' (bagl)
MW bag(y)l; Ir bachall
< Lat. baculus
ope: 249; LElA: B-3; ML: 136; K. H. Schmidt in ZCP 40 (1984), p. 303; VGK: I,
225; Williams: 1980, 183
Amdifuys dalll bacl patern Pad: 4
bach n m&f 'hook, peg' (bach)
OW (LL) bach, MW bac, bach; OB bah; Olr baec
The word is considered by L. Fleuriot to be Breton. but its presence in a Welsh
gloss could be an argument for its Welsh origin. Since E. paper is
usually connected with Lat. bacuhun. and is derived from IE 'Stab a)s
StOtze'. As noted by J. Vendryes, this "mot populairc" *hakkn- contClins proh-
lematic IE h and a, and has a gcminatcd consonant. See ()WAV. does not
consider this instance.
Bachellery: 196; DGVB: 77: GPC: 246: lEW: 93: LElA: R-3: E. Zupitza in KZ 36
(1900), p. 234
pcig vel haeh gl. ligo Prise J) a
I
t
1
,
t.
i
'\"'"
14
bahe" n f'De' [bwyIU]
MW bwyall, MB bou(c)hazl, MC boell; Ir. biail
< *bisali- < IE tbhei(:l)·, tbhi- 'schlangen'; see also laubael.
GPC: 357-8; E. Hamp in Be 18 (1981) p.110, and ZCP 39 (1982), pp. 86-7; HPB:
232; lEW: 118; LElA: LHEB: 411; Schrijver: 323; VGK: 1,67; VVB: 50
bahell gl. securis Ox2 42
a
(4.2)
bann see dib...n
bardsuladj. 'bardit:, poetir" [barddol]
An "01 derivative of bard(d) ·poet, bard' < IE *gUer(;,).. 'die Stimme erheben',
lEW: 478; cr. E. Campanile, Per l'etimologia di celt. *bardos. /I Studi e saggi
linguistici 20 (1980), pp. 183-1; Isaac: 393; for a different derivation « *barzdo..
< *gllrsdo-) , see E. Hamp, The Semantics of Poetry in Early Celtic. /I (W. A.
Beach, S. E. Fox, S. cds.) Chicago Linguistic Society. Papers from the
Thirteenth Regional Meeting4 Chicago 1977, p. 151.
De Bernardo Stempel: 80-1; GPC: 258; VVB: 51
orbardaulleteinepp gl. epica pagina MC 1a.b.
ban?
Both the Latin word and the gloss over it causes problems. As was suggested, the
colomaJicus of the Latin text stands for columnat;cus. Notwithstanding the seman-
tic difficulties, the gloss was compared to W bar 'top, summit, crest' (OIr barr),
apparently to IE *bhares.. 'Emporstehendes, Spitze, Borste' (see De Bernardo
Stempel: 82; D. Ellis Evans in BBCS 24 (1972), p.421 fn. 11; lEW: 109; GPC:
256; LElA: 8-20). The instance is not quoted in GPC.
VVB: 51
barr gl. oolomaticus 0)(2 42
8
(3.6)
be??o
W. Stokes (1860--1: 219) suggested reading *belou and compared it with W. bely-
s(en) 'bundles of haulm or s1raw for thatching', which according to GPC: 271 is a
loan from English bares, first attested in 1707. This reading was considered by
J. Loth (VVB: 52) and I. Williams. The latter (Williams: 1933, 117) noted that this
could also stand for benou or bonou.
be??u gl, fila J 56
beanhiden. see besntrident
behet prep. 'as far as'
See be'.
behet hirmain guidauc Chad 4
behet cam dubr Chad 4
berdutOD see t ••erdlltou ri guird....
bet prep. II§ fsr I§' (bed]
MW het. 0 B bi t; see bt'FT e.,. o;heit, and cf. bichet,
15
DGVB: 84; GMW: 196; GPC: VVB: 52; WG: 415
bet circhinn frguollcuni gl. usque sub occiduum coeli J R4
betid n m 'the Christian world, Christendom' (hedyddI
MW bedyd
< Lat. baptido. See also pbetid.
GPC: ML: 137; Williams: 1980, 104
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
bibid adj. 'guilty, culpable'
Hapax in Welsh; MB beuez, Olr hihdu
The Irish cognate is listed under IE *""au- 'schlagcn. stoBen' in lEW: 112. Several
etymologies have heen suggested for these words (hy Zinlmer. Sonlmcr, Peder-
sen, Stokes), relating this word to IE *bhfid-, *"'heidh-, *hltei-d-, and for a
useful summary see LElA. The etymology is still not clear.
GPC: 363; LElA: B-49; Stokes: 1873, 404; VVB: 5J
bibid gl. rei MC 41 b.a.
bichan adj. 'small' (bychan)
MW bychan, bichan, OB becan, hican, OC hoghan gl. Olr becc\n
Note the discrepancy between Brittonic and Goidelic (OIr c = (g] vs Britt. (X).
Apparently an derivative from W haeh. Olr hec(c) without sound etymo-
logy. Consider also Welsh "'yell 'little' in toponymies. e.g.. Dinnych. D\\'yfeclt
'Small Dwy' (as opposed to Dwyfor 'Big Dwy·). cf. G.
DGVB: GOI: oev: PE("A: 16: VGK: J85: VVB: 53:
WG: 156
assa .i. asse bichan MP 22
h
(234)
irnimer hichan MP 22
h
(238)
ir bis bichan MP 23:1 (241)
bichet see bih;t
hid n m 'world' (1)
MW bid, byt; OB bit, G bitu-; Ir bith
< Celt. *bitll!i < IE *g"ei- 'Ichen'; this instance is not mentioned in GPC.
DGVB: 84; GPC: lEW: 468; VGK: I. 4L VVB: 53
nacenbfd gl. nulla J 71
biheit prep. 'as far as, until'
DB hichit, bicit, bicctt 'jusqu'a'; see bet.
DGVB: 82f, 84; GPC: 266; VVB: 52-3; WG: 415: Williams: 1927, 26R: Williams:
1930, 242
biheit hcitham ir cguin hittoi ir hunc MP 2J' (241)
bihit prep. 'as far as, until'
See bellet, ni"e;f, bet.
Williams: lQ27. 268
,
16
bihit. dir temi Comp16
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp18
binfic n m 'loan, that which is borrowed or lent' [benthyg]
MW benffyg; ME benhuec
< Lat. beneficium
EL: 25; GPe: 272; ML: 138; Russell: 1990, 69; VVB: 54
binfic gl. beneficium Ox2 43
b
(5.14)
bis n m 'finger' [bys]
MW bys(s); OC bes gl. digitum, bis gl. digitus, bis truit gI. allux, bess[et] (or bese,
see OCV) gl. digiti; OB bis (bes) in innbisiou, ennbisiou, inues; OIr bisse (ega)
Traditionally analysed as cognates of Old Norse kvistr 'branch', from IE *gllis-ti-s,
queried by Pokorny. See also AEW: 339.
DGVB: 83; GPC: 367; lEW: 481; OCV: 57 and 64; PECA: 13-14; VGK: I, 79;
VVB: 54
ir bis bichan MP 23
8
(241)
ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
his! n m 'bile, gall' [bustl]
MW bystyl; OB bistlou; DC bistel
< rtbis-tl-, IE ·bis-(t)[i- 'Galle'? (only Celtic and Latin), cf. Lat. hi/is. The instance
is not quoted in GPe.
DGVB: 84; GPC: 349; lEW: 102; OCV: 51; PECA: 14; VGK: I, 84
iT du bisl gl. melonoolia Ang 68 a
bissei n 'an intercalary dB)" (Latin -1)
< Lat. bisse(ctus)
or bissei Comp 3
hit niritarner rann. irbissei Comp 10
bit n ID 'fooo' (!)
MW byd; cf. Orr bfad
< Celt. *bit-; IE this instance is not mentioned in ope; see also
arber..
GPC: 361; Schrij\'er: LElA: B-47-8; VVB: 54
anit arber bft gl. num uescitur J 92
bfeuporfhet;c adj. bearing'
Hapax in Welsh.
This compound consists of b/eu 'hair, hairs, fur', later blew, cf. OC bleu < *bleus,
which was linked by G, Lane, Language 7 (1931),279 to IE *mel- 'Wolle' (lEW:
721 without this instance), cE. Elsie: 101; PECA: 15; and porthedig, a loan from
La t, porrare .
apc: LHEE: ML: 198; VVB: 55
nom irbleuporthetic gl. Ian igerae templs Ovid 38
8
11
bloidin n f 'year' (blwyddynI
MW blwydyn, MB bloez, cf. OB blidan, hliden, OC Olr. bliadain
< vi bleid- of the unknown origin; for a possihle connection with IE *bhle;- 'gHin-
zen' (lEW: 155), see Pennaod.
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: LElA: B-59; OCV: PECA: G. Pen-
naod in EC 23 (1986). p. VGK: I, II]
ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20
bloidin salt Comp 22
bloteit n ?
Already Zeuss, 1061 connected this with MW blowd 'farina', then it corresponds
exactly to the glossed Lat. word. Then. MW hlollt. W bJau'd. 0(' hint gl. farina.
OB unblot gl. similagineln, Olr lnlditlz, all from IE *nle/-. The word formation
remains, however, the renex of the root-vowel makes the ('ornish affi-
nities of this entry very likely.
DGVB: 86, OPC: E. Hamp in Celtica 10 (1973), rr. lEW:
LElA: M-56; PECA: 15; VGK: 1,52, 163; VVB: 56
bloteit gl. spumaticunt Ox2 42
3
(3.7)
boned n m 'stock, pedigree' (bonedd)
MW bonhet, bon(h)cd; Ir hunad
GPC does not consider this instance. See the next.
GPC: 299; LHEB: VGK: I. 290, VVB: 57
boned gl. gentem J 57
bonhed n m 'stock, (bonedd)
According to I. Williams (1933: 116), who rejected Stokes' reading he,nJred
(1860-1: 209, cf. VVB: 52, and Thurneyscn: 1890a, 93. where it is suggested" that
the word stands for pelnhed == Ir. coiced 'province"), this corresponds to MW
bon(It)et, bon(h)ed 'lineage, nobility, etc.', which is an -edd derivative of non (Ir.
bun), see GPC: 299 and LElA: B-117-8. See also honed.
bohed gl. tribus J 7
bos n f 'palm of the hand, fist' (bos)
W B h6z; aIr bos, bas
< Celt. *boJsa, *bo.r;ta. The attempt to consider this word as helonging to a sub-
stratum (J. Pokorny in ZCP 18 (1930) p. 111) should be possihly ahandoned in
favour of a connection with IE *glJes-, gyos-, gus- 'Gezweig. Laubwerk" (lEW: 480
does not list the Celtic words) in view of OIIG questa, see LElA.
GPC: 302; LElA: B-20; Lewis: 1926,4; VVB: 57
has ug gl. palma MP 23
a
(245)
both see an niboth anhod/aun
bracaut n m
MW brachaut, hragawt. hragot: Olr hrnc(c)6it frorn Arit.
An -au'd derivative (on thiC\ suffix sec St. Zirnmcr. the I.. ::ltin
'''.
18
suffixes in Welsh (and their Celtic congeners). /I A. Bammersberger, A. Wallman,
eds., Britain 4(X)-.(,OO: Language and History, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1990,
p.275) from brag 'malt', DC brag gI. bratium; aIr mraich, braich, G. (ace.)
bracem 'genus farris' (Pline, H. N. XVIII 62); Deus Braciara 'dieu de la biere ou
du malt', traditionally < IE *merk-, merg- 'morschen, faulen, einweichen'; but see
for a different opinion Schrijver: 176 and OWAV.
ope: 306-7; Lambert: 190; LElA: B-94, M-66; lEW: 739; OCV: 373; PECA: 16;
Russell: 115; VGK: II, 38; VVB: 97
bracaut gl. mulsum (uel melligratum for melicratum, JlEALXeatov) Ox2 42
3
(3.10)
brachaut gl. melligratum Ox2 44
8
(6.21)
bl1lch8Ut lee brscsut
bl1lurJ n f 'judgement' (brawd]
MW brawt, braut; C bres, B breut; cf. St.Patrick's modebroth and Ir
Until recently the word was considered to belong to IE *bher- 'tragen', cf. lEW:
130. The introduction of G tJ(Jutou into the discussion lead to the reconsideration
of this traditional etymology, the Celtic words now grouped under Pokorny's
'die Stimme erheben' (lEW: 478, for this base see also s.v. bardaul), see
H. Wagner in ZCP 28 (1960-1), p. 238. The extensive bibliography is given in De
Bernardo Stempel. See also the next.
De Bernardo Stempel: 87-9; GPC: 311-2; JO: 106; LElA: B-80; Russell: 1995,
174; VVB: 58
did braut Chad 2
braur n ·judgemenl' (name of a letter)
See
braut Nemn
bred; n f 'prow or ship' [breniJ
MW breni, cf. Y Freni Fawr; DC brenniat gl. proreta; aIr braine, broine
A word with an uncertain etymology. See LElA.
ELI: 19; GPe: 319; LElA: B-77; OCV: 129; PECA: 17; VVB: 58
ir gl. proram J 31
brethi"nou see m"p breJhinnou
briar n m&r 4hair of head, long hair' [briger]
MW bryger, briger
An derivative of W brig 'top; hair' < IE *bhreg.. 'steif emporstehen' (lEW:
166).
GPe: 324; VVB: 58-9.
ircarnottlul bricer g1. uitta crinalis Me 4 a.a.
bricrriauc adj. 'hairy'
'An -(Tl-le derivative of brictr; see bricer
GPC does not 1his. instance under brigerog (MW brigerawg).
19
oaVB: 89; apc: 325
briceriauc gl. crinalis Prisc 7 b
brith adj. 'mottled, pied, spotted· Ihrithl
MW brith; B briz, MC bruit; OIr mrecht
< *"rrik-to, perhaps to IE *nrer- 'fiimmern, funke1n". See also IJronnhre;"1et.
GPC: 326; E. Hamp in EC 2.1 (1986), p. lEW: 7J.1: LElA: LHEB: 405;
C. Marstrander in ZCP 7 (1910), p.373; VGK: I. 124; VVB: 59
brfth gl. pictam J 30
bronnbreithet n pi 'thrushes, missel-thrushes' IhronfraithJ
MW bronureith, brofraith
The compound consists of bron(n) 'breast" « IE *hlrreli-s- 'schwellen, sprieBen',
lEW: 170; see also Elsie: 84), and breith, for which see hr;t17.
GPC: 332; Jackson: 1950,69; VVB: 59
cecinet bronnbreithet g1. cicadae Ovid 40
h
bronnced?
A hapax in Welsh, which should not be confused with MW brnnget 'gift of the
bosom or heart" (G: 78; GPC: 332). According to J. Loth (VVB: (,0) this com-
pound contains bronn 'sein', and ced (Irish cedac voile'). He translates
this hapax as 'voile pour Ie poitrine·. GPC docs not mention this instance.
bronnced gl. bulla Ox2 43
01
(5.3)
brousnnou see s;'Blbrouannou
brut adj. 'hot, innamed, zealous, passionate' (hrwdl
MW brwd, brwt; OC brcdion gl. coctio, OB hrot gl. Olr hruth
< *bhrll-to < IE *blt(e)rell- hcftig hewcgen, wallen'
DGVB: 91; GPC: 334; lEW: 143f; LElA: B-106; OCV: JR9; PECA: VGK: I,
115; VVB: 60
is brut m
i
[= mihi] gl. est aninllls J 66
buch n f 'cow' [buwch, buch)
MW bucc, buch, OC huch gl. uacca I. cf. Celtiherian POlisToI"
'cow stable'
< Britt. *boukkii, IE Vg"Oll- 'Rind". According to E. Campanile (in ZC'p 3.3
(1974), p. 271 cf. PECA: 19) the British protoform could he a result of a crossing
with Latin uarca. However, the occurence of the other animal names with the final
cit < *-kk- could imply a certain model. cf. W I""clr, Inoch. etc.. E. flamp in
BBeS 27 (1977), p. 251; K. H. Schmidt in Kratylos 20 (1975). p. 173: P. de Ber-
nardo Stempel, Sulla formazione delle parole nclrantico cornico. II Studia
istira arnica ct magistro oblata. Milano 1991, pr. 1 ()W1\ V.
Eska: 88; GPC: 350: lEW: 482; LElA: R-fil: K. McCone in Eriu 42 (1991). p.
OCV: PECA: Rhys: 1873, V(,K: II. 2tl: VVB: 61
huch gl. juvcncac Ovid
, ".
20
budiClluJ n 'vidor, winner, conqueror' [buddugol]
MW budugawl, budygawl; OB budicol
Substantivised adjective, an -01 derivative from W buddig, buddug (MW butic)
'victorious, triumphant', cf. W budd 'profit, etc.', OB bud gl. bradium, OIr buaid
(Pokorny's *bhoudhi- 'Sieg' ?, lEW: 163; see LElA B-I07).
DGVB: 91; GPe: 346; Lane: 246; VVB: 61
budicaul gl. vieto Ovid 39
b
c
aJisuc n m 'little book' (caeog]
W caeog
An -og derivative of cae 'hedge, fence, enclosure; brooch, &c' (cf. OB caiou gl.
minimenta) < IE ·kagh-, *kogh- 'fassen, einfassen; geflochtene Horde, Flecht-
werk" DGVB: 94; JEW: 518; VGK: I, 97; WG: 165
ope: 384; VVB: 62
ircaiauc gL libellum Ovid 39
8
alitoir n m&f 'pubes, pubic hair, private parts' (cedor]
MW cedor; ME quaezour; MIr caither
The etymology and the relationship of the words is not clear.
GPC: 446; LElA: VGK: II, 50; VVB: 63
o caitoir gl. pube Ovid 41 b
ca/.mennoD n pi "stalks, reeds' [c.laf)
MW calaw, [alaf, OC kalagueli gl. stramentum
< LaL calamus
ope: 390; ML: 142; oev: 346-7; PECA: 20; VOK: I, 121; VVB: 63
cahimennou gl. culmos J 25
ca/aur n f&m 'cauldron' Icallor]
MW OC caltor gL cacabus; MB cauter
< Lat. caJdarlo
GPC: LHEB: 432; ML: 143; DeV: 384; PECA: 20; VGK: I, 225; Williams:
1980, 96
dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1.3)
callistr n f '!'Cone which produces sparks when struck; nint, pyrites' [callestr]
MW cyllystyr, callestr; C cellester, B cailhastr
No etymology for Ihis word has been offered. The instance is not quoted in ope.
It was noted by L. Aeuriot that the word could be read as callastr.
, DGVB: 94; GPC: 395
callistr (01 callastr) gl.. silicurn Ang 15 b
21
canam v pres. 1 sg 'sin,f (can- J
MW kan-, C. MB OIr cf. canoris gl. cantrix
< IE *kan- 'singen'
Elsie: GPC: lEW: 526; LElA: ('-31; VGK: II, 4RI; White: 77-ft
nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. t)
canlou adj. 'bright and melodious, bright of
This interpretation (accepted hy GPC) was suggested by I. Williams. Then, a ha-
pax which contains can 'song' (see canant) , and lOll 'bright", see lo)'r, loseetic.
louber, guolleuin, diguolouichetic.
oPC: 412; Haycock: 10; Watkins: 1982,36; Williams: 19RO.. 105
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
cannuill n f 'candle' [cannwyll J
MW can(h)wyll, OC cantuil gl. candela, MB cantoel1, Olr caindel
< Brit. Lat. cantela (cf. LHEB: 509), Lat. candela
GPC: Jackson: 1950, 72; LElA: LHEB: 471, ML: OCV:
337-8; PECA: 21; VGK: I, 193,225; VVB: 64
cannuill gl. lichinunt vel cantel Ox2 44
h
(7.23)
cant
l
num. card. 'hundred' (cant, canJ
MW cant; C cans, OB cant, Ir cet
< IE */art6m 'hundert' < *(d)jartt6nl '(Zehncr)dekade'. The instance is not quo-
ted in ope.
De Bernardo Stempel: OOVB: 276 and D. El1is Evans in BneS 27 (197R).
pp.235-6; GPC: lEW: LElA: C-82; VGK: I, 46
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos deccnnouenales XXVIII descrihi Ang 21 a
canr prep. 'with' (gan)
MW can(n), OC gur cans grueg gl. maritus.. OB cant; OIr cet-
< IE *kl!lta 'neben, entlang, abwarts, mit' (to Yk.onr-).
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: 96; D. Ellis Evans in BBC'S 27 (IQ78) ..
pp.238-9; Gal: 50l; GPC: E. l-lamp in EC 14 (1974). pr.4tl7-472; lEW:
LElA: C-83; PECA: 21; VGK II: WG: VVB: J. E. ('aerwyn
Williams in BBCS 13 (1950), pp. 20-21.
trean cant mel MP 22
h
(230)
dou etcrion cant hunnoid di assa .i. asse bichan MP 22
h

cantsrteint v ? 'they raise together' or 'they are closed' (?; Breton?)
The presence of -eint, a 3 pers. pI. pres. indic. ending of this form (cL ncrtheint,
scamnhegint) caused Flcuriot to consider this form as Welsh. Etymologically, COln-
and ard(d)- 'high', see on the lattcr GPC: tR5 and De Bernardo Stempel: 76-7
with an extensive bibliography. P.- Y. Lamhert suggests reading contarceillt and
interprets this entry as J pi passive; he argues that the form consists of a
cant- and ar-, and thc stem rap (sec s.v.), thus W arRap. GPC: IQ7. "[he instance is
not quoted in GPC.
,".
22
DGVB: 96; Lambert: 19848, 187
cantarteint gl. perstruuntur Ang 17 a
CIInteint v pres. 3 pi 'to go (together)' [The form could be Breton]
L. Aeuriot queried possible OW affinities of this form. The instance is not quoted
in GPC.
DGVB: 96
canteint gl. coeun1 Ang 16 a
cared n r 'Iran8gre5sion, sin, crime' [caredd)
MW karet, cared; MB carez, MC cara; OIr caire
< IE *k!i.ii, Vkar- 'schmahen, strafen'
Fowkes: 96; De Bernardo Stempel: 93; GPC: 425; lEW: 530; LElA: C-20-1;
VVB: 64
cared gl. nequitiae J 86
cared gl. nota Ovid 3g
b
CIImotsul adj. 'bun-shaped, wearing 8 chignon'
Hapax in Welsh. GPC suggests earn + ? od +0/; for W carn 'cairn, barrow; hoof,
see GPC: 429; E. Hamp in BBCS 37 (1990), p.111; lEW: 576; PECA: 22.
ope: 430; Stokes: 1873, 390; VVB: 64
ircarnotaul bricer gl. uitta crina lis Me 4 a. a.
calreCC n m&r 'stone' [aarreg]
MW carree; C carrag, 08 carrec; cf. Mlr carrie
< IE *kar- 'harf, see also carrecou, carreic, eerriec.
DGVB: 97; Elsie: GPC: 431; lEW: 532; LElA: C-42; VGK: I, 23, 83; VVB:
65; WG: 137
carrecc gl. Carubdim Me 42 a.b.
arremu n m rpi 'stones'
Note the unexpected plural form, Parry-Williams: 121; Harvey: 188-9. For the
etymology and references 1 see carrecc and cf. carreie, cerricc.
carrec6u gl. scropea (leg. scrupea] J 26
arreic n pi 'gones'
According to this could be a Welsh plural form. See carrece, eerriee,
carreec. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 97
carreic gl. sc)llla et charybde Ang 18 b
canl n m 'deer' Icsrw]
MW carw; OC caruu ,gl.. MB caru
< IE *ktyo-s "gehornl, birschkopfig, als Subst. Hirsch oder Kub'
GPC: 434; lEW: OCV: 252; PECA: 22; VGK: 1,51
dipennant ircaru Cha d 6
cas n m 'haired'
MW cas; C, MB cas; cf.. M[r eais
23
< */c;K/.to-, IE *kiid-, etc., '1Ial3'
OPC: 435; Hamp: 1977-8,3; JO: 104; LElA: M.J: 272
naln ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
casgoord n f 'retinue of attendants, I I
MW coscord, cosgor(t); OC goscor gl. den coscor gl. cliens
Several etymologies have heen considered: 1) < Britt. *ll(p)n-sknrjii (ysker-): 2)
Celt. *tlo·eks· + cor (as in W cordd 'trihe, clan. family'. Irish Cflire 'troupe.
armee', OPC: 553. LElA: C-275); 3) cost (as in ()B co...tad 'gardicn·. W COJfng
'mastiff (GPC: 570), PT VII, 2 ncu ti rygosteis kyn h\vyf teu (see PT: 79-RO) + cor
as in 2).
DGVB: GPC: 569.1510: lEW: 616. 93R: J. Lloyd Jones in nBCS (IQ21). p.
OCV: 80; PECA: 5L VGK: 11.615; VVB: Williams: 1944. RI
cascord maur Gen: 11
[G]urci ha Pcretur mepion Elcuther cascord maur 11arl (cf. Bartrum: II)
casgoord gI. satilites meos Ox2 43
h
(5.27)
[Eucrdil] uxor Elidir coscoruaur gl. magne familie VSB: j 15 (cf. Bartrum: 15)
casulheticc adj. 'wearing a chasuble'
Hapax in Welsh; an -edig derivative from ca.HI/ 'chasublc' (Olr co.'io/) < Lat.
casu/a, LElA: C-45, ML: 145; cf. also T.•1. Parry-Williams. The English Element
in Wclsh. London 1923, p. 29, where this word is viewed as a loan from AS.
GPC: 438; Stokes: 1873, 402; VVB: 65-6
casulheticc gl. penulata MC 14 b.b.
cat n f 'battle' IcadJ
MW cat, C. cas; Ir cath. G. Catu-
< IE *k.ot- 'kampfcn'; the word is used throughollt the "Annnles Camriae··. e.g...
cat pencon (s.a. 722).
GPC: OPN: 171-5: lEW: 534; VGK: I, 132
c8tteiraul adj. 'pertaining to a chair' Icadeiriol)
W cadeiriol
< Lat. cathedralis (Stokes, GPC). or < Lat. cathedra (VVB, ML: 141-2)
OPC: Stokes: 1873, VVB: 66
ircatteiraul rettcticc strotur gl. sella curulis Me 45 a.a.
cecinet n pi 'jays' [cegin]
MW cegin; MB quiguin
GPC: 449: Williams: 1933,115
cecinet bronnbreithct gl. cicadac Ovid 40
h
ceenn n m 'murex, purple dye made from the juice of the purple·fish' IcenI
MW ken(n)
Cf. W cen 'skin' (C' (,f1l. OR ('('1I"f'''' g1. "u'1,,"r01l0. Olr ('ri"11) < IF *(sJkpn-(d-)
ahgespaltenc Haul. Schuppc. Rindc·. on these sec DGVR: 102: JEW:
,"-
24
LElA: C-55; Schrijver: 36
ope: 460; VVB: 67; Wiliams: 1933, 114
oceenn gl. mirice Ovid 40
8
refel n m 'horse' [ceRyl)
MW OB pois Olr capall
There is no certainty that the word is surely Welsh and not Breton in view of the
Breton eJ(smples cited by Fleuriot. The etymology of the word, and its connection
with Lat. rohal/us is disputable, Ice the dilllcuRRion of it hy P. Kelly, cf. LElA:
C-34 and OWA V. ope does not consider this instance.
See also chefel.
DGVB: 99 and 331; ope: Kelly: 47-50; J. Pokorny in ZCP 19 (1933), p.l60
ceCel gl.. ueredus Prise 11 b
adj. 'fine, f.ir' [Cllin)
MW kein., cain; ME quen; Olr cain (possibly a loan from Brittonic)
< *kanio5 < IE tken- hervorkommen, enspringen, anfangen'
GPC: lEW: LElA: C-16; VGK: I, 23; VVB: 67
ni cein guodemisauch gl. non bene passa Ovid 39
8
reinmicum v 110 honour, .0 praise' [ceinmyg-]
MW ceinmyg-
A compound, for the first component see S.v. cein. The second element is *mygu,
found, e,g., in dirmygu < IE *meik- 'flimmern, blinzeln' (lEW: 712-3). The form
is analysed as pres. ind, 1 pi (or less likely, imperf. 1 sg) by I. Williams, and
imperal. ] pi by White.
GPC: 454; White: Williams: 1980,113
ceinmicum ucnou' ran Juv 9 (6.2)
cr;n,iru n m "first cousin' I cefnder(w)]
MV keuynderv, C kanderu, B kenderf
From (W) coifn, ceifn 'third cousin' « IE *kom-nepots) and derw 'true, etc.', see
s.v. deruen.
T. Charles-Edwards in BBCS 24 (1971) p.l06f; OPC: 447, 933; LHEB: 387;
VVB: 61
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38
3
reis " imp. 2 sl -'0 seek" (ceis-)
MW ceLs(s)-; OB (1, Leide n Leech-Book) cres
A wOld wi1h no establis.hed etymology. J. Loth though listing it alongside the other
Latin borrowings « Lat. cestio) states that "l'emprunt n'est pas certain". Another
pos!\ibility considered by Loth is to derive this word from *ked-t-: Ir ceis 'circuit',
on the lalter word see now LElA: C-57. According to White, this could also have
been b<Jlrowed flom qlla .
DGVB: OPC: 455; ML: l47; White: 266
Ceis ini r loyr Comp 21
25
celieell n f 'knife' (cyllelll
MW kallel, kyllell; OC collel gl. cultellus; colleI grauio gl. !'calprum
< Lat. cultellus
OPC: 751; LHEB: 668; ML: 156; OCV: 166 and PECA: VGK: I, 233;
VVB: 67
celleell gl. art[ a]uum Ox2 42
h
(4.7)
("(lImed adj. 'skUful, (celryddl
MW ('chait. ccluyd; ()B l'churd; MIl' c:nlrnn
< Britt. the IE haekgrounds Arc ohscure.
DGVB: 100; GPe: 456; LElA: C-27; LHEB: 605; Schrijver: VGK: I, 168;
Williams: 1980, 114
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
cemecid n m 'mill-pick, tool for dressing mill-stones' [cyregydd)
MW kyfegydd
An -ydd derivative from cyfogi, i.e. cyf-(h)ogi Ito make keen or pointed, set an
edge on; roughen, dress or pick', cf. B kOfll'ok see GPC: 709, Henry: 75; to IE
*ak-, ok- 'sharf, spitz, kantig\ lEW: 18f.
GPC: 689; LHEB: 606, 659, 668; PT: 31; VVB: Williams: 1929,3
cemecid gl. lapidaria Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
cemmein n m (old pi) 'steps, strides" (camJ
MW MB C cam, cf. aIr ceimm, CI Camanom
Perhaps to IE *gheng1l- 'schreiten' (lEW: 43R-4), see De Bernardo Stempel: 95
with bibl.
Eska: 53-4; GPC: LElA: C-54: Schrijver: and J95: VVB: 67
cemmein gl. in gradibus Ovid 3R
h
cen conj. 'although, even thouflh' (cyd" cyn)
OW (LL) MW kin, cyn: OB Olr cfa. cc
The connection between the Brittonic and Goidelic forms (eL Ogam Ir el) was
suggested by D. Greene. Sec also cet.
OOVB: ope: 65R; D. Greene in Eriu 21 (lCJ69), pp. LElA: C-92:
Lewis: 1956, 298: Williams: 1927, 266
cen nit hoi loc guac inter o. et a. in pagi"a regulari. 11
cenetl n r 'tribe, clan' (cenedl)
MW kenetyl, kenedel, kenedyl; OC kinethel gl. OB chenedl, chenetdl,
kcnctl; Olr ceoel
< *kene-tlo, IE Yken· 'frisch hervorkommcn. entspringen. anfangen'
DOVB: 104-5; ope: lEW: JO: LElA: ()C'V: 91: PECA:
Schrijver: 27 and VGK: I, 120-121
tutbulc hai cenetl Chad 2
cenett;c;on see uncenett;C';on
, II.
26
ren, n m 'b8tk' (celna, cern]
OW (LL) MW kein, cf. keuen, kef(u)yn; DC chein gl. dorsum
Loth's reading ("pour cengl, du lat. cingulum", VVB: 68) was rejected by I.
Williams, who pointed out to the spelling cecg which occurs in the Book of Llan
Oaf (LL: 73 truf irct"cg). For the etymology see Fowkes: 1958, 3-4 with bibliogra-
phy, where the connection with Sanskrit asman 'Stein, Himmel' is discussed.
Elsie: 80; GPC: 446 and 390; OCV: 56; PECA: 25; Williams: 1930,247
hou boit cihitun ceng if esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23
3
(246)
rennin n pi 'leeks, daffodils' [tennin)
MW ceonin, kennyn; OC kenin euynoc gl. allium; MB quinghenn; OIr cainnenn
It was suggested by A. Lubotsky (see Schrijver: 456), that these words go back to
*kasn-ina, from ·kesn- (cf. Russian cesnok 'garlic'); P. Schrijver (ibid., fn. 1)
suggests that "the word is probably not of IE origin, as the vocalism shows".
DOVB: 93; GPC: 464; LElA: C-19; DCV: 271; PECA: 24; Schrijver: 456; VVB:
69
cennin gL cipus Ox2 42
8
(3.7)
cenninJ prep. 'with us'
OB ceoten ni
See cant, ni.
DGVB: 102
cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 b
centh(i)list n m 'singer'
Attested twice and only in the Juvencus glosses; cf. MW gorcheithleit. An -iad
derivative of (MW) cathJ 'song' (B kentel, MIr eetal, GPC: 441) < *kantlofn, IE
Vkan- 'singen· (lEW: 525-6); see canam.
GPC: LElA: C-85; tHEE: 498, 587, 606; Stokes: 1860-1,218; VGK: 1,139;
VVB: WG: 17
ircenthiliat gl. Davida canorum J 7
centhliat gl. Dauida canorum J 49
cep n f&DI 'pirk8Jle, Dl8ttock, hoe; ploughshare' [caib]
MW caib. Scottish Gaelic caibe
SeeOWAV.
GPC: 389; VVB: 69
cep gl. fosarium Ox2 42
b

cephilor v. pres. impelS. 'to have, obtain, find'
See chepi.
ismod. cephitor. hanaud Comp 1
cepister n m 'haller, .ether, cussedness, evil' [cebystr]
MB cabestr
< Lat. copistrll,n
GPC: 444: LHEB; ML: 146; VGK: I. 192; VVB: 69-70
cepister gl. camum 0,;2 43
11
(5.2)
27
ceroenhou n pi 'mash-vats, tuns, tabs, casks, harrels' Icerwyn1
MW ccruyn, cerwyn; OC kcroin gl. cupa
The difficulties in the interpretation of this word as a loan from Lat. carOenll1n are
summarised in PECA. For -oe- representing lui]. see Sims-Williams.
EL: 35; GPC: 469; ML: 149; OCV: 399-4(X); PECA: 24; Sims-Williams: 1991.60,
n.5; VVB: 70
accroenhou gl. ct dolea J 7R
cerricc n m&f pi 'stones'
For the etymology and references, see carrecc and cf. corre;c. corrrcoli.
nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a.
cel conj. 'although, even
MW ket
See cen.
GPC: 658; Lewis: 1956.298; Williams: 1980,96
cet ibcn med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
cet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
ci v pres. 2 sg 'to have, ohtain, find'
See chepi.
ci (for cei 1) is did ciman. haci (Williams: 1927, p. 260) Comp 3
cihracma n 'hattlefield'
Hapax in Welsh; < *konlbranko-nlogos. For the second element. see
The first component of this compound (= Irish (0111,.0(') contains prefix *knl1'-.
and IE *(e)nek- 'reichcn' (lEW: 316f). on this sec l)c Bcrl1nrdo Stempel: q<J-IOO.
GPC: 710; Koch: 476
cibracma Chad 4
cihrmo n 'thrifty'
OB cohrmo
According to Flcuriot. this word contains the prefixes *kol1t-ro- and the stem -,no-
< *nlog-. The word is not attested in later Welsh.
DGVB: 105 and 111
cihrmo gJ. frugi Prise. 34 a
cihitun. cihutun prep. as far as' IcyhlldllnI
OW (LL: 122) orlech cilli/o11 dital ircecyn, OB cohiton. coihiton
A derivative of W cyhyd (OW LL 73 cellil) 'of equal length, along'. OB eehel. ce/tit
from the semantics was compared hy Flcuriot with Irish go siotlr as far
as'. For the criticism of the etymology offered in Wei: 415 « *ko-.,,;-ta,,). sec Loth
in RC 37 (1917-1919), p. 54.
DGVB: 113; GPC: 746; VVB: 71; Williams: 19JO, 247.
hor elin cihutun hi torr MP 2J
1
(24fl)
hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23" (24())
i
1
,'.
28
dhun(n) adj. 'equal, corresponding, proportionate'
The word occurs twice in W., both times in MP. GPC suggests a derivation "cy- +
elf. anhysbys". I will discuss this instance in SC, forthcoming.
744; VVB: 11 Williams: 1930, 236
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22
b
(234)
dhutun see cihitun
cilcet n HI 'toverlet, sheet, blanket' [cylched]
MW cylched, OB colchet gl. agipa; OIr colced gl. agipam
< Lat. culeiJa; see also ci/chetou.
DGVB: 113; ope: 748; LElA: C-157; LHEB: 668; ML: 156; VGK: 1,196; VVB:
71
cUcet gL tapiseta Ox244
8
(6.25)
cileet gL stratorium Ox2 44
8
(6.26)
dlche'oll n m pI 'co"er]et!, sheets, blankets'
See cilcet.
ircilchetou gl. vela Ovid 38&
dli8UC adj. 'faulty'
An -iog derivative of "kulo-, cf. MW cw/ 'fault, blame'; OB col gl. nefariam
rem, card gl. piacu/a .j.. abscenia; Irish col. Two etymologies have been suggested
for these words. These have beem connected with Lat. see/us (but see J. Loth in
ZCP 17 (1927), p.147-152), and Lat. culpa (Stokes in IF 12, 191; VGK: 1,94).
Both comparisons were rejected by Hamp due respectively to the formal inconsi-
stencies and the "unusual ancestral configuration". GPC does not consider this
instance..
DGVB: 106 and 99; GPe: 639; E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 199; LElA: C-155
ciliauc gt scaelestus Prise 40 a
dluin n 'crooked hinder part of the plough'
This hapax is ommited in GPC; for the etymology of this compound « IE *(s)ku-
/0, to etc.. , 'Versteck, Hinterteil', lEW: 951, and min, GPC: 2460) see A.
Falileye\' in SC 29 (1995), pp. 295-6 with bibl.
VVB: 12 Williams: ] 929, 3
ciluin gl.. buris 0'12 42
b
(4.7)
ciluma n m 'pail, pitcher, vessel, bucket, tub' [celwm]
MW kelurn, celwrn; DB chilorn gl. urceus (ch=k), PN Cilurnum; OIr cilornn gl.
urceus
Traditionally, < IE IKrug, Topf; for the scepticim in regard of *lp > I, see
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 199. The ; is left unexplained.
DGVB: 105; GPC: 458; lEW: 555; LElA: C-99; LHEB: 475; Parry-Williams:
121; VGK: L 94,365: VVB: 72; WG: 125
cilurnl1 gl, urne m J 40
29
cimachabail vn 'to raise, extol' (1)
The meaning and the etymology of this entry offered hy Fleuriot was reconsidered
by P.- Y. Lambert who compared the form with Irish vn ClIfflRohoil, and MW
kyuochael 'to raise, extol', see GPC: 673 and 6RO. The first word of this gloss,
hoy/oit, was analysed by Lambert as SW British. The entry itself is perhaps a
hybrid, with apparently Welsh reflex of the prefix, cf. here ci/llpe""er, sec s. v.
GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 106; Lambert: 1982, 1983, 136; 1986, 108
hoy.loit. cimachahail uel dimffnuim gl. tolletum Prisc 25 a
cimadas adj. 'suitahle, IcyraddasJ
MW kyfadas; OB cClfnadns gl. hnhilis; Olr cOfllndas
< *kom + addas < IE 'fcstsetzen, ordnen'; on this stem see
E. Hamp in lIES 1 (1973), p. 322ff and EC 15 (1976-7) p. 192.
OGVB: 94 and GPC: 674; lEW: 3; LElA: A-13; Stokes: 187J, 390; J. Ven-
dryes in RC 35 (1914), pp. VGK: I, 2R4 and 11,21; VVB: 72 and 63-4
isscimadas gl. par MC 4 a.b.
iscimadas gl. par est MC 4 b.b.
ciman
1
adj. 'whole, entire, complete' (cyfan)
MW kyua(n)
Analysed in GPC as < (?) Britt. *k011t-ann-.
GPC: 676
is did ciman. haci Camp 3
ciman
2
n f 'assembly' (cyman)
MW OIr commant, Mlr commann
I. Williams considers this word as a noun rather than adjective, and this interpreta-
tion is accepted by which analyses this entry as containing the prefix *kol1r-.
and the clement ,nan (= English Inan, with a query); the Irish "'ord which denotes
'allience, pact, company' is commonly analysed as a loan (rom Lat. CO/lll1lentll/ll.
GPC: 754; Haycock: 13; LElA: C-17R; Williams: 19RO, 112
it clu(i)s [it] dihan iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
cimarcimeir prep. 'opposite, facing'
See erc;lneir.
DGVB: 106
cimarcimeir gl. aduerso Ang 15 b
cimarguith('lejt n m&f 'well-informed person, (cyfarwydd)
MW kyvarwit, cyfarwyd, Olr comard(a)c
< Britt. *kom·are-LJeid-, IE Vy(e)di· 'erhlicken, sehen'
GPC: 6R5; lEW: JO: 5.1-4; LElA: C-166; VCiK 1,352 anu II. {}
imalitiduch cimarguith[i]ejt Chad 3
cimenllhaam v pres. t 'to narrow. I
W cyfyng-; cf. Olr cumtlog
,".
30
< *kom-ingu-, IE Yanth.. 'eng, einengen, schnUren'.
GPC does not consider this instance.
OGVB: 106; Elsie: 114; GPC: 725; lEW: 42-3; LElA: C-292; VGK: I, 107
gl. ango Prise 40 a
elmer n m 'connuence' [cymer]
MW cimer; MB kemper; Mlr commar
< *kom..bero, IE tbher... 'aufwallen' (lEW: 123); but see Hamp: 1982 for the
identification of the IE stem.
GPC: 759; LElA: C-178; VGK: I, 118
di cimer di aper ferrus Chad 6
eimerdrJdou n pi '1
Stokes analysed the form as containing two words, hir 'long' and the plural of
cimerdrid, which he could not explain. Loth considered this as a compound 'long
travail solitaire', hi, (see hir) + cimer « *kom...are) + pI. of drid, which he
compared with DB emd,it Itheoricam', on the latter see DOVB: 158. P.-Y. Lam-
bert tentatively connects this noun with MW cyfarthelid 'steady, constant' and
cyfrde/id 'beautiful't on these see GPC: 684 and 713. For the prefix, cf. aurcimerd-
richeticion.
Lambert: 19828,22; Loth in RC 32 (1911), p. 307; Stokes: 1873,391; VVB: 155--6
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucubrationum perennium Me 4 b.a.
ammsef;cion n pi ?
Hapax in Welsh.. GPe tentatively offers a comparison of this word with W cyma
'battle, conflict' which is considered to be a cognate of Olr com-bag, on this see
LElA C-167, and 8-4-5..
GPC: 153; VVB: 72
cimmaeticion gl. conquestos Me 4 b.a.
dmmsifhuress n f 'fo!ter-sister'
Hapax in Welsh.. Is analysed by GPC as cym-maeth-ur...es, cf. W cymaethu 'nourish
together-, magaf.
GPC: VVB: Stokes: 1873, 387
cimmaithuress gl. collaclea Me 1 b.a.
cimmaitburess gl. collactea Me 8 a.b.
dmpenner v pres. 5ubj. impers. 'to arrange' [cymhenn-]
MW ME quempen
This word which Welsh characteristics and is found in the Breton gloss was
not considered as ·f.v.. g: by Fleuriot (but cf. DGVB: 29). It was analysed as a
cognate of W cy",en « ? cym... + pen, GPC: 759), and as a loan from Lat.
cOl1lpendio. GPC does not ccnsider this instance.
,DGVB: 106 and 2S0; ope: 764
cimpenner aer Ang 65 a
cimprre. ? 'compara ti \tie"
08 OIr c()mparit; cf. W. cymar(cdig), cymharu, etc.
31
< Lat. comparatill.'i
GPC does not consider this instance.
DOVB: 106 Clnd OPC: LElA: ML: 156
hClc&oucimp& gl. supcrlatiulls ,nullo Prise 27 n
nirincirilcs. cilnpSdlliausauc oirei gl. ad plurcs sui gcncris fit l"olllparntio Prise 27 a
cinceu n 'concave'
As it was stated by Fleuriot, this is a loan from Lat. COIlCaVIIJ, though with an
unexplained Neither Loth nor Lewis mention this among the Latin loan-
words. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
OGVB: 106
cinceu gl. eoncauus Ang 16 Cl
cindraid n 'neap tide'
Cf. MW (T 41.13) kyn OB Mlr c{)ntracht
< Lat. for a derivation CO" + *traith, sec DGVB.
DGVB: LElA: lluws: SOl, n. (,
cindraid gl. ledona DNR 2v
cinimer n m adj. 'equal number' (cynifer)
MW ceniuer, Me cynyucr
Contains prefix cy- and ninter. see s. v.
GPC: 791; Williams: 19RO, 107
isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3.2)
cinnit conj. not, even not"
Cf. a negative form, see Lewis: 1956,247, and cf. (JMW: 235--6
Cinnit hays irloc guae hinnuith In pagi"a regulari COTnp 14
ciphillion n pi 'stocks, little trunks' (cytTyll)
MW cyfyll
An -yll derivative of cJff 'trunk, stock. stem' (Ir eepp) < Lnt. ciPI'IIJ (GPC': 727:
LElA: ML: 155-6).
GPC: 734; Stokes: 1873, VVB: 72-3
ciphillion gl. surculis MC 8 a. h.
circhinn n m 'circle'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. MW derivatives kyrchynyrtt. kyrchynurird: OB circinn.
Mlr cercend, C yn-kerghen
< Lat. circ;n(n)lls. See also danlcirclli"""OIi.
DGV8: GPC: LElA: ML: VGK: I, 383; VVB: 72
bet cfrchfnn frguollcunf gl. usque sub occiduum cocli J R4
circh/n m 'circle' (cylchl
MW cylch, MB kelch
< Lat circulus
DOYB: GPC: 747; ML: 156; 1927.259
seraul cirehl Cnn1r 2
, "-
32
hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 23
in ir loscetic circhl gI. circulus [... ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
dsemic adj. 'lirst'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. W cysefin (MW kesseuin, cesseuyn); OB cisemic
< IE *kentu-stam-, to IE *ken- 'frisch hervorkommen' (lEW: 564), and *stii-
'stehen', cf. W cysefin (lEW: 1(08).
DGVB: 109; GPC: 810; Isaac: 408; OCV: PECA: 24; VVB: 73; WG: 137
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus J 70
risso/tau n pi 'connections' [cyswllt]
MW kyssvllt, kysswllt, kyssyllt
< Lat. consoldo. The instance is not quoted in GPe.
DGVB: 109; GPe: 819; ML: 158
cis80ltou gl. commissure hapsidum Ang 13 a
cilhremmel adj. 'even, exact' [cythrymed]
MW cythrymhet; OIr cutrummae
< Celt. *kon-trum-, see trumm.
GPC: 827; LElA: C-298-9; Stokes: 1873, 401; VGK: I, 139; VVB: 73-4
cithremmet gl. b[i]lance libra Me 12 b.a.
daur n m 'cover, lid' [claWl]
MW clawr; B kleur; Olr clar
The traditional analysis derives these words from Common Celtic *klii-ro, < IE
*ke/-, etc., 'schlagen, hauen', cf. Greek For a consideration of a different
IE stem (·kld- 'breit beliegen, darauflegen', lEW: 599), see A. Falileyev, N. Ka-
zansky in Yazyk i kul'tura keltov, St. Petersburg 1998, pp. 10-13. See also cloriou.
Chantraine: 542-3; De Bernardo Stempel: 41; GEW: 872-3; GPe: 491-2; lEW:
545; LElA.: C-113-4; Schrijver: 182; VGK: II, 49; VVB: 74
elaur guicip. quod fit super faciem torcularis gI. prelum 1 78
cled n f 'left' [cledd]
MW cled; MB c]eiz, C cledh; OIr cle
< IE *l<lei-, 'neigen, lehnen'
Elsie: 109; GPC: 493; lEW: 601; LElA: C-114-5; Schrijver: 118; VVB: 74
6r cled hin gl. limite levo J 26
cleteirou n pi 'castanets'
According to Stokes, this could be an onomatopoetic word. On the other hand,
Loth suggested taking this as a loan (with metathesis) from Lat. erotol-, cf. Ir
crothal. P.-Y. Lambert acknowledges it as a loan, and the influence of the authen-
tic \\'ord cledr.
Lambert: 1982a, 22; LElA: C-248; ML: 150; Stokes: 1873, 399; VVB: 74
nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 103.a.
cloiumn see dolumn
33
cloriou n m pi 'boards, planks, faces, plates'
See clour.
GPC: 492; VVB: 74
ocloriou gl. tabellis Ovid 38
8
cluis?
I. Williams connects this word with MW glll;s 'fair. beautifur. with it causing
provection, or with the adjective derived from the verh cly"'yd 'to hear'.
Haycock: 13; Williams: 1980, 111
it clu(i)s [it] dlban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
clun n m 'meadow' (clun)
MW clun; OIr cluain
J. Pokorny hesitates between *klep- 'feuche (lEW: 603) and "kltu- 'spiilen· (for
this base see lEW: 607). For a different analysis, see OWAV.
OPC: 510; LElA: C-126
in guoilaut clun Chad 6
coc n f 'cook' [cog)
MW coc, cog; OB coc gl. pistor; OC kog gl. cocus; aIr eoic
< Lat. coqllllS (COCllS)
DGVB: 111-2; GPC: 540; LElA: ML: 15L OCV: PECA: VGK:
1,321; VVB: 76
CDC gl. pistor Ox2 44
ft
(6.)2)
coilsm v pres. 1 sg 'believe' Icoeli- J
MW coel-. coyll-; OB coilhaanl 'fcxaminc. je cOllsultC' in etn cnifl,oa11' gl. allis et
aspicio
A derivative of cte., for the etymology see s. v. coilioll.
DOVB: 113; OPC: 533; Watkins: 53; White: 72-3
ni choilam hinnoid MP 22h (234)
nichoilam MP 22b (238)
coilisucc n m 'augur. soothsayer'
Hapax in Welsh; OC chuil1ioc gl. augur
An -iog derivative of coel, sec coiloll.
GPC: 533; VVB: 77
coiliaucc gl. augur Me 2 a.b.
coil(i)ou n pi 'omens. portents, divinations' fcoell
MW cocl; OB cocl gl. (h)aruspiccm; OC chuillioc gl. augur. cuilliogcs gJ. phito-
nissa; Inser. de Lamas de Toledo Ir eel horrowcd from Brit.
< Celt. *kailo- < IE *ka;-Io- 'heil, unvcrschrt. auch von gutcr Vorbedcutung·.
See also coilanl, coi!iOliCC.
DGVB: 112; GPC: lEW: LElA: ('-5<): LJ1FB: 325; 143. 14):
PECA: 2(" .T. Vendrycs in RC 4fl (IQ2Q). p. 41q: VGK: r. 57: VVR: 7R
I
t
, '.
34
nouirmiinnguedou .i. coiJiou gl. extorum Me 2 a.a.
ocoilou gl. auspiciis Ovid 39b
oo;l;ou see coi!(i)ou
ro/ginn n m 'sting, awn' (colyn]
MW colyn
An -yn derivative of cor (MW coly, col, cf. IT colg) 'awn' < *kolgo- < IE *kel-
4stechen' (lEW: 545).
De Bernardo Stempel: Fowkes: 96; ope: 546; Joseph: 51-2; LElA: C-157;
LHEB: 466, 590, 607; VGK: I, 105; VVB: 78
c61gfnn gL aristam J 26
roll n coli. 'hazel' (coil]
MW coll(en); OC coli'iden gl. corilius, OB limn-collin gl. tilia; Mlr coli
< *kosl- < IE *kos(e)Io... 'Hasel'
DGVB: 243; GPC: 546; lEW: 616; LElA C-158; OCV: 293; PECA: 29; VGK:
1,32; VVB: 78
coli gl. corilis Me 8 b.b.
romoid n m 'power' (cyfoeth)
MW kyuoetb; OC du}' chefuidoc g). Deus omnipotens; Olr cumachtae
The meaning of this word is discussed by M. Haycock. Apart from the attempt of
L. Fleuriot to separate the Welsh entry from the Irish word quoted above, these
are commonly viewed as cognates. Several etymologies for this word have been
considered. According 10 Campanile, the adjectives go back to *koln-anktako-;
the traditional etymology derives it from *kom-okto-, with IE *enek-, *ne'k... ,
*enk... , *1Jic... 4reichen, erreichen, erlangen' (lEW: 316).
Fleuriot in EC 16 (1979),204-5; GPC: 708; Haycock: 15; LElA: C-286; OCV: 32;
PECA: VGK: 1'1 124; Williams: 1980, 115
gurd meint icornoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
romtantou n pi 'buzzing, 8 deep hollow sound' (?)
Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix com- and pI. of tanl 'string', see lanlou,
GPC: 687; Stokes: 1873, VVB: 81
orcomtantou gl. bombis Me 10 a.a.
room?
According to Zeuss: 1056 and VVB: 82, this stands for co - orn, orn 4tressaille...
ment, crainte', the meaning of coorn being thus 'applaudissement'. In view of the
frequent doubling of the letters in this manuscript (cf. piipaur, ceenn) I. Williams
(19]3: 113) suggests a reading corn. ope: 2656 refers to this instance (with a
query) in the analysis of W or" "blame, fcar'. D. E. Evans (Ir. orn: W. orn: Celt.
org-no.... /I Homenaje a Antonio Tovar. Madrid 1972, p. 134 fn. 28) interprets this
entry as (lit.) 5triking logether. clapping', i.e. 'applause', and hesitates hetween
a compounded form co-orn (= *cy-orn) and a simple corn. He derives this
35
instance from Celt. *org-n-, on which scc also E. I-Iamp in DDCS 25 (1974),
pp.388-91.
coorn gl. in media plausu Ovid 3R
h
cornoitsuc adj. 'full of sores, ulcerous' I I
MW cornwydawc
An -OtiC derivative of co,."wyd ahscess, sorc' which is analysed hy GPC as
containing corn 4crugyn' and elf. anhyshys. GPC' docs not consider this instance.
DGVB: 119; GPC: 564
cor. noitauc gl. gibberosus Prise 16 b
corruui n f'thong, latchet, lace' (carrail
MW carrycu, carreieu, car(r)ci: cf. MB correcnn
< Lat. corrigia; differently hy D. E. Evans, \vho derives it from Celtic *ko(I1I)-ro-
reig-, which contains IE Vreig,- 4bind', or Vrig- or a of these
stems.
EL: 5,19; D. E. Evans in SC 10-11 (1975-6), pro 74-7: GPC: LIIED: 449-S0:
Schrijver: VGK: I, 195; VVB: 83; WG: 165
corruui gl. corigiufn Ox2 433 (5.4)
COTS n f 'reed, cane" IcorsI
See corsenn.
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro tcxtili Me R h.a.
cors vel pennas gl. cannulas Me 14 h.b.
corsenn n f sgl. 'reed. cane" rcorsenI
MW cors(en); OC korsen (MS coisen) gl. calallll1s. B korz(cnn): cf. Olr curchas
< *kork-s-, usually compared to Lat. carex, on which sec Ernout - Meillet: lOt.
See OWAV. See also corso
OPC: 566; LElA: oev: PECA: 31; V(jK: I, 4R5; VVB: RJ: wc,: 219
ocorsenn gl. arundine Ovid 40a
coueidid n f 'company' IcyweithyddI
MW cyweithyd; C. cowethc
An -id (= -ydd) derivative of (W) cywaitlr, \vhich is analysed hy (,PC' as < Britt.
*ko-tl rkt-, IE *tlcgll- zichen. fahrcn· (lEW: 1118(, cf. UPN: 2RJ).
GPC: 832; LHEB: 659,668: Williams: 19RO. 98
isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
couer adj. 'complete" [cywairI
MW Olr coir
< IE achtgchcn'
GOI: OPC': R29; lEW: 1164; LElA: ('-IS2: Schrijvcr: J2(l: Willinnls:
121; I. Williams in BBC'S 3 (1926), SS-f)
uue nem isnem intcoucr Juv 9 (<).2)
cOllid n m 'poem" Icyn)'ddI
MW cywyld)d: If cuhaid
,'.
36
< ·ko(m)"l)idu.. , IE ·llidhu- 'Baum' (lEW: 1177), for the possibilities of the
semantic motivations, see LElA. OC coweid liuer (reete considered
by GPC, does not belong here, cf. Williams: 1944, 342 and OCV: 342.
GPC: 836-7; Haycock: LElA: C-264; J. Loth in RC 32 (1911), p.195; Wil-
liams: 1980, 104
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
crat see orst
cresticBul.dj. 'created, original' (ereadigol]
W creadigawl
An -ed-ig-awl derivative of (MW) creu 'create' < Lat. creo.
GPC: 583, 584; ML: 154; VVB: 87
creaticaul plant gl. genialis praeda Ovid 3g
b
ere.toroo n pi 'substances' (creadur]
MW creadur, OC croadur gl. creatura; MB croeadur
< Lat. crea/ura. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 121; GPC: 583; ML: 153; OCV: 213; PECA: 32; VGK: I, 197, 203
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
aeirrioo n m r pi 'relics, holy or sacred objects, treasures' [crair]
MW creireu; Mlr cretair
< *kred-ro-, IE 'Zauberkraft worauf setzen, glauben, vertrauen'
(lEW: 580); differently ("zu lat. celeber") in VGK: I, 113.
GPC: 578; LElA: C-232; Schrijver: 353; J. Vendryes in RC 44 (1927), pp. 90-96;
Williams: 1980, 185
Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3
(Teman n m 'reaping-hook, sickle, bill-hook' [cryman]
MW creman, cryman, C. cromman, Mlr cromman
A derivative from (W) crwm (cf. C crom, OB crum gl. gibbler; Olr cromm)
'crooked, bent, curved', which are analysed either as loans from Germanic (cf. AS
crumb, see Henry: 83), or as an authentic word, to IE *(s)kerb(h)-, (s)kremb-
'drehen, kriimmen', not in lEW: 948f, see G. Lane in Language 8 (1932),
pp. 296-7. See also crummanhuo.
DGVB: GPe: 622; LElA: C-244-5; LHEB: 668; VVB: 87
creman gl. baxus Ox2 42
b
(4.6 L)
criehed adj. 'roughness, crispness, curliness' [crychedd]
W crychedd
An -edd derivative of (MW) crych (MC crech, G Crix(s)us) < pre-Celt. *kripso- or
*kriJpo < IE v(s)ker- 'drehen, biegen', cf. Lat. cr;spus, lEW: 938, Schrijver: 374.
GPC: 619; VVB: 88
criched gl. ruga Ovid 40
a
crin adj. 'withered, brit1le, s.ra.k' (erln)
MW crin; OB erin; Olr crfn
37
< IE ·ker- 'vcrschrcn'
DGVB: 122; apc: 597; lEW: 578; LElA: C-2J6-7; Stokes: 1873,412; VGK: II.
498; VVB: 8R
crin gl. ar[i]dum J 27
erip see hs crip
erit n m 'shivering, tremble' [cryd I
MW crid, cryt, cryd; OB crit gl. frcnesin: C crys: Ir crith
< < IE *(s)ker- 'drehen. bicgcn'
OGVB: 123; GPC: 620; lEW: 9.17; LElA: C-239--40; VVB: 88-9
ocrit gl. timore (leg tremore) J 5
ernit, n m 'winnowing fan, winnowinK [crwydrJ
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. W crwydr (MW cruidir, erwydyr) 4wandcring, roaming';
OC croider gl. cribrum, 08 croitir gl. crebrum, MB croezr; MIr crfathar
< Celt. *krei-tro- < IE *skeri-, etc., 4schnciden, schcidcn', cf. Lat. crihrt"n, AS
hridder
DGVB: GPC: 617; E. Hamp, in BnCS 34 (19H7), p. 112: Ilenry: R3: lEW:
946; LElA: C-234-5; OCV: 391; PECA: 32; Stokes: lR60--1, 210; VGK: I. 134;
VVB: 89
cruitr gl. pala J 14
erommsnhuo n pi 'reaping hooks'
Note the spelling of the plural ending. See cre,nan
o crummanhuo gl. scropibus J 77
crunn adj. 'round, circular' (erwnI
MW DB eron gl. tornatili; aIr cruind
< *krundi-, < IE *(s)ker- 4drehcn, biegen'
DGVB: 123; Elsie: 124; GPC: 615; lEW: LElA: C-253; VVB: 90
nouirerunnui gl. oui MCIO h.a.
crunnoJunou n pi 'round wheels' (?)
See crunn, olin; this interpretation of the latter component was hy
Stokes (accepted hy GPC: 2644) alongside 0/ 'mark., trace· (on this see (,PC":
2640). Note the difference in orthography.
VVB: Stokes, 1873, 391
crunnolunou gl. orbiculata MC 4 b.a.
cualladj., also n m 'sudden, quick, speedy' (ellalll
MW cuall; OB cualoeh (eL Pers. name Marccoual)
J. Loth suggested a derivation < Vyel- 4 cntourcr, enroulcr'.
DGVB: ope: Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), pp. 31-R; VVU: 90
cuall gl. maturato [leg. motura, monitura] J 90
cueeticc adj. 'knitted., woven'
W gwcucdir. !!\\Ic\\'<,dig
,'.
38
An -edig derivative of (W) gweu 'to weave', cf. OB gueg gl. textrix, OC guiat gl.
tela, OIr {ige, etc., < IE 'weben, kntipfen' see GPC: 1608; PECA: 56. Note
initial c for g.
DGVB: 186; GPC: 1614; lEW: 1117; VVB: 91; Stokes: 1873,395
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro textili MC 8 b.a.
minhBunl v pres. (future) 3 pi 'to complain' [cwyo-]
MW cwyno; MB queinyff; OIr cofnid
The Britt. form could be -kei-n-; the interrelationship between Brittonic and
Goidelic forms is not clear; further etymological connections are dubious.
GPC: 654; Isaac: 317; LHEB: 503; LElA: C-18; VGK: 1,125; VVB: 91; WG: 323;
White: 122
cuinhaunt irruim mein gl. perpetuis deflebit subsita poenis J 55
mltel 0 'knife'
This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat. cultel/us (cf. eel/eell).
VVB: 91
celleell gl. art[a]uum (.i. cultel) Ox2 42
b
(4.7)
miter see the next entry
m/tir n m 'coulter'
MW kulldyr, cwlltyr, kwlldr; ME COUIlT; MIr coltar
< Lat. cultrum; cf. also art[a]uum .i. cellel gl. culter Ox2 42
b
(4.7)
GPC: 640; LHEB: 337; LElA: C-I60; ML: 155; VGK: 1,233; VVB: 91
cultir gl. cultrum Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
cusam v 'chat' ?
The word was considered by I. Williams to be a variant spelling of eosam, see
gllorcosam. Alternatively it was explained as a borrowing from AS cuss 'kiss', or
cyssan 'to kiss', but the paucity of AS loan-words in early OW makes this assump-
tion unlikely.
GPC: 568; White: 76; Williams: 1980, 96
nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2.1)
ms;1 n m 'advice, counsel' (name of 8 letter) [cusyl)
MW cussyl, kyssul; OC cusul gl. concilium, MB kusul
< Lat. consilium (*cosilium)
GPC: 818; ML: 155; OCV: 110; PECA: 34; Russell: 1995, 176; VGK: I, 205;
VVB: 92
cusul Nemn
custnud eticc ?
Lewis rejected Stokes's reading custnudieticc in favour of cuslnud eticc. The gloss
remains obscure.
Le'wis: 1932, 112; Stokes: lR73. 399; VVB: 92
custnud eticc gl. confecta Me to a.b.
39
cutinn(n)iou n m pi 'locks, ringlets' (cudynJ
MW kudynn, kydyn; OC cudin gl. coma
< IE *keu- 'biegen', see Falileyev in ZCP, forthcoming.
GPC: 627; OCV: 44; PECA: 33; Stokes 1873, 393; VVB: 92
cutinnniou gl. illis (nodis) MC 6 b.b.
inircutinniou gl. in condylos (nodos) Me 6 b.b.
en
chefe/ n m 'horse' (ceffylJ
Notably spelled with ch- for k. Sec cefe/.
ope does not consider this instance.
OOVB: 287
pois chefel gl. mannus .i. equs breuis Prisc 7 h
chepi v pres. 2 sg 'to have, obtain, find"
Etymologically this base points to syncretism of different roots, according to
E. Hamp - IE *ghabh- 'fassen, oehmen' (lEW: 407-9), *kap- 'fassen' (lEW:
527-8) and *kagh- 'fassen' (lEW: 518); the involvement of thc lattcr is rejected hy
G. Isaac, see the scheme in Isaac: 313. Cf also ci, cephitor.
Eska: GMW: GPC: E. I-Iamp in ZCP 24 (1954). pr.22<1-3:
Isaac: 312-313; J. Lloyd-Jones in SBeS 2 (1925), p. 291; VGK: II. 552, WG: 345:
White: 79-84.
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
chet n f m 'tribute, fax" (cedi
MW cet, ked
ope: 445
isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4
choi/am see coi/am
D
d••raut?
For possible interpretations of this entry sec Williams: 19RO, 115-6.
rit crcis d••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
dagatte v imperf. 3 sg 'to leave, let go" (dyad-)
MW dyad-, diad-
This instance is not found in GPC. For etymology, sec dirgatiJJe. Sec also digat-
lna(ou).
GPC: 1113: VVB: Q3; White: 20R-9
itdagatte ail gl. coniuerc Me' 4 h.a.
40
d8m prep. '.round, .bout' (dam-]
This seems to be the only usage of dam as a prepostion; in later Welsh it occurs as
a prefix (dam-, dym-). Etymologically, < *do-ambi-.
GPC: 883; Williams: 1980, 96
dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1.3)
dam anpatel Juv 3 (2.2)
dBmcirchineBI n 'delayer'
Hapax in Welsh; see damcirchinnuou
GPC: 884; Stokes 1873, 392; VVB: 94
damcirchineat gl. demorator Me 6 b.b.
damcirchinnuou n pi 'a going around, a circuiting'
Hapax in Welsh; OB damcirchinn 'fait Ie tour de'
< *do-ambi + cyrchyn, see circhinn.
DGVB: 128; GPC: 884; VVB: 94; WO: 27
ordamcirchinnuou gl. ambagibus J 56
dsmlTlluda/uis [LatinJ
Several interpretations of these two difficult glosses, both of which occur in the
Juvencus manuscript have been suggested, see DGVB: 172; Thurneysen: 1890a,
92; Williams: 1933, 115; VVB: 93. It was argued by P.-Y. Lambert that in fact
these instances are Latin (dafiuU5 fraudatiuus). See P.-Y. Lambert in Revue de
philologie 57 (1983), pp. 39--45; cf. Lambert: 1986, 110.
dcifraud atuis gl. subtrahet igni J 2
dafraudatius gl. animae J 18
dBmes v prete 2 sg ?
The connections of this verb with MW darnu 'to separate' and tarnu 'to dry,
reckon' have been considered; the semantics, however, in both cases is remote.
According to Stokes, the phrase could be nominal, i'th darnes ti 'in your fragment'.
In general, far from clear.
Lambert: 1987,306; Stokes: 1860-1,291; White: 173-175; Williams: 1933,118
itdamestf gl. agitare J 88
das n m&f 'stack, heap, file' [diS]
MW das; OB desi; Ir daiss
< *dasto- < IE *dhe- 'setzen, stellen, legen'
DOVB: 136; GPe: 900; lEW: 238; LElA: D-13-4; ML: 94, 228; VVB: 95
gl. aceruo J 45
dBt' n m&f 'meeting, assembly, council' (dadl)
MW dad(y)l; OB dad) gl. concio, OC datheluur gl. concionator; Olr dal
< *dhH-tlo-, IE Vdhe- Csetzen, stellen, legen'; see also the next.
DqVB: 127; ope: 870; lEW: 237; LElA: D-16f; DeV: 110; PECA: 36; Schrij-
ver: VGK: I, VVB: 95
in irguorunhetic dati gJ.. in argulo foro Ovid 38a
41
dBllocou n pi 'places of dehate'
Hapax in Welsh, see datI and loc, for the formation cf. mynachlog
GPC: 872; VVB: 96
datlocou gl. fora Ovid 38a
dalsebimou n pi 'establishments, cattle-sheds'
According to Fleuriot, "Ie sens et la formation rappellent Ie lat. stabllltl1n··. The
entire gloss was considered to be Welsh particularly due to the presence of the
preposition o. As for the interpretation of this word, Fleuriot refers to W datsaf
'stay of blood·. \vhich is a cognClte of Jclvll, etc. on this word sec (iPC: ()(l4. The
instance is not quoted in ope.
DGVB: 274
odatsebimou gl. stabulis Ang 15 h
dallolimb?
According to Stokes, dat (cf. W datod 'to loosen') and limb (W lIun 'hend, turn·)
he interpreted the gloss as dattot-timb 'a loosening turn'. Loth, however. would
suggest dat = do + at in combination with dot (W dodi 'place') and li,n'" 'spasm'
(W tymmig), then 'demangeaison ou spasme pour reje/e".
Stokes: 1873, 399; VVB: 96
dattotimb gl. gestione Me 10 a.a.
dBul n m 'share'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf. didalll, air ddl.
Perhaps, to IE *do: *d;J· 'teilcn' (lEW: 175).
GPC: 906; LElA: D-16; Williams: 1980, 184
Amdifuys daul bacl patern Pad: 4
dBum n m 'son-in-law; member of a retinue,
See dauu. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 130
dati gl. cliens Prise 34 b
dauu n m 'son-in-law; memher of a retinue, guesf [daw)
MW daw; OC dof gl. genec MB deuff; Mlr dam
< Britt. *diilno· (since O'Rahilly) < IE *don,os see also dOlO".
E. Campanile in BBeS 26 (1976), pp. J()5--6; DGVB: 1)0; 906: E. Ilamp in
ZCP 36 (1978), pp. 5-12; M. Gwyn Jenkins in 17 (195R). pro 252-R: LElA:
D-20; LHEB: 417; K. McCone in Eriu 43 (1992), pp. 193-7; T. F. (J"Rahilly in
Celtica I (1946), pp. 375-7; PECA: Rhys: lR73, VGK: I, 4R: VVB: 96
dauu gl. cliens Ovid 38
3
deccolion n pi 'decimals; tenth parts' f
W degawl, degol
An -01 derivative of 'ten' < IE *dekl!t-t- 'zehn', lEW: 191; see also De
Bernardo Stempel: 105-6 with hihl.
apc: 916: Stokes: 187J, VVR: Q7
ordeccolion gl. decadihus Mr' 7 h. h.
, '.
42
degion D pi IdeoDI
MW deon
A subtantivised derivative of the adjective (pI. form) da 'good' < *dag-, or directly
< *dagiones, see GPC: 866 and 942; GPN: 188 with bib!.
GMW: 35; GPC: 930; JO: LL: xliv; MJ: 271
imguodant ir degion Chad 2
delehid D m 'lock, bar, door- bolt' (dylaith]
MW dileith, dyle(y)th, B dleizen
GPC derives this fonn from Britt. *dlekt-.
GPC: 1135; VVB: 91
delehid gl. sera Ox2 44· (6.12)
delu n r'image, statue; idol' (delw]
MW delw; C del; Olr delb
< Celt. *del,!d- < IE ·del- 'spalten, schnitzen'
ope: 927; lEW: 194; LElA: D-47-8; LHEB: 387; VGK: I, 64; VVB: 98
delli gl. Dummismatis J 80
demen D sgl. 'oak-tree' (derwen]
MW derven; B deruenn; Brittonic Derventio; Olr daur
A well attested IE tree-name which is reconstructed (according to Benveniste) I
*der-w and II dr-eu (Pokorny's *deru-, etc., 'Baum')
E. Benveniste in Word 10 (1954), p.259; P. Friedrich, Proto-Indo-European
Trees, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1970, pp. 140-146;
GPC: 932; lEW: 214-211; LElA: 0-12
di pul irderuen Chad 6
demm ". pres. 3 sg 'to happen' [darfod]
MW deru-, darf-; OB darned, daruid
Since J. Loth (contrast WG: 351) this is considered as a combination of a prefix
dar- « "do-are) and personal form of the verb 'to be'. It has been noted (LHEB:
90) that the spelling "deruid and lacou are probably due to the influence of Latin
writing in Wales, in which b and v are sometimes confused".
DGVB: 129; GMW: 14S-(); GPe: 892; R. Loth in RC 26 (1915), p. 172
ir nider uid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21-22
di
1
prep. 'to'
MW OB da, do; OIr do
< IE ·'0-; see also didi.
OGVB: 126, 141, 146, GPC: 943; lEW: 1068; JO: 95--6; Lambert: 1983, 131;
Lambert: 1987,285--6; LElA: D-l11 and T-81; WG: 87; VVB: 99
diguorguac gI. inani Ang14 b
Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7.2)
haccet. nitegid. di. a. Comp 8
irnidibid ir loyr di a. Comp 10
43
bihit dir temi Comp 16
araut dinuadu J 0
di gl. exclusa medulae 1 38
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38;1
dilitau gl. Latio Ovid 39
h
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.3.
di assa .i. asse bichan MP 22b (234)
di mesur MP 23 a (229; cf. Lewis: 1926, 1)
(surexit tutbulc ... ) dierchim tir tclih Chad 2
This form frequently occurs in Chad 6
di1. prep 'to'
DGVB: 141 and 136; the form houl 'sun' is Breton. See di
l

di houl gl. in aduerso Ang 58 a
di
3
prep. 'to'
The analysis of this preposition as used to denote 'from' (Caerwyn Williams: 1948,
3; Bromwich: 1980, 109) was rejected in favour of 'to' hy T. A. Watkins, Watkins:
1982, 30, cf. Haycock: 11-2. Sec di
l
and cf. d;4.
dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
di
4
prep. 'from'
08 di; Ir de, di
< IE *de-
10: 105; lEW: 182; MJ: 272; Lambert: 19R7, 2RR; Cacrwyn Williams: 1948. 1-10
dimedichat Chad 2
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 19
anu di iuno gl. Suadae MC la.b.
enuein di iunoni gl. Iterducam et Domiducam Me' II a.a.
anu di iuno gI. Populonam l1a.a.
enuein di Sibellae int hinn gI. Erytria quacque ('umea cst vel Phrigia Me II h. b.
nomen di cretae gl. Mac[a]roncsos Me 49 b.a.
nomen di tauro gl. caucassus Me 50 h.h.
diapcrthou gl. munerihus Ovid J7
h
hin map di ioh gl. love dignus Ovid 39
h
di
5
(particle -?) see diglniuhit
diam.r 10 'mystery, wonder' ?
For the paleography of this difficult line see I. Williams, who inter aha suggests a
connection of this word with Irish dfa",oir, itsclf a word without an ctymology
(LElA: 0-68). The alternative readings of this linc were suggested hy M.
cock, *adiell ior, *adiein ior.
Haycock: 9; Lambert: 1976-7,529; Williams: 19RO, IOJ-4
omnipotcils auctor tidicnncs adiaI11."•• r· .. J Juv Q (1.1---2)
disuc adj. 'ISly'
f\1W diawc, ding: Q{' diue gl. ()B di,)c·hi
J
"\ "-
44
< di- (neg.) + IE *oku-s 'schnell'
DGVB: 143;GPC: 1026; lEW: 775; OCV: 141; PECA: 38; VGK: 1,48; VVB: 99
diAuc g1. segncm J 93
dib8nn?
If the word is dibann, I. Williams suggests a link with MW diuan 'immaculate,
perfect'. Still another possibility noted by Williams is to read this as in bonn
'melodiously' .
Haycock: 13; Watkins: 1982,31 and 38; Williams: 1980,111-2
it clu(i)s [it] iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
dibid v pres. 3 sg 'to come' [deuaf)
MW dib-; cL MW deu, ME deuaff
This form of the verb contains *do-, and the form of the substantive verb. See also
the next.
Elsie: 86; GPC: 934; VGK: II, 452
Imidibid ir loyr dLa. Comp 9
dibu l' prete 3 51 '10 rome'
See s. v. dibid.
GMW: 134; GPC: 791; White: 187-8; Williams: 1980, 109
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
dicnchiriuetitjon adj. pi 1
According to P....Y. Lambert this stands for dich(i)riu-etic-ion, a derivative of
dechreu 'beginning'; differently by Fleuriot, who does not explain the gloss; see
also DOB: II, 495" where Lambert's correction is doubted, though no grounds or
better suggestions are given.
DGVB: 229: Lambert: 1982, 195-6
irdicn_chiriueticion gl. principales Prisc16 b
dirones v prel. 3 5g 'to make'
For the interpretations of the verbal syntax, see GMW: 61, Watkins: 1982, 41;
Williams: 1980, 103. For the form, see White: 175-6. For the etymology see the
next entry.
omnipotens auctor tidicones adiam.r••[... j Juv 9 (1.1)
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
dironetent v prete (1) Impers. 'to make, to do'
Traditionally analysed as a derivative of a Celtic Ykiin-, related to Lat. conari (IE
*ken· 'sich mtihen" thus J. Lloyd-Jones, lEW: 564), or a lengthened grade of
*kan- 'singen' (GPC, cf. lEW: 526). According to F.O. Lindeman, it is derived
from IE *gel1:J- Ito give birth to'. I. Williams (1927 : 260) suggested the reading of
the ending as -einr in view of OW e = lei]. The form is then analysed as an
impersonal preterite. cf. GMW: J27, Lindeman p. 507, n. 1.
45
GMW: 151; ope: 998; F.O. Lindeman in nocs 29 (1981), pp. 507-12; J. Lloyd-
Jones in BBeS 2 (1925), pp.6--8
pan diconetent ir. oithaur hinnith Comp 3
did n m 'day' [dydd)
MW dit, dyt, dyd(d); OC deC OB dcd; Olr dla
< *diieu-; sec also diu Sill.
DOVB: 132, 138; Elsie: 87; oPC: 1119; E. I"lamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.472-7;
lEW: 184; JO: 106; LElA: D-64; LI-IEB: 351; DeV: 197; PEe'A: 37; VGK: I. 42;
WG: 83
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp 1
is did ciman. haci Comp 3
irdid hinnuith Comp 9
irdid. hinnuith Camp 11
pet guarid. did Comp 18
did braut Chad 2
didsu/adj. 'without a share, deficient, deprived or (diddawll
MW did(d)awl
< *di (IE *de-) + daul, see S.V., anti cf. Lat. ex·per(t)-s.
GPC: 967; VVB :l(XJ
didaul gl. expers Ox2 45
3
(8.2)
didaul gl. expers Ox2 47
3
(11.17)
didu prep. pers. 3 sg
A personal form of eli
l
(see s.v); see also gllotiapallr oi,,,e,. dill".
GMW: fiO; Williams: 1980. 110
guotiapaur oinler dic.Ju Juv 9 (4.3)
diliciuou n pi 'lack, want· I
MW diffyg, C dyfygy
< Lat. dificill1rl
GPC: 993; ML: 160; Russell: 1990. VVB: IOl
dificiuou gl. dispendia J 4
difrit n m 'a heatin,f
Hapax in Welsh. The word is analysed ns a combination of the prefix di- and the
stem is found in ffrydio, etc.
GPC: 992; Stokes: 1873, 104; VVB: 101
fonnaul difrit gl. fustuarium Me 41 a.a.
digstma n r'enclosure for animals, circus'
Occurs twice in Welsh, and hoth times in the same text. Sec also the next entry. A
-fa derivative from (MW) for the etymology see tii'RGtis,H'.
GPC: 1t LHEB: 45R. ()5R: J. Rhys: 1873. VVB: 102
irdigatma gl. area Ovid 37
h
digntma gl. circus Ovid JR
h
I
t
,..
t
··,
.,'r {
46
dig.'m.ou n pi 'enclosures for animals'
A plural of digatma, see s. v. for the further references.
irdigatmaou gl. circus Ovid 3g
b
diglniuhit ?
According to J. Loth, ...n... is a scribal error for -u-; he divides the gloss into di
(verbal particle). and gluiuhit which he analysis as a 2 pi imp. form of the verb.
cognate with gioiu (see s.v.).
VVB: 102
hac diglninhit gl. ret] eliqua Ox2 44
b
(7.20)
diguedhllm adj. 6last, ultimate, final' [diwethaf]
MW diwethaf
A *-samo- derivative from diued, see s. v.
GPC: 1059
issed diguedbam oJ] Camp 15
adj. 'bright, shining' ?
Hapax in Welsh; GPC suggests di... (cadarnhol) -g(w)o-llewychedig; llewych 'light'
< ?Britt. */ug-isk, yJeug-; according to P.-Y. Lambert this word shows confusion
of two sterns: ·diguolou-etic (ef. di-olo 'decouvert') and *fouich-etic (W llewychu
'briller', go/au, etc.).
GPC: 1060; P.-Y. Lambert in EC 27 (1990), p. 348; VVB: 102
diguolouichetic gl. proditus Ovid 41b
diguorinBch n 'addition'
See diguormechis. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 141; Lambert: 1982, 198
diguormach gl. adiectionem i. diriuationem Prise. 15a
diguormechis , pret. 3 sg 'to add'
OB doguormach 'addition' in doguormaheticion, degurmehi te, degurme(h); OIr
do-formaig
Hapax in Welsh which contains V*mag- < IE *meg(h)- 'groB'; -ch- was explained
by J. Loth (RC 40 (J923), p.342) as a development *mag-s (s-subjunctive) >
·max-; it is also noted that -ch... could be used to denote intervocal -g- (Thurn-
eysen).
DGVB: 148; GPe: 1001; lEW: 708-9; LElA: M-8; Thurneysen: 1890, 205;
White: Williams: 1930,237; I. Williams in BBCS 10 (1941), p.40
diguormechis lucas MP 22
b
(234)
dilein" (vn) ? 6to delete, era8e" [dil-)
MW dil-: Olr do-lega
< Celt. ·di·leg-n, IE Vleg- -tropfeln, sickern, zergehen' (lEW: 657)
ope: LElA: D-]61; StoKes: 1873,404; VGK: 11,562; VVB: 103
dilein gl. aboJitione Me 40 a,b,
diU" n m reproBC'h' (diliw]
MW diliw, OB diliu (?)
47
Since Stokes's edition (1860-1: 211-2, cf. VVB: 104) this word analysed as di-
(privative) + fill 'colour'. J. Strachan (in RC 2H (1907), pp. 197-R) interprets the
prefix as the equivalent of Irish do- (Greek /)vs-). lne word was considered
alongside OB deliu, dilill and OC disliu by Fleuriot (DGVB: 134 and 142). Accor-
ding to GPC: 1014, this contains di- and an clement which is found in WedliH'.
lliwied, etc.
dfliu gJ. livor daemonis J 15
dinBut n 'pipe, water-pipe, conduit'
Hapax in Welsh. Following J. Rhys (1873: 466) this could be analysed as a deriva-
tive from W dinou. 'to pour, flow, stream out' (ef. C denewy, MB dinou). This
perhaps contains di-, and IE *snii- 'nicl3en, Feuchtigkeif (lEW: 9710, cf. Irish
snuad (LElA: 5-154).
GPC: 1020; VVB: 104
dinaut gJ. pipinnis (for bipennis) Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
diprotsnt v pres. 3 pi 'to disjudge' (difrod-)
MW difrawt
A compound of di· and brollt (see s.v.v.). Note the presence of p, which is
explained as a result of douhling of [h) after di- (MJ) or compared to the forms like
dybll, etc. (JO), or otherwise considercd to represent rf] (F.O. Lindeman).
GPC: 986; JO: 100; F. O. Lindeman in BBCS 32 (19R5), p. 163f.; F. O. Lindeman
in Eriu 46 (1995), pp. 169-170; MJ: 271; White: 115-9
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
diTKslisse v pluperfect 3 sg 'to leave, permit" (dyad.. )
MW dyadu
Etymologically, di + gadu 4 pcrmif (on this see Isaac: 329) with the affirmative
particle -r- (MW ry, Ir ro) inserted after the prevern. Sec also dagatte. digat-
lna(ou).
GMW: 166; GPC: 1113; Loth in RC 29 (190R). White: 257
dirgatissc locclau gJ. concesserat MC Ra.h.
dirlimprosuni v pluperfect (pret. ?) I pi (1 ?) 'to extract, choose'
L. Fleuriot suggested that this stands for dirlil"prOSflll (,,);, \vith a prefix liir- (cf.
dirgatisse) and a stem found in W lIil1ll'rO, OD d;(s)le11,f,retic. The semantic shift.
putative -OSlI11 , and etymology werc left unexplained. Recently P.- Y. Lamhert has
shown that the word corresponds to Irish toI011l1llrati, \\'hich is a calque on Lat.
he also notes, that ula dcsinencc -osun-; est ccrtaincment rcquivalent
du gall. moy. et mod. -aSU'11 , 1re sg. de plus-quc-parfait de J"indicatif. r... ] I..e
pronom d'emphase affixe est d'aiJlcurs normalcment -; ala I pers. du sg.··.
DGVB: 144; GPC: Lamhert: 19Rfl, P,-Y. Lamhcrt in 17 (19RO),
pp.172-4
dirlimprosuni gJ. excerpsimus .i. colJegimus Ant! 12 n
adj.
'Japax in \Vel"h. hllt cf. W d;""'rfi( r!\'nt'("', ,{"'·""Jl)
, "-
48
A ..iad derivative from Celt. *do--ro-l}es--t < IE *yes- 'verweilen, wohnen, uber--
nachten' (lEW: 1170--1).
Fowkes: 1958, 1-2; GPC: 1038; VGK: I, 80; VVB: 105; I. Williams in BBCS 2
(1923), pp. 41-4.
diruestiat gl. jejunam J 64
n 'common, poor'
This segmentation of the line was suggested by I. Williams, who notcd that W
disgyr shout' is not a suitable comparanda. Instead he refers to MIr discir
'fierce' and doescair 'mean'. It was argued by Jackson, that these two Irish words
are unrelated (cf. LElA: D-98), and the meaning 'fierce' does not fit the context.
He holds that the word consists of a negative or adversative prefix (di .. or dy.. ), and
the stern *SCOT· 'host'; then I&no great host". He admits, however, that the double
final is unparalleled. R. Bromwich in her commentary to I. Williams' discussion
notes that the meaning 'mean' is attested for Irish discir. GPe lists the word as a
hapax. The etymology is obscure.
GPC: 1047; Bromwich: 1980, 97; Jackson: 1950, 70; LElA: D-98; Watkins: 1982,
38; Williams: 1980, 97-8
isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
n f'dish, plate' (dysgl)
MW dyskyl; cf. 08 disc « Lat. discis)
< Lat. disc 'Jus < disculU5
DGVB: 144; GPC: 1149; ML: 162; VVB: 106
o disci gl. lanee J 59
dissuncgnetic Idj. 'sucked out, drained'
Hapax in Welsh. The entry is analysed by GPC 8S *di +sugn + edig, for the stem
cf. W 5ugno, Irish suig- < (or a cognate of) Lat. sugo, see Elsie: 57; VGK: I, 72.
GPC:r 1051; lEW: 913; LElA: 5-201; Stokes: 1873, 369; VVB: 106
dissuncgnetic gl. exanclata MC 3 a.8.
diu num. card. f 'two'
See dou; for the fern. formation consider LElA: D-6
Stokes: 1813, 398; VVB: 101
ithrirdiuail gL glabella medietas MC 9 b.b.
diued n m 'end' (diwedd)
MW diuet, diwet, diwed; Me deweth; B divez, OIr dead, diad
< di (see s.v. di
4
) + VlJ.edh· 'ftihren', lEW: 1115-6.
GPC: 1056; JO: 99; D-29; WG: 251
ho dined Chad 2
diu suI n m 'Sunday'
MW dywsu]
The form contains diu 'day" sec S.v. did; and sui < Lat. solis (ML: 208).
gueith diu sui inm6n AC i.a. 876 (Phillimore: 166)
4<)
dluithruim n 'lever'
The suggestion of W. Stokes was to read luitll for dluith (llwyllt 'a weigh t'), and
rui,n = W rhwyf = Lat. renlllS; cf. VVB: lOR. According to J. Rhys, dillith stands
for tluit: W tlawd. L. Flcuriot's analysis suggcsts a derivation from *dleikt- in view
of B dleizenn. Apparently, lit. 'weight - beam I oar'.
DGVB: LHEB: 479-80: Parry-Williams: 121; Stokes: IR60-1, 226
or mchir dluithruim gl. vectc movcri J 90
doctrin?
This word was analysed hy J. Loth as a loan from Lat. doctrina; but cf. W doeth <
Lat. dOCIUS. This could be Latin.
VVB: 108
doctrin gl. astructio Me 40 a.b.
doiumn?
According to I. Williams, Loth's reading ,nos cloillm" (VVB: IRI) should be
abandoned. The gloss remains ohscure.
Williams: 1929,7
doiumn gl. metallum Ox2 42
h
(4.5)
dometic adj. 'tamed, subjected'
W dovedig, dofedig
An -edig derivative of (MW) do! 'tame' (MB doff, Lat. d0I110). According to
Pokorny, lEW: 199-200, this is a loan from Latin (/0",0re. It is not, however,
listed by Lewis, and is perhaps an authcntic word, < ('cit. *d01110J (-fi) < IE
*d0I11h
2
-o-, sec Schrijver: 37. Sec also c/alill nnd ardo11und.
GPC: 1072; Russell: 1990,77; VVB: III
ordomctic gl. domito Ovid 39:1
dor n f 'door' (dorJ
MW dor, B doT. Me Olr dorus; C; doro
< Celt. *durii < IE *dhyr- 'TOr'. Sce also elf'll"'.
GPC: 1076; lEW: 278-9; LElA: D-181; Schrijvcr: VGK: I. VVA: 111
dor gl. super ualuam Ox2 44:1 (f).12)
dosseheitic adj.
It was suggested by L. Flcuriot that the word contains the stem dOJ and the suffix
-elletic (cf. -hegetic, -Iraheitic, ctc., DGVB: 20R). The stem was compared to that
of diddos 'watertight' (see GPC': 9(9), dos 'drop, trickle' ((iPC: 1077. \vith no
etymology provided). GPC docs not consider this entry. DaB: 44.1 lists this entry
as dOJseheeitic.
DGVB: 226
int dosseheitic gl. gutatirn Ang 15 b
dou num. card. m 'two" (dati)
OW (LL) dou, MW deu: C' dow, dew; ()O dOli: (llr delli. d(l
< Celt. *duyo. IE *duyo-, Pokorny's sec also dill.
50
w. Cowgill in MUnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 46 (1985), pp.20-25;
DGVE: 151; OPC: 905; Greene: SQ4.-{) and 538-9; lEW: 228; LElA: D--6; LHEB:
336; Schrijver: 331; VVB: 112
dou trean gl. bissem Ang 47 a
dou trean haur gl. bisse Ang 56 a
har dou trean gl. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
int dou pimp MP 22
b
(230)
dOll punt MP 22
b
(234)
dOll eterinn MP 22
b
(234)
num. canl. 'forty' [deugain]
MW deu vgein, deugein(t)
A compound, dou (see dou), and ugain(t) 'twenty' (aIr fiche, C ugens, B ugent)
< IE ..s 'zwanzig', lEW: 1177; see De Bernardo Stempel: 110-1 with further
bibliography. See also the next.
GPC: 938
douceint torth Chad 3
ha douceint torth Chad 3
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
douhollce;nf nOID. arel. 'forty'
See douceint.
DGVB: 232
is douhouceint gl. XL Ang. 59b
douid see •••erdutoa ti pint••••
dreb n?
According ]. Loth, this is a word for 'las'.
VVB: 113
guarirdreb gl. edito Me 3 a.8.
drissi n pi 'briers, brambles, thornbushes' [drysi]
MW drys(s)i, dris(si); DC dreis g1. uepres, OB drisoc gl. dumetum; OIr driss gl.
vepres
A widely accepted derivation from ·dris..to.. (Greek see lEW: 215) was
recently queried by P. Schrijver,
DGVB: 152; GPe: 1096; LElA: D-191; OCV: 302; PECA: 40; Schrijver: 410;
VGK: 1,80; VVB: 113
6rd "rissi gl. de tribulis J 27
drissi gl. spinis J 56
, .. drissi gl. dumas J 87
dnts n m 'door-way, door' fdIV!)
MW drws, Me darat; cf. Olr dorus
< IE 'Tur"; according to Pedersen (VGK: II, 20), this goes back to the
51
same protoform as OW dor, see S.V., with a syncope of the first vowel. However,
"the details of the reconstruction of drw.'i are thoroughly ohscure", Schrijver: 413.
OPC: lEW: 278-9; LElA: D-IR2; VVB: 113--4
drus gl. claustrum J 66
du adj. 'black' [du]
OW (AC, HB) Dub-, OW (LL), MW du; OC gl. niger; OB du; Olr dub; G
Dubis
A derivative of IE *dhubh- (ydhell-); for an underlying form *dllbLJo- see
E. Hamp in SC 18/19 (1983/4), p. 129. The presence of a Welsh article allows us to
consider this form as Welsh, though the Breton form must be identical.
DGVB: 153; Elsie: R3; GPC: 1097; lEW: 264; LElA: D-210; LHEB: 275; OCV:
209; PECA: 41; VGK: 1,116
ir du bisl gl. meloncolia Ang 6R a
dub see du
dubeneticion adj. pi 'cut away'
Hapax in Welsh; a cognate of W difyn 'fragment. piece', dyfin- 'to cut to pieces';
to IE *bhei- 'schlagen' (lEW: 117).
GPC: 989; LElA: B-34; Stokes: 1813, 404; VVB: 114
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus cxsectis Me 42 3.8.
duiutit n m 'divinity'
MW dwydit
A -tit derivative of OW (LL) (Juiu, OC dlly gl. denfi, G. Df'lIo,,; Olr dia, < IE
*dei·, etc., 'hell glanzen', see GPC: 1101. PECA: 41.
GPC: 1107; lEW: 185; LElA: 0-64; LHEB:
eo quod ipse narrauit generationem Christi hcnHd duititft J 0
dur adj. 'hard, cruel' rdurJ
MW dur; B dir, Olr dur
< Lat. duruJ
GPC: 1099; LElA: ML: VVB: 114
dur gl. dira Ovid 41 h
E
e prOD. pOSe 3 sg 'its' lei)
This interpretation of this entry was offered by L. Fleuriot CDGVB: 274-5); for the
etymology and further bibliography see s. v. hi I .
o e leidim gl. processu Ang. 61b
edil n f .. handle· rhaeddel]
MW hacddcl; MB haczl
< IE *segh- 'festhaltcn, halten'
52
GPC: 1804; T. Jones in BBeS 9 (1938), pp. 127-30; E. Hamp in BBCS 28 (1980),
p. 217; Hamp: 1919,68-9; lEW: 888-9; Schrijver: 134; VVB: 115; Williams: 1929,
4-5
edil gl. stipa Ox2 42
b
(4. 7)
egid v pres. 2 sg (3 sg - ?) '10 more, travel'
According to I. Williams, who was followed by GMW, this is a 3 sg. present form.
Alternatively, T. A. Watkins suggests that this is a 2 sg. present, due to the facts
that 1) independent form could not be expected in W after a negative particle, 2)
other forms with -id suggest a relativizing suffix and 3) there is no need to consider
in all the cases the omission of loyr. See also J. T. Koch in BBCS 38 (1991), p. 115.
GMW: 119; Watkins: 1987,59; White: 109-10; Williams: 1927,266
haccet. nitegid. di.a. Comp 8
nitegid ad serenn ara)) Comp 17
eguin n m&r 'nail of the finger or toe' [ewin)
MW ewin; OC euuin gJ. unguis, gl. ungula; OB eguin gl. adungem; Olr
ingen
< Celt. from IE -hJ'Jt·u. (Pokorny's ·onogh-, etc., 'Nagel'); --- Lat. un-
guis, etc.
DGVB: 169; GOl: 130; GPC: 1262; lEW: 780; LHEB: 387; OCV: 58 and 64;
PECA: 45; Schrijver: 326; VVB: 115; VGK: I, 107; WG: 131
ir eguin MP 23a (241)
eirimo'or v pres. impel'!l. 'to count' [eirif-)
This entry was considered by L. Fleuriot as an impersonal form of W eirifaf, cf. W
eir;f'number' (Olr dram) < *ad-rimo-, GPC: 1196, which contains a reflex of IE
*(o)r;·, *rei- (lEW: 60; cf. LElA: R-31); see also Hamp: 1977-8, 6. The instance
is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 156; Elsie: 87
eirimotor gl. dies Ang 54 a
elbid n DI f 'world' (elfydd]
MW eluit, eluyd, G Albi(o)-; Ir Albu
< *olbiio-, IE *albho- 'weiG' (lEW: 30)
GPC: 1205; E. Hamp in BBCS 36 (1989), p. 109 and ZCP 45 (1992), pp.87-9;
J. Koch in Emania 9 (1991),20-2; W. Meid, Aspekte der germanischen und kelti-
schen Religion im Zeugnis der Sprache. Innsbruck 1991
gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
e'im/u n m 'great host' [elynu)
MW eliw)u, elyflu, eliflu
, .. A compound containing the affected form of ala! 'herd of cattle, wealth, luxury'
. (cf. MIT a/om, < IE *al- lEW: 26, but see LElA: A-60), and lu 'host',
see s. v. reifl.
GPC: ] Williams: 1980, 109
dicones dicJimlu pbctid Juv 9 (4.1)
53
elin n m&f 'elbow, forearm' [elin)
MW elin, OC elin gJ. angulus, elin gJ. OR olin 'coude, angle' in
aIr uilen
< Britt. *o/fno < rE *el-, etc. 'biegen' --- Lat. ulna. etc.; see also elinoll; on
trionoloc gl. triquodru111 see I. Williams in nncs 10, (1940/1), p. 135.
DGVB: 276; GOI: apc: 1206; lEW: LElA LHEB: 595: OCV:
PECA: 42; Schrijvcr: 259; VGK: 11,59;
hor elin MP 23
3
(246)
elinn n f 'razor' (ellynJ
MW ellyn; 08 aHin gl. ferula; Olr altain
< IE *(s)p(h)el- 'spaltcn. abspalten' (douhted in LElA).
oaVB: 50; GPC: 1209; lEW: 985-6; LElA: A-J4; Loth in RC 45 (1928) p. 173;
VGK: 1,137; VVB: 116
elinn gl. nouacula Ox2 42
h
(4.7)
elinou n pi 'elbows, forearms'
The presence of an 08 form olin caused Fleriot to consider this form as Welsh, a
pI of elin. See elin. The instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 157
melinou uel elinou gI. cardinales Ang 15 a
ellesheticion ?
According to Stokes and Loth, this is connected with 'music'. GPC does not
consider this instance.
Stokes: 1873, 394; VVB: 116
ellesheticion gl. mela Me Ra.a.
em pron. pers. independent 3 sg 'he, if' (ef)
MW ew, cf, e; 08 em. C Ir som. scm
< IE *seln- 'eins', or from the IE demonstrative *e- (lEW: 2R I): the quotation
from the luvencus glosses ("thafs ir cise11,ic") shows the omission of copula. SC'C'
Watkins.
OaVB: Elsie: 102; GOI: 2R5: GPe: lEW LElA: VGK:
II, 164, 170; VVB: 117; Watkins: 1997, WG: 273
isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 (see Watkins: 19Q7. 5RO)
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid digucdham 011 in pagina regulari (·omp 15
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus 1 70
issemi anu gl. Genius Me 11 a.b.
emedou n m pi 'bronze, brass, copper' [erydd)
MW euy(d)d, efydd; Olr umae
< Celt. *omiio- < *o1n-eio·; traditionally. to IE V011t- 'roh, hitter· (Pedersen,
Pokorny, H. Hessen in ZCP 9 (1913) p. consider. however. W. Krogmann in
ZCP 21 (IQ1R). pp. 4R--Q. where IE Ye11t- 'fOt' is postulated. For the form l"ullid in
BN Lat. 10290 12 h sec E. RClchcllcry in Fe 11 pro 111--112. cf. <llso
I,nmhert: 19R2a. 22 fn. I. Sec r.lc;;o r111itl
54
DGVB: 216; ope: 1173; lEW: 777; LElA: U-24; Schrijver: 394; VGK: 1,32,166;
VVB: 117
ir emedou gl. aera Ovid 38
8
emeninn n m 'butter' (ymenyn]
MW emenin, emenyn; DC amanen gl. butirum; Olr imb
< IE 'SaJbe' (= *n3ngU-1J): see also emmeni.
GMWL: 296; lEW: 779; Jackson: 1950, 75; oev: 367-8; PECA: 8; Schrijver: 351;
VGK: I, 46; VVB: 118
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
emid n m 'bronze, brass, copper' (elydd)
See emedou.
nouiremid gl. aeris Me 4 b.a.
oemid gl. ex aere MC 46 b.b.
emmeni n m 'butter'
See emeninn.
emmeni gl. babtuta Ox2 42
8
(3.8)
emmi guollig v pres. 3 sg -to prevent' (1)
Hapax in Welsh. According to I. Williams, emmi (with no reflexive force) stands
for W am-, ym-, OB em- (cf. OGVB: 157); he notes, that OIr im I imm in
relative clauses becomes imme, imma. For the root he suggests a connection with
OIr leim (W lIam) 'to leap", with a prefix (Ir 10-, W gwo-), meaning 'to prevent,
anticipate'. For further possi bilities for the interpretation and their possible draw..
backs, see White.
White: Williams: ]927, p.269-70
Salt emmi guollig hinnitb if bloidin hunnuith Comp 19
en prep ·'in' (1)
IE *en- 'in' , cf. 08 en, in; Stokes: 1860-1, 291 considers this as an intensive
prefix.
lEW: 312; VVB: 119
nacenbfd gl. nulla J 71
enderic n m 'bullock, steer,
MW (h)enderic, enderic,
An -ig derivative, cf. MW OM (n)eir 'heifer', B annoer; Midlr a(i)nder, ann;r with a
probable Basque connection (see M. Aguid, A. Tovar, Diccionario etimol6gico
vasco. I Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia: Diputaci6n Foral de Guipuzcoa, Donostia:
San Sebastian 1989, pp. 865-7) and with an unexpected preservation of -nd.... For a
a derivation *ando-daTi-ko- see Hamp: 1977-8, 10. See also OWAV.
ope: LElA: LHEB: 508; VVB: 119; WG: 151; P.-Y. Lambert in EC
(1990). p. 347; H. Pedersen in JCS 1 (1950), pp. 5-6.
16 sive enderfc gl. vitu1us J 0
rntp n m'rIfe' (wynfhl
MW vinpn_ vvnpn. nc PI. naQina: OR cnen uucrt: Olr cncch. aincch
.55
< *(ep)-eni-Hoku-ii, cf. IE *ok
u
- 'schen'
DGVB: 160; Hamp: 1973,81-3; flamp: 1974,261-270; lEW: 775-6: PECA: 42;
VGK: 1,38; VVB: 119-120
haln hoi cncp gl. et totaln facieln mealn Ox2 41 h ( I. 10)
enmeituou n pi 'nods, signs, hints' (amnaidl
MW amnaid. emncid; OB enmeitiam gl. innun; Ir smcit-
The connection with Greek offered hy L. Stern in ZC'P 5 (1905) p. 402
was rejected by Vcndrycs.
DGVB: 160; GPC: 97; LElA: 5-141; VVB: 120; WG: IJ6
troi enmeituou gl. per nutus Ovid JR
h
enn;sn n m&f 'anvil' (eingionI
MW cin(g)on, ein(i)on; Ir indcin
According to 11. Pedersen this goes back to *'Jdhi-pon;. the root of which he
compares to Greek 1tfVOJUll. i.e. IE *(s)l'en-(d)- 'zichcn. spanncn' (lEW: 9RR); on
this difficult base, sec Chantraine: 881-2.
GPC: 1190; LHEB: 587; VB: 120; VGK: r. 114
ennian gl. incudo Ox2 42
h
(4.5)
enuein n pi 'names'
See anu.
cnuein di iunoni gl. Itcrducam et Domiducam Me II a.el.
cnuein di Sibellac int hinn gl. Erytria quaequc C'umca est vcl Phrigia Me II b.b.
epill n m&f 'auger, gimlet, wimble. borer, piercer' lebilll
MW chill. ebyll; OC obil (for cbit?) gl. clrtUllS. chilhocra leg. chilhoern gJ. cJanus:
MB (h)ihil
< Celt. IE *ak- 'scharf. spitz. kantig'
GPC: 1155; lEW: 19; OCV: 333; 4L VVB: 121
epill gl. rostru/n vel clauufn Ox2 42b (4.4)
ercimeir prep. 'opposite'
See arci11leir
DGVB: 165
ercimeir gl. contra Ang 60 a
ercit v imp.3 sg 'to seek, ask for, request'
See erehint, and cf. ereis.
White: 270: Williams: 1980.96-7
namercit mi ncp leguenid hcnoid Juv .1 (.1. I )
ercis v pret. 3 'to seck, ask for, rC(llIest'
Sec erehinl, ereit.
White: 183-4
rit crcis d••raul inadaut prescn Juv <} (H. I )
,
56
erchim vn 'to seek, ask for, request' [arch-]
MW erch-, arch-; MB archass; Olr arcn
< *arka < ·pr;sk-, IE Vperk-, etc. 'fragen, bitten'; see also ercit and cf. gurth ci-
march.
GPC: 179; lEW: 821; JO: 96; LElA: A-86; VGK: 1,44; White: 299
(surexit tutbulc ... ) dierchim tir telih Chad 2
erguid prep. 'according to' (herwydd)
MW herwyt, heruit: OB heruid
< Celt. ·ari-uid-, IE 'see, etc.'; for hlhl t., in el herwydd, see Williams:
1930, 244. See also heruid.
DGVB: 210; GPC: 1860; VGK: I, 413; WO: 414-5
guotan amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
errei see nam hint erre;
esC'eir n f 'limb' (esgair)
MW. esgeir, eskeir; OC elescher (possibly for uel escher, see Williams: 1944, 92) gl.
tibia; Ir escir 'ridge'
For the difficulties of the derivation from *eks-kara- (cf. Irish cara) see PECA.
Elsie: 109; GPC: 1242; DeV: 63; PECA: 43-4; VVB: 123
ceng ir esceir MP 23
8
(246)
estid n 'seat' (eistedd)
MW eistydd; OB estid; cf. OIr ast·
< Britt. *estied- < Celt. -eks.. dr..sed·, IE ysed- 'sitzen' (lEW: 884); for the seman-
tics, see Isaac: 326.
DGVB: 167; ope: 1200; LElA: A-97; VVB: 123; VGK: I, 70; VVB: 123; Wil-
liams: 1933, 112
estid gl. theatro Ovid 38
11
etem n m 'thread, yam' (edao)
MW edeu. edau; Gael. aitheamh 'fathom'
< Celt. *etami-, IE vpet- 'ausbreiten'
GPC: 1163; lEW: 824; Lane: 249; VGK: I, 132; VVB: 124
a hir etem gl. instita longa Ovid 37
8
eterin(n) n m sgl. 'bird'
See atar.
agit eterin illud MP 22
b
(234)
ir pimphet eterin MP 22
b
(234)
dOll eterinn MP 22
b
(234)
etlol?
This gloss is obscure. For various possibilities for its interpretation see OWAV.
VVB: 115
etlol g1. crouitorio Ox2 41 b cf. Craster: 135)
etmet " imp. 2 sg 'reap again·
A ................ 1-..: .... n.: .............. t _, (f)\ ........ ,1 __ J: _=_.... _, ......... .. .... .... __ ......... : ..... _
57
with aeddfed (GPC: 36), see OWAV.
DGVB: 138, 255; White: 266-R
acet met gl. retunde J 77
F
fsut n f m 'fate, luck' (fTawd)
MW faud. ffawt; cf. OC fodic gl. felix
< LuI. falll" .. (,PC' dot'S not consider this instnl1l'l'.
DGVB: .56; apc: 127(); ML: 167; ()('V: 140; PE('A: 46; VGK: I. 20J
a faut gl. a fortuna Prise 24 b
feciaul n 'napkin placed over the face of a dead person'
Hapax in Welsh.
< Lat. facialis
GPC: 1280; ML: 167; VVB: 125
feciaul gl. fascia J 91
felchou n pi 'spleen'
According to Fleuriot. the word could be Breton, though it is preceeded by the
Welsh article; see DGVB: 170. It is not attested in MW and W, which cannot he
used as a solid argument against the presence of this word in OW, cf. VB: 272. MB
felch alongside with Irish selg is traced to *Jpelgil-, see LEIA: S-R1. For the IE
etymon, see V. Toporov, Prusskii yazyk. Siovar' A-D. Moscow: Nauka 1975.
pp.236-7.
DGVB: 170
n6 ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
finn n pi 'sticks, rods' (ffonJ
MW ffon, pI. ffyn; Ir sonn
< IE *sp(h)endh- 'Holzcimer'; see also [onnaul and cf. [0"".
Elsie: 135; GPC: LElA: lEW: 9R9; VVB: 126; Schrijvcr:
Stokes: 1873, 403
finn gl. pila MC 38 a.a.
fionlluc n 'rose garden'
An .. auc derivative of fion, see fionoll. GPC lists this entry as Brcton conlparanda.
See also foionouc.
DGV8: 171
fionauc gl. rosarium Prise 24 a
fionou n pi 'roses; purple (monl
MW f(f)ion; ef. OW fionauc gl. Mlr sion
These words were analysed hy H. Pedersen as cognates of Lat. ,,;pion;a.
DGVB: GPC: E. "{amp in CMCS IH (I()H9). pr. LElA:
Schrijver: 2Rl; Stokes: lR73, VGK: I. 6R: VVB: 12ft
l1ouirfinnou gl. rnsnrum <) h.h.
t.
58
rlSll n 'fistula'
Hapax in Welsh; not registered in GPe, EL, Haarmann.
< Latin fIStula; W ffistwla was borrowed from English (GPC: 1290).
ML: 168; VVB: 126
fistl gablau gl. fistula (si]bilatrix MC 62 b.a.
n.ir n , 'smell, stink' Imair)
MW ffleir; OC flair glo oder, DB fleriot gI. que redolet
< Lat. /lagro < fragTo
DOVB: 171; GPe: 1292; LHEB: 597; ML: 168; DCV: 335; PECA: 46; Stokes:
1873,402; VGK: J, 223; VVB: 126
flairmaur gl. olacem Me 14 8.3.
foionouc n 'rose garden' (1)
Though the form of the suffix looks Welsh, the radical is Breton, cf. fionauc.
F1euriot points to the possible Breton origin of this entry; alternatively, this could
be a bretonised Welsh form.. See [ionou. GPC does not consider this instance.
DaVB: 171
foionouc gl. rosetum Prisc 35 b
fonn'1
The suggestion of Stokes (1873, 402-3) was to consider this as a sg. form of the
plural finn (see s.v.). The semantic aspect as it was noted by Loth (VVB: 127)
makes this assumption ra ther dubious. I am going to reconsider the suggestion of
Stokes in SC, forthcoming.
locell vel fonn gJ. ferculum Me 14 b.b.
fonnau/adj. 'pertaining to a stick or spear'
Hapax in an -awl / -of derivative of [onn, finn 'stick', see s.V.
OPC: .1302; Stokes: 1813, 404; VVB: 127
Connaul difrit gl.. fustuarium Me 41 a.3.
franc n m 'foreign merfenary'
MW franc
< MLat [rancus
This interpretation and derivation forwarded and advocated by I. Williams was
challenged by A. Breeze who considers this as a loan from AS franca 'javelin,
spear'. In her note len ny Rowland argues for the traditional interpretation of this
lexeme. The word perhaps also occurs in Juv 3 (1.3), see Williams: 1980,91.
A. Breeze in Notes and Queries 236 (1991), pp. 149-51 and in BBCS 37 (1991),
pp.98-9; Bromwich: 1980" 95-8; GPC: 1310; B. Rees in BBCS 18 (1958-{)(),
pp. 58-9; J. Rowland in CMCS 26 (1993), pp. 21-5; I. Williams in BBCS 7 (1935),
pp. 366-8; Williams: 1980, 95
mi am franc Juv 3 (2.3)
fralldll'uis see dsmfraudaJu;§
fnlirllnnsld ?
Thou£h the stem of the word is an apparent Joan from Lat. fructus (W ({,.n·rth),
59
the discussion of the form is very controversial; consider the attempts to see in it a
verb (VVB: 127) or the dispute ahout the formation of the adjective (Rhys: 1873,
236-7 and 467). Cf. hcrc W (1675) [[rwyth'onaidd 'fruitful. mature, prolific',
!!rl·vythloll 'productive, fertilc' (GPC: 1320).
fruidlonaid gl. fertilitas Ox2 46
h
(10.11)
Iminn n m&f 'bridle, restraint' (fTrwynI
MW fruin, fruyn, (f)frwyn; OIr srfan
< Lat. [renlon; see also ruinn.
GPe: 1319; LElA: S-IR6; ML: 171; VGK: I. 221: VVB: 12R
fruinn gl. frcnu"1 Ox2 43" (5.1)
fruinn gl. paglum Ox2 43
A
(5.2)
IUIII n f m 'fetter, gyve, shackle, bonds" (hual)
MW hual, MB cf. aIr sibal(l)
The Brittonic words are usually considered as loans from Lat. fihula; for a diffe-
rent view see ML and LElA. The unexpectcd vocalism was explained (differently)
by P. Schrijver and E. Hamp. The troublesome initial in OW was explained by a
"fluctuating changc", without specifying it 276), by the influence of the
Latin original (P. Schrijvcr), and the dialect variation (E. Hamp). For the discus-
sion of this entries and the arguments for the "Cornish symptoms" they betray. see
A. Falileyev in Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Texts and Transmis-
sion (submitted for puhlication).
EL: 17; GPC: E. Hamp, Mini-laws. II R. E. GrossmCln. 1..1. San, T.l.
Vance, cds. Chicago Linguistic Society. Papers fr0l11 the Eleventh Regional Meet-
!!!g. Chicago 1975, p. LElA: S-I04-5: LI-IEB: 276; ML: 17R: Schrijver: 160:
VGK: 1,220-1; VVB: 12R
fual gl. fibula Ox2 43
Cl
(5.4)
fual gl. conlpes Ox2 43<l (5.6)
Iuniou 0 r pi 'band, fillet' (",uo)
MW ffun; OB funiou gl. rudentibus
< Lat. funis
DGVB: 172; GPC: 1324-5; ML: 171; VVB: 128
a mein funiou gl. vittae tcnues Ovid 37"
G
gllblllu adj. 'split open, cleft, forked'
MW gaflaw
An -ow derivative of *gohl (all Kohl gl. oe.Hlla,.io, Olr RaJ"" < IE
'Astgabel, Gabelung, Gahcl' see lEW: 40Y, [JGVB: 17.1 nnd cf. Rehel). and nnt a
plural form, as J. Loth maintflincd. For the Latin context Stokes.
AP: 53: E. Bachcllery in EC R(IY5H). p. 225; (iPC': 1."\70; Stoke": 404: VVB:
12H
fistl gablau cl. fistula Jsi)hilatll.\ h.a.
j
60
. g.em n m 'winter' (gaeal]
MW gayaf, gaeaf, gaeaw; OC goyf gl. hyemps, OB guoiam; G. Giamon[ios]; Ir
gem, ga(i)m
< Britt. tgiiam·, IE yg(e)i- 'Winter, Schnee'
DGVB: 196; ope: 1368; lEW: 425; LHEB: 359; OCV: 201; PECA: 51-2; Schrij-
ver: 101 and 108-10; VGK: I, 66; WG: 100
in irgaem Chad 3
gam?
According to I. Williams (1929: 5; contrast VVB: 129, where this is rendered as
'milieu'), this stands for garr 'coes' ('leg'), see also Zeuss: 1054 for the identifica-
tion with MW garr, garan. GPe: 1380 does not list this example under gar.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
8
gebel n r'tongs, pincers, nippers' [gefel]
MW geuel; OC geuel hoern gl. munctorium, MB gevel
The word is compared with MW gafl 'fork' and was considered to go back to IE
*ghabh(o)lo- 'fork' by GPe, see gab/au. IE *ghabh- 'fassen, nehmen' (lEW:
407 f.) should be perhaps considered here,
DGVB: 172; GPC: 1386; lEW: 409; DeV: 338; PECA: 48; VVB: 129; Williams:
1929,5
gebel gl. dolabra Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
gebin n m 'gyve, shackle, fetter, chain' (gefyn]
MW geuyn, gefyn; Olr gebend
< IE *g£m- 'fassen (Fessel)' (lEW: 368)
GPC: 1386; Stokes: 1873,404; VVB: 129
gebin g1. culleo Me 39 b.a.
gener? .
The traditional interpretation of this entry considers this as a Latin word for 'son-
in-law., cf. 10: 95 and D. Jenkins in BBCS 28 (1980), p. 609. Most recently, how-
ever, St. Zimmer has argued in favour of analysing this word as a Welsh hapax, a
(learned !) loan from Latin genere; alternatively, he writes, this could be an
abbreviation for Lat. generario (Zimmer, forthcoming). Those assumptions are
based on the presupposition that the preceeding ha stands for the later 0; for the
discussion of 1he similar cases with somewhat different approach, see Lambert:
1976-7.
Surexit tutbulc filius liuit hagener tutri (Chad 2)
gennec-7
J. Loth analyses this word as 'gouffre'.
Parry· Williams: 121; VVB: 129
1. gennec gl. barathri coeno J 81
n r 'sharp stick or olher pointed instrument formerly used for prodding and
oxen, when plo.. ox (icrthi)
61
MW icrthi, (g)erthi; OC garthou gl. stimulus; B garz(h)ou; Ir gart
The word was tentatively considered as a loan from AS gierd by ope, and as an
early loan from Germanic in PECA. For a derivation from IE *gher. 'hervorste-
eken' (lEW: 440), see OWAV.
ope: 2012; DeV: 157; PECA: 47; VVB: 129
gerthi gl. iure Dx2 42
h
(4.7)
gi/b n m 'sharp point, sharp·pointed instrument, knife' (gylf]
MW gelef, gylyf; OB PN Regulbium; Olr gulha
< Britt. *gllibio-, IE *gelebh- 'schaben'.
According to Zeuss (1061), glosses roslnlll1. Sec also gilbi".
OPC: 1794; lEW: 367; LHEB: 559; PNRB: 440; VVB: 110; VGK: I, 118: Wil-
liams: 1929, 5
gilb gl. foratoriu," Ox2 42
h
(4.4)
gilbin n m r 'point· (gylfin)
MW gyluin, geluin, gylfin; OB golbin, OC geluin gl. rostrum; Olr gulhan
< Britt. *gulbfno- ; see gilb and also the next.
DOVB: 178 and 175; GPC: 1794; Lambert: 1982, 194; LHEB: 596; OCV: 219-20;
PECA: 48; VGK: I, 118; VVB: 130
gflbin gl. acumine J 70
gilbin gl. ostrum Prise 14 h
gil? ?
This dry stylus gloss was found and read by H. 1-1. E. Craster as Dr Paul
Russell and the compiler of the present CJlossary re-cxnrnined this en try
(13.05.1998); the first three letters are definitely gil; the last letter looks like a
small It, or h. This instance \vill he discussed in a paper hy Falileyev and Russell. in
preparation.
gili gl. secaliu111 Ox 2 42<t «('raster: 136; Latin context 3.5)
glsnst/innim vn 'pure I holy
A hapax, consisting of glon (MWC'B gl(l", ()Ir gla", < IE *glrrl.-')- 'gHinzen. schim-
mern' lEW: 429, see Schrijver: 17J for the identification of the IE stem: De
Bernardo Stempel: 117; GPt': 14(0) and stli""i"l. see s. v. For a possihle
Irish influence, sec Parry-Williarns.
LHEB: 417,527; Parry-Williams: 12L VVB: 130: White: .102
o glanstlinnim gl. famine sancto J 5
g/ss adj. 'blue, green' [glas)
OW (LL) and MW glas; DB glas gl. iacinctinum; MC' glas; Lat.G gillstum 'woad':
OIr glas
< *glllsto- < IE *ghel:l- 'glanzcn, schimmcrn; gclh, griin' (lEW: 4.12), sec Schrij-
ver: 173 for the form of the root.
DGVB: 176; Elsie: 101; OPC: 1401; lEW: 432: LI·IEO: Schrijvcr: 17J: VGK:
1,79; VVB: 130: WG: RJ
gins g1. cacrula .J10
)
t.
,r·
,"-
62
glas gt viridis J 72
glas gl. glauci J 75
glas gl. yalina Me 5b.b.
glBsliu n & adj. 'blue colour' [glasliw]
MW glasliw
The compositum contains glas 'blue', and liu 'colour'. See s. v. v.
GPC: 1404
gJasliu gl. iacirtrum [leg. hyacinthinum] DNR IV
gletu?
This reading by W. Stokes was accepted by J. Loth. I. Williams (1933: 117) pointed
to the possible readings gletu, glitu and gloiu.
VVO: 130
gletu gl. gl ebis J 56
glo;1I n m 'the (lear or a liquid' (gloyw]
MW gloyw, gloew; OB gloeu; aIr glc
< *gJoi-f:!o-s, IE *ghlei- (lEW: 432), see also glas.
DGVB: 199,267; GPC: 1411; LHEB: 325,6; VGK: 1,67; VVB: 131; WG: 98,130
gloiu gl. liquidum J 86
glu;uh;' see digJlliuhit
goba;! D r'smithy, lorge' [gerail]
MW geueil, geueyl
The of considering this form as Welsh is based on the presence of an
epenthetic vowel (Aeuriot). The form gofail in voce has been also considered as
Welsh. A derivative of W gof (OW LL gof) 'smith', cf. OC gof gI. faher I. elldo,
aIr gob(a)e, G Gobannitio. These are traditionally derived from *goban(n)-, with
the unclear further connections, see De Bernardo Stempel: 117-8 with further
literature. GPC does not consider this instance.
DGVB: 177; GPC: GPN: 351; OCV: Ill; PECA: 50; VGK: I, 86 and 11,112
gobaiJ gl. officina Prise. 34b
goudonou n pi 'moths' .1)
This entry was analysed by Stokes as a plural of goudon, which he compared with
OC goufJan gl. tinea; PECA: 51 offers no etymology for the latter and quotes only
B cf. also DeV: 270. The etymology is not clear.
Lambert: 1982a , 22; Stokes: 1873, 388
nouirgoudonou gL tinearum MC 2 a.b.
grate" n m&f 'grindle, gridiron; bakestone; p8D; gnte' [gndell)
MW gradell
< Lat. gratella for cTatelJa
GPC: 1518; ML: 114; Williams: 1929. 5
gratell gl. graticula Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
63
greliat n m 'title-deed'
Hapax in Welsh.
< Lat. graphillm + iatl; see JO; see also the next.
GPC: 1529; 10: 106
grefiat guctig Chad 2
grephiou n pi 'styles' [graifTt J
MW graifft; Olr graif
< Lat. graphill111; see also grefiat
GPC: 1523; ML: 174; Stokes: IR73 . .192; VVB: IJI
grephiou gl. stilos Me 5 b.a.
grois8uc adj. 'continuous, (?)
, The interpretation of this hapax is that of I. Williams. accepted hesitantly hy GPC
in view of K. Jackson's note. where it is stated that the connection· of this word
with Irish gresaeh, suggested hy Williams. is historically impossihle. Another pos-
sibility is to connect this instance with W. 'cross'. and this is disclissed by
M. Haycock.
GPC: 1534; Jackson: 1950.71; Haycock: 15--6; Watkins: 1982.31; Williams: 19RO,
117
piouboi' int groisauc Juv 9 (M.2)
grudou n pi 'cheeks'
MW grud(d); OC grud gl. maxilla; OIr gruad
< IE *Rhrolld- 'von gew(llbten K(lrperteilcn; nur Kelt. und Germ:; I. Williams
noted. that the form is Kl'lulou. and not ,,.,,doff. contrast VVB: 225.
GPC: 1536; lEW: 462; 44; PECA: 53; Williams: 142Q. .5
grudou gl. ocellos Ovid 3R
h
gIJ8C adj. 'empty'
MW gwac, gwag: OB guac
< Lat. \'OCffIlJ (UOCIIS).
DGVB: 1R1; 1552; ML: 175-5
ad ir loc. guac. Comp 5
ir loe guac Camp 6. R, 17
irloc guac Camp 14
irIoc quae Comp 9
loc guac Comp 12, 13
guapeli n m&r 'saddle, pad' rgobellJ
MW gobell
The word is analysed hy GPC as "go +clf.nnhyshys pel'''. Note the spelling -Ii for
-II, and the varintion -liO- / -"(1-.
GPC: 1417; VVB: 132
guapeJi gl. sudaris Ox2 4J;t ().4)
guopell gJ. ultia Ox2 41;t (5.5)
.!
64
gual't prep. 'otter'
See guor; cf. aIso the next ,
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi (Ang 21
a; see DGVB: 276 and 181-2; cf. DOB: 531 where the enry is rendered as 'out of').
aries ithou guar kalendis ianuariis Comp 18
guarirdreb gl. edito Me 3 a, a,
guar
2
prep. 'with'
The sequence guar un ,I. and pimmunt, according to P.-Y. Lambert "sont de deux
scribes The meaning 'avec' of guar in this gloss was compared with its
usage in the gloss on fo 18 of the same manuscript, oi rodiodlir guar un sHab 'on ne
fait pas de sens avec une seule syllable'. Is identical with guar
1
, see s.v.
Lambert: 1982, 194
pimmunt. guar" un .1. gl. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a
gual' see strudugusr
grJan; n m&f 'play, amusement, theatre' [paraeJ
MW gwar(a)e, chawarae; OB Ran Guarai, guarima, anhuariatan, annhuariat, MB
choary; Me hwary
No VGK suggests *worigo- as a protoform, cf" Irishfuirech < ·fo-rig;
see guaroimaou, guoroiou.
DGVB: 182; GPC: 1577 and 841; Schrijver: 216; J. Vendryes in EC 3 (1938),
p.41; VGK: 1,434; VVB: 133; WG: 100 .
guarai g]. scena Ovid 38:1
gusI'd
l
?
Stokes connects this (for gwarth 'covering') with guard
2
; J" Loth treats them sepa-
rately (just question marks).
Stokes: 1873, 406; VVB: 133
oguard gl. flammeo Me 44 a.a.
.
According to Stokes, this is 'throwing of the covering'; see guard
t

Stokes: 187, 412; VVB: 133
eicentem gl. iuuenem J 32
gusmBm y pres. I 51 '10 laugh' ((hwardd-]
MW chward-, chwerth-; DC gl. risus, MB huerzin
< IE 'Jachen', for wa- I gwa- , cf. chwarae / gwarae.
Elsie: 108; GPC: 843-4; lEW: 1040; OCV: 403; PECA: 67; J" Vendrycs in EC 3
(1938). p.38f.; VGK: I, White: 78; Williams: 1980,96
, II. .niguardam Juv 3 (2.1)
I!"aro;maou n pi 'plays, plaYRrounds' [gwarwyfa]
MW gwarwyua, gwarwyfa: OB guarima gl. circus
< glloro; + *-ma. see gflarai, guaroioll, maessid.
65
DGVB: 182; ope: 1589; VVB: 133
guaroimaou [sic] gl. theatris Ovid JR
3
guaro;ou n pi 'plays, frolics, games' (gwarwyJ
MW guarvy, gvarycu
See guarai, guaroimaoll.
ope: 1589; VVB: 133
guaroiou gl. teathra [leg. thcatra] Ovid 38
h
gUBr phenn n m 'end, termination' (gorfTenl
MW gorffen; MB gourffcnn; OIr forccnn
A combination of the prefix guor I guor with the word for 'head" I'('"n" see s. v. v.
ope: 1483
hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunccant Comp 22-3
gUBS n m 'boy, groom' in gUR.fi marchauc 'groom, stable-boy'
OW (LL) and MW guas; OB guos gl. stipulationcs; C guas: G. vass-; Olr foss
< Celt. *ljo-sto- < IE *upo-Jtho·. Vstd- (lEW; 1005)
DGVB: 199; GPC: 1590; E. Hamp in Eriu .16 (19R5). p. IR.1; ftPB: 432-3; lEW:
1106; LHEB: 533; Schrijvcr: 407; VVB: 13.1
guas marchauc gl. adultcr Ovid 41 a
gUBS see also slI'uduguar
gubennid n m&f 'pillow, bolster, cushion' (gohennydd)
MW gohen(n)yd(d); MB goupener
An -;d derivative of * 'under-head"; see pc"".
GPC: 1417-8; LHEB: 69; LElA: C-66; Schrijver: 112; VVB: 134
gubennid gl. ceruical Ox2 44" (6.25)
guecriStiiou n pi 'girdles, belts' (gwregysau)
MW gwregis; OB guocrisiuou
This form is quoted as OB by GPC: 1701. This is a cognate of ()C gr"gis (MS
grug', see oev: 342), cf. OW (Gen.) (rishan, MIr !ochruJ" explained as *"([')0-
krd-Sll -, IE *kerd- 'gorten'. It was argucd, however, that there is no need to
reconstruct this IE stem, which is attested only in Celtic and Slavic, see ESSYa: 4.
77; the Celtic namcs for \belf arc thus considered to show the same semantic
change as their cognates in Slavic: the latter nrc analysed as a suhstantivized
prepositions, cf. Old Church Slavonic 'IPb3h \through".
DGVB: IR5: lEW: 579; LElA: C-239: PECA: 5.1: VGK: I. 42
inom ir guccrissou gl. hapsidum cxtrcmequc Ang 1.1 a
gue;d n f 'time, occasion'
MW gweith; cf. OW (Ae) gueit 'hattie'
< IE 'bewegen, ziehen, fahren· (lEW: ) IHf): for the set-phrase. -"n llll
K'eith. cf. Ir. inti j7ccht so, ; n-nln/crlll 'on this occnsion. now'. Sec also RlIc;th.
DGVB: 276 and IR6-7: (fPC: 1564: Williams: 14XO. 117
66
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
gueimmonou n pi 'seaweeds' (gwymon]
OB gumouo; C gumman; OIr (emm
This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1769. The Celtic forms were tentatively
considered by J. Pokorny in his entry *ueib-, *lJi-m-b- (to *lJeip-, y.eib- 'drehen'),
see lEW: 1132 which follows T. O'Rahilly (in Eriu 13, 1940-2, p. 163). E. Hamp
notes that the better established IE root is *y.eip-, and proposes north-western
European *lJis-mon-, allowing for contamination *yipsma- x *,:!is-lnon. The other
suggestions are 1) to analyse these as cognates of Sanskrit vapat; (VGK: I, 93), or
2) to discuss them with reference to IE *yes- 'futtern, schmausen' (R. Thurneysen
in KZ 48 (1918), p.67).
DGVB: 186; E. Hamp in BECS 28 (1979), p.213; E. Hamp in Eriu 39 (1988),
p. 194; lEW: 1132
guiemonou gl. marinis herbis Ang 16 a
gueith n m 'battle' [gwaith]
Used throughout the "Annales Cambriae", cf. gueith cair legion (s.a. 613), gueith
hirford (s.a. 760), etc. Note the following exceptional spellings in AC: gueiht (s.a.
750, "the h of this word is added above the line", Phillimore: 161, fn. 2); gueit (s.a.
848); gueith (s.a. 157; &'the e of this word added above the line", Phillimore: 157,
fn. 5). The word is well·attested in this meaning in the later Welsh. For the
etymology see S.v. gueid.
pel n m 'gnss' [gwellt]
OW (LL) guell; MW guelt, gwellt; OB guelt; OIr gelt
< Britt. *ljelt- (cf. HPB: 239). Though the words are found in Pokorny's entry
*rJel- 'Haar, Wolle' (cf. guiJlihim), it was also noted that these could belong to IE
*gel- ·verschlingen' (lEW: 365); for the connection with MW gwyllt 'wild' with an
extensive bibliography, see Sims-Williams, and contrast Schrijver. See OWA V.
DGVB: 1878; Elsie: 100; GPC: 1632; lEW: 1139; Schrijver: 60, 67; Sims-Wil-
liams: 1981,224-7; VGK: ],96; Williams: 1980,106
eet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
gue/en n 'calendar or religious festivals'
OB guiler, guiteri; Olr. (elire
The word occurs twice in Welsh, and both times in the Computus Fraglnent. <
Lat. uigi!iarium or an -eri derivative of W gwyl « Lat. vigilia, ML: 176, cf.
Schrijver: 225).
DGVB: 191; GPC: 1161; Lambert: 1983, 123; Williams: 1927,267
in irgueleri. Camp 16
i:n irgueleri Comp 17
,
Rueli n m 'bed' (gwely)
MW gueli, gwely, DC gueli gl. lectum I. lectulum, liein gueli gl. sindo, kala gueli
gl. dillat gueli gl. fulcra
67
< Celt. *LJo·leg- , IE ylegh- ·(sich) legen, liegen'
DGVB: 238; L. Fleuriot in EC II (1964/5), p. 15(); 162R-9; lEW: fJ5R-9:
LHEB: 446; oev: 346: PECA: 55: Schrijvcr: 6R; V(,K: I. 9R and II. )AO: VVB:
135
gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 44
11
(6.25)
guell adj. 'better' (gwell J
MW gwelL guell: C gwel, B gwell
Perhaps to IE *yel-, etc., ·wollen. wahlen' (lEW: (137), see the discussion in
GPN: 272f.
GPC: VGK: II, 12l: VVB: I.lS
anbiic gucll gl. magister auc Ox2 46
h
(10.26)
Kuerc/aud n f&m 'meadow"
MW gueirclaud, gweirclod
The compound contains a reflex of Celt. *yesro- (Olr fer, W gwair) 'grass' (see
E. Hamp in Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 12 (196Y). rr. 156-7, and pp. 158-69 for
an inventory of IE cf. P. Stiles in KZ 9R (19R5), pp. 295-301), and claK'dd
·ditch, gutter, trench' (C kledh, cleatll ·ditch, trench', B kreuz, OIr clad < IE
*kliid- 'schlagen, haucn' (Elsie: RR: GPC: 491: E. 'lamp, Cia,,,: Lucus a non
Lucendo. 11K. J. Klar et 01., cds.. A Celtic Florilegium. Lawrence 1997. pp. 4(}-1:
lEW: 545ff; LElA: C-I09). See OWAV.
GPC: VVB: 136
guerclaud gl. prato Ox2 41 h (I. I
guerin n m&f 'people' (gwerinJ
MW guerin, gwerin: OB guerin gl. in duas fnctioncs: Olr foircnn gl. factio
< *{iorfllii , IE *yer- 'hindcn. anreihen·. see Schrijver: 12Q for *Ua- / *uc-.
DGVB: 189: GPC: 1643: lEW: 1151: LJ-IEB: fl05: J. Pokorny in KZ 45 (IQI3).
pp.36o-1: VGK: L 375: J. Vendrycs in RC' JJ (1912), r.47J: VVI3: 1.17
guerin gT. factio J 24
guetid v pres. 3 sg 'to speak"
The interpretation is that of I. Williams. according to which the form is a cognnte
of dyu'edyd, etc. The IE backgrounds arc disputahle: *Ur/- of this form was c1Clim4
cd by GPC to he a varinnt of IE *Urd- (Sanskrit ,·ndali). \vhieh is not in lEW.
Bromwich: 1980,99-100: (,PC: 1152: White: 110; Willillnls: 14HO. (}l)
dou nam riceus unguctid Juv J (3.3)
guetig adv•., prep., conj. 'after(wards)'
See guotig and cf. JO: 102-3.
rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2
dimcdichat guetig hit did braut Chad 2
grefiat guetig Chad 2
Iluiannuin n m
MW guah"nuyn. guayanuhin. gtlahanuyn, gUClcnhucn. g\v:lnh"·yn.
/1
" .
.s:'

"\ ".
68
wyn; OC guaintoin gl. ver
< *,!esanteno-, IE vyes- 'Frilhling'
GPC: 1575; lEW: 1174; LHEB: 361; oev: 200; PECA: 53; VGK: I, 74; VVB:
137
o guiannuin gl. vere Ovid 40
b
guich(i)r
t
adj. 'violent, fierce, (brave)' [gwychr]
MW guychir, gwychyr; OB guichr gl. ferinus; OIr feuchir, feuchuir
The entry is traditionally connected with IE *,!eik- 'energische, bes. feindselige
Kraft3uBerung'. The -ch- is left unexplained. See also the next entry.
DGVB: 190; GPC: 1749; lEW: 1129; Loth in RC 38 (1920-1), p.299; VGK: I,
122; VVB: 137
guichir gl. effrenus J 27
guichr gl. effera J 69
guichr'- n (name of. letter)
See guich(i)r
1

guichr Nemn
guid n coli. 'tree(s)' [gwydd]
MW guit, guyt, gwyd; OC guiden gl. arbor, OB guid, OIr fid, G. vidu-
< IE *'lidhu- 'Baum'
DGVB: 190; ope: 1753; lEW: 1177; oev: 290; PECA: 56; VGK: I. 41; Wil-
liams: 1980,106
cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
goil.t adj. 'merry, glad' [gwylad)
MW gwylat
An -at derivation from guiJ, see guiled.
GPC: 1760; VVB: 138
guilat gl. hilaris Ox2 45
3
(8.18)
piled n m 'modesty' (gwyleddl
MW gvilet, gwyled; OB guiled gl. honestas; aIr fele gl. honestas
An -edd derivative of Celt. *'leiiv- (MW gwyl, guyl 'modest', cf. Irish [fa/); for the
further history of this etymon see VGK: I, 181 and (differently) T. F. O'Rahilly in
Celtica 1 (1950), p. 365 f. This word was recently considered by E. Hamp (in BBCS
28 (1980), p. 213) who analyses it as a participle in *-10- of the root *lJei- 'drehen,
biegen', on which see lEW: 1120. Cf. also anguil.
DGVB: 191; GPC: 1761; VVB: 138
6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
guillihim n m 'sheep-shears. stissors' (gwellau]
MW guelliu, guelle(u), gwellau; MB guelteff
from gwallt 'hair" (OC gols, OB guolt) < IE *uel- 'Haar, Wolle'; note
the suffix. See also gulan.
GP(": lEW: 1139; VVB: IJR
guillihim gl. forceps Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
69
guin n m 'wine' r J
MW gvin, gwin, OC guin fellet gl. accetum, MB guin, guyn, Olr nn
< Lat. vil1um
GPC: 1662; ML: 175; OCV: 371-2; PECA: VGK: I, 210; VVB: 138-9
guin gl. uinum Ox2 44
a
(6.20)
gui[n?] cip n f 'wine-press, wine-vat'
A hapax in Welsh. The compound consists of gu;n (see s.v.), and £",." <
Lat. cupa.
GPC: 1664; Stokes: 1860-1, 222; VVB: IJ7-R
claur guicip gl. prelum (quod fit super faciem torcularis) J 78
guinlsnn n f 'vineyard; vine' (gwinllanI
MW gwinllan
See guin, and lann (it/ann).
GPC: 1665; Stokes: 1860-1,221; WG: 73; VVB:
guinlann gl. uitis J 77
guir· n m 'law' [gwirJ
MW guir, gwir; OC guirion gl. verax; OB guir; G Covirus; aIr ffr
< Celt. *LJiros < IE *l.Jero·s 'wahr' (lEW: 1166)
GPC: 1666; JO: 99-100; MJ: 271; DeV: 186; PECA: 57: VGK: I. 50: WG: 75
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
gui,.J- adj. 'true' r
See guir·; see also t••erdutou t1 guird••••
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.h.
guird adj. 'green' rgwyrdd]
MW guirt, gwyrd; OC guirt gl. viridis. MB guczr: Ir urdai
< Lat. viridis
OPC: 1762; LHEB: 58; ML: 177; oev: 210; 5R; VGK: I, 214: VVB: 140
guird gl. herbida Me 6 a.a.
puirdglll... adj.
MW gwyrd(d)las; B gurlas
See guird, gIllS.
ope: 1783; Lambert: 1982a, 22; VVB: 140
oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a.
nouirgu1rdglas gl. sali resplendcntis Me 3 a.a.
/JuirdJiu n & adj. 'green (colour)' (gwyrddliwJ
MW gwirtliv, gwyrdliw, gwyrtliw; the ()W form not considered hy GPC'
This compound contains guird 'green', and fill 'colour'. See Rllird, hll and cf.
glas/ill.
GPC: 1783
guirctliu gl graminCtJrll nNR I'"

f..
,..
70
guirdou n pi 'miracles, signs' [gwyrth]
MW guirth, gwyrth; OIr firtu
< Lat. virtus
ope: 1786; ML: 177; Williams: 1980,109
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
pith see quith
guithennou n f pi 'veins' [gwith(i)enJ
MW gwyth(i)en
A -en derivative, cf. W gwyth (MW guyth, gwyth(i), DC guid gl. vena, Olr [eith
'vein·; OB goed (Leiden Leech-Book) does not belong here. According to J.
Pokorny this is a loan from Lat. vitta; according to E. Campanile the words go
back to ·witt;- "d' ignoto etyma". For the discussion of the (proto-)forms, see
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.201-4.
GPC: 1791; lEW: OCV: 60; PECA: 56; VGK: I, 14; VVB: 140
guithtnn6u gl. uenae J 43
guithl8un adj. 'angry, furious' (gwythlon]
MW gwythlawn, gwythlon
A -faun (see s.v. reulaun) derivative of W gwyth, for this see guoguith, guithennou.
GPC: 1792; VVB: 141
or guithlaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51
gulan n m 'wool, down, soft hair' [gwlan]
MW gwlan; OC g)uan gl. lana; MB glan; OIr olann from British
< Celt. < *LJel- cHaar, Wolle'
De Bernardo Stempel: 134; GPC: 1680; lEW: 1139; LElA: 0-19; DeV: 360;
PECA: 49; Schrijver: 177; VGK: 1,158; VVB: 141
gulan.gl. lana Ovid 40
1
go/at n f 'country, kingdom' (gwlad]
OW (LL) gulat, MW gulat, gulad, gwlad, gwlat; cf. OW (Oen: 10) gu)etic; DC
gulat gl. patria; 08 OIr flaith
< Celt. ·yla-ti-, < lE ·gal- 'stark sein'
OGVB: GPe: lEW: 1112; oev: 310; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 171-2;
VGK: I, 157; VVB: 14J WG: 82
fssft padfu gulat gi, celsi thronus est cui regia coeli J 19
pled n r'feast' [gwleddl
MW gulet, gwled; OC Ceenguled, cf. G. Vlido-rix; aIr fled
< Celt. < IE VLJel- 'wollen, wahlen' (lEW: 1137)
De Bernardo Stempel: Ill; DOVB: 193; GPC: 1682; VVB: 141
gl. pompae J 86
gulip adj. 'liquid, Igw.yb)
MW gulip, gwlyp'l gwlyb; DB gulip, OC glihor gl. humor; Olr fliuch
< IE -flilc-fl-. V'dr'''. 'fcuchL naB· (lEW: 1145)
71
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: 193: Elsie: 145; GOI: 64; ope: 1685; DeV:
207; PECA: VGK: I, 60, VVB: 141
guJip gJ. fluctibus in Jiquidis J 60
gulip gJ. lequefacta (timore) J 60
guobri adj. 'dignified, honourable" Igofri I
MW gowri, gofri
The word contains a prefix gllo « *tIO) and the stem hri (C brv, 08
cumbri, uuobr;, MB hry, Olr brfg) < *8"cr-i-, Vg"('r- 'schwer· (lEW: 477: US: 185;
VGK: L 101 and 11,6(1).
L. Fleuriot in EC 20 (19H3) pr. ll4-{); ope: 1432,323; LHEB: 456; LElA: 8-90;
VVB: 142
guobri gl. gravis Ovid 40
a
guobrisch adj. comp. 'more dignified'
Comparative degree of gllobri, sec s. v.
GPC: 1432; LHEB: 448, 459; VVB: 142
guobriach gJ. sapientior Ovid 37
h
guoceleseticc adj. 'tickled'
Hapax in Welsh; an -(i)edig derivative of W goglai,4j 'tickle·. gnKleis;o 'to tickle' <
go + clais (cf. OIr clas) < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, hallen', see GPC: 4R9; lEW: 545;
LElA: C-114. See also guerclaud.
ope: 1437; VVB: 142
natoid guocelcscticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. b.
guodemis8uch v pret. 2 pi 'to sufTer, bear, tolerate"
MW god(d)cf; C godhaf. B gonzav; Olr fodaim-
I. Williams suggested reading gllodenlisoltch instead of the previouslv accepted
guodeimisauclt. Etymologically, Celt. *tlo-danl- to IE dnnl;J: 4
z
ilhmen,
bandigen'.
GPC: 1425; lEW: 199-200: LElA: D-IO; V(,K: II, 295. VVB: 142: White:
186; Williams: 1929,5
ni ccin guodemisauch gl. non hene passel Ovid J9:l
guogs/tou?
Stokes considered this to be gila-galt 'energy', cf. gafft ?
Stokes: 1873, VVB: 142
guogaitou gJ. fulcris Me 61 b.b.
guoguith adj. 'vanquished'
Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix guo- and the stem found in OW see
s.v.
GPC: 1517; VVB: 142
guoguith gl. victtls Ovid 41 a
Kuoi/aut n m 'hoftom, ha..e'
()W (LL) gurei)ant. MW gwaChl\\'t: MB gOOf'lcd. gnlc\;
f
1,·..
f
'I
,".
72
A derivative of (M)W gwael 'miserable'; the word is quoted in lEW: 1111 in the
en1ry .lJai- 'schwach, elend', cf. J. Loth in RC 39 (1922), p.417; GPe: 1549;
J. Morris Jones's alternative explanation (IE *upo-ped-lo- in view of Lat. pessi·
mus, WG: 247) was claimed to be more persuasive, cf. Schrijver: 132.
GPC: 1550; Schrijver: 115
in guoilaut clun Chad 6
gaoled vn 4to retreat from, avoid' [goleithi-]
MW goleith
Etymologically, contains go-, and llaith, which according to ope could be identi-
cal with the word for 'death' (OPC: 2091).
GPC: 1448; White: 292-5; Williams: 1980, 118-20
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
guolleu;n n m 'the west' (gorllewin]
MW gollewin, gollewein, gorllewin
This reading (instead of the earlier guolleuni) was suggested by T. H. Parry-Wil-
liams. The word is perhaps a derivative of lieu 'light', see loyr.
apc: 1489; Parry· Williams: 121; Stokes: 1860-1,224; VVB: 143-4; WG: 40
bet circhinn frg60lleuni gl. usque sub occiduum coeli J 84
guoJlung "n 'to let go or, let fall, drop; set free' I 'release' [gollyog-]
MW go))ug, gollw(n)g
< Celt. < IE *legh- '(sich) legen' (lEW: 658); differently by J. Lloyd
Jones (to IE ·'onk I jenk); according to Parry-Williams: 122 this instance shows
Irish interference. See Schrijver: 434.
GPC: 1457; J. Lloyd Jones in BBCS 1 (1923) 7; VVB: 144
guollung 1. ruid gl. uacuum J 65
popelJ see goBpel;
guOI prep. 'over' [gor-, gwor-]
OW (LL) guar. MW gar, gwar; C gor, DB guor-, gor-; Ir for
< Celt.. *ld
o
,-, < ] E • uper- 'tiber, oberhalb' (lEW: 1105); see also guar and guor-
cosom.
naVB: 198; GMW: 188; GOI: 513; GPC: 173 and 1459; E. Hamp in BBCS 15
(1953), p. E. Hamp in SC 7 (1972), pp.155-6
VVB: 132
Intrited retec.. relit ]oyr _. guorhir seraul.circhl Comp 2
guOl1lut v pret .. 3 sg 'to deliver, to save' [gwared-]
MW guaraud.. gwared(-), guaret(-); G. Voretovirus, OIr fo-reith
< -¥o-re,-.. cf. Lat. ilfccurro; see also guorit. For the etymology, see retec.
GPC: 1582; White: Williams: 1980, 110
anguorit anguoraut lu\' 9 (5.2)
KUorrosJlm 11 pres. 1 'to talk' (1), 4to watch over' (1)
Accordi ng 10 I. WiJlicl ms, this vcrh contains preposition (prefix?) guor-, And the
73
stem is the latter allows for a multiple interpretation. one chosen by
GPC is to see in it the same clement as in danRos, i.e. IE *kell.'l- 4feierlich spre-
chen, vcrkundigen' (lEW: 5(6), cf. Lat. Cl'Il.\'l'O. In his 1943 paper I. Williams
compared the cos in cO.'ltou'g and postulated cO.Haw "'atch over' (see gosgnr),
then 'I do not keep guard', which according to R. Brnmwich. gives "excellent
sense in the englyn". Sec also elisa!.
Bromwich: GPC: White: Williams in BBC·S II (1943), pp.81-2;
Williams: 1980, 92-3
niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1)
Kuordiminntiu.fi n m 'perverseness" r I
MW gordyfynt, gordiwynt
According to GPC, < ? + di- (neg) + *'''('/It-, as in gor!r"t « *{,lor-",e1lt-)
4zeal' the clement -illS is thus left unexplained.
1473; LHEB: VVB: Williams: I<}JJ. 114.
oguordiminntius gl. ab invito Ovid 39
h
guorennieu 0 pi 'fractions" ounces'
OB doguorennnam gl. pcrfundo
Hapax in Welsh. The word is analysed hy GPC' as the second element is
attested in the law-texts (GMWL: 16J-4). and means 4hig vat or vessel. tuh, pail.
pitcher; dry and liquid measure of uncertain capacity'. Another possihility (I. Wil-
liams, cf. J. Loth in RC 41 (1924), pro 400--40.1) is to see in this word a cognate of
W rhall" cf. OC renniat gl. dillisor. for this see LElA: R-7. PECA: 90-1: see rann.
Note the plural ending. which is exceptiollClI for this period.
DGVB: 148.295; GPC: 1474: LI-lEB: J71: VVB:
is xxx ha guorcnnieu guotig MP 22
h
(2JO)
guonr;t 0 m 'addition, extension'
OW LL 56lanworfrit, 287 Ian Worfrit, 62. 124, 2551ann gurfrit. 215 guorfric MW
cf. 08 gurprit gl. sllperstitiose
Possibly a cognate of Irish sret". see Williams: 19.10. cf. LElA: 5-93-5 for
etymology. See also afncibret
OGV8: 202; GPC: 1483
isit petguarcd pard guor frit nim MP 2J
Cl
(241)
KllorKnim n 'great toil, exertion'
This word is found (twice) only in the Juvcncus 9. Etymologically. gllor- s.v.),
and 8"il1' 4labour, toil' (OB i11'gIl08"il", air 8"(11'. V(,K: II. 540f). cf. aIr
!orgnent.
DGVB: GPC: 149.1; Ilaycock: Watkins: 19R2. 31. fn. Williams: 19RO,
Ill; White: 302-3
ni guo.gnim molim trintaut Juv <} (5.3)
nitguorgnim molim map mcir Juv <) (9.9)
K"orK"sc- adj. 'entirely empty or ,'oid'
r"f \\'
'\"'"
74
P.- Y. Lambert rejects the reading of Fleuriot, who compared this entry with W
diorwac. Instead he suggests that the gloss contains not a prefix, but rather a
preposition di, see S.v. and corresponds to W y orwac 'au vide'. W gorl·vag (GPC:
1504 does not mention this instance) is analysed as containing prefix gor-, and
guac, see s.V.
DOVE: 141 and 332; Lambert 1983, 131
diguorguac gl. inani Ang 14 b
guo';' v pres. 3 sg '10 deliver, to save'
See guoraWI.
White: 102-3
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
guonnod adj. 'too much, excessive, superfluous' [gonnod]
MW gormod
The suggestion of J. Lloyd-Jones (cf. OPC) to analyse this word as *upor-tttbhi-
mod- is superseded by that of E. Hamp who considers here a chain ·uks-mod >
*ymod- > *yor-ymod; see also P. Russell's comments.
OPC: 1492; Hamp: 1977/78, 12-3; J. Lloyd-Jones in BBCS 2 (1925), p.l04;
P. Russell in Eriu 39 (1988), p.117
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20.
porsed n m&r 'assembly, court, hall' [gorsedd]
MW gOJ5(s)et, guorsed; MB goursez, OIr forad
The word contains a prefix and the stem sed-, IE ysed- 'sitzen
1
(lEW:
884 The presence of the second prefix (*-en- according to J. Morris Jones, or *-
uks- according to E. Hamp) presupposes the antiquity of the term. On the other
hand, Loth"s criticism of the theory of the second prefix could be adequate 1 if the
word is a later coinage I see Sims-Williams.
GPC: Hamp: 1917-8,13; J. Loth in RC 36 (1915), p. 396; P. Sims-Williams,
Some Celtic Otherworld Terms. // A. T. E. Matonis, D. F. Melia, cds., Celtic
Language, Celtic Cul1ure. Ford & Bailie: Van Nuys 1990, pp.64-5; WG: 78;
Williams: 1980, 112-3
it clu(i)s (it] d,ban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
guol'!e"giT v pres. impel'S. '10 press' [gorsang-]
W gorseng-, gW8rsang-
This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1495. It contains a prefix guor- and the radical
sang.. , for the etymology of the latter see Schrijver: 423.
DGVB: 199
guorsengir gl. eKprimi tur Ang 15 a
guortholle;r ?
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
Kuol1lnlretic adj. 'noisy'
Hapa)E in Welsh. The reading is suggested by H. Lewis. An -edig derivative of
(cf. MB krrrrrn)
75
GPe: 1502; H. Lewis in BBCS II (1944L p, H4: VVI3: 145
in irguorunhetic datI gl. in arguto foro Ovid JR:l
gu(o)tan prep. 'under'
Following WG and I. Williams (1930: 244) == () on () da". a dan, )' dOll 5ee
J. E. Caerwyn Williams in BBC'S 1.1 (1950). pp.6-7 and PKM: 170. The spelling
1
however, is noteworthy.
GMW: 209; VVB: 1451 Schrijvcr: WG: 399
irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22h (23R)
ho hinnoid guotan amcibfret MP 23:1 (241)
oimer (didu) ?
The reading of the line. which is far frorn clear. was suggested hy I. Williams; see
Haycock: 12 for the further suggestions. Sec also (Iidll.
Williams: 19RO, 109-10
guotiapaur oimcr didu Juv () (4.3)
guotig prep. 'after' fgwedi J
MW (g)wedy, (g)wedi; 08 guet(i) or guet(ig) gl. secundum. guted
< Britt. *LJo-tig., IE *(s)teig- 'stechen1 spitz'; cf. Olr Sec also guetig
1
in
which i-affection is indicated.
OGVB: 190; GPC: 160R; lEW: Lamhert: IQX6. 110: LElA: T-7f1: LHEB:
455,607,615-7; Schrijver: 113: VGK: L J75: VVD: 146
is xxx ha guorennicu guotig MP 22
h
(230)
?
Meaning unclear. The gloss is rendered hy P,- Y, Lamhert as "des guotndinou":
for the considerations on the etymology of this \vord and the meaning of the Latin
context, see Lambert: 19R2a.
DGVD: 200 and Lamhert: 19X2a. 2) fn. I: L(lmhert: 19HJ, 12(i
inn() ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarurn n(ltll Allg 6H h
?
('C. OB guotric, W godrig: on the latter see (,PC': 142.1
DGVB: 200; Lambert: 19H7, J()3: Williams: IQJ.1. 115
nouinnguo/tricusegetic/ion gl. nec delata diu J 4
guoun n r'meadow" [gwaun)
OW (LL) guoun; MW gwawn1 gwcun; OC gucn gl. campus: OB goen. MB gueun:
British PN Vagniacis; cf. Olr fan
The traditional reconstruction 1 which was suggested first hy V. Henry (lnd accep-
ted by Loth, contrast WG: 95 (lnd J. Lloyd-Jones in BHeS 2 (1925). p. 290
1
is
*LJog-nii from IE *y..,g-: Illig... seine, Its relationship to Lat. 1I0KlIJ is
disputable. Sec OWAV.
L. Fleuriot in EC (19R6). pp. (fPC: 1603: E. Hamp in BBC'S 26 (1976),
pp.30-1 and 139; Henry: 132: lEW: 1120: Loth in RC ..'\6 (IQ1:<'). p. IRI: OCV:
PErA: )9: 1<)<.)1. 7.'
di !!uoun hen lann ('had (l
I,
....
76
gur n m 'man' [gwr)
OW (LL) gur; MW gur, gwr; OC, OB gur; OIr fer
< IE *yiro..s 'Mann' (lEW: 1177)
DGVB: 201; GPe: 1693; LHEB: 337; OCV: 106; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 151;
VGK: It 42; VVB: 147
gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
irgur hunnuid .i. mercurius gl. celebrat Me 4 b.a.
guragun v. imp.1 pi "to make' [gwn-)
IE *lJerg-, *ljreg- ·wirken., tun'
GPe: 1688-90; JO: 101-2; lEW: 1168; LL: xliv; MJ: 271-2; Isaac: 333-4; White:
270-1
guragun tage Chad 2
gurd prep. 'atcording to' [wrth)
See gllrt; cr. Williams: 1980, 115 for the meaning.
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
gurrhie adj. 'female'
A cognate of W gwraig, OC grueg, greg, MB gruec. According to Loth (RC 36
(1915), p. 127) 11 is used here to indicate a dipththong. The origin is uncertain; cf.
Elsie: 148, PECA: 53.
GPC: 1698; VGK: I, 161; VVB: 147-8
strotur gurehic gl. sambuca Ox2 43a (5.5)
gurmaur adj. '"ery great, huge' [gorfawr)
MW goruaur
A combination of intensive prefix gor- (Ope: 1459), see guar, guor; and mallr
see s.V.
GPC: 1478; Williams: 1980,95
mitelu nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1.2)
gun prep. 'against' [wrthl
MW wrth; 08 gurth Me (w)orth; Ir fri(th)
The traditional reconstruction derives this preposition from IE *LJer-t 'drehen,
wenden"; according to P. Schrijver (in Eriu 45 (1994), pp.151-89), the Celtic
forms reflect Celt, "!.',it-i (PIE dative or locative of the root-noun See also
gurd.
De Bernardo Stempel: 115; DGVB: 203, 145; D. S. Evans in BBCS 17 (1958),
pp. 15-21; GMW: 213; E. Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953), pp.124-5; LHEB: 337;
lEW: 1156; Schrijver: 158; VGK: 1,43-44; VVB: 148; WG: 406; J. E. C. Williams
in Celtica 3 (1956), pp. 126-148
gurt paup gl. consistes [i.e. contra quemvis] Ovid 39
b
,orl _ri<,,,;(,O v pres. 2 sg 'to decide' (?)
Hapa,; in Welsh. According to I. Williams, gwrth-trychi-di (cp. helghati gl.
venare). the Jr.vflr" ·cut' (IE *trrllk-, *ter- 'rciben', lEW: 1074) perhaps
77
a calque on de-cido, conl-I'"/0. It was noted hy F. White that it is possible to
connect this entry with MW verb Kwrth(dd)rych. 'look upon· (with the root < IE
*derk- 'hlickcn', lEW: 21.1), hut the orthography of Rurt triehiti makes this
assumption dubious.
GPC: 1718; Williams: 1927, White: R4-5
gurt trichiti nacgcnci C'0J11P 16
gur tum n m increment'
W gorthwf, gordwf
A comhination of which \vns corllpnfed hy I. WilJianls "'ith thnt of Juv. gllr
111aU,.. nno flo" (MW lnf, ()13 tI,," < IE *110110- \lick', lEW: IOX2: [JliVR: J25 nnd
334). A rather tentative suggestion of I. Willillms nn the connection of this Welsh
word with G (Coligny) VERTOMV, r('elc [)IVERT()MV, hns heen fecentlv con-
sidered by St. Zimmer: alongside a tentatively offered proto-form for the riaulish
word as *di- + *tler-Ioy-/nn- (IE V/eyl/- 'schwcllen') he elahoratcs several other
suggestions.
DGVB: 325; GPe·: 1499: Hamp: i<J77-X. St. ZilnmeL Gallisch I)IVER-
TOMV, kymrisch /lower. tocharisch A U·01l/-Wrll.'ik.f. /1 A. Luhotsky. ed .. Sound
Law and Analogy. Amsterdanl - Atlanta: Rodopi 19Y7. pr.253-4: Williams:
1927,263
is gur tUln tarnctor ir Inc guac haihid pos,. n, C'omp 7
Kurth 1 prep. 'opposite'
See Klir/
l
• and KlIrtlrre/.
haeet isgurth. ir SCfenn C"ornp 10
gurth
2
'in comparison with, compared with'
Sec gurth t •
Ameen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: -"'
gurthBret n 'one who strives, or for somethinJt·
Hapax in Welsh. Analysed hy GPC as gu.,.,h- (sec RUf,h) + elf. Accord-
ing to Flcuriot, DGVB: 311. the second cJenlent here is for 'vcnt;c', o'er. 08 lar:
but see S. v. tor.
GPC: 1715: VVB: 149
gurtharet gl. appetitofium Ox2 4J" (5.3)
gurth cimsrch vn 'to address, inquire, ask'
The gloss has heen rendered as 'head of the council': sec also ('en". \\'ord
finds a perfect match in W gu'r/lrgJlarclr, cf. ()Ir free/l1orc. though GPC does not
quote this example. It is analysed as (sec Rur/") + (\10rclr. i.e. c.\f - arch.
see erchi,n.
DaB: 537; OOVB: 2R4; GPC': 1725-fl
penngurthcimarch gl. primas Prise 37 a
Kurthdo v pres. 3 'to oppose, resist' I prep. p.... rs. 3 pl. th£'m' (?)
The form is analysed as a vcrh (gllrt". sec s.v,. and (l persona) form of the verh ·to
I
: /1.::
. r
!
I
, ..
18
come'); Stokes: 1860-1,289 considered this entry as a preposition (see S.v. gurth
l
).
GPC: 1720; VVB: 149; Williams 1933: 115
gurthdo gl. obsistit J 3
gurth(rJet" pres. 3 sg 'to run back, run opposite, retrograde' [?gwrthred-]
MW gwrthred-, i.e. gurth + rhed-, see S.V.v.; according to I. Williams, in Compo
this is "either a scribal error for gurthret or a variant of it (cp. parthed, parthred) or
that it is synonymous with it". It was suggested by E. Hamp, however, that the
form should be segmented as pigurlh ret ("what star against-which runs the
moon"), in which case the verb is a simplex ret-, see relec. This instance will be
discussed in an article by A. Falileyev and G. Isaac (in progress).
GPC: 1131; Hamp: 1975-6, 65; White: 98-7; Williams: 1927,261
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
proche/leroa n pi 'heights" [goruchelder]
MW goruchelder
Contains base ucheJ (see s. v. uuc), prefix gor-, and suffix -der. According to
Aeuriot. this form could be also Breton. This instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 215; GPC: 1501
o gurucheltoii g1. deffectum gl. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a
plan see guofllll
H
hal conj. 'and'
See al. See also !1ac, ha crip, hoi, and cf. the next.
har dou trean gl. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
ha chepi. hinn inguir Camp 21
hagener tutd Chad but see S.V. gener
haluidt iuguret Chad 2
douceint torth ha maharuin Chad 3
ha douceint torth Chad 3
ha huch Chad 3
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
h[a maha]ruin Chad 4
ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4
cet treidin gue' haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
un harned flapuiJ baper Juv 9 (9.1)
ha
2
conj. 'Iod· (with interpretations)
I) un harned Jrapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1). Contrary to I. Williams (Williams: 1980.
120). who considered this instance as a relative pronoun, followed by verb, T. A.
Watkins 1982.42) argues for its interpretation as a conjunction.
79
2) is xxx ha guorcnnicll MP 22h (230). According toJ. Willianls, this is a variant of
the preposition 0 'of. Recently P.- Y. Larnhcrt h(ls reconsidered this in favour of
H. Lewis's reading, \vhich suggests the meaning '(lnd' (Lamhert: I97(}--7. 529:
Lewis: 1926,3: Williams: 1930, 231).
3) ha hanner gl. dodrantis (Ang IJ h). \\'(lS not considered hy Fleuriot
(DGVB: 207) as a Welsh form. hut as it is folhn\'ed by a Welsh \\·ord. this could be
perhaps considered as Welsh.
ha
J
prep. 'or' ?
According to P.- Y. I...nnlhert this stnnds for 'Clnd·. Sec hal.
I-Iaycock: I L Lambert: 1976-7, .s2Y: Williafns: IYHO. 107
dicones pater haritncd presen Juv 9 (3. ))
ha
4
relative particle
See hai and also a'5. ha crip.
is did ciman. haci Comp 3
irloc quac habid pOJt .0. Comp 9
harodes Chad 7
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha hcinn cihunn MP 22
h
(234)
exclamative particle
See a
ha arcibrenou gl. sepulti Ovid 39"
ha erip 'who combs'
Most interpretations of this entry consider it as a gloss over elln, pecrine and
rendered this phrase as the combination of the conjunction 'and' (a). and ('rip (n
m&f 'comh. wool-card. curry-comh·. MW erih. cry": MB crih), see DGVB: 5:
ope: 594; Hamp: 1973,91-2; VVB: RR. It \vas suggested hy P.-Y. Lamhert that
this is a gloss over pectens: he nnalyses ha as a relative particle, and crih as a
personal form of the \vord 'to comb', 'qui pcignc'.
Lambert: 1976-7.529: Lamhert: 19R7, JOO
ha crip gl. pectens Ovid 42;1
hac conj. 'and'
See hal.
hac in irgueleri Comp 16
hacboi gl. excusiendus (leg. excuticndus] erit Ovid 39:1
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h
hac diglniuhit gl. let] eliqlla Ox2 44
h
(7.20)
hacen conj. 'hut, however' f )
MW hagen; C hagen, B hogcn
Several analyses of this word have hccn offered. According to .J. Loth and V. IJcn-
ry, the first part is identical \\lith a(c). 11(1«('). sec s.v. Morris-Jones Cl proto-
form *aggis(,lli.
GPC: IXII: Henry: )0): VVR: \Vr,: 44.1
hacefl gl. h a.
, --
80
hscet see hac(c)el
hac(c)et conj. 'and so'
According to I. Williams, this word which is not attested in later Welsh contains ac
'and' and et (as in nogyt, noget) 'so'. See a, ha.
DGVB: 205; GMW: GPe: 5; Williams: 1927,265
haccet. nitegid. di.a. Camp 8
Haeet isgurth. ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Camp 10
hac&aucimp& gl. superlatiuus multo Prisc 27 a
hail relative parlirle
MW ae, ai, ay
According to P. Schrijver, this could go back to ·sosin, cf. Irish a n- 'that (which)',
and the development of •hoi (n-) to hai and a is explained by the loss of stress.
GMW: 63; 10: 96; D. Howels in SC 1 (1966), p. 46; Isaac: 57; P. Schrijver in Briu
45 (1994), pp. WG: 287
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
ir loe guac haibid post. o. Camp 8
iT serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
iT loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 17
hai bid im guar phenn circbl naunecant Camp 22
tir telih haioid ilau elcu Chad 2
hai
2
'and his'; see ha, ';
JO: 107
tutbulc hai cenet] Ch ad 2
hair n r'war, battle' reer]
MW aer, OB air, G. Verogri; Ir ar
< *agro- ... IE '*ag- ·lreiben
9
(lEW: 4)
DGVB: 58; GPC: 37; LElA: A-82; LHEB: 461; VGK: I, 103; VV8: 34-5
hair gI. cladis 0;<2 46a (9.28)
ha' see 80r is aenc:umha'
ha'ou n pi 'filth, dung, manure'
Hapax in Welsh, A cognate of OIr sal and (with guttural suffix, cf. MW
halauc, W. horog ·dirty·) 0 B haloc gl. lugubri, OIr salach < IE *501- 'schmutzig-
grau'.
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: 1815-6; lEW: 879; LElA: S-16; J. Loth in RC 43
(1926) pp.139-l41; VGK: 1,72,216; VVB: 150
halou gl. stercora 0;(2 44
h
(7.. 5)
h8m =(h)s'm 'and my'; see h.
1
, m
VVB: 151
ham hoi enep gl. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4t
b
(1.10)
RI
hBm n m 'summer' (hart
MW OB ham, MC haf, G. Samon[ios); air sam
< IE *S1!1IJ- (*JeI11· 4Sommcr', lEW: 90S)
DGVB: 206; GPC: E. Hamp in BBC:S 2R (1979), p.217; LElA: 5-19'
Schrijver: 460; VGK: 1,71 '
in irham Chad 3
han adj. 'different, other' (hanI
MW han; aIr according to GPC. this is the only adjectival usage of 110"
4scparation' in Wclsh
< *selli- < IE *selli- 'ftir sich, abgesondcrf; sec also Izanalld
GPC: 1818; Hamp: 1982, lEW: 907; Isaac: LElA: S-14-15; J. Lloyd..
Jones in BBCS 11 (1944), pp.133--6; Stokes: IX7.1. VVJ3: 1)1
han gl. alium Me 51 a.a.
hBnaud prep. 3 sg m 'out from/of him I if
See han, o.
GMW: 59; GPC: Schrijvcr: Williams: 1<J27. 25R-9.
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp I
hanner n m 'hair (hanner)
Ow (lL), MW OB hanter, C. hanter
< IE *s1!,tero, ysel11- 'cins' (lEW: 9(2). For the uloss I'll A I t ng.. sce lert:
1984a, 186-7. Sec also anter1netetic.
De Bernardo Stempel: DGVB: GPC: IH2L 'Iarnp: 14X2. 217: LElA:
A-49; LHEB: 503; VGK: I. VVB: 151
moment ha hanner gl. scmuncias horarum Ang 1.1 h
dou punt petguar hanthcr scrihl MP 22
h
(234)
hanther see hanner
hared n m&f 'song, verse' raraifh)
MW araith; C areth: Olr airccht
LElA: A-43, which does not mention the ()W instllflce. considers here IF *rek-
'briillcn. schrcien' (cf. lEW: H60). and notcs the ohscurity of the "'ord fnnnation,
This instance is taken as the scrihc's mistakc for (1"(1111. sec s.V.
GPC: Haycock: Williams: 19XO, 114
it cluis it humil inharcd crlmed Juv 9 (7.1)
hathid v pres. 3 sg '10 pass away, vanish'
Prefix ad- (sec S.v. ad
l
), and the form of the verh 'to he'; for the MW forms
GMW: 145.
GPC: 30; Williams: 1927,271 .
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt C'omp 20
haur see allr
t. :
82
he/11th... n 'extremljy, end' lelthaf)
ow (LL) eithaf; MW eithaw, eithaf; OB etam
< IE *eghs... 'aus'
DGVB: 167; GPe: 1202; lEW: 292; VGK: 1,404; VVB: 151; WG: 176
biheit he[iltham ir eguin MP 23a (241)
he/cluJ m 'to hunl'
See helghaJi.
inhelcha gl. in uenando Me 39 a.b.
helghB(Ii) v imp. Zsg 'to hunt' [hel.. )
MW hel-; DC helhiat gl. persecutor, helhpur gI. venator, Me (verb) .OB
a olguo gl. MB (verb) (h)emholch; Irish selg; probably In the tnbe...
name Seigovae
< Britt. ·selg·, IE Vselg- &Ioslassen, ensenden, werfen, ausgieBen'
DGVB: 68; Elsie: 10.'; GPC: 1844; lEW: 900; Lambert: 1987,295; LHEB: 467;
LElA: 5-80; OCV: 116, 146; PECA: 62; VGK: I, 106; VVB: 152; WG: 387;
White: 268-9 ....
helghati gl. venare Ovid 38·
hen see hends'
henC"sssou n pi 'antiquities' . '.
A brittonised lrish form (OIr senchas, on this see K. McCone In Enu 46 (1995),
p. 1 see also s. v. hendat.
LElA: 5-84; Stokes: 1860-1,217-8; Thurneysen: 1890a, 93; VVB: 152
hencassou gl. monimenta J 49
henda' n m 'grandfather' [hendad]
MW hendad; OB hentatot gl. paternus auus (?); DC hendat gl.
auus
The compound contains O\y hen 'old' (OW (Gen: 10) [R]iderch hen, Dumngual
hen; LL hen(n), MW G. Seno-; Ir. sen) < IE *sen- 'alt', lEW: 907, and tat
'father' (OC tal, Be tad) < IE *tata- 'Lallwort' (lEW: 1056).
DGVB: Elsie: GPC: 1850; DeV: 76-7; PECA: 62; VVB: 152
hendat gl. auus Ox2 43
b
(5.28)
henmam n f 'gnndmother' [henfam]
MW henvam., henfam
The compound contains OW hen 'old', see s.v. hendat, and mam (MW mom, OC
mam, see GPC: 2332), derived from IE *ma- 'Lallwort ftir Mutter' (lEW: 694), or
analy!ied as a loan from Lat. malnma (PECA: 76).
ope: 1851; VVB 152-3
henmam gl. habira Ox2 43
b
(5.28)
henoid adv. 'to-night' [henol
MW heno(eth); C MB henoez
8.. l
< *.w'·noXI, IE *.\"0-, and etc.. 'Nacht'
(iMW: 221; (iPC·: IHS2-J; lEW: 762: V( j K: r. 12.'\ and II.. 79. I()(): IYRU.
94-5
henoid Juv 3 (1.1; 2.1; 3.1)
hep prep_ 'without' IhebJ
OW (LL) heh, MW hep, heh; C heh, B hep; Olr sech
< IE *sek"- 'folgcn'; sec also the next.
GOI: 5.10; GPC': IR.10; E. H<1mp in R (llJ5R-9). pr. 402-J; lEW: R97; [ .. Ef":
5-60; VGK: I, 129; VVI3: 15.1; WG: 404
hep amgnauhot gl. sine mente Ovid JR
h
hepdud prep. 3 pi 'without then."
This instance could he OB as well. Sec "cp.
DGVB: 232; Lamhert: 19RI. 13R; Lamhert: 19RJ. 131: Lamhert: 19R7, 2<Jl
is hcpdud gJ. sine quibus Ang 15 h
hepp v pres. 3 sg 'to say' (heh-I
MW heh; Mlr sech-
< IE *sek"- 'sagen'
GMW: 154; GPC: 18.10: lEW: R97; LElA: 5-62-64; Stokes: 1873, 400: White:
99-100; VVB: 15.1
hepp Philologia gl. pertulerim 11 a.a.
hepp philologia gl. intcllexcram conspicari Me II 3.3.
herp philologia gl. nosccre IJ <1.<1.
herp Marcianc gl. uicit Me 14 h.a.
hepp marcia gl. aduerto Me 45 h.a.
hepp marcia gl. proscipio Me 4(1 a.a.
hepp Gcometria gl. ego ipsa rcragraui Me' 47 a.h.
sum her Geometria gl. Percurslls hrellitcr tcrrarunl sitlls M(' 51 n.h.
heruid prep. to" after" Iherwydd I
MW herwyt. hervit, her\vir. heruuyd, hcr\vyd: on heTuill: C' hCT\vyth
< Celt. *l1ri-yid-; see also er8uid.
DGVB: 210; GPC: IR60; Hamp: 1975/6.03: VCiK: J. 40H. 41.1: VVB: 15.1: WC,:
415
herufd duiutft J 0
he...taur n r&m 'measure or quantity' Ihestorl
MW hestawr, hestaur
< Lat. Je:rtar;u.fi
EL: 40; GPC: 1861; Haarmann: 123; LJIEB: 514; ML: 17R; VVB: 15]
hi hestaur mel gl. in scxtario MP 22
h
(230)
is trimuccint hestaur mel MP 22
h
(231)
. hcstaur gJ. sestcrtium MP 2J
h
(2..1..1)
"\ ...,
84
hestoriou n pi 'measures of quantity'
See hestaur.
ir hestoriou oleu MP 22
b
(231)
heuei[th] 1) difficult (1)'
MS heuei. The amended form heuei[th] was compared with W hywaith (hy +
gwaith) 'beneficial, easy' (Z: 1061; VVB: 154); according to GPC: 1987, MW
hyweith is first attested in the R 1222. 22-3.
heuei[th] gl. non dificile 0,,2 42a (2.26)
hit pron. pos. 3 sg 'his, her, its' [eil
MW (h)i, y, e MB (h)e
< *esiiis ; see also it .
GPC: 1186
isem hichet triuceint torth Chad 4
cihutun hi torr MP 23- (246)
hi
2
prep 'to, in (1)'
MW y, OB i; OIr i;
See ;2, in.
DGVB: 216; LHEB: 641-2; VVB: 154; Watkins: 1957.
nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2.1)
hi hestaur mel gl. in sextario MP 22
b
(230)
hih;?
I. Williams (I. Williams: 1930, 244-5) has considered several possibilities of inter-
pretation of tbis passage - hilli, hini or hem; his conclusion was to take it as yn ei.
Another possibilit)' is perhaps to consider this as a reduplicated pronoun 'she'. Far
from clear,
amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23
8
(241)
hin n 'side, edge'
Hapax in Welsh, but cf.. MW hiniog, amhiniog, etc.; Mlr sfn
< IE 'lSi; .. , etc. 'binden"
GPC: Harvey: 192; lEW: 891-2; LElA: S-113; J. Loth in RC 41 (1924),
pp. I. Williams in BBCS 2 (1925), pp.303-306; I. Williams in BBCS 3
(1926), pp. 56-7
or cled hin gl. limite levo J 26
hinhsm n m 'head, chier, superior, lord' [hynaC]
MW hyneif, bynaf
Superlative of hen, see s. v. hendat.
GPC: LHEB: 279; Schrijver: 31; VGK: 1,74, and 11,122-3; VVB: 154-5
hinham g1. patricius qui sedit iuxta regem in sede (after sede) Ox2 46
a
(9.32)
85
hinn prone demonstr. m sg 'this' (hyn)
MW CB hen(n); Irish sin
A word with a disputable etymology; for a summary1 sec LElA.
DOVB: GOI: 304; GPC: lEW: 905: LElA: 5-111; VGK: II, 190f.;
VVB: 155; WG: 298
ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21
iT nider uid hinn Comp 22
irhinn issid crIst gl. Christus quem J 81
enuein di Sibcllae int hinn gl. ETytria quncquc Cumea cst vel Phrigia Me 11 b.b.
irhinn issid ille gl. ut si dicas Anton ille Me 43 b.b.
hin map di iob gl. love dignus Ovid 39
b
hinnith prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they' (hynny)
MW hynny(d), henne; OB henneth (DGVB: 2(9) should be excluded.
See also hiflnoid.
OPC: 1976-7; Klingenschmidt: 219: VVB: 155
pan diconetent iT. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
ir loe guac hinnith. in pagina regular; Comp 6
Salt emmi guollig hinnith Comp 19
hinnoid prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they'
See hinnith, hinnuith, hUfl110id.
prinit hinnoid MP 22
h
(234)
ni choilam hinnoid amser MP 22
h
(234)
ho hinnoid MP 23
a
(241)
is moi hinnoid MP 23
a
(246)
hinnuilh prone demonstr. 'it, that, those, they'
See hinnith, hinnoid, hu""oid.
irdid hinnuith Comp 9
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith Comp 11
irloc guac hinnuith Comp 14
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15
ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20
hint see na(m) hint errei
hir· adj. 'long, tall' (hir]
OW (LL) hir, MW hir; CB G (Ecritu)siri: Olr sir
< Celt. *siro- < IE *sero-, y'se(i)· 'entsenden. werfen. fa1len
1
Elsie: 110; GPC: 1869; lEW: 891; LElA: 5-115: VGK: I, 51; VVB: 155: WG: 84
a hir etem gl. instita longa Ovid 37
a
nouirhircimcrdridou gl. lucubrationum percnnium Me' 4 h.a.
hir
2
definite article
The follo\\'ing two instances arc considered herr:
Intrited retec. retit loyr .. guorhir scrllu1.circhl C'onlp 2 (c;;er Wil1inrnc;;: t<·)27.
hir doguonimereticaith J!1. ut arithmrticfl Prise )4 h: the \\lord fnl1o\ving hi,. is
---------------------------_._-
"\"..
86
Breton. See OOB: 483; DGVB: 212.
See ir.
himnn see ir, un(n)
It was suggested (Stokes, 1860-1, 218) that this could also stand for yr hwnn. In
the corrigenda (ibid., p. 290), however, Stokes rejects this possibility. The former
view wins the support of P.·Y. Lambert, see Lambert: 1981,139.
hfronn gl. quem J 51
hit prep. 'until'
OW (LL) hit; MW hyd, hid, hyt; 08 het, hit, OIr sith-
< ·si-tu, IE yse(i)- 'entsenden, werfen, fallen'. See also the next.
DGVB: 210,212; GOI: 231; GPC: 1948; JO: 106; lEW: 891; LElA: 5-120; MJ:
272; WG: 84
hit did braut Chad 2
hit ni conj. 'unlD'
MW hyny, yny, oni. See hit, ni.
GMW: 244; GPC: 1949; WG: 446; Williams: 1927, 266
hit niritarnher irdid hinnui th Camp 8
hit niritarner rann. irbissei Comp10
hitt verbal p.rticle
See it.
biheit heitham ir eguin hiUoi ir hune MP 23
8
(241)
hithou pron. (conjunctive) 3 sg f'she (her, it) too' (hithau]
MW hithe(u); 08 itou, Me ythe cf. MW (mase) ynteu
According to I. Williams, this may have the force of 'also' in the text rather than
'then'. It was argued b)' P. Russell that the base form for this (and the other) conj.
pronoun was the 3 pl. MW wynteu; he reconstructs 3 sg f as *hih-t:Jf.
DGVB: 235; GPe: 1879; P. Russell in BBCS 30 (1983), pp.30-8; Williams: 1927,
367; WG: 272-3
aries hithou Comp 13
aries ithou Comp 18
hloimo/?
VVB: 156 suggests seeing here a cognate of W lIu 'host'; but see LHEB: 479,
where K. Jackson states that the meaning and etymology of this word is unknown.
hloimol gl. glomerarium Ox2 43
8
(5.5)
ho prep. 'from, out of' (oj
See O.
ho diued Chad 2
; hOT elin cihutun hi torr MP 23
8
(246)
ho hinnoid MP 23
8
(241)
hoitnu ?
A verv difficult word. According to I. Williams (1930: 237), this could stand for
R7
(h)oedeu, (h),,'ydeu, (h)oethell, or (h)w)'tlrell. Possihle interpretations therefore
include 1) 'difficulties", 2) 'plenty', 3) 'scarcity', GPC: 262R refers to this entry in
the discussion of W. oellz 'difficulty'.
hoid hoitou hau bein atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22
h
(234)
hoi adj. 'whole, entire' (011J
OW (Ll), MW Me oj, oil, MB (h)oll, G cf. Oir oil, uilc
< *(05)0/-£0- or *(o5)ol-no· to IE *solo· 'wohlhehalten. ganz' (lEW: (}79): differently
in lEW (to *0/- 'dariiber hinaus', pp.24 and 97R).
Elsie: 78: GPC: 2646; GPN: 237; LElA: 0-21; Schrijver: 323: VGK: II. 213-4;
VVB 156
ham hoi enep gl. ct total" facieln mean, Ox2 41 h (1.10)
holoinou n pi 'wheels'
Could be Welsh or Breton. See olin.
DOVB: 213-4
holoinou gJ. rotis Ang 12 b
honit conj. 'except, apart from' (onid]
See anit
GPC: 2648; VVB: 156-7
honft riamrfllJi gl. tantum ne [... ] unquam J 5J
hor (ho+r), see (h)o, ir
hou conj. 'ir (oj
MW o(t) .. OIr 6
IE *all- 'herab. wcg von'
See also 0, hOll nit.
ope: lEW: 72: Williams: 1930,273
hoid hoitou hou hcin atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22" (2J4)
hou boit cihitun ccng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 2J" (246)
hou nit conj. 'except'
Sec anit, "onil, hOll, nit
ir nider uid hinn, hou nit hloidin salt C"omp 22
huch n m f'sow' (hwch)
OW (LL) huch, MW huyc, hue, huch. hwch; OC hoeh gl. porctls. aD hoch gl.
apcr; Olr soce
< Celt. *slIkko-, IE ySlI-s Sau',
DGVB: 212; GPC: 1928; lEW: IOJR; LElA: S-15R: O('V: 255-5; PEC'A: M
ha huch Chad 3
hui pron. pers. 2 pi 'you' (chwil
MW chwi. C why, 08 hui, MB huy: Olr sf
< to IE *ili-
88
Elsie: GOI: 254, 282; GPC: 850; lEW: 514; LElA: 5-101-2; VGK: II, 168f.;
VVB: 157
ishut gl. quos J 19
hui gl. quae Me 63 3.3.
huil n f 'sail' (name of a letter) [hwyl]
MW huyl, hwyl; OIr seol
Several etymologies for this word have been forwarded, see a summary in LElA;
it was often considered to be a borrowing from Germanic (OHG segal, AS segl).
Most recently P, Schrijver reconstructed Celt. *siglo-, cf. VGK: I, 483.
GPC: 1937; LElA: S-88-89; Schrijver: 357; VVB: 157
huil (Nemn)
humil adj. 'humble'
MW ufyl, uwil, uvel, uffil; OC huuel gl. humilis; MB uvel; Olr umal
< Lat, humilis
LHEB: 276; LElA: U-25; ML: 214; OCV: 189; PECA: 66; VGK: I, 196; WiI..
Iiams: 1980, 114
it cluis it hurnil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
hun renexive marker '(one) selr [hun]
MW hun; see GMW: 89f.
GPC: 1911
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.a.
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
hune see une
hunnoid pron. demonstr. 'that, he (him), she (her), it'
MW hun(n)u, hon(n)o
See flinnirh, hinnuith, hinnoid, hunnuid,
GPC: 1931; Klingenschmidt: 219
ir pimphet eterin diguormechis lucas hegit hunnoid MP 22
h
(234)
dou eterinn cant hunnoid MP 22
b
(234)
hunnuid pron. demonstr. 'that, he (him), she (her), it'
See hinnith, hinnu;th, hinnoid, hunnoid.
irgur hunnuid .i. mercurius gl. celebrat Me 4 b,a.
I
-j pron. pen. 1 sg 'I'
See d;rUmprosuni
-j pron. infixed genitive 3 sg
Sec hni
89
i' pron. pos. 'his, its'
See l1i
2

OGVB: 275 and 216 : Lambert: 19RI, Lambert: 19R7, 2HR
o i nerth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3.2; hut sec Watkins: 19R2, 40 for the interpretation of this
i as i
J
).
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv <) (7.3)
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7.3)
issemi anu gl. Genius Me II a.h.
nirinciriles. cimp&illiaus3uc oirci gl. ad phares sui gcneris fit comparatio Prise 27 a
i
2
prep. 'in'
See hit.
haioid ilau clcu Chad 2
it c1u(i)s [it] diban iciman guorscd Juv CJ (6.1)
iar n f 'hen' liar)
MW yar, iar; OC yar gl. gallina; Mlr eidn
Several etymologies have heen suggested. According to Pokorny this goes hack to
IE *iero-, etc. \Jahr', then 'one year old anirna"; the Irish form is then not convinc-
ingly explained. This was noted hy O'Rahilly (sec also who offcred Celt.
*ieros < *pfp·ero- in view of Lat. pipio. For Stokes's equntion (llS: \\'ith
Latv. ifhe \grouse', etc., and a useful summnry, see Schrijvcr: 104--5.
GPC: 2000; E. Hamp in Eriu 40 (19R9), p. IR: lEW: 2<n: ()('V: T. ()'Rahiltv
in Eriu 13 (1942). p. 14R: PEC": 105: Schrijvcr: 104-): V(,K: L 6): VVB: I)(}'
iar gJ. alcs J R2
iben v imperf. I pl. (past subj.?) 'to drink' (yr-)
MW yu-, cu-; CB ev-, Olr ihid
< IE *p6(i)-/pf· \trinken'
Elsie: CiMWL: 292: lEW: R3<)-40: White: 212-5: Williams: Il)RO, Q6
cet ibcn med nouelJuv -" (2.2)
Ii/dO/Ie n (pi ?) 'pagan temple"
OB idolti; OIr indidaJtaigac gJ. fani
Hapax in Welsh. A compound, idol < Lat. idnltlln, nnd Ie 'housc· (see telll).
DGVB: GPC: 2009: Isanc: Stokes: IR73, ,394; V\lB: 15R
inir[i]dolte gl. in fanis Me 7 h.a.
iecllim sis ?
Stokcs: IR73, 392 statcs that he cannot explain this gloss.
icctlim sis gl. apollo MC' 5.a.
iehnlinn?
According to Loth. VVB: IO(), this could he ielr" (= Ir ig 'anncau') + Ii"" 'hois-
son': according to J. Rhys. (Rhys: 7lJ. flr"/;",, ('1) for ('""lilri",, -- Wcl'\h
enllyn 'anything eatcn or drunk \\'ith hrca<i'. l·his nlll<;t, ho\\'evcr. denote \hrlndlc',
'"\ "-
90
Cf. LHEB: 479. where the meaning and etymology of this word was claimed to be
unknown.
iehnlinn gl. ansa Ox2 53
8
(4.9)
iechui' n m 'health' (name of a letter) (iechyd)
MW Me yehes
An -yd derivate of W ioch (DC iach gl. sanus, 08 iae gl. suspite); for the etymol-
ogy see Schrijver: 103-4 with. bibl.
DGVB: 217; GPC; VVB: 159
jechuit Nemn
prep. 'between them'
This entry is traditionally considered as a case of metathesis of the form, similar to
the (later) attested y-ryngdun(nt); see JO. As was recently suggested by G. Isaac,
this could be a copyist's error for itridu, or a confusion of the two stems.
G. Isaac in EC 30 (1994), p. 231; JO: 104-5; LL: xliv; MJ: 272; WG: 405
nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
illisusaur'in plurality1
MW lIuossauc
According to Fleuriot. this stands for *in liausauc. The latter is an -Que derivative
of lialls, see s. v.
DOVB: 218,242 and 269; GPe: 2227
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit eomparatio Prise 27 a
im prep. 'around' (1)
MW OB am, em-; G. amb-; Olr imb
To IE "amblti- ·um-herum- (lEW: 34), see E. Hamp in Eriu 24 (1973), p. 163f.,
and cf. E. Hamp in Eriu 28 (1977), p.145. See also am.
hai bid guar phenn circhl. naunecant Comp 22
ima/iliduch 1
This passage freom Chad 3 has been read in several different ways. According to
J. Gwenogvryn Evans (LL: xlv), this should be read as y vel yth c5ybwg 'as ... leads
thee'. Jenkins and Owen (JO: 116) interpret this as y vel yth 0youch, which is
argued to belong to a pattern CONJUNCTION + PARTICLE + ?PRONOUN +
VERB; cf. Isaac: 365. F, White (White: 145) mentions inter alia a possibility of
reading this phrase as val i dydduch 'as (it) may lead'.
The verb., 3 sg. subj .. goes back to IE *deuk- 'ziehen' (lEW: 220).
imalitiduch cimarguith[i)ejt Chad 3
;mguodBnl v pret. 3 pl. 'to say (to each other)'
J.O\vcnogvryn Evans (witb much hesitation) read this word as ;,nguotant and
connected it with then d = [d]. Several other connections have been
forwarded. maintai ni ng d = (b) - *g""edh- (W. gh1eddi etc., 'prayer', thus J. Mor-
ris Jones). ·.,fd
4
thus I. Williams) and *{ledh· 'to lead, go' (then "they
came together"). See 10,
JO: 101; Isaac: LL: xliv; MJ: 271; White: It)2-4; I. Williams in BBCS 13
(1950), p.201
imguodant ir degion 2
im/adunJ vn (?) 'to light· Iymladd-I
MW ymlad-. cmlnd-
A cOJnhination of n rcnexivc prefix i",- \\'ith the vcrh sec ledit.
DGVI3: 219; GWML: 297
imladunl gl. attritu Ang 15 h
inJmisline v imperf. 3 sil. 'to smear' Iynllyn-1
MW emlyn-, ymlyn-
The form contnins a reflexive prefix. tlntl a ."' sg. infixed pronoun: for the etymol-
ogy. see linisanf.
Stokes: 1873,395; VVI3: 161; White: 209-211
immisline gl. allinebat Me Ra.h,
immit eel v pres. 3 sg 'to hide'
The line where this form occurs has caused a dispute. According to R. Thurncyscn
(1980): 205-6), we should rend il1"11('1 \\lith il11111rl == Olr ilnhcd 4hc<1ucoup·
and, apparently, a verb in the impersonal. 11. LC\\'js \\'ould sec in i""nrl 'ym my(j'
(Lewis: 1926.3). Following I. Williarns (Willianls: 19.10. 240). *.\'Ill-yd-gc/: thel1 .. Cl
derivative cf. MW celli 'hide, conceal". OB a",calcd. ()I r (,l';/;d. Lat. cclo. from IE
*kel- 'bergen, verhtillcn'.
DGVB: (,PC: 455: lEW: )5.14: LEI/\ ): \Vhitc:
immit eel irnimer bichan guttln irnl<lUr nirner MP 22
h

immotetin ? fymodi- ?I
According to 1'. H. Parry- Williams. this is to he cOJllp<lrcd \\'jth \V y",od: Fleuriot
suggests the devisioJ1 ;""n-of-('lill. sec ott. (·ollid this stClIH.1 for ;"""oIC(;("'.' Sec ttlC
next entry.
DGVB: 279; Parry-Williams: 122; Stokes: IH7.1. 41.1: VVR: ltd
imrnotctin .i. pupis gl. iactata J ()()
immottimoll \'n pi (?) ·to touch: handle. mo\'('· ? I
11. Lewis rejected Stokcs's re<lding i"",,ottilli01l !!1, geslicltfaliollc,\'. Instcad he sug-
gested the reading which is quoted here; sec also White, 1'his \\'OHi could he the
plural form of the vn y",od;(jllll) 'to nHlvc', \\'hich is attested in Modern
Welsh. Morphologically it is perhaps a plurnl vn \vith (l rcncxive prefix. See also
the previous entry.
Lewis: 111-2; PKM: 245; VVB: 162; White: JO(,-.112
irnmotimou gl. nlotus od<lruJl1 MC' «.) h.h.
in I prep. 'in' (yn I
Gin, MWC yn. MB en: Olr in
< IE *en- 4in ': see also ;2.
nGVR: 22J and 221 10(,: (,()I: IF\V: ," 1: "VO: 162; fl)'\7:
\V(,: 404
.-j:..
:P'
\ ..
92
in ir loscetic circhl. gl. circulus [, , ,] nrdentlor In ruborem Ang 13 u
Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum extremque Ang 13 a
inno ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarum flatu 68 b .
In irtritid urd Comp 1
Intrited retec Camp 2
in triti urd Comp 5
ir loc guac hinnith. in pagina regulari Comp 6
hai bu in arcimeir .0. Camp 7
in eir cimeir .0. Camp 11
in pagina reguJarf Camp 12
Is aries isid in arecimei r aries Comp 12
in eircimeir Joe guac Comp 13
In pagina regular; Comp 14
in pagina regulari Comp 15
hac in irgueleri Camp 16
hai bid in irgueleri Camp 17
in ir salt Comp 20
Ceis inir loyr Camp 21
in ois oison Chad 2
in irham Chad 3
in irgaem Chad 3
in ireguorunhetic datI. gl. in arguto foro Ovid 38-
it cluis humi1 inhared cclmed Juv 9 (7,1)
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
inircuitinniou gl. ion condy1os Me 6 b.b.
inir[i)dolte gl. in ranis Me 7 b.a.
in-helcha gI. in uenando Me 39 a.b.
in
2
adv. [yDa)
W yna, Olr and
LElA: Wiliams: 1927,261
passerenn. pigurthet. tayr in Comp 4
;nJ Bdyerbi al particle
See into
inguir Comp 2l
;,,4 see if/iaBsBur
particle? .'I
This instance is considered to be in origin the demonstrative pronoun, cf. lr · See
also S.\'. pal",
GMW: 72: Lewis: 1956, 299
in pan aed hid. ad ir lee. guac. issi. in triti urd Comp 4
93
III'''''''' Nt't' 111/",,,,,
inbith adj. 'mad' IynrydI
MW ynuyt
W. Stokes equated this form with 08 cnhit gl. dihilis. contrast VCiK: 1,21. where
the word is analysed as a loan from AS IlIlW;uv. which is vcrv unlikclv. For the 08
form, the interpretation of which presents difficulties as see DGVB: 15Q. It
wns suggested by I. Williarns thnt this could he C1 H\\'clshiScltion" of Irish nnr",I..
GMWL: 299; F. ()'Rahilly in 1..1 (1942). p. 150; W. Stokes in TPhS IRR5 .. 7.
p. 583; Williams: 193J. 117
ibith gl. rahicrn (vcntorurn) J 64
init conj. / part. (?)
For the analysis of this form nnd its MW parallels see J. Strachan in RC' 28 (1907),
Watkins and Mac 25; sec. s.v. and cf. VGK: II. Lambert: 19R1,
Lambert: 19R7, 302.
initoid gl. maculata J 7R
initoid gl. extincta J 78
initoid gl. J 92
inn predicative particle (cr. ad,·erh. part)
MW yn; OB iot. ent
Lambert: 1982a. 23; Lambert: 19R7. .103: Williams: 193J. 115
nouinnguotricuscgeticion gl. ncc delata diu J 4
int adverbial particle
OB int; OIr ind
'The origin of this particle is not clear. ('f. also it and the previous ent ry.
DGVB: 22.5-6; Wiliams: 19RO, 121
int dosseheitic gl. gutatim Ang I) b
piouboi int groisauc luv () (R.2)
uuc nem ismcl1 intcoucr Juv Q (9.2)
interedou pi ?
According to W. Stokes ( IH60-1: 215 and 21'4) this upcrhaps stand for ;1l/rrRuec!"fI,
cpo o1lguedoll gl. ('xfa hut more likely is the pi of ;,,'er('d, derivative fr(lm ;nle,.··.
VVB: 202
pcrmedintcrcdoll gl. ilia J 35
opermedintcredou gl. mcdullis J 51
iot n m 'pap, Iuwd I
MW iwt, OC iot gl. puis; Bind. Olr (h)fth (·pap. poftrtgc') gl. plus: G.-Rom.
iutta
< *ieyto-. IE Vicu- 4vermcngen. hci der SpCiSC7uhcreitung·. If \\'(1, noted oy
JAckson. LHEB: 55. that thc \vord (ns \\'('lIllS ?Lnfinised ;0""". sec helo\\')
hhcttcr with ()C' inf, ModB ind, than \\'ith Mod'" ;'nr·.
i
,
f
t
t
·f
q
.1
I
I
----- -
94
FEW: V, GOI: 39; J. B. Hofmann in Glotta 25 (1936), p.118; J. Hubschmied
(jr) Bezeichnungen fur - 'H6hle' - 'Steinplatte'. 1/ Sache art und
Wort. (FS J. Jud), Zurich 1943, p. 277; lEW: 507; aev: 374; PECA: 68;
J. Pokorny in ZCP 17 (1928), p.306; VGK: 1,65; VVB: 164-5; WG: 42
iot gl. pultum 0,,2 42
8
(3.1)
iotum n 'pap, pottage'
See iot
ioturn gl. (coleferum) ius Ox2 42
8
(3.8)
iotllm gl. ius Ox2 44
9
(6.16)
;ou n m r 'yok.e' (iau)
MW iau, yeu, iav; DC (Welsh?, "Vocabularium Cornicum") ieu gl. iugum, MB
G Veriugodumnus
< IE ·iugo- 'Joch' or < Latin iugum; see aWAY
L. Aeuriot, Brittonica et Gallica. /I EC 23 (1986), pp.73-4; GPC: 2002; GPN:
357-8; Jackson: 75-6; HPB: 238, n.4; KGP: 227; LHEB: 441; lEW: 508; acv:
156-7; PECA: 68; Schrijver: 340; R. Thurneysen in Anzeiger fUr indogermanische
Spraeh- und Altertumskunde 26 (1910) p. 26; VVB: 165; VGK: I, 98; WG: 109
iou gl. iugum 0,,2 42
b
(4.6)
;r
t
definite article [yr)
MW yr, y., 'r; Me en, an; Olr ind, a n-
The defcnite article goes back to a demonstrative pron., with n > r. See also 'r and
cf. in 5., irril, hirunn.
CA GMW: R. M. Jones in SC 10/11 (1975-76), pp. 326-44; VGK: II,
WG: 191-4
amserpanalos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria rcmanse-
runt Ang 14a
in ir loscetic circhl gl. circulus [...] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
"inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum extremeque Ang 13 a
no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
ir du bisl gl. meloncolia Ang 68 a
ir lanu gL aestum Ang 68 a
inn6 ir guotodinou gl. hieme ethesiarum flatu Ang 68 b
ir parth alall gl. his litoribus abiens Ang 62 b
In irtritid urd Comp 1
ir ir Iri ui. aur. Comp 2
pan dieonetent ir. oithaur hinnith Camp 4
ad ir loc. guac Comp 5
ir loe guac hinnith Comp 6
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
ir loc guac haibid post. o. Comp 8
irdid hinn uil h Camp 9
irloc quae Comp 9
Irnidibid ir loyr di.a. Comp 9
hit niritarncr rann. irhissci C'onlp I ()
hacet isgurth. ir serenn Comp I (J
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith C'omp II
irloc guae hinnuith Comp 14
issem ir .e. hinnuith Comp 15
hac in irguelcri Comp 16
ir lac guac Comp 17
ir loc gunc hai hid in irguclcri ('omp 17
ir bloidin hunnuith ('ornp 20
in ir salt Comp 20
Ccis inir loyr Cornp 21
imguodant ir degion Chad 2
ill irham Chad 3
in irgacm Chad 3
di pul irdcrucn Chnd 6
dipcnnant ircaru ('had 6
nouirrniinngucdou .i. coiliotl g1. cxtorllfll M(' 2 (1,3,
nouirgoudonou gl. tincarum MC' 2 a.h.
guarirdrcb gl. cdito MC' J a.a.
nouirguirdglas gl. sali rcsplcndcntis MC' .la.ll.
ircarnotaul hriccr gl. uitta crillalis MC' 4 a,a.
irgur hunl1uid .i, mcrclirius gl. relchrat M(' 4 b.il.
nouircmid gl. acris MC' 4 b.a.
nouirhircimcrdridou gl. lucuhrationunl pcrcnniurn MC' 4 h.n,
inircutinnioll gl. in condylos M(' () h.h.
irpoul1oraur g1. pugillarcm rnginarll MC' 6 h.b.
inir[ijdoltc gl. in fanis MC' 7 h.a.
trui ir unolion gl. rer monades Me' 7 h.h.
nouirfionou gl. rosarum MC" 9 h. h.
ithrirdiuail gl. glahcl1a mcdictils MC l) h.h.
nouirc1eteirou gl. crotularum MC' 10 a.a.
nouirerunnui g1. oui Me 10 b.a.
irhinn issid illc gl. ut si diens Anton il1c M(' 4J h.h.
ircattciraul rcttetice strotur gl. sclla cllrulis MC 45 a,a.
nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonurn stilis MC' 46 a.a.
nouirccrricc gl. cautium Me 51 a. a.
ir tri ,u. MP 22
11
(230)
ir petguar pimp MP 22
h
(230)
ir hcstoriou oleu MP 22
h
(23 I)
ir pirnphct ctcrin MP 22
h
(234)
irnimcr hichan MP 22
h
(2.lH): seC' i"",,;t eel.
irmaur nimcr MP 22
h

ir his hichan MP 2J
ll
(241 )
96
ir maul MP 23
1
(241)
ir eguin MP 23
8
(241)
ir hune MP 23
8
(241)
ir bis MP 23
8
(241)
ir esceir MP 23
11
(247)
irdigatma gl. area Ovid 31
h
. 8
nom irbleuporthetic gl. Ianigerae templa OVid 38
in irguorunhetic datI gl. in arguto foro Ovid 38
8
ir emedou gl. aera Ovid 38
15
ircilchetou gl. vela Ovid 38
8
iransceth gl. nullum pulverem Ovid
irdigatmaou gl. circus Ovid 39
8
ireaiauc gl. libellum Ovid 39
11
• b
.inc.glinau irleiLl gl. Romanaque pectora OVId 39
iranamou gl. mendae Ovid 40
11
irtinetic gl. ti ncta Ovid 40·
ironguedou gl. exta Ovid 41
a
ircenthiliat gl. Davida canorum J 7
Ir breni gl. proram J 31
euinhaunt irruim mein J 55
em ir cisemic gl. qui primus J 70
ir tir gl. fundu m J 73
irmesur gl. nummum J 80
irhinn issid crfst gl. Christus quem J 81
irtfum gJ. abrupta J 81 (Reading: Stokes: 1865, 411)
bet circhinn frguolleuni gl. usque sub occiduum eoeH J 84
irdicnchiriueticion gl. principales Prise 16 b
ir
2
causal conj. , prep. 'for' [yrl
MW vr, OB ir . r .
DGVB: 228; 10: 103-4; Lewis: 1956, 297; MJ: 272; J. E. Caerwyn Wiliams In
BBCS 11 (1944) t p. 18
Irnidibid iT loyr dLa. Comp 9
iT hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20
ir oider uid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21
naf" ir ni be C85 igridu Chad 2
ir
J
prep. throughout, during' (er]
GPC lists this under er (C cr, d. La!. per), this is the only for
this meaning. The word is traditionally denved from IE *per das
tiher'". It was noted by I. Williams, that Utile prepositions ar, yr (er), g»'ar (ar)
. confused in Welsh··; he toole th is to have the force of Ir ar 'for, on account for.
GMW: 219; GPC: 1221: lEW: Williams: 1927.259-60
i ir tri ui. aUf. Comp 2
97
is prone (infixed) 3 sg.
immisline gl. nlinchat Me Ha.h.
is prep. 'under, helow' [is I
OW (LL) is, MW is. ys. Olr IS
< IE *ped-sll-, Vred- 'Furr (lEW: 790); see also the next.
DGVB: 230; GPC: 2031; VGK: I. 50
uuc nem isnem intcoucr Juv () (Q.2)
ise/adj. 'low· lisell
MW is(s)el; OB iscl. MC" ysse1: Olr fscl
See is. and belo\\'
DGVB: GPC: VGK: I, 50: VVB: 16H: W(i: 24H
o isel gl. ex humili J 5
adj. compo 'lower'
As opposed to isselach, sec S.v.. this form was considered hy Flcuriot as ultimately
W. See also isseI. This instance is not quoted in GPC. Sec ahove.
DGVB: 232
isclach gl. intcriorcs Ang 12 h
issei adj. 'low·
The form was considered Welsh by Fleuriot due to the presence of the
o in this gloss. This instance is not quoted in GP('. Sec ahovc.
DGVB: 232 and 275
6 issei gl. humili Ang 15 a
isselach adj. compo 'lower·
As opposed to iselach. sec s.v.. this form considered hy Flcuriot as possibly
Welsh. GPC quotes this instance as Welsh. Sec aho\'e.
DGVB: 233
isselach gl. submersior Ang () I a
istlinnit v pres. 3 'to proclaim"
MW (CA) sdlinet; DB gurstli(n). Ofr sluindid
For the connection with Lat. splent!c,.(' (VC1K: f. X.1--4) notlnvithstandillg the
scepticism of LElA. advocating a double treattncnt of *spl-. sec Schri.;ver.
DGVB Isane: LElA: LIIEB: 527. )2H; J. Loth in RC'
(1920-21), p. Parry-Williams: 121; Schrijver: 435-H: Stokes: IHAO-1. 209;
VVB: 168; White: 105
istlinnit gl. loquitur J 4
it
l
preverbal particle
OB it. ct
< IE *it(h)- (lEW: sec also },;ff. The instances quoted from JU\' q (lllo", for a
different treatment. sec Willianls: I <JXO. III and cr. it...
DGVR: E. Ilanlr. Needs PIHlllnlog\'. I S. Stee\'er rf al.. cdc;;_

, ..
98
Papers from the Parascssion on Diachronic Syntax. Chicago 1976, pp. 348-64;
Hamp: 1979,167-8; Isaac: 391-2; Lambert: 1987,306; VGK: 1,424; VB: 278-80;
VVB: 168
itdarnestr gl. agitare J 88
it clu(i)s [it] drban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.1)
it cluis it humiJ inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
itdagatte ail gl. coniucrc Me 4 b.a.
if adverbial partirle
08 it, MB ez
The origin is not clear. See also into
DaVB: 234; VB: 286--7
it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1)
itercludllnt y pres. 3 pi 'to block, cut off' (1)
A very difficult gloss; the meaning is adduced from the Latin context. Itercludant
allows for the two segmentations, iter (see s.v. ithr) + cludant (cludd- ?), or it
ercludant, which do not find parallels elswhere. It was suggested (White) that that
the gloss is Irish.
Stokes: 1873,412; VVB: 169; White: 119-20
amal itercludant gL ut subigant J 32
itlann n f '8 threshing-Ooor' (ydlan]
MW ydlan, OIr ithlaind (Oat.)
A compositum, for the second part see lann t. The first clement is the name for
'corn" .. MW}'f (cL OC hitaduer gl. messis, MB eth) < IE *pitu- 'Trank" Speisc'
(DGVB: 167; PECA: 64; lEW: 794; VGK: 1,41).
Stokes: 1860--1, 210, VGK: I, 3; VVB: 169
itlann gl. area J 14
ithr prep. [ythrJ
OW (VSB: 315), MW ythr; C inter, yntre, OB entr-, intr-; OIr etir, cter; cf. CI en
Tafa
< IE *'}ter- &zwischen - hinein"; see De Bernardo Stempel for the further
anda and bibliography.
Dc Bernardo Stempel: 109-10; Eska: 66; lEW: 313; a. Isaac in EC 30 (1994),
p. 231 VVB: 169
ithrirduail gl. glabella medietas MC 9 b.b.
ilhaD see hi_hoD
iudeoit?
lllis gloss is see Stokes: 1860-1, 289.
iudeoit gl. obscura J 36
iUrRcheir n r 'femel e roe-deer' Iiwrch]
MW yerchel. iyn:hetl
9Q
An -ell derivative, cf. W iU'f('h (0(' yore" gl. ('aprell. ()B iorch gl. ('aprea. G.
I"rca) < IE *i ork- 'l'icr aus der (jruppc dcr sec lEW: SLl OC'V: 254:
PECA: Schrijvcr: 61 VGK: 1,3.1, (lull particularly K. T. Witczak in Flistori-
sclle 107 (1994). pp,140-1. For Cl different approach see
E. Hamp in EC 23 (1986), pp,49-S0, and cf. ()WAV.
DGVB: 227; GPC: 204J: VVB: 169; Stokes: IH7J. 401
iurgchcll gl. caprca Me 12 h.a.
K
kam n 'wrong, evil' (name of a letter)
OW (LL) and MW cam: 08 camln; C"'I11(-): G Ofr camOl
The name of a letter in uAlphahct of Ncmnills" ,,'ns identified with MW ca,"
'curvus' by Zeuss: GPC does not consider cxnnlplc in its treCltfnent of W cal" <
*(s)kalllh· 'krUmmcn, hicgcn' (lEW: YIX: PEC'A: 20).
DGVB: GPC: 396; GPN: LElA: C'-2(}: VVB: 63; 1059
kam (Nemn)
L
lac/ad di?
Stokes: IR7J, 397 left this gloss ullexplained.
Inclad dii Me 9 a.h.
lac/ads; aT ?
Stokes: 1873, 397 left this gloss uncxplained.
lacJadsi ar Me 9 a.a.
lac;d"m?
L. FlclIriot queried the Welsh nffiflitics of the \\·ord. "'hich rcmnins altogether
unclear.
OGVB: 2J6
laeidum t(ran)s diem gl. kalcndis prinllim nHlrtiis Ang h
/s;s' adj. 'loose" (liaes)
MW lIaes: Olr lax
< Lat. laxus
GPC: ML: VGK: I. VV13: 170
hlis gl. diffussa J 70
/ais
2
?
This gloss was found hy II. Lc\\'is. If it is Welsh. cr. then '.
Lewis: 1932. 112
lais gl. total/til' ucncratioflc slipplicall\ 1 h
"\ ....
100
laiiJwer?
This gloss, which is "'characteristically Cornish in orthography" (LHEB: 55), is
analysed by J. Loth (VVB: 170) as a compound which c.ontains faith 'Iai,f,
which is hesitantly compared with W gwyr. The word IS translated as petlt-Iall.
For the orthography cE. Craster: 135; Stevenson: 3.
lai3per gl. lacticula Ox2 42
8
(3.8; Craster's reading)
lann
t
n , 'church, church-yard' [Ilan]
OW (LL) and MW I(l)an, C. Ian, British (Vindo)-Iand(a); aIr lann .
IE *lendh- 'freies Land, Heide, Steppe' (lEW: 675). See OWAV, and cf. alann;
see also the next.
GPC: 2094; VVB: 171
lann gl. aet[h]ra .i. aula celi 1 15
Isnn
1
n 'frying paD'
Etymologically identical with IannI. See OWAV.
VVB: 171
lann gl. sartago Ox2 42
b
(4.8)
lanu n m 'tide, now' (llaDw]
MW lIanw; OB lanu
The word is preceded by a Welsh article and identical with OB. This instance is not
quoted in GPC. Etymologically, < IE ·pl1}lJo- vpel- 'gieBen, flieBen'.
De Bernardo Stempel: 123; DGVB: 236-7; GPC: 2095-6; lEW: 798
ir lanu gl. aestum Ang 68
a
latarauc adj. 'swampy' (Irish word showing Welsh features]
According to K. Jackson, who criticises the analysis of W. Stokes and J. Loth
(Stokes: 1860-1,224,291; VVB: 171, cf. also DOVB: 236), this word
look of an Irish derivative of the stem lath- 'mud' with the Welsh termination
_QlIC
U
• This entry is not given in Thurneysen: 1890a or Parry-Williams as an Irish or
an "irishised" gloss in the Juvencus manuscript.
Jackson: 1950, 71
latharauc I. gl. barathri coeoo J 81
/su n r 'hand' Ina,,]
MW 1(I)av, 1(1)8u; DC lof gl. manus; OB 10m in lomrod; Olr lam
< Celt. *lama, IE .., pfli- 'breit und flach'
De Bernardo Stempel: 123; DGVB: 246; Elsie: 102; GPC: 2104; lEW: 805-6; JO:
96-7; LHEB: MJ: 270; OCV: 56-7; PECA: 73; Schrijver: 163; VGK: I, 53;
WG: 82
haioid ilau eleu Chad 2
IBabBel n r 'hand-halthel'
MW llaw vvwell
, For the of the components of this compound see lau, balle/.
OPC: 2111: VVB: 172
lauhael gl. secuJario Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
. ' ..
101
Isun see s. v. reulsun and cr. locc/su, Kuith/8un, anhodlsun
/aur n m 'Ooor'l place' (llawr I
MW laur, lIawr; DC lor gl. pauimentum; OB lor gl. Olr lar
< */oro- < IE *p/iiro. YpCI;l-: plii- 'hreit und nacho aushreiten'; oPC' mentions the
possibility of the Welsh affinities of this entry.
DGVB: GPC: lEW: J. T. Koch in EC' 24 (1987). p. 257: Lf'lEB:
oev: PECA: VKG: I. 4H
laur gl. platca Ang 51 b
leder n pi 'letters' (llythyrJ
MW lIyther, OC lithcren gl. littera; ()B ()Ir liter
< Lat. littera: for the Celtic for!'t1s (without this OW instance) see LHEB: 399;
oev: PECA: 72; VGK: I, 20n.
DOVB: 244; GPC: 22R4; ML: IRJ; Williarns: I <JHO. I07-R
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
ledit v pres. 3 'to strike. hit, heat' (liad-I
MW (I)lad-. (I)led-: OB ladam gl. caedo: MIr slaidid
A well-attested word in without etymology.
DOVB: 236 ; Elsie: GPC: 2079; LElA: S-126; Schrijver: 17R; VGK: II. 630;
Williams: 1933. ] 13
ledit gl. pulsat Ovid (Williams: 19J3. 113)
Ieee-e... n f 'laywoman' I
MW Icic. 1(I)eye; OC leic gl. laiclIs
< Lat. laicus
GPC: LHEB: 605; ML: IRI; OCV: 72; PEt'A: 71: VVB: 172
leeces gl. maritae J 80
lefet?
J. Loth (VVB: 172) compares this entry \\'ith W flr!ritll 'rnilk, nc\\' milk',
lefel gl. fordaliu11' Ox2 42<1 (3.7)
Jepuenid n m 'joy' (llawenyddl
MW IIcuenit. lIewenyd, lIywcnyd; Me' lowene; OB LOlluinid
< Britt. *latlclliio-, IE y/oll- ·erhelltcn. genicBen' (lEW: (55).
GPC: Lf-IEB: VGK: I. Williams: 19RO. 97
namcreit mi ncp leguenid henoid .JllV 3 (3. I)
leidim vn 'to moisten' (lieith- J
MW IIcithaw; MB leizyaff
This was considered hy Fleuriot to he a Welsh form flppnrently hecause of the
Welsh context. The instance was considered as Welsh hy GPC'. l'hc form is com-
pared with B /eiz, W /Iairll (Ir. leg-). < IE */cg-Io-. Y/eg- sickern. zer-
gchcn'.
DGVB: 274-5: OPC: 2150 and 20QL lEW: 657: VGKL: II. ."62
() (' k'idirn gl. proccssu 1\ ng 61 h
, "..
(
\.
102
leiJl pron. 'other(s)'
MW (pl.) lleill; DB a(l)all; OIr alaile
< *a!a1li-; see also arall.
GPe: 2091; Schrijver: 321; VVB: 172
.inc.glinau irleill gl. Romanaqaue pectora Ovid 39
b
lenD n r 'curtain, veil" [lien]
MW Hen; OC len gl. sagum; DB escei lenn gl. G Olr lenn
These Celtic words are derived from Celt. *linda; the further connections are
obscure.
DOVB: 166 and 240; GPC: 2151; OCV: 347; PECA: 71; VVB: 173
lenn gl. pa]]am J 30
lenn gl. pallae Me 5 b.a.
lenn gI. cortina Me 62 a.a
lenn gl. saga Ox2 44
11
(6.26)
les n m 'benefit, advantage' (Ies]
MW lies; DC les gl. commodum; Ir leas
For the connection with Greek see PECA.
L. Aeuriot in EC 23 (1986), pp. 75-6; DGVB: 240; OPC: 2156; OCV: 147; PECA:
71
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prisc 27 a
leJtir n m 'cup, dish, vessel' [llestr]
MW llester, lIestyr; OC lester gl. navis, OB lestr
Traditionally < Celt. ·'es-tro- (= Umbr. veksla, vekslu < cf. VGK
where < ·'ent- Iro- (::= Lat. linter); aIr lestar was borrowed from Brittonic.
DGVB: 241 GOI: 120, 178; GPC: 2159; lEW: 680; LHEB: 337; OCV: 128;
PECA: VGK: VVB: 173
lestir gl. rati J 61
n m 'page, ..rface' (lIedwyneb]
MW lIetwyneb; OB letenep; aIr lethenach
This compound contains let (lied 'breadth, width', so Stokes, Loth; or 'half' ac-
cording to L. Fleuriot; for the derivation from IE *Heelt- 'one of a pair' see J. Puh-
vel, Hittite Etymological Dictionary, Mouton 1984, vol. 2 p.270. E. Hamp in
Historische Sprachforschung 101 (1988), pp.79-80; differently by P. Schrijver in
Eriu 45 (1994), p. 179, cf. lEW: 833; for einepp, see s.v. enepp. For the formation
see Hamp and cf. Isaac: 374.
DGVB: 241; OPC: Hamp: 1974,268-70'; Stokes: 1873,386; VVB: 173
orbardaulleteinepp gl. epica pagina Me 1 a.b.
leueJirc ?
According to Stokes, who followed Ebel, this is lau 'lice' + esic (ysig 'fretting').
Loth considered th i5 as an -icc derivative of leues = *Iogas, cf. Ir. logo;n, 'jc
pourris·. L. Fleuriot connects it with OB 'oed 'sordide' and MW lIoedd.
103
DGVB: 245; Stokes: lR73, 38R; VVB: 173
Icucsicc gl. caricofc"l. Ie!!. ·anfCfll 3.1...
lisus n m&f 'multitude, host, crowd' [lIiawsI
MW lIyaus, on lios g1. pleraquc nomina: MC lues, Iyes: cf. Olr Ifa
< IE *ple-ias-t-, ypel-, pelll 'Mengc' (lEW: ROO)
DGVB: 243; Elsie: GOI: GPC: Loth in Re' :'7 (lqI7-9).
pp. VGK: I, 6R: VVB: 188
morliaus gl. quam multos Ovid
lisuS8UC see il1i8US8UC
lieRt n m&f 'SOllrl'e of ri"er or welle « '("'eel
OW (HB, LL) licat, MW lagat gl. oculus: MB lagat
< IE *Ieuk- 'Ieuchten'
GPC: lEW: 687; OCV: PECA: VGK: 11.36
dilicat dipul retinoc Chad 6
lichou n pi 'lakes, swamps, marshes' [lIwchI
OW (HB, LL) luch, MW 1(l)uch, 1(I)\vch: OB loch, Olr loch
According to E. Hamp (ZCP 4(1 (1994), 12). thcsc (cf. also Lat. laCllJ) should be
vicwed as horrowings from North (·Central) EUfopcCln suhstratum. and the Brit-
tonic words "must sh()\v connation '\lith another cty,non ('light. shining·?)"".
DGVB: 244: GPC: LI-IEB: (loR: Stokes: IR65. 422: VVR: 174
lichou gl. palu( dels Ox2 44
h

liein n m 'linen, cloth' (lliain J
MW Iycyn, licin. Iliain: OB lien gl. manlltergiu,n: 0(' liein gllcli gl.<;indol. liein
duilof gl. manutcrgium I. mantilc
E. Campanile derives thcse words from Britt. */fsan!n.: fhe forms arc found in the
entry *lino- 'Lein' in lEW: on this entry see no,v V.Orcl in IF 100 (1995). pp.
122--4 and the references cited there.
DGVB: GPC: lEW: PECA: 72: VVB: 174
gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 (6.25)
limnint" pres. 3 pi 'to make smooth, polish' IlIyfnwJ
MW lIyfn (hut see Williams: 19JJ. 117): ()B li,nn gl. lentllfn: Olr siemon lsnlooth'
Traditionally, < IE *(s)lei- 'schlcimig. durch glitschiger Boden. ausglc iten·:
see, however, P.-Y. Lamhert in EC 17 (1980), p. IHO for a comparison of this form
with Ir. I0l11raid.
DGVB: 242; Elsie: GPC: lEW: LElA: Stokes: lR73.
VGK: I, VVB: 175; White: 120
linint gl. tonoent J 44
lin proper name, Linus
glossator prohahly took the I fltin "'ord for a proper nanlC. sec L<1'nhert: I<">X2a.
21 and 22. GPC: 21 RI discusses this \vord in their entry dcdirfltC'd to \V IIi" 'flcl:x·.
noulin gl. lini 4." h.a.
I
I
, .
104
liniSllnt v pret. 3 pi 'to infect, defile' (llyn-]
MW llyn·; OIr lenaid
Perhaps, to IE ·(s)lei- 'schleimig, durch Nasse glitschiger Boden, ausgleiten',
lEW: 663. See also immisline.
GPC: 2273; White: 186; Williams: 1933, 118; VVB: 175
linisant gl. lauare J 98
linnoue;n n pi (a plural dublet) 'lakes, pools' [llyn)
OW (LL) and MW lynn; OC lin in pisclin, grelin; OB lin; Olr lend; DB linda-
< IE '*[endh- -NaB, Quelle'; see also aleulinn. The instance is considered as Welsh
by GPC.
DOVB: 243; GPC: 2272; lEW: 675; OCV: 320-1; PECA: 88; VGK: 1,37
linnouein gl. in lacis lacunisque Ang 16 b
lirou n pi 'seas, oceans' (llyrJ
MW Jlyr, Mlr ler
< -li·,o, Vie;. ' gie8en, OieBen'. This etymology is queried in ope. According to
P.·Y. Lambert, this is a poetique qui designe lui aussi des entites mythi·
ques", referring to Bedigeiduran uab Llyr, etc.
GPC: 2275; lEW: 664; Lambert: 19828,21; Stokes: 1873,408
noulirou gJ. aequorurn Me 51 b.a.
liS5;U n ID 'lye, lotion, decoction' [lieisw]
MW Ileisw, leisso; DB lisiu, Husiu gl. lixa
< Lat. Jixiuim
DGVB: 244; EL: 41; apc: 2149; LHEB: 535; ML: 99,181; VGK: 1,218; VVB:
176
lissiu gl. lixam Ox2 44
b
(7.20)
lita" n 'Latium'
MW lIydaw, cE. G. Litavi·, OIr Letha
< IE *p{Jo'!ia, \/plat· -breit, flasch' (lEW: 833)
De Bernardo Stempel: 125-6; OaVB: 14; GPN: 217; VVB: 176
dilitau gl. Latio Ovid 39
b
litim.ur adj. 'populous'
Several interpretations of this difficult word have been considered. According to
Stokes, "the i between t and m is very faint [... ] This should perhaps be luithmawr
from luilh" (cE. VV8: 176; on this word see S.v. luidt). R. Thurneysen read the
word as linmaur and considered it as Irish (cf. l{nmar 'nombreux'). The second i,
however, still exists, see A. Harvey. OPC analyses this hapax as containing (MW)
llydK' 'host" compa nyt t perhaps connected with (MW) lledw 'plenty, abundance'.
The second component is ,naur, see s.V.
GPC: Harvey: 192; Stokes: 1860-1, 212; Thurneysen: 1890a, 93
litimaur gl. frequens J 18
105
litolsidou n pi 'feast-days, birthdays'
The present reading and interpretation of this hapax was suggested by I. Williams
(contrast VVB: 68, s. v. cenito/aidall) who followed Zeuss: 1057; it was accepted by
OPC, which compares this to Olr /ftl, 'festival', B lid, (, Litu- (on these and the
etymological lay-out, see GPN: 217-R). Thc form is analysed as containing suffixes
·0/, and -aeth.
OPC: 2176; Williams: 1929,6-7
litolaidou gl. natales Ovid J9
h
liu n m 'colour, (colour of) complexion or skin' (lIiwl
MW lIyu, Iliw; OC liu gJ. color; OB liou gl. ncuum; Olr If
< */f-yo-, IE 'hUiulich
t
; for the semantic development which is found in the
instance taken from the Juvencus glosses see I-Iamp: 1977-R. tl, fn. I.
DOVB: 142; OPC: 2192; lEW: 965; 208; PECA: 72: VGK: J, 51
6 rud liu gJ. roseo colore Ang 17 a
liu gl. gratia J 25
liuou n pi 'rudders, tillers" (lIywJ
MW 1(I)yw; OC leu gl. clauus; aIr innaluac gl. gubernaculorum
Traditionally, from IE *p/ell- 'rinnen, nicf3en': for a different explanation see
aWAY.
DGVB: 241; ope: 2287; lEW: 836; oev: IJ2; PEC'A: 71: VGK: 1,61; VVB:
177; wo: 107
liuou gl. ligones J 25
10 t n m 'calr (110 J
MW 110, OC loch gl. uitulus, loch euhic gl. hinnulus, MB leue: Olr Ineg
According to H. Pedersen (VGK: II, 22) < */iipego· to IE *Iiip- 'Kuh' (lEW: 654).
Alternatively T. F. O'RahiJly (in Eriu 13 (1942), pp. 154-5), < *logioJ (cf. US:
253, and the criticism by J. Loth in RC 44 (1927), p.267; J. Pokorny in ZCP 24
(1954) p. 116), to IE */eg"h- 'Ieicht in Bcwegung und Oc\\'ichf (lEW; (60). J. Po-
korny lists these forms under *Ieig. 'hiipfen, hchcn' (lEW: 667). Most recentlv
P. Schrijver has argued in favour of Pedersen's interpretation. 01
OPC: 2196; LHEB: 451; lEW: 654; J. Loth in RC 44 (IQ27). pp.267-R: oev:
258-9; T. F. O'Rahilly in Eriu 13 (1942), pp. PECA: 7J; Schrijver:
309-310; VGK: 11,22: VVB: 177
)6 sive enderfc gl. vitulus J 0
10
2
'church, abbey, monastery"
A dry stylus gloss on Lat. pod; ('religious settlement', common in LL. see W. Da-
vies, An Early Welsh Microcosm. Studies in the Llandaff Charters. London 1()7R,
pp. 37f, 121 f). According to K. Jackson, the W. fo;m is for 10c
'monastery'; the recent examination of this gloss (13. 199R) hy Dr. P. Russell
and myself has shown that it should he read as loe; there arc smfliler illegihle
lettcrs under the upper loop of the c. The gl(lsS is perhaps Latin.
EL: 41: GPC: 2202; Jackson: 71-2: MI.: lR2
In gl. rodi 42
8
(context 2.21: Craster: 1.1(,)
j,
106
10
3
?
According to P.-Y. Lambert, this could stand for Lat. 10. See also 10.
Lambert: 1987, 292
10 gl. ipsa [i.e. vitulusJ Ovid 38
8
n f 'place' [lIog]
MW 1(I)oc, OB loc , loch (menech); Ir loc
< Lat. locus; see also datlocou and cf. /0
2
,
DGVB: 244; EL: ope: ML: 182
ir loe. guac. Comp 5
ir Joe guac. Comp 6, 8, 17
irloc guac Comp 14
irloc quae Camp 9
loe guac Comp 12, 13
loee/au?
Stokes suggests reading foc faun or IDee/au; the gloss remains obscure.
Stokes: 1873, 395; VVB: 177
dirgatisse locclau gl. concesserat Me 8 a.b.
lorell n m&f 'litter' [Iogell )
MW Hogell; OC logel gI. loculus; B logel
< Lat. /ocellus
DGVB: GPe: 2203; ML: 182; OCV: 326; PECA: 73; Stokes: 1873, 402;
VVB: 177 and 127
locell vel fonn gl. ferculum Me 14 b.b.
loinou D pi 'bushes, sbrubs, brakes' [liwyo]
OW (LL) luhyn; MW liven, Ilwyn; OB loin, loeo (in PN)
The word was considered as a loan from Lat. lignum by Loth and Lewis; and was
described as "unklar'" by Pedersen. Jones considered this word to be authentic and
suggested *lllgno- (=::: E. Jock), while P. Russell suggested a derivation from
*/ukno- (IE V/euk- -Ieuchten, licht').
EL: 41; GPC: 2244; D. M. Jones in TPhS 1953, pp. 44-5; LHEB: 465; ML: 183;
P. Russell in CMCS 9 (1985), p.27; Schrijver: 357, 431; VGK: 1,84; VVB: 177
loinou gJ. frutices Ovid 37
b
loirau/adj. 'Iunar
t
[iloerol]
An -01 derivative of W JJoer, see loyr. The instance is listed as W. by ope.
DGVB: 246; ope: 2199
loiraul gl. monath Ang 55 a
adj. 'burnt, charred' Ilosgetig]
MW lIosgedic, lIoskeddig; OB loscitic; cf. lescsit
An -tdig derivative of Welsh lIosg: llo,r;gaf" OC lose gt. arsura, Ir. lose < *luk-sk·.
Vleuk- 'Ieuchten, lichf, PECA: 74; lEW: 687. The instance is listed as Welsh hy
ope.
107
DGVB: 223,240 and 247; GPC: 2211
in ir loscetic circhl gl. circulus [... ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a
louber n m 'light' (name of a letter) [lIeuferI
MW lIeuuer, Ileufer
As was noted by GPC. this compound contains 1011 (for lell. see Inyr). and the
second part of it allows for the two etymological interpretations. *!,her- 'tragen.
bringen· (lEW: 12Rf). or 'flow·. on this stem see Hamp: IQR2.
GPC: 2167-8; VVB: 178
louber Nemn
louhi?
The gloss is obscure.
VVB: 178
louhi gl. rosarium Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
lo]'r n f'moon' (lloer)
MW lIocr; OC luir gl. luna, OB loir
< */ugrii. to IE leuk- 'Ieuchten, lichf
DGVB: 245; Elsie: 112; GPC: 2198; lEW: 690; OCV: 33; PECA: 75; VGK II,
49-50
retit loyr Comp 2
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
Irnidihid ir loyr Comp 6
relit loyr Comp II
Ceis inir loyr Comp 21
Juchsuc adj. 'muddy' I
MW lIychavc
An -ouc derivative of OW (Nennius, flistoria Brittonum. 219. see GPC: 2234)
llichiein, cf. OB aIr sec licholl.
DGVB: 247-8 and GPC: lEW: VC;K: 1,361
luchauc gl. paluster Prise 26 a
luidl, I"ilh n m 'tribe, family" (lIwyth J
MW luith. OB loit. holoit. loitret; OC' leid gl. progenies. cf. Illid. G
luxtos; OIr lucht
< *luXt -, IE ylellg- 'brcchcn'
DGVB: 214. 246; GPC: 2248; 10: lEW: LHEB: 405: DeV: Q()--I:
PECA: 73; VGK: 1,73
haluidt iuguret Chad 2
luith grethi Chad 3
luird n m 'vegetable or kitchen garden' (lluarth)
MW Illarth, OC luporchguit gl. nlinrz. cf. Olr luhgort
The compound contains a continuntion of Celt. *Iuh- 'hcrh' ()Ir f,,;/,) < IE
*1(',,1'-. etc .. ·nhschfilcTl. cntrindrn': flnd ('elt. *gn,.,o-. fo IF ....
umfnssen' (IE\V: 442).
-- --
, '.
108
DGVB: 247; ope: 2215; lEW: 690; OCV: 296; PECA: 75; Schrijver: 146-5;
VVB: 178
luird gl. horti Me 50 a.a.
luith see laidt
M
m prone pel'S. 1 sg 'my, me, to me' ['ID]
MW m; OB -m; OIr -mm...
GPC: 2293; Williams: 1980, 96-7
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
namercit Juv 3 (3.1)
ham hoI eneti gl. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4l
b
(1.10)
maessid D pi 'fields' IAllesJ
OW (LL) rnais, MW OB maes, Gaulish -magus, Olr mag; cf. MaCasi(a)m
< Britt. *mages-tu· < IE ·meg(Ft)-, *mtg(h)- 'groB'.
DGVB: 250; GPC: 2312; E, Hamp, On dating and archaism in the Pedeir keinc. /I
Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1974, p. 99; Slow and
uneven change.. II (J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd, N. Jacobs, eds.) Hispano-Gallo-
Brittonica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1995, pp. 49-50; lEW: 709; Lane:
P.-Y. Lambert, Notes de celtibere./1 (A. Ahlqvist, V. eds.) do
Oide. Essays in Memory of C. R. 6 Clerigh. Dublin: Institiuid Teangeolafochta
Eireann, 1997, p.248; LElA: M-8; LHEB: 445; PKM: xviii-xx; M. Richards in
EC 13 (1972) p.. 389 f
maessid gl. plana Ang 17 a
m8h8R1in n m 'nm, wether' [maharen]
MW mahar(a)en, m)'baren
According to WG, < 'male' Lat. mas) + oen 'Iamb'. The
word is hesitantly compared by GPe with Welsh mehyr, myhyr 'spears, spear, fig.
of a bold leader', and t he phonetic development of the last syllable is there paral...
leled to hal,,-,'yn > haJl1en > haJen.
GPC: 2321; H. Lewis in BEeS 4 (1928), p.136; Schrijver: 216; WG: 114
ha maharuin Chad 3
h[a maha]ruin Chad 4
mail adj. 'bald; bart, defective' [moel]
MW moel; MIT mae]
< ·,nai/- < IE ·,nni- ·hauen, abhauen'; note the spelling ai for oe.
GPC: 2474-5; lEW: 691; LElA: M-6-7; Stokes: 1873, 405; VVB: 179
mail g1. mutilum Me 42 b.a.
msinswr n f 'distria, .erritorial .nd 8dministntlve unit' (mlenor)
MW rnaynaur. maenawr.. maenaul
109
Considered by GPC (with a question mark) as an -owr (hist. pI. or < Lat. -arills)
derivative from Inaen 'stone'.
GPC: 2310
Ostendit ista cosripsio nobilitateln mainaur med deminih Chad 6
mair n m 'one of the administrative officers of the court (in the Welsh laws),
responsible for land supervision and the selection or dues; steward, officer, om·
cial' [maer)
OW (LL) mair, MW maer; DC mair gl. praepositlls; OB mair, pI. meir; Mlr
< Lat. maior; see also merion.
DGVB: 253; EL: 15,26; GPC: 2311; LElA: M-7; LllEB: 354; ML: 1M3; oev:
PECA: 76; W. Stokes in TPhS lRR5-7, p. 564; VGK: 1,215-6; VVB: 180
mair gl. ad suum praeposituln Ox2 45
3
(8.20)
mair gl. prepossitus Ox2 46
8
(9.35)
malgueretic ?
J. Loth (VVB: 180) suggests a comparison with Irish mel/a;,,,; L. Fleuriot (DGVB:
251) considers this word in his discussion of OB lnaloilloc.
malgueretic gl. deceptus Ovid 4l h
msnnuclenn ?
The word, which is a hapax in Welsh. was considered hy J. G\\'cnogvryn Evans
(hesitantly) as a diminutive of banu' 'a sucking the initial consonant was
explained hy as a result of nasal mutation. hut see I.J1EB: 641. n. I. Rhvs's
reading is accepted though queried by W. I)avies. (iPC follo\\'s the rcadin!! offer-
ed in HW and interprets this word as n f? 'handful (of !!rain). handful or armful (of
corn). sheaf. from Lat. 11l011l1cio/(1111l). l"his loan is not attested in any of the
studies of Latin borrowings in Welsh. .
BaudiS: 144; Davies: 1982, 263; GPC: 2349; LL: xlv
ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3
map n m 'son' (mab)
OW (LL) rneibion; OW (Harl). MW mab, map; OC' rnah gJ. filius. ()R mah.
cf. G. Magurix; aIr mace
< Britt. *1nopo- < Celt. */11ok"o- < IE 'jung'
DGVB: 249; GPC: lEW: 690; LElA: M-l; ()('V: 79; PECA: 75: YCiK: L
128; VVB: 180
nitguorgnim moUrn map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
hin map di iob gl. love dignus Ovid 39
h
map brethinnou n pi 'swaddling-tlothes
ll
The word occurs twice in Welsh (see also ,naphrith .i. 01l1l0li). "The compound
consists of 1nap 'son' (sec s.v.) and (pI.) hrrthifl1l01l, MW hrell1y11(11) lc1oth. wool-
len cloth' < *bratlino·, cf. (or from ?) Olr hran; the further etymological connec-
tion arc douhtful, sce A. Brcc7c in ZCP 47 (1995), p. (,PC: 320: LrIA: R--Rl:
VVB: 5R.
medichat D '8 ruling, control'
Hapax in Welsh; traditionally analysed as Y/nedd- + -yclt- + -ad, see the discus-
sion and bibliography in 10. For the etymology sec nled
2

GPC: JO: I05-{}; MJ: 272
dimedichat Chad 2
III
med
l
n m 'mead' (meddl
MW met, mcd; Me mcth, MB mel; (j Mcdugcllos Ir rnic.l
< IE *Inedhu-
GPC: 2394; lEW: 707; LElA: VGK: I, VVB: 182
med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
med gl. sicera Ox2 44
3
(6.20)
med
2
n ? m 'authority, possession' [meddJ
MW met, mcd; OIr med
< IE *111cd- 'mcssen, ermesscn' (lEW: 705). Contrary to I. Williams who conside-
red this instance as a verb, T. A. Watkins argues for its interpretation as a nOlln.
GPC: 2394; Haycock: 16; LElA: Watkins: 1982,42: White: Williams:
1980, 120
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
mein adj. 'fine, slender' rmainJ
MW mein
Compared (hesitantly) hy GPC to W Inu'yn 'tender, mild' (Oe nllli" gl. gracilis,
OB Inoin gl. dulcis) for these see DGVB: lEW: 711-2 (s.v. *nlei- 'mild,
weich, lieblich'); PECA: 81.
GPC: 2322; VVB: 183
mein gl. gracilcnta Me 4 b.a.
a mein funiou gl. rvittae] tenucs Ovid 37<1
meint n m&r 'size, dimension' (main')
MW meynt. meint; Me on mcnt; Olr mcit
< IE *,nhrnt-, (*",e-, nl-e-l- 'etwas abstccken, messen, ahmesscn·). Sec also lninl.
DGVB: 254; GPC: 2323; lEW: 703; Joseph: LElA: M-32: Schrijvcr: 175;
VGK: 1,292
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7..3)
mel n m 'honey' (mel]
MW mel; 08 mel gl. nectare, OC mel gl. mel, G Su-meli, etc.; OIr mil (gen.
mela)
< IE *meli-l 'Honig'
DGVB: 253; GPC: 241R; GPN: 114-6; lEW: 723; KGP: 242; LElA: M-50;
PECA: 78; VGK: I. 247; VVB: IRJ
trcan cant mel MP 22h (2.10)
hi hcstaur mel MP 22h (2JO)
is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 22
h
(231)
I.:.,
110
ope: 2294; T. H. Parry-Williams in BBCS 1(1922), p.l10; I. Williams in ODCS 7
(1933), p.35
map brethinnou gl. in cunis Ovid 39
b
mapbrith .i. onnou n pi 'swaddling-clothes'
According to T. H. Parry-Williams, this stands for mapbrith(i)onnou or mapbri-
thinnou, cf OW map brethinnou, see s.V.
apc: 2294; Harvey: 1991, 191; Parry-Williams: 122; T. H. Parry-Williams in
OBCS 1 (1922), p. 110
mapbrith .i. onnou gl. conabula (leg cunabula) J 8
mBrchauc n m 'horseman' [marchog)
MW marchawc, marchauc; DB mar(c)hog gl. aequester; Me marrec; cf. OIr
marcach
An ·-dko- derivative of march 'horse' (DC march gl. equus, OB marh, MIr marc)
< IE *marko- 'Pferd' (lEW: 700; Kelly: 45-7; Lane: 253). On the Irish word see
D. Greene, The War Chariot as Described in Irish Literature. /I Ch, Thomas, ed.,
The Iron Age in the Irish Sea Province. London 1972.
DGVB: 251; GPC: 2357; Kelly: 46; LElA: M-20; Russell: 1990, 50; VVB: 181
guas marchauc gJ. adulter Ovid 41
8
mIlS n r'mass of metal, matter, substance, abundaDce' [mas]
MW mas; OB mas gI. stagnum, Ofr mass
< Lat. maS5a; see Williams: 1929, 7 for the reading and contrast VVB.
DaVB: 251; GPe: 2370; LElA: M-23; ML: 185; VVB: 181
mas gl. metallum Ox2 42b (4.4)
m8ur adj. 'big, great' (mawr]
OW (LL) maur, (Gen) maur; MW mawr, maur; OC muer, OB mor, G. maro-,
OIr mor
< IE *mi·; *mo- 'groB, ansehnlich'. See also litimaur, gurmaur, flairmaur.
DGVB: 259; Elsie: 82; GPC: GPN: 223-8; lEW: 704; KGP: 77-80; LElA:
M-18; PECA: 81; VGK: 1,49; VVB: 182
or maur dluithruim gl. vecte maveri J 90
flairmaur gl. olacem Me 14 a.a.
irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
mBul n r&m 'thumb' [bawd)
MW baut; MB meut
Without established etymology; J. Pokorny hesitantly lists this entry in his *me-,
m-e·t- 'etwas abstecken, messen, abmessen', lEW: 703; for a sceptical evaluation
of the comparison with Annenian motn 'finger' (Meillet, G. Solta), see E. Maka-
". jev, Armjano-kertskije izoglossy.1I Kelty i kel'tskije jazyki. Moscow: Nauka 1974
pp.58-9.
265; Henry: 200-1; VVB: 182
ir maut MP 23
8
(241)
112
,
..
113
, ....
me/in IdJ. 'yellow' [melynJ
OW (LL) melen, melin; MW melin, melyn; DC milin gI. fuluus I. f1auus; OB milin
gl. flauus
< Britt. ·melino; perhaps to IE *meli-t 'Honig', see lEW: 724.
DGVB: 257; GPC: 2422; LHEB: 596; ML: 186; DeV: 210; PECA: 78
melin gl. giluium Ox2 43a (5.1)
melinou n pi '(com)mills' (melin]
MW melin; OC melin gl. molendinum; OB molin gI. molam; OIr mulenn
It was noted by fleuriot that the form could be ow. ope: 2420, however, consi-
ders this entry as DB.
< Lat. molina
DGVB: 254; LElA: M-75; LHEB: 604; ML: 186; DeV: 393; PECA: 78
melinou uel elinou gl. cardinales Ang 15 a
mel/hionou n pi 'clovers, trefoils' [meillion]
MW meill(i)on; MB melchonenn
This plant-name is sometimes considered to belong to IE *meli-t 'Honig', see s. v.
mel; cf. the similar suggestions for the history of Middle High German me/de.
GPC: 2409; Jackson: 1950, 16; PECA: 78; OCV: 288; Stokes: 1873, 396; VGK: I,
137; VVB: 184
mellhionou gl. uiolas Me 8 b.b.
menn'.u/ n f 'balance, K81es' (mantol]
MW mantawl; DB monto)
For the absence of the relation of these words to G mantalo-, see J. Vendryes in
EC 1 (1936), p. 337 and ct. GPN: 68. J. Loth connects the Brittonic words with the
IE base ·mh/-nt- (see S.v. meint).
DOVB: 259; GPe: 2346; VVB: 184
menntauJ gl. bilance Me 12 b.a.
merion n pi 'omtials, stewards'
See maer
merion gl. actores J 78
mesur n m 'unit 01 measurement' (mesur]
MW mes(s)ur; OB misur in doguomisuram, OC (Book of Tobit, see PECA: 106)
dowomisurami gl.. compensabo; OIr mesar
< Lat mensura (MLat. mesura).
DGVB: 147,257; GPC: 2440; Haarmann: 124; LElA: M-41; LHEB: 331; ML:
187; PECA: 106; VVB: 185
irmesur g1. nummum J 80
di mesur gJ. ad Jjbram MP 23
1
(229)
mil prone pen. independliDI 1 sg 'I, me' [mil
MW my, mi; OB me (1: see Lambert: 1986, 109); Me my, me; OIr me
< IE ·,ne-
Elsie: 105; GPC: 2452; JEW: 702; LElA: M-25-6; VGK: I, 250; VVB: 185;
Williams: 1980,97, 115
ismi gl. nunc ego quem J 3
ismf Christus J S4
mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.3; 2.3)
namercit mi nep Jeguenid hClloid Juv 3 (3.1)
rit pucsaun mi ditri"taut Juv 9 (7.2)
issmi gl. intemerata Me II a.a.
mi phiJologia gl. uoco Me II a.a.
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
m;2 prone pOSe I sg 'my' (ryJ
MW fy; B rna, va; Olr rno
GPC: 1271; WilJiams: 1980,95
miteJu Juv 3 (1.2)
micoueidid Juv 3 (.1.2)
mi mihun gl. ipsa Me 51 b.a.
miinnguedou n pi ?
According to H. Lewis the reading ,nllnnKliedoli offered oy Stokes (accepted by
Loth) is wrong. Instead he suggests I1,iinglledoll (W "'i" ... ·rddnll or ,ny,u1'eddoll).
According to P.-Y. Lambert, ho\vever, the entry could he read as niinglledoll, and
this was compared with DB nino
Lamhert: 1982a, Lewis: 19.12, 110-1 Stokes: IH7.1. VVB: 190
nouirmiinnguedou .i. coiliou gl. cxtorum Me 2 3.(1.
mine; n m 'hames, collar' (mwnciJ
MW mynci; cf Olr muince, perhaps horrowed from Welsh.
This compound was considered to contain IE *,n01l0· tNacken, Hals· (lEW: 747),
and *kagh- 'fassen, einfasscn' (JEW: SIR).
DaVB: 261; EJsie: 114; GPC: lEW: J. Loth in RC 45 (J928).
pp.198-9; LElA: M-72: Parry-WiJ1iams: 122; J. Vendryes in EC (1 (1953-4).
p.383; VVB: lR6
minci gl. monile J 26
minn v pres. 3 sg 'to want, claim" (mynn-)
MW min(n)-, myn(n)-; Me mynnas, MB mennat
< IE *l1lendh- 'seinen Sinn worauf richten, Ichhaft sein' (lEW: 730)
GPC: 2537; 10: 107; White: 100-1
nis minn tuthulc Chad 2
minn n 'crown, wreath of nowers'
The word is attested only in and could he Cl hnrrcl\ving from Irish ",ind. See
also the next.
GPC: LElA: M -SJ--4: .1. 'nth in R, 44. r VVR: l(,R
\ ..
114
minn gl. sertum Me 6 b.a.
minn gl. sertum MC 7 b.a.
minnou n pi 'crowns, wreaths of Dowen'
See m;nn
minnou gl. serta Me 9 a.a.
minoou gl. stemmata MC 10 a.b.
mint 'much, many'
See meint.
GPC: 2661
pamint gI. quam J 31
mod adv. 'how' [mood]
MW mod; OB mod, Olr mod
< Lat. modus
DGVB: 258; GPe: 2473; LElA: M-56; ML: 188
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp 1
modreped n pi 'aunts' ImodrybI
MW modryb(ed); OC modereb mam gl. matertera; 08 motTep gl. mater-
tera
< Celt. *mdtrVk";, to IE *mater· 'Mutter'.
DGVB: 260; GPC: 2472; Hamp: 1973, 78-9; lEW: 700; LHEB: 288; LElA:
M-25; oev: 86; PECA: 80; Schrijver: 197 and 213; VGK: I, 129; VVB: 187
modreped gl. matertere m[e]re Ox2 43
b
(5.29)
moi adj. comp. 'bigger, larger, more' [mwy]
MW muy, mui, mwy; OB roui, Olr roo
< *,ntiills, to IE *me-, *mo- 'groB, ansehnlich'.
DGVB: 261; lEW: 704; GPC: 2515; LElA: M-18; LHEB: 257; GOI: 237; VGK:
I, 66 and II, 120
is moi hinnoid MP 23a (246)
mo/aut n m 'pnlise, exaltation' [molawdJ
MW molaut, molaud, molawd
An ·oK'd derivative of rno/(im) , see molim.
GPC: 2479
gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7.3)
molim vn 'to pulse' (mol-)
MW mol-; MB meuliff; OIr rnol-
For the possibilities of etymological analysis, see LElA.
GPC: 2479; LElA: M-62; White: 299-301
ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3)
riitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
marl exclamative particle 'so (great), how such (af [mor)
MW mor, cf. CA XXXII, 3 mor dru; cf. 08 mor, MR mar
115
This can be an unaccented form of fna"r, sec s. v.
CA: 165; GMW: 38 and 43; GPC: 2485; Lamhert: 1987, 293; VB: 249; VVB:
188-9; WG: 253-4
mortru gl. eheu Ovid 39a
morliaus gl. quam multos Ovid 39a
morl n 'sea" see mormeluet
morduit n m&f haunch.. ham" (morddwydl
MW mortuit, mord(r)wyt; oe morpoit gl. femur, MB morzat
The traditional connection with OHG fnuriot 'thigh' (then < *morieitii) was que-
ried recently by P. Schrijver due to the phonetic difficulties.
GPC: 2488; oev: PECA: 81; SchrijveT: 240; VGK: L VVB: 188; WG: 153
omorduit gl. femine Me 51 a.a.
mormeluet n pi 'sea snails' (mor-falwodI
W morfalwen (sg.)
This compound contains nlor 'sea' (OW (LL), MW mOT, mOT, MB mOT, Olr
muir) < IE *mori- 'MeeT' (lEW: 748; but see E. Hamp in ZCP 46 (1994). p. 11),
and "leluet 'snail' (DC melpen, MB mclhued) < IE *,nel- 'zcrmamcn. schlagen,
mahlen', see GPC: 2330, lEW: 716; PECA: 78.
GPC: Stokes: 1873, 408; VVB: 189
mormeluet gl. tcstudinum Me 51 a.h.
morthol n m 'hammer, malle'" rmorthwyl J
MW morthwl, morthuyl. mwrthwl. myrthwl. myrthyl: M(' morthal. MB morzol
< Lat. ,nartulus (MLat. *nlortlilo ?)
EL: GPC: 2494; LHEB: ML: 188: VGK: I. 239; VVB: lR9; WG: 113
mort hoI gl. seta Ox2 42b (4.5)
moys n 'basket, hamper.. dish"
L. Fleuriot noted that this word could he 08 as well. See 11Ut;J.'i
DGVB: 260-1; Lambert: 1982, 193
moys altaur gl. catenum Prisc 12 a
muhit n m r and adj. 'ebony" (muchudd)
MW muchud, muchyu
Word without etymology.
DoVB: 261; ope: 2499
muhit g1. ebeno (Leidcn)
muin n m 'treasure" (name of a letter) (mwynJ
MW mwyn; Olr mafn, mofn
< *,ne;-no, VI11Ci- 'wechscln, tauschcn'; hut cf. Irish ogam letter-name ,n";,, and
the problems related to its interpretation (McManus: 156-7).
GPC: 2519: lEW: 710: LElA: M-59-flO:.1. Loth in RC"' 40 (142.1), rr. VVR:
IR9
muin Ncmn
f
116
muiss n r&m 'basket, hamper, dish' [mwys]
MW mwys; DC muis gL mensa, OIr mfas
< Lat. mensa; see also mOJ5.
DGVB: 260; GPC: 2523; LElA: M-47; LHEB: 543; ML: 189; oev: 365; PECA:
82; Stokes: 1873, 407; VGK: 1, 208-9; VVB: 189
muiss gl. disci Me 46 a.b.
munutolBU n 'twigs'
Hapax in Welsh. OB minutolou gl. samentis
< Lat. minutal(ia)
OOVB: 257; GPC: 2502; ML: 188; VVB: 190
munutolau gi. fornilium Ox2 44
b
(7.27)
mur n m '".11' [mur]
MW mur, MB mur; OIr mur
< Lat. murus
The instance could be Irish as well.
GPC: 2502; ML: 189; Haf"\'ey: 191; LElA: M-76; VVB: 190
moenia aul .i. mur bethlem J 1
N
n pron. (infixed) I pi 'us'
See an.
Haycock: 12; J. T. Koch in Eriu 38 (1987), p.165 fn. 21; Watkins: 1982, 43
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.2)
anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5,2)
na negall"e particle [na(c)]
MW na(d); Me na(g); DB na(c); OIr na(ch)
See also not, nammui.
GPC: 2545; Williams: 1980,96-7
gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16
namercit Juv 3 (3 I 1)
na(m) bill' 1
Obscure, Bint was suggested (DGVB: 63) to be a form of the verb 'to be'.
DGVB: 263
na[m] bint gl. tan turn dissyllaba Prisco 34a
nam n m 'lord' [nan
MW naf
J. Loth in Archiv fur celtische Lexikographie iii (1905-7), p. 39 derives this form
which does not have any immediate cognates in the other Celtic languages from
*nahho- (cf. English navt'); see R. Fowkes for the semantic evaluation.
Grc: 2548; Fowkes: 1958, 2-3; Williams: 1980, 98
tinn n!.lln ririPlle: 11M allPti£1 Til U 1. (1 1)
117
nam 'except" [nam(n) I ?
Was considered as a suspension of nom11,"ill (MJ: 272, for this word see now AP:
43 and E. Hamp in BBCS 30 (1983), p. 288) or na""nll; (10: 103), see s.v. GPC:
2551 considers this as belonging to na1".\''' and cites examples from MW and W
(nom, nanl" 'except'). It was suggested hy St. Zimmer (forthcoming) that the
word belongs to the previous syntagm. and he translates the passage as '(un)
cheval. trois vaches, (plus) precisement trois vaches qui viennent de veler".
nanl iT ni be cas igridu Chad 2
nam hint erre; ?
This difficult gloss caused dispute. According to L. Fleuriot, this could contain
nam, into and errei (for rei 'kind'?). Alternatively. P.-Y. Lambert sees here naf1'-
hint = W namyn, and er-rei = MW y rei, translating Lat. quaJ.
DaB: 522; oaVB: 263; Lambert: 1982, 204
nam hint errei gl. sed quas Prise 34 a
nsmmu; adv. 'only'
MW namwy; Olr namma
See na, ,noi.
GMW: 233; GPe: 2551; LElA: N-2-3; VVB: 191
h6nft namrfnji gl. tantum ne r... ] unquam J 51
nant see pennant
nat negative particle (in a relative clause) (na(d) I
MW na(d); MB nad
Sec na.
DGVB: 262: GPC: 2544; VB: 276; VVB: 191
natoid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. h.
nsunecsnt n 'cycle of nineteen years"
Hapax in Welsh. GMW glosses "Olltler as '19' and "ollneca,,1 as 'a cycle of 19
years'. ope (with a query) lists this as a noun 'cycle or period of nineteen years'.
and this is the rendering of P.- Y. Lamhcrt. 'pcriode de dix-neuf ans', cf. Ir.
nofdecdae. Following Quiggin I. Williams compares this with B "onfldec '19'. and
refers to WG: 232 for the suffix -anI. cf. Evans: 1976-R. 237. It was also suggested
(1. Loth in RC 34 (1913), p. 147) that the second clement could he cant 'cercle·. cf.
DGVB: 95, but see Lambert: 1984,33, where it is tentatively argued fOf a
-t- derivation.
The formation finds a perfect match in OB noudeca"t. Etymologicaliy, nOli 'nine'
and deg 'ten', for the etymologies see "011011, deccolion.
DOVB: 264; GMW: 45; 255H; (Jfccnc: 540; Lamhcrt: IlJX3, 12H; Lamhert:
1984, 33; Sehrijver: 212; Williams: 1927, 272
circhl naunecant. Comp 23
118
n8UOU num. pi 'nine' lnaw]
MW nau; OB nau; OIr nof-n
< IE *neY1}- (GOI: LElA: N-19; VGK: I, 61)
The Welsh affinity of this entry is based on the preceeding definite article. This
instance is not quoted in GPC.
DGVB: 264
amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gI. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14a
nedim n , 4adze, (neddyf]
MW nedif, MB ezeCf
A derivative of the verb reflected in W naddu 'to cut' (= Ir snad-), on these see
GPC: 2548 and LElA: 5-146; to IE *(s)nadh- 'einschneiden, schnitzen' (lEW:
972-3).
GPC: 2561; VGK: I, VVB: 192
nedim gl. sscia Ox2 42
b
(4.3)
nem n f&m 'lleaven' (nel)
MW new, nef; OC nef gl. celum; OB nem; aIr nem
IE *nebh- 'feucht, Wasser' (lEW: 315)
DGVB: 265; GPC: 2561; LElA: N-8; OCV: 32; PECA: 82; VGK: 1,255
uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)
uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)
nemheun.llr 'at all'
This very di fficult sequence was considered by several authors. According to GPC
(which follows 8 .. Rees) this hapax perhaps contains neb (see s.v. nep(p», mewn
(OIr medon. < IE ·medhi- lEW: 706, LElA: M-28), and aur (see s.v.)
Bromwich: ope: B. Rees in BBCS 20 (1963), p.125; Watkins: 1982,
Williams: 1980, 93-4
niguorcosam nembeunaur henoid Juv 3 (1.1)
nep(p) proD. "someone, anyone'
OW (LL). MW OB nep; G. nepon; OIr nech
< IE see also nepun
DOVB: 265; GOI: 311; GPC: 2560; LElA: N--6; VGK: 11,211-2; VVB: 192; WO:
312-4
nep gI. oe quem] 70
namercit mi nep leguenid henoid Juv 3 (3.1)
panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.
nepun pron. 'someone, anyone, somebody'
MW nebun. neb un; 08 nep un alall; Me nep onon
Contains ntp and un 'one', see s.v.v.
DGVB: GPC: 2560; VVB: 192
nepun gl.. qua Ovid
119
nerth n m&f 'strength' (nerth)
MW nerth; OB ncrth gl. robur; G. ncrto-. Olr nert
< Celt. *ncr-to- < IE *ner- '(magische) Lehenkraft. Mann'. This instance is not
quoted in ope. For the gloss. cf. W n nertll 'hy the pCl\vcr of. hy. through, with the
help of. See also ncrtheint, ncrthiti.
DGVB: 275 and 266; GPC: 2571; GPN: 237; lEW: 765; LElA: N-IO: J. Loth in
RC 41 (1924), pr. 207-R: VOK: I. 136.414
a i ncrth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
nertheinl v pres. 3 pi 'to make reinforce' (nerthaf: nerthRul
MW nerth-; cf. air nertaigid
A -hall derivative of nerth: sec s. v. a. nd cf. ,,('rthiti.
ope: 2572; VGK: II. J]8; VVI3: 192; Whitc: 121
ncrthcint gl. armant J R9
nerthi(tJ) v imp. 2 (or pres. 2 sg) 'to make strong(er), reinforte,
Incrthaf: nerthu I
MW ncrth-; MB nerziff; Olr nert-
A dcrivative of "erth see s. v. and cf. "ertheint.
GPC: Lamhert: 19R7. VGK: II. VVB: 192: White: 26R
nerthiti gl. hortabcrc Ovid 39
h
nes adj. comp. 'nearer' [nesJ
MW nes; MCB ncs, OIr nessa; G neddamon
< IE *ned- 'zusammcndrchen. kniipfen'
DGVB: 234 and 266: GPC: 2573: lEW: LElA: N-12: V(,K: I. 4RO
issid ncs gl. imfcriora Ang HI h
nil pron. pcrs. t pi 'we, us' (ni)
MW ni, ny, ny, OB Olr sni
< IE *ne- 'wir' (lEW: 75R)
DGVB: 102; Elsie: GPC: LElA: S-150; VGK: 11,168: VVB: 193
cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 h
isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b
nouni gl. nostrum MC 44 b.h.
ni
2
negative particle 'not' (ni( d))
MW ny(t); MC ny(ns); OB ni(t). nc(t); G ne-: Olr ni. nf; cf. C'I nc
< *ne (Satznegation). < *1] sec also nit.
DGVB: 267-9; DaB: Elsie: 116; OMW: 173-4: GOI: GPC': 2581:
lEW: 756; LElA: N-14; VGK: I. 250 II. 252f.: VVB: 193: WG: 422-4
Oraur. ni hois. ir loc guac hinnith. in pagi"n regulari Cn,np 5
nitarnhcr C'omp 8
haccet. nitegid. dLa. 8.
Irnidihid ir loyr di.a. C'omr l)
niritarn(h)er Comp 10
cen nit boi lor !!tlnr i,,'f'" 0, ct a. in f'OJllf' t 2
120
Cinnit hoys irloc guac hinnuith In pagina regulari Camp 14
nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17
ir nider uid hinn. bOll nit bloidin salt Comp 21
nam ir oi be cas igridu Chad 2
nis minn Tutbulc Chad 2
niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1)
nieana[m] Juv 3 (2.1)
niguardam Juv 3 (2.1)
nicusam Juv 3 (2.1)
nit arcup betid hicouid canlon Juv 9 (2.1)
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
nisacup ois arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3)
ni choilam hinnoid MP 22
b
(234)
nichoilam MP 22
b
(238)
oi cein guodemisauch gI. non bene passa Ovid 39
8
nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
nihn (n.me of • letter)
This entry in the so-called "Alphabet of Nemnius" is usually compared with an
ogam letter-name nin, without etymology, on this see McManus: 151-3.
LElA: N-17; VVB: 193
nihn Nemn
niinpedDI1 see mlinnguedDu
nim n 'measure'
I. Williams hesitated between the readings nim or nun, with the line over the last
two letters. His suggestion was to consider this as an abbreviation for nimer (see
s.v.) which he translates (1930,245) as'mesur'.
Williams: 1930,244
guor frit nim MP 23& (241)
nimer n r&m 'number" (niCer)
MW niuer, nifer, OB Ofr nuimir
< Lat numerus; see also nim.
DGVB: 268; GPe: 2582; Haarmann: 125; ML: 107, 190; LElA: N-24f; VVB: 193
irnimer bichan MP 22
b
(238)
irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
maior nimer gI. grauior numerus J 91
nom
l
?
Scribal error for nOll (I). See nou and cf. nom
2
.
DGVB: 211; GPC: 2596; Lambert: 1982a, 25; Lambert: 1984,185-6
Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum Ang 13 a
no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a
inno ir guoloJinou gl. Ang 68 b
121
nom
2
?
This entry is very controversial. According to Zeuss (p. 1(55) /lon, here glosses
te,npla and corresponds to W n»1 'sacrum, sacellum'; this was accepted (with
modifications) by Loth. H. Lewis connected this word with W neuadd 'hair (see
s.v. nOllodoll). Fleuriot keeps to the traditional interpretation, thus 'sacred place,
temple'. P.-Y. Lambert, following W. Stokes and J-1. Bradshaw, suggests seeing
here a particle introducing genitive (see also nOll, etc.); this is not accepted in
OOB: 528 and cf. scepticism of GPC'.
OGVB: 271; GPC: 2596; VVB 194-5; Lambert: 1982a, 23-4; H. Lewis in BBCS
15 (1953), pp. 121-2
nom irbleuporthetic gl. lanigerae templa Ovid JR:l
nos n f 'night' [nos]
MW nos, DC nos gl. nox, OB nos; cf. air innocht
< *nokt-stu, IE *nek"-(t-), *nok"-(t-) 'Nacht'; for tra nos, cf. C ternOJ, MW tran-
noeth.
OOVB: 271; Elsie: 115; GPC: 2597; lEW: 762; OCV: 198; PECA: VGK: I,
123
tra nos Comp 13
notuid n f 'needle, pin' [nodwydd]
MW not(t)wyd; MC nasweth, MB nodocz; aIr snathat
< IE *(s)ne- 'weben, spinnen'; cf. W nyddll 'to spin',
GPC: 2590; lEW: 973; LElA: 5-148-9; VGK: I. R5; VVB: 195
notuid gl. acus Ox2 42
h
(4.8)
nou?
A higly controversial entry. GPC' refers to neu 'or", and preverhal particle. P. -y.
Lambert connects it with OW (LL) ynfnu. See the literature cited here and also
s. v.v. nOln 1-2.
GPC: 2599; Lambert: 1982a; Lambert: IQR7. 28R: VVB: 195
nouirmiinnguedoll .i. coiliou gl. cxtorurn Me 2 a.a.
nouirgoudonou gl. tinearum Me 2 a.h.
nouirguirdglas gl. sali resplendentis Me J (l.n.
nouiremid gl. aeris MC-' 4 h.a.
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucuhrationllm perennium Me 4 h.a.
nouirfionou gl. rosarum Me 9 h.h.
nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 10 3.a.
nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 0 b.a.
nouni gl. nostrum Me 44 b.b.
noulin gl. lini Me 45 b.a.
nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonum stilis MC' 46 a.a.
nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a.
nouJirou gl. aequnrum Me 51 h.a.
nou conj. 'or' Inell I
MW ()lr n{l. ",i
122
GPe: 2515; Lambert: 19828, 23; Lambert: 1987, 303; LElA: N-l1; LHEB: 50;
Williams: 1933, 115
nouinnguotricusegetiion gl. nec delata diu J 4
noue! adj. 'bright, mature, clear'
Hapax in Welsh; the word is usually compared with anawell 'clear' found only in
"The Book of Taliesin'" (T. 41.8). It was noted that the latter word should be
perhaps amended to nowe([ (G: 26). See J. E. Caerwyn Williams in Y Traethodydd
135 (1980), pp.46-7.
GPC: 2557; Haycock: Williams: 1980, 96
med nouel Juv 3 (2.2)
nouidligi adj.? 'newly-tal, ed' (1)
Hapax in Welsh; this word is analysed as a compound of the two elements, repres-
ented by W newydd 'oe w., and 10 'calf' (see 10
1
). The lack of an expected i-affection
in the first element (for which cf. OW (AC) neguid in gueith dinas neguid, s.a.
921, see Philimore: 168) explained by 1) orthographical inconsistency or gene-
rally variable state of it in OW and 2) the influence of the Latin context preceeding
it (8. Schulze-Thulin). The troublesome ending was 1) compared to that of the
notorious /Jestr; (10) and 2) as a Latinism, a flection of n. pI. noun (B.
Schulze-Thulin). For the interpretation of this term as an Irish entry, see OWAV.
GPC: JO: LHEB: 607,615; MJ: 272; B. Schulze-Thulin, OW. nouid-
Iigi. "SC 28 (1994), pp.119-80.
tres uache nouidligi Chad 2
nouooou n pi 'halls' [neuadd]
MW neuad
GPC (which follows H. Lewis) derives the W forms from Britt. *nom-o-d (with
queries) and refers to a putative nom gl. temp/a, see nom
2

GPC: 25-75; H. BUeS 15 (1953), pp.121-2; VVB: 196
nouodou gl. palatia Me 7 a.b.
o
o prep. 'of, from, wiCh, by' [oJ
OW (LL, HB), MW 0; 080; OIr 6, ua
IE *QU- 'herab, weg von' (differently VGK: 1,438)
See ho, hanoud, o,aur.
DGVB: 213; GPC: 2005-L1; JO: 99; lEW: 72; LElA: 0-1; Lambert: 1987,287;
VB: 290-1
o gurucheltoii gl. deffectum gl.. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a
p issei gl. humili Ang 15 a
o i nerth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b
or teneu creaturou gl. sllbtiolioribus elcmentis Ang 15 b
123
odatsebimou gI. stabulis Ang 15 b
orud liu gl. rosen colore Ang 17 a
or timuil gI. nocte ceca Ang 50 a
o e leidim gI. processu Ang 61 b
or ree issid pellaham gI. a superioribus continentur Ang Rib
omort gl. formidinc Berne 167 (see P.-Y. Lambert in EC· 23 (J9R6). p. JIR and
125; cf. P.-Y. Lamhert in EC 27 (1990), pp.339--40)
or bissei Comp 3
diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2
ocrit gl. timore (leg trcnlore) J 5
o glanstlinnirn gl. famine sancto J 5
6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
o isel J 5
or cled hln gl. limite levo J 26
6rd'rlssi gl. dc tribulis J 27
6r teu gl. obtonso [leg. ohtuso] J 37
6das gl. aceruo J 45
or guithlam tal gl. fronte duclli J 51
opermedintcredou gl. mcdullis J 51
ordamcirchinnuou gl. ambagidus J 50
o discI gl. lance J 59
o crummanhuo gl. scropibus J 77
or maur dluithruim gl. vecte moveri J 90
orbardaul Icteinepp gl. cpica pagina Me la.h.
oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a.
ordeccoIion gl. dccadibus MC 7 h.b.
orcueeticc cors gl. ex papyro textili Me Rh.a.
orcomtantou gl. hombis MC' 10 a.a.
orduhenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionihus cxsectis MC 42 3.3.
oguard gl. flammco MC 44 a.a.
oemid gl. ex acre Me 46 b.b.
omorduit gl. femine MC 51 3.a.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
il
o olin gl. rota Ovid 37
h
ocloriou gl. tabellis Ovid 38
il
ordometic gl. domito Ovid 39
3
ocoilou gl. auspiciis Ovid 39
h
oguordiminntius gl. ab invito Ovid 39
h
ocorsenn gl. harundine Ovid 40
3
oceenn gl. mirice Ovid 40
3
o guiannuin gl. verc Ovid 40
h
o caitoir gl. puhc Ovid 41 h
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusquc Ovid 4t
h
nirinciriles. cimp&il1iflusauc oirei gl. lld plnres !\ui fit cnmp;tratin Prise 21 a
, ..
124
oee' n f 'harrow' (oged]
MW oget, aged; MB oguet
< IE *okra- CEgge, Gerat mit Spitzen'; see aWAY.
GPe: 2638; lEW: 22; VGK: I, 122; VVB: 197-8
ocet gl. raster Ox2 42b (4.6)
oeh n m&r (awch)
This entry is usually compared with MW awch 'edge, point, sharpness'. GPe: 237
does not quote this instance.
DGVB: 273; Jackson: 1975'6, 44; Stokes: 1873, 412
och gladi gl. mochera J to
ochcul?
An obscure word. VVB: 198 hesitantly translates it as 'coffre de voiture, chariot
couvert', and considers here W cwl 'corl' (in fact a late loan from English cow!),
and och. Far from clear.
ochcul gl. ca psus Ox2 42" (4.2)
oro/uin n r 'whetstone' [agslen, calenJ
MW 08 ocoloin gl. cotes pro cautes
< IE *ak., ok.. 'scharf, spitz'; see also S.v. cemecid, diauc and cf. Greek dXoVll
'pierre aiguiser' (Chantraine: 43).
DGVB: GPC: 47; lEW: 18; VGK: 1,412; VVB: 198
ocoluin gl. cos 07(2 43
a
(4.8)
oimer see guotiap8ur oimer didu
ois n f '8ge, century' (oes)
MW oes; DC huis gl. seculum; Olr 'es, als, 6es, 6is; cf. CI aiuisa§
< *a;t.. to, see oiJ, and also oisou.
40; GPe: 2627; lEW: 11; JO: 107; LElA: A-21; MJ: 273; oev: 197;
PECA: VGK: J, 56
in ois oisou Chad 2
oisou n pi 'ages, centurie!'
See ois; cf.. WG: 204 for the final -d.
in ois oison Chad 2
oil n f&m 'time, period, space' (oed]
MW oet, oed; DB OIr aes
This word is derived in lEW from < *ai-to, IE Vai.. 'geben, zuteilen'; for the
difficulties of derivation and further literature, see LElA.
DGVB: ope: 2620; lEW: 10; LElA: A-21; Williams: 1927,271
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20
'l);Ih num. CI rd. 'eight' [wythI
MW OB eith, Me eath; OIr ocht; cf. G. oxtumeto[s]
< "oxl,;- < IE ·okto- lacht'; see also uilh.
125
DGVB: 156 and 276; Greene: 540; lEW: 775; LHEB: 405; LElA: 0-6-7; Schrij-
ver: 350
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a
or bissei pan dcconctent ir. oithaur hinnith Comp 4
oleu n m 'oil' [olew]
MW olew, OC oleu gl. oleum; aIr olae
< Lat. o/ell1n (MLat. olellll1n)
EL: 12; GPe: 2641; LElA O-IQ; LHEB: J67; 1. Lloyd-Jones in ZCP 7 (1910).
p.464; ML: 191; PECA: R4; VGK: I. 194; VVB: 148
ir hestoriou oleu MP 22
h
(211)
olin n f&m 'wheel' [olwyn]
MW olwyn; Ir. fulumain
< IE *e/- 'biegen' (lEW: 308). See also crunIl0l"nOIl, holoinoll.
DaVB: 213-4; GPC: 2644; VVB: 199
o olin gl. rota Ovid 37
b
011 pron. 'all'
See hoi.
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham all in pagina regular; ('omp 15
onguedou?
According to 1. Loth" of the text perhaps stands for nUJ11ngliedoll;
later, however, he turned hack to the reading offered in the manuscript. sugge..
sting a connection with Greek OVTOc; 'excrements d·animaux·, i.e. IE *ondlr- and
suffix -glled. According to I. Williams. the form in the MS is ongllcdoll.
Loth in RC 40 (1923). p. VVB: 199; Williams: 142lJ. H
ironguedou gl. exta Ovid 41 a
onnpresen?
A very difficult word. J. Loth (VVB: 199) translates this as 'instrument acreuser".
and compares (following Stokes: IR65. 422) the first part of this word with Irish
onn cpierre', and the second - with W pres 'a qui est aigu'.
onnpresen gl. foratorium Ox2 42
it
(4.4)
or n f&m 'limit, boundary' (name of 8 letter) lorl
MW or; OB orion gl. oram, erion gl. ora; Olr or
The attempts to see in this word a loan from Lat. ora meet serious phonetic
difficulties. For the authentic origin of the word and its connection with MW eryr,
etc., see I. Williams in BSe"S 4 (1928). pp. 137-141. Cf. [.lior, dygyfor listed under
Pokorny's *er- (I EW: 328).
DaYB: 277 and 164; OPC": 2651; LElA: VYB: IY9
or Nemn
oraur conj. 'since, because"
See ollr. 0. yr. cr. on an" a or; Olr. orr. ,iand lin;r. St'c J. E. CClcrwyn William!""
, "...
126
Notulae. II J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd, N. Jacobs, cds., Hispano-Gallo-Britto-
nica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1995, pp.304-8.
DGVB: 66; GMW: GOl: 509; H. Lewis in BBCS 6 (1931), pp. 63-4; Lewis:
1956,298; Williams: 1927,262
Oraur. ni hois. ir Joe guac hinnith. in pagina regulari Comp 5
ord n 1'hammer, mallet' [(g)orddJ
MW orth, ord, yrd; 08 ord eMS or) gl. maleus; G ordo(vices); OIr ord
H. Pedersen connects these Celtic words with Armenian uirn and traces it to IE
*ordh- (1); note that the word is masc. in Irish. LElA considers these forms as
"proprement celtique et d'origine inconnue".
DGVB: 271; ope: 1468; KG?: 252; LElA: 0-29; VGK: I, 144; VVB: 199
ord gl. malleus Ox2 42
b
(4.5)
om n (name of • letter) '1
This instance was compared by Zeuss with W om 'blame'; for this word see GPC:
2656, which does not list this OW example.
VVB: Zeuss: 1059
om Nemn
ombimni' ?
According to Stokes (1865: 422), this is a combination of or « Lat. aurum) and
"dunker" ubimnit. VVB: 200 considers the second element as the name for
'bronze, brass, copper".
orubimnit gl. auricalcu m Ox2 42
8
(2.16)
ot v imp. 'to snow or sleet, r.11 (01 snow), hurl'; 'throw' (Fleuriot) [od-j
MW cf. OB ot a te gl. toile (Ang 58 b)
GPC tentatively derives this word from IE *pet- 'auf etwas los- oder niederstiirzen,
fliegen, fallen" (lEW: 825) and refers to Greek and Avestan tiitd-( <
*ptiitd-). See also Isaac: 438-9.
OOVB: GPC: 2616
ot ti gl. toile Ang 9 a
ou pron poss. 3 pl. 'their' ?
OW (LL), OU, MW DB ou
DGVB: 279; GPC: 1255
hac&oucimp& g1. superlatiuus multo Prisc 21 a
p
p. pron. interrogBti,e Bnd relative 'which, what' [pa)
MW pa; cf. Me py, 08 pe
<: IE *k"a·
ope: 2661; Hamp: 1975n6, 6Of.; Stokes: 1874,393; VVB: 201
pigurthet. loyr in Comp 4
127
pamint gl. quam J 31
papep bi gl. quid ? J 37
panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.h.
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.b.
padiu 'to whom, what for, why' (paddiw)
MW padyu, pa diw
According to J. E. Caerwyn Williams, pa (sec s.v.) + 3 sg pres. 'to he
present, be of value'
GMW: 77; ope: 2667; Hamp: 1975/76,62; VVB: 200; J. E. C'aerwyn Williams in
BBCS 23 (1969), pp. WG: 293
ISSft padiu itau gulat gl. cclsi thronus cst cui regia coeli J 19
padiu gl. quid Ovid 41
8
pant pron./conj. 'when 1(pan)
MW pan, OB pan, Me Olr cuin or can
Apparently from IE the connection with Goidelic is still disputable, see
LElA. See also pan
2

DOVB: 280; GOI: 289, GPC: 2677; LElA: ('-272
amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanse-
runt Ang 14 a
in pan aed bid. ad ir loc. guac. Comp 4
aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)
pan
2
pron. 'whence, that' (pan)
MW Olr can
Perhaps to pi (see s. v.). and an, for which cf. Olr an. See also pan I.
GMW: ope: LElA: C-29
Or bissei diconetcnt ir. oithaur hinnith passerenn. pigurthct. loyr in aed
bid. ad ir. loc. guac. issi. in triti urd. Comp 3-5
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
papedpinnac see pa, ped, pinnac
papep see pa, pedd
pard, part, parth n m 'part' (parth)
OW (LL) and MW parth; OB OC *parth deduced from ahard. aharh: Mlr
pairt
< Lat. pars (portis); for a possibility of crossing \vith an authentic word. LElA:
P-2.
nGVB: 281; GPC: ML: LElA: 1'-2 and ()('V: Hfl: PEe'A: (,;
VVB: 201
ir paTth alnll gl. hie;; litorihus Ang 62 h
teir pctgurcd p(tTt MP 2:l
tl
(241)
isit prtguarcd p;lnl MP 2:r'
'\ III.
128
part see pard
partuncul n 'hinder part'
According to J. Rhys (1813: 467), this corresponds to MW pardwngyl, (Owain, ed.
R. L. Thomson, Dublin 1968, 12, line 283) pardwgyl y kyfryw 'the partuncuI of the
saddle' = 'hinder part of the saddle', see GPC: 2688; Rowland: 514. The word is
not otherwise attested.
partuncul gl. femorale Ox2 43
a
(5.3)
parth see pard
parth (name of a letter)
See parth.
parth Nemn
pIItel n f 'bowl, vessel' [padell]
OW (LL) petill, MW DC padelhoern gl. sartago
< Lat. patella
GPC: 2665; ML: 192; OCV: 388; PECA: 84; VGK: I, 232; Williams: 1980, 96
mi amfranc dam anpalel Juv 3 (2.3)
patupinnac see pa, w, pinnae
pBUp pron. 'everyone, everybody' [pawb)
OW (LL) paup, MW paub, paup, pawb; OB pop, OC pup, pop, pcb; OIr cach
< IE *kuok"o, to ·kuo-; see also popptu.
DGVB: 287; GOI: GPC: 2703; Hamp: 1973,88-91; lEW: 645; LElA: C-3;
VGK: I, 187 and II, VVB: 202
gurt paup gl. consistes [i.e. contra quemvis] Ovid 39
b
pbetid
According to I. Williams, this is a scribal error; the word is then betid, see s. v.
Watkins: 1982, 37; Williams: 1980, 109
dicones ihesu dieJimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.1)
ped n m 'thing, object' [pe'h]
MW peth; MC peth, pyth; MB pez; Pict. pett-; OIr cuit; cf. M. Lat. petia terrae,
French piece
< IE *k"esd-; for the e1ample found in the Juvencus glosses, it was noted by
Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1, 216) that the form in the MS is "apparently papep, but the
last letter must be Il".
GPC: 2789; E. Hamp in EBCS 17 (1958), pp. 158-161; LElA: C-281; Schrijver:
261
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.b.
papep bi gl. quid ? J 37
pel adj. 'far, long' rpelll
MW Me pell; DB pell
< IE yk"eJ- 'fern"
129
DGVB: 282; Elsie: 93; GPC: 2723; lEW: 640; JO: 99; LL: xliii: MJ: 271; VGK: I,
128; WG: 127
amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2
pelechi 0 pi 'cudgels, clubs,
The only other known record of this word is found in RRC 11.41 (ew a guant
penpalacll); this is an -aell derivative from *pal- < IE */.;."('1-, cf. MW pal 'spade,
shovel'.
GPC: 2671; J. Lloyd-Jones in Eriu 16 (1952), pp. 123-1JI; VVB: 202
pelechi gl. claure J 94
pel/shllm adj. superl. 'the farthest'
Due to its presence in a Welsh context the word was considered as Welsh hy
Fleuriot; cf. 08 pel/ant; not considered in GPC: 2723. A superlative degree of pell
'far', for the etymology, see pel.
DGVB: 278 and 282
oree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 h
penn 0 m 'head' [pen]
OW (Gen: 12) pennissel, (LL) and MW pen(n), OB pen(n). OC pen gl. capud;
Olr cenn; G penno
< Celt. *k"enno- with no exact parallel in the other IE languages. See also Rllrth
ci111arch.
GPe does not consider this instance.
DaVS: 283; Elsie: 103; GPC: LElA: OCV: 40: 86
penngurthcimarch g). primas Prise J7 a
pennllnt 0 m 'uplaod, (head of a) valley" Ipennant I
MW pennant
GPC considers this as a compound. which contains pen (sec s.v.) and nanl 'v(lllcy'
(OC nans, G nanto, < IE *nlll-IO- 'gehogen' 2551: lEW: PEC'I\: R2).
See, however, a set of examples listed in GPC: 2727 S.v. pen 'top. sumrnit",
particularly LL 78 irenn nant eilion.
GPC: 2754
dipennant ircaru Chad 6
pep see pll, ped
per 0 m 'chief, lord' (pair]
MW per, peir
GPC suggests a connection of this with the verb para/: peri 'to cause, to make· .. IE
*k"er- 'machen' (lEW: 641).
ope: 2670; Williams: 19RO, 120
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
perc-ig n m 'mattock, hoe' (perltinI
MW pergy(n)g. pcrging
r
piipllur n m 'piper'
Hapax in an -Qwr derivative of pih; see pipe"" I. Willillms's rcading (con-
trast VVB and Zeuss: 1056, where the readings piSl'olir and tihicine are offered) is
now accepted.
GPC: VVB: 204; Rhys: lR7J, Williams: I()J.l. 113
piipaur tuscois gl. tubicine tusco Ovid .1S
h
pimmunt num. cord. 'fifty' [pumwnt]
MW pynlwnt. pymhwflC ()B pinllnont
< *pil11pont < IE *penk"i;-kollll1- 'fiinfzig'
See also guor, lUI.
OGVB: 286; GPC: 2929; lEW: HOB; L8mbcrt: 19R2. 194.
pimmunt. guar. un .1. gl. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a
pimp num. card. 'five' (pump)
MW pimp, pump, pymp; 08 pem(p). G pinpe-. pempe-, penlpc-: ()Ir «lie
< IE *penk"e for an explanlltioJl of the Irish vocalism. sec W. Co\\'gill. The
etymology of Irish gllidid and the outcome of *g"'h in (·chic. 11M. Mayrhofer.
M. Peters, O. Pfeiffer. eds. Lautgcschichte und Etymologic. Wieshaden: Dr. Lud-
wig Reichert Verlag 1980, p.02. fn. 14a, where a deriv(ltion from IF is
offered.
DGVB: 2R3: Elsie: 95; Greene: )()9; ope: 292R: lEW: HOR: K(jP: 256: LElA:
LHEB: 496: Sehrijvcr: 27: VGK: I. 37: VVB:
int dou pimp MP 22
h
(230)
hint tri pitnp MP 22
h
(230)
ir petguar pimp MP 22
h
(230)
pimphet num. ord. 'fifth' [pumed)
MW pym(h)et. pcm(h)ct. pimhed: MB pempct. G pinpctos: Olr c6iced
An derivaivc of the cardinal numeral '5'. scC' """'1'_
GPC: Greene: 542: Hirunuma: 42
ir pimphet eterin MP 22
h
(234)
pinnac(c) prone '(who)soever, Icnitedl
MW bcnnnc. b(y)nnac: Me pcnnk. pynag. penn!!: ()B pcnnac
DGVB: 2H.1: (,PC: 364 and 2644
papedpinnac gl. quoduis Me 43 a.h.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
piou(bol) 'to whom belongs, who owns" (piau)
MW pyeu, pyeuwu, pieu
A combination of pi (sec pui), and 3 pres. form of the verh 4hc·.
GMW: 80-1; OPC: 279L I-Iaycock: 15; II. Lewis in BBC'S IJ (195()). p.205;
Watkins: 1982. Williams: 19RO, 116-7
piouhoi int grnisauc Juv <) (R.2)
131
pipenn n f fubc' Ipihl'nl
OW (LI...) pibrnn. MW pyprl1. piht'l1: :\flr "'pCIl
J.'
130
penned n m 'gut(s), intestine' (perfedd]
OW (LL) and MW perued; Me aberveth; OB permed, permidit
< Lat. permedius
nGVB: ope: 2771; ML: 195; VVB: 202; I. Wiliams in ZCP 21 (1938),
p.301
gl. ilia J 35
opennedinteredou gl. medullis J 51
peteu n m 'well, cistern, tank; pit, mud' [pydew]
MW pydew; Olr cuithe
< Lat. puteus; C'the three last letters are very doubtful" (Stokes: 1860-1, 239; cf.
Stokes: 1865, 422).
EL: GPC: 2959; LElA: C-282; tHEB: 668; ML: 200; VGK: I, 196; VVB: 202
peteu gJ. ad puteum Ox2 41
b
(1.9)
petguar nUIII. card. m 'four' (pedwar]
MW pedw8r, 08 OIr cethair; G petuar-
< ·petlJores < IE *"ue1llo,- 'vier',
DGVB: GPe: 2110; Greene: 539; lEW: 642; LElA: C-86; LHEB: 397;
McCone: 56; Schrijver: 122; VVB: 202-3
ir petguar pimp MP 22
b
(230)
petguar hanther scribl MP 22
b
(234)
petgulJred num. ord. 'fourth' (pedwerydd]
MW pedwerit. petveryd, petwared; OB petguare, G petuar(ios)
< see petguar and perguarid, For the hesitation on the form of the IE
suffix. see Schrijver: 288.
DGVB: 284; Elsie: 97; GPC: 2113; Greene: 542; E. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976), pp.
309-11 Hirunuma: 41-2; Schrijver: 285 and 288; VKG: II, 135; VVB: 203
biehet pani u pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
leir petguared part unc MP 23
8
(241)
petguared pards MP 23
8
(241)
petguarid see petgusred
, ". pi pron relBtit'e '(against) which'
< IE *k"i(c!); see Hamp: 1975(6, 65 for the analysis of this passage (cf. OPC:
2(02). and contrast DGVB: GMW: 80-1; J. E. Caerwyn Williams in SBeS 23
(1969). pp. 21-30.
Sec also I'a.
passerenn. pigurthet. loyr Comp 4-

J,
?:. . According to Fleuriot, tbis is a compound consisting of par (= Ir car 'javelin') and
caine 'branch'. GPC compares this with W. gweilging and does not provide etymo-
logy. See OWAV.
DGVB: 284; GPC: 2774; D. Jenkins, M. Owen, eds., The Welsh Law of Women,
Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1980, p. 213.
pcig vel bach gl. ligo Prise 35 a
, '.
132
An -en derivative from pib 'pipe, tube' < Lat. *pipa (1); see also reu/aun.
GPC: ML: 195; Parry-Wiliams: 122; Wiliams: 1933, 116; VVB: 203
pipenn reu laon gL st[i]ria J 14
pipennou n pi '.essels, dutts'
A plural form of pipenn, see S.v. apc: 2794 hesitates about the link with the
previous entry.
pipennou gl. arterias Me 14 b.b.
plant n pi 'children' (plant]
OW (LL) and MW plant; Olr eland
< Lat. planta
GPC: 2818; LElA: C-112; LHEB: 496, 503; VVB: 204
creaticaul plant gI. genialis praeda Ovid 38
b
plant honn", v pres. (future) impers. (pres. subj.?) 'to plant' [plann-]
MW plano-;
< Lat. planto
GPC: 2817-8; LHEB: 503; ML: 195; Parry-Wiliams: 122; R. Thurneysen in KZ 59
(1932) pp. 16-8; VVB: 205; White: 122
h6nn6r gl. fodie ntur J 88
plum.DC 8dj. 're8Ihered'; 8Uhstativised 'pillow, cushion' [p'uog]
MW OB DC plufoc gl. puluinar; Olr chl(i)m.
An ·ako- derivative from of plu(f) < Lat. pluma.
OGVB: ope: 2829; LElA: C-l28; LHEB: 416; ML: 196; OCV: 347-8;
PECA: 88; VGK: I, 207; VVB: 205
plumauc gl. puluinare Ox2 44
8
(6.25)
pois n m r 'weight' [pwys)
MW pvys, OB puis, pus; MC poys; MIr pis
Fleuriot hesitated as to whether it was not a Breton word (peus). If chefel is Welsh
(see cefe', chfjel) , this could be OW too, cf. W pwys (B. pauez); then pois chelel
could mean 'cheval lourd', 'cheval de somme', see Lambert. GPC considers this
instance as BretoR.
< Lat. pensum
DGVB: 70,281 and 291; GPC: 2953; Lambert: 1982, 192; ML: 200
pois chefel gl. mannus .i. equs breuis Prise 7 b
popptu n m 'et'ery [pop.u)
MW poptu
GPC lists this entry a5 a compound, though the separate treatment of the entries
seems still possible. For the first part, see S.v. paup. The second element (W tu;
OB tu (DGVB: 324) Me tu; OIr tofb) is listed under *(s)teig
U
- 'Schulter, Arm,
, Schenker in lEW: 1018. Accoding to LElA (T-92) it is preferable, however, to
follow VGK (], 116) where a comparison with Lat. tibia is offered. See also WG:
422.
133
GPC: 2RSO; VVB: 205,226
popptu gl. amhifarium MC 12 h.b.
postoloin n m 'saddle-crupper' (postolwynI
W postolwyn
< Lat. posti/e1la
GPC: 2862; ML: 201; VGK: I. 20R; VVB: 205
postoloin gl. antclla Ox2 (5.3)
poulloraur n 'writing-fablet'
Apart from this occurrcnce in the OW glosses, the word is found only "The Book
of Talesin", T 25.11 prlll/owr; cf. aIr p6laire.
< Lat. pugi/(/)ar-
GPC: 2790; LElA: P-II; ML: 19R; Stokes: IR73, 393; VGK: I, 222; VVB: 205;
WG: 109
irpoulloraur gl. pugillarem paginam MC 6 b.b.
presen n f m 'the world' (presen)
MW prcs(s)en(t)
< Lat. present·
GPC: 2877; Haycock: 11; ML: 19R
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
rit ercis d•••raut inadaut prescn Juv 9 (R. 1)
pressuir adj. 'constant, continuous' (preswyll
MW pres(s)wyl, prcssvcl; 08 prcsquor g1. diutino (see I. Williams in ZCP 21.
p.302)
OOVB: 289; GPC': 2879; VVB: 206
pressuir gl. adfixa Me 4 b.b.
prinit v pres. 3 sg 'to huy' (pryn- )
MW pryn-, OB prin- in disapriner, guuprineticion. compri: 0(' prinit in eaid
prinit; OIr cren-
< IE *k"rei- 'kaufen'
GMV: 119; GPC: 2293; DGVB: LElA: C-229; lEW: 64R; PECA: R9; VGK:
I, 128; VVB: WG: 332; White: 100
prinit hinnoid MP 22
b
(234)
pucsBun v imperf. I pluperfect (?) 1 sg 'to love, desire' (?)
MW puchaw ? ope: 2926 does not list this instance in the entry dedicated to
puchaf. There are two major possibilities for interpretation of this form. Accord-
ing to I. Williams, this is an imperfect, if it is a pluperfect. this could be a
siscd spelling for *PUCQJll1l (Loth, White). The etymology of the word is yet
unknown.
Haycock: 15: Loth in RC 2<1 (ICJOR). r. H: White: 206-7: \VCltkinC\: lQR2. (lnd 41;
Williams: 19RO, liS
Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut .Iuv () (7))
-._., - ,-
:

",
,'.
134
pui proll. Interrogative 'what' (pwy]
MW pwy; C pyw, OB pou; OIr cia
< IE *kuei-; see also s.v. pa.
GMW: 14; GPC: 2946-7; Hamp: 1975/6, 59; LElA: C-92; VVB: 206
pui gl. quid Ovid 41a
puil n mall 'wisdom' (pwyll]
MW pwyll; OC gurbulloc gl. insanus; Olr ciall
< lEW *kllti- 'worauf aehten'
GPC: 2948; lEW: 637; LElA: C-93; OCV: 175; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 224; VGK:
II, 490
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
punt n I 'pound' [punt]
MW pun(n), punt, C puns, cf. OIr pond « Lat. pondo)
< AS pund; contra Loth, this is now considered to be an English borrowing.
GPC: 2929; LHEB: 317; LElA: P-12; ML: 200; T.- H. Parry-Williams, The Eng-
lish Element in Welsh. London 1923, p. 30; VVB: 206
hint c punt - MP 23
9
(229)
dou punt MP 22
b
(234)
Q
q,,'Ih n HI 'IDger' (1) (name of a letter)
As it was suggested by Zeuss, cf. Loth, quith could stand here for guith, see
guoguith and cf.. guilhlann.
VVB: 206; Zeuss: 1059
quith Nemn
R
'r definite .rticle
See ;r; cf. orau,
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
or tirnuil gL. nocte ceca Ang SO a
har dou trean gl.. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b
or ree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
or bissi Comp 3
bihit dir 1emi Comp 16
orbardaul leteinepp gl.. epics pagina Me la.b.
I ordecoolion gl. decadibus Me 7 h.b.
orcueetic con. gl. ex papyro textili Me Rb.a.
orcomt:tntou ttl. MC to a.o.
135
ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus exscctis Me 42 3.3.
orgarn gl. medio Ovid 37
ft
dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 3R;\
ordometic gl. domito Ovid 39
ft
hac orachmonou gl. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h
raedam prep. 'before (himf rrhsll-)
OW (LL) rae, MW rac-, rag-; OB racdom
A 3 sg personal form of W r(h)ag; < IE *pro-ko-, V,.,ro- 'vorwarts, varn. voran'.
DGVB: 126, 292; ope: 299R; lEW: 815; VGK: I. 49; VVB: wc,: 401, 404;
cf. J. E. Caerwyn Williams in EC (l (1953-4). pp. 11-20.
racdam gl. sibi J 67
ran n 'verse' (1)
According to I. Williams this could he a cognate of Ir ra"" 4verse' rather than of W
rltan 'part, share'. LElA: R-7 mentions a possihility that Irish ran" \quatrain,
strophe' is etymologically identical with Ir rann 'division. sec ra"".
Williams: 1980, 113
ceinmicum ucnou ran Juv 9 (6.2)
rann n f 'share, contribution' (rhanJ
MW rann, ran; Me ran, OB ran(n); Olr ran(n)
< * IE *pfsnii-; to IE *per- 'verkaufen, hinilberbringen'. See also ran.
Dc Bernardo Stempel: 135-6; DaVB: 293; GPC: 3035; LElA: R-7: lEW: 817:
Schrijvcr: 177; VGK: L 52
hit niritarncr rann. irbissci Comp 10
rasel n f 'spokeshave, rasp' (rhasgl)
MW racsgyl, raskel, raschil
< Lat. rasc(ll)/-: see aWAY.
GPC: 3030; ML: 201; VGK: I, 220; VVB: 208
rasel gl. sartun, Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
rat n m 'grace (name of a letter) (rhad)
MW rad; OB Raduueten, Me ras; G Suratus, Olr rath
To IE *per- 'verkaufen, hintiberbringcn' (lEW: HI7).
De Bernardo Stempel: 136; DGVB: GPC: 2995: LElA: R-R; Schrijver: 178;
VVB: ZOR
rat Nemn
reatir n pi 'waterfalls, cataracts' [rhaeadrI
MW rayadyr, raeadyr, rheeidr; 01r riathor gl. tOTTens
< Celt. *riatrf (sg. to IE *re;;)- 'FlicBcn'
apc: 2997; lEW: 3.10; LElA: R-2R; LHEB: J37; 123; SchTijver:
25R. 3R5; VOK: I. f,(l-7: VVR: 20R
rcatir gl. torrcntum J 2X
ree prnn. 'some' 'rhoi J
MW reL MC'R rf. ()Ir rc
,".
136
The etymology is speculative; perhaps a cognate of OW rann, see s. v. See also rei.
DGVB: 278 and 295; Elsie: 133; oPC: 3030; LElA R-I0
or ree issid pellaham gL a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
regensu/adj. 'parenta'" (rhien(i)ol]
W riennoll, rhienawl
< ·pro-gen-al- (MW ,heeni, rhyeni, W rieni 'parents, ancestors', see T. Jones in
BBCS 9 (1938), pp. 131-3; PKM: 165-7).
P.-Y. Lambert, Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. /I J. Eska, R. Geraint Gruffydd,
N. Jacobs, eds., Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press
1995, p. 99; LHEB: 453; Parry..Williams: 122; J. Vendryes in RC 32 (1911), p. 235;
VVB: 209
ir regenaul gl. patris (leg. patrii] J 57
rei pron. 'some' (rhail
This interpretation by P.-Y. Lambert is accepted by DOB and GPC. See ree.
DaB: 527; GPC: 3030; Lambert: 1982, 202
nirinciriles cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
reid n m&r 'spear' [rhaicldJ
MW rheiddiau, redyeu, reidyeu
< Lat. radius
GPC: 3093; ML: 201; VGK: I, 224; VVB: 209
reid gl. spicum Me 62 b. a,
(.. )relin?
The last letters of the word are preserved on the margin of the manuscript.
Stokes: 1860-1, 212
-retin J 20
remed8ut n m 'wonder" I rhyteddod]
MW reuedawt, ry wedawt, ryfedawt
An -0",'1 (on this suffix seae VGK: 11,38) derivative of ri,ned, see s.v.
J. Loth in RC 42 (1925), p. 437; Williams: 1980, 110
gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5.1)
retec vn 'to run' Irhedecl
MW ret-, red-; OC redegua gl. cursus, Me resek, OB retec, rit(ec); OIr rethid; G
ad-reticio
A vn in wee, for the formation cf MW ehedec 'fly', see Russell: 1990, 68; < *ret-ek;
IE ·ret(h)- 'Iaufen· (lEW: 86{j).
De Bernardo Stempel: 131; DGVB: 296; GMW: 157; GPC: 3043; lEW: 866;
OCV: 34; PECA: 90
Intrited retec Comp 2
retinoc adj. 'ferny' (rhedynog]
OW (VSB: 72) redinauc, MW redynawc
An -or derivative of Cell. tTa'i.. (MW rcdyn, OC rcdcn g1. filcx, Gratis, MIT
117
raith), < IE *pr:Jti- see lEW: 850; LElA: PECA: 90. For the quality of the
vowel in the suffix consider the dispute hetwccn Watkins and Jackson; this was
used for the dating of Chad 6.
GPC: Ll-IEB: 293,296; Jackson: 1975--6,41-4; Sims-Williams: 1991
7
31;
Watkins: 1972, Watkins: 1972-4, 10-1
dipul retinoe Chad 6
retit v pres. 3 'to turn' Irhed- )
See rctee and gllrthret.
LElA: White: Williams: 1921,259
Intrited retec. retit loyr .. guorhir seraul.circhl. C'omp 2
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith Comp 11
retit loyr irdid. hinnuith cen nit hoi loe guac inter o. ct a. in pagina regulari. Camp
11
retteticc adj. 'running'
Hapax in Welsh. For the etymology, see s.v. retee.
GPC: 3044; VVB: 209
ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. seJla curulis Me 45 a.a.
reulsun adj. 'icy'
Etymologically, 'icc-fuJI'; rell (W rhett' 'frost, ice', ()Ir relld, < ·prellsu'o-, see
E. Hamp in JIES 1 (1973), pp. 215-223, also liES 2 (1974), p. cf. Elsie: 97),
and -Iolln 'fuJI' < IE *pel(;1)- 'gieBen, Hillen', De Bernardo Stempel: 123; Joseph:
lEW: 79R, cf. also locclall, gllithlolln, allhodla,,,,.
Parry-Williams: Williams: 1933, 116
pipenn reu latIn gl. stri]ria J 14
ri particle
MW ry, OB row, aIr ro, cf. (] ro
< *pro- 'vorwart, VOTn, voran' (lEW: fOT nn extensive hihliogrnphy see
Isaac. See also riCfllS.
Eska: GMW: 166; Isaac: 387-RR; J. Loth in RC' 30 (190Q). pro
hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp R
In niritarnher Comp R
hit niritarncr rann. irhissci Comp 10
riberlhi n m 'spring tide" Irhyfcrthwy. rhyferthi I
MW ryuerthwy, OB rehirthi gl. malina: Olr roharta
To IE Vhlrer- 'tragen', see l-lamp: 19R2, 20R.
DGVB: 294; LElA: R-36; Huws: 501, n. 6.
riberthi gJ. malina DNR 2
v
riceus v ?
Due to the ohscurity of the line where this word occurs, as \vell ClS the general
spelling inconsistencies, the form allows for a variety of interpretations \vhich are
conveniently collected in the \vnrks referred to. It "PelS thClt the fnrnl (l
138

139
, ....
3 sg. pret. in -us, from cael, or 3 sg. pres. indo (with ry- denoting potentiality),
perhaps connected with Me keusel 'to speak', all from Lat. causor, or, less con-
vincing, from IE 'to speak'.
White: 88-92 and 102, Williams: 1980, 98-9
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
rimed n 'wonders' (rhyfedd]
MW ryfed, rifed, ryuet
< *ro-med-
I. Williams in BBCS 1 (1921), pp. 24 and 29-30; Williams: 1980, 107
dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.1)
rindr v pre!. impers. 'to need' [rhyng-J
MW ryng-, reg-; cf. also Early Irish ro-icc les meaning 'attains to the benefit (of),
needs' in neich roiccu a Jess gl. necessitatis meae (Wh. 23 d 9); ro-n-ecar less inna
diten (MI. 87 d 14) '(when) the protection is needed'; W rhyngu bodd rhywun 'to
reach someone's pleasaure' > 'to please someone', B rankout, renkout 'faHoir',
MB an pez a ranquer 'ce qu'il faut'.
DGVB: 297; lEW: 317; Isaac: 441; J. Loth in RC 46 (1929) p. 156; J. Lloyd Jones
in DDCS (1921), p. 6.
cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
ringuedalJlioD subst. adj. pi (1) 'virtuous' [rhinweddol]
MW rinwedawl
This compound is traditionally analysed as containing a form which corresponds to
W rhin 'virtue, secret' (cf. OIr run, < IE Vreu--, see DGVB: 297; lEW: 867; Lane:
260; LElA: R-53) and guedoJ, from gwedd, 'form'. It was claimed by T. A. Wat-
kins that 1his is a mistake for ringuedolion.
VGK: II, 14; VVB: 210; Watkins: 1972--4, 10
ringuedaulion gl. arcana Ovid 38b
Tit particle
See rio The identification of .( with the preverbal particle yt was deemed implau-
sible by Scbrijver.
GMW: 166; P. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994), pp.182-3; Williams: 1980,114-5'
rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut luv 9 (7.2)
rit ercis d...raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8.1)
rodes " pret. 3 sg 'to give' [rhod-)
See the next.
harodes Chad 7
rodesi' " pret. 3 51 '10 give' [rhod-]
MW rod-; MB reiff
, Various etymological of this verb have been offered, which consider
its relationship with Sanskrit ra 'give' (Vendryes), or derive it from IE *do- 'gebeo'
(\Vr,: cf. VGK: Il, See the previous entry.
Elsie: 99; GMW: lIR-9; JO: 102 (with Bihl); Isaac: 365; MJ: 272; White: lR4-5
rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2
roenhol?
Until recently this entry has been considered as an adjective. 'of a lineage. patro-
nymic', see the literature cited helow. P.- Y. Lambert (Three Brittonic Lexical
Notes. II J. Eska, R.Ocraint Gruffydd. N. Jacohs. cds..
nica, Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995. pp. 96-1(0) analysis this instance as
a noun cognate with OB roi(a)nt. originally meaning 'kingdom· > 'patrimony,
inheritance' .
Lambert: 1982,199; LHEB: 50; Williams: 1933,117; VVB: 211
roenhol dei patris gl. patrii pecoris J 45
rohodriS8UC ?
An -aue derivative, cf. MW rhyodres 'display, affectation'.
The most recent analysis of this word hy P.- Y. Lamhert suggests rlty..god-res, a
cognate of god 'adulter, pride' for which ope: 1420 provides no etymology; cf.
CA: 121 where a segmentation rhy-go-tres is offered.
DaB: II, 548; DGVB: 299; Lambert: 1982, 196-7; P.-Y. Lambert in BBeS 36
(1989), pp. 116--20
rohodrisauc gl. ogganio Prise 17 b
rod adj. 'red' Irhudd]
OW (LL), MW rud; OC rud gl. ruher: OB rudd: G. -roud-: Olr rtiad
< IE *roudho- 'rof
nGVB: 300; Elsie: 12L GMWL: 260; lEW: 872: LElA: R-147: ()CV: 209:
PECA: 91; VGK: I, 174
() rud liu gl. roseo colore Ang 17 a
rodcoch adj. 'purple red' IrhuddgochJ
MW rudgoch
For the first element of this compound, see s.v. rlld: the second element., OW
(LL), MW each 'red' is a loan from MLat. foee,,,,,,
rudcoch gl. purpureum DNR 1v
rudliu n & adj. 'red colour' (rhuddliw)
MW ruddliu
See rud, liu, cf. glasliu.
rudliu gl. igneum DNR 1v
mid adj. 'easy' [rhwydd]
MW rwyd, rwyt; OB ruet; OIr reid
The traditional connection of the Celtic words with IE *reidh- 'fahrcn· has heen
recently queried by P. Schrijver, who consideres this to be "no more than a
possihiJity" and insists on closer links with the (,ermanic cognates (Gothic garai-
dido 'arranged" English ready. etc.). For the sernantics. cf. ('1\: See also
ahruid.
..... _.._._........---.. ..- --_.-".
140
DGVB: 300; JEW: 861; LElA R-16; LHEB: 330; Schrijver: 224-5; VGK: I,
VVB: 212
guollung I.ruid gl.. uacuum J 65
mimmeln n pi 'bonds' (rbwym]
MWruym
< ·reig...smen < IE Vreig- I reig...
lEW: 862; VGK: I, 87; VVB: 212-3; WG: 136
cuinhaunt irruim mein J 5.5
minn n m f 'bridle'
This reading [f]Tu;nn was suggested by P.-Y. Lambert and was accepted in DOB.
See fruinn.
DOB: 456; DGVB: 206; Lambert: 1982, 193
haloiu aur. ruinn gl. glomus Prisc 13 a
romp n m 'auger' (rhwmp)
MW rump
< Lat. r(h)ombus. This is not found in Haarmann and EL; OB romb (MS rob) gl.
stiua which was rendered by Fleuriot as 'manche de charrue' was alternatively
explained as an abbreviated catchword in a Latin gloss by P.-Y. Lambert (Lam-
bert: 1986, 112).
DOVB: 299; GMWL: 261; LHEB: 503; ML: 203; VVB: 213
rump gl. ungulum Ox2 42
b
(4.4)
mnm;au n pi I Tn 'snore' [rhwDc]
MW rwnc 'snarl, snore'
< Lat. note the spelling ·ntn- for ..ncn....
VVB: 213; Stokes: 1873, 408; White: 297-9
runtniau gl. s1erope, leg. stertore Me 57 b.a.
s
',pron. 3 51 'him, it'
MW ·s; 08"'5
See also nis.
GMW: 55; VB: 262
nis minn Chad 2
nisacup nis arcup le<3er Juv 9 (3.3)
nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3.3)
immisline gl. allinebat Me 8 a.b.
gl, n 'saltus Lunae' 15111t)
08 salt; Orr salt
< Lt\ t .\nllll,'t
141
DGVB: 301; LElA: S-IR
Salt emmi guollig hinnith ir hloidin hunnuith 19
ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 21
ir nideruid hinn. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 22
scsmeJI n f 'bench' rysgafelll
W ysgafell, OC scauel gl. MB scahcll
< Lat. senhrllunt (Jca",rl/II'" EL. ML)
EL: 4H; ML: 205; J14; PEC'A: 9J; VVB: 214
scamell gl. tripus 62 a. a.
scsmnhegint v pres. 3 pi 'to IiKhten' r
MW yscafnhau, cf. OC sccucns gl. pulmo, MB scaff, Mlr scam
For a summary of etymological see LElA. It could he analysed as a
*-sag- derivative of *skarnno- I *skabno- 'light' with no estahlished further con-
nections.
LElA: LHEB: OCV: 50; PECA: 9J: Stokes: lR60--1. 20R: VVB: 214:
White: 121
scamnhegint gl. lellant J 4
scipBur n f 'barn' rysgubor]
MW cscubor, escubaur: C scibor
The word was considered by Loth (ML) to he a loan from Lat.
Otherwise this could he an -awr derivative of the word horrowed from Lat. scoro.
the same loan in the other languages. cf. Ir . .<:cr;ap. As \vas noted hy
T. II. Parry-Williams, i in this word stands for II [uJ. Sec also P. Sims-Williams.
GMWL: 302: LElA: S-56: ML: 216; Parry-Williams: 123: Sims-Williams:
1991, Stokes: 1860-1. 21 VVB: 214
scipaur gl. horrea J 14
scire.. • f sgl. 'splinter, lath' r J
MW escheren; B skirienn, cf. on scarat gl. diiudicarc
< IE *sker- lEW: 9JRf.
DGVB: 302: GMWL: 303: LHEB: 56: VCiK: I. 44: 11.615: VVB: 214
scircnn gl. stella Ox2 44
h
(7.22)
scrihenn n f 'writing' rysgrifenl
MW yscrivcn, scriven: C scriven, aIr scrib
< Lat. scribend-
LElA: S-54; ML: 215: VVB: 215
scribenn gl. scriptura MC 38 b.a.
scribenn gl. scriptura Me 39 h.a.
scrihl n 'scruple' Ia unit of currencyJ
MW ysgryhyl. cscryhyl. cscrihil: cf. ()Ir. scrcpul
< Lat. scriipII/'l1n, Jeril'lI/r""
T. in ORCS 24 (1<)72). l' ('MW1.: 1"FR: I.FIA:
142
5-53; ML: 215; VVB: 215
petguar hanther scribl MP 22
b
(234)
adj. 'standing, station8ry' [sefydlOl]
MW sefydlog, seuydlog; C. sevylyac
< ·sabetlo- ice qui est place'
DGVB: 304; Lambert: 1982, 205
sebedlauc gl. adsecula Prise 34 b
seith num. C8rd. 'seven' (saith]
MW seith, seyth; OB seith
< IE *sept'tJ 'sieben', or < Lat. septem.
This form could be also Breton.
DGVB: 305; GMWL: 267; Greene: 540; lEW: 909
iseith uith C·is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
selsic n I 'black-pudding, sausage' [selsigl
MW selsig, B silsig
< Lat. salsicia
EL: 46; LHEB: 605; ML: 206; VGK: I, 373; VVB: 215
selsic gl. lucani[C]3 Ox2 42
8
(3.1)
senlu/adj. 'stal1}' (senwl, -01]
An -awll-of « ·-alos) derivative of ser 'star'; see serenn
seraul circhl Camp 2
serenn n r sKi. (1) 'star'. 'Iidus' (in Comp.) (seren]
MW ser(en). 08 sterenu; OC steren gl. stella; G Sirona; Olr ser
< IE ·ster- 'Stem'; see also
DGVB: lEW: LElA: 5-90; LHEB: 530; OCV: 33; PECA: 96; Schrij-
ver: 423; VGK: I, 78
ir sereno. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Camp 7
ir sereno hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
nitegid ad sereno arall Comp 11
serr n m 'hillhook' (serr)
MW OB ser gl. fiscina (fuscina); air serr
< Lat. or < IE ·se'pti- ('Sichel, krummer Haken', lEW: 911-2). See
OWAV.
E. Bachellery in Be 11 (1964-5), p.122; GMWL: 267; Gal: 95; DGVB: 305;
E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), p. 197; LElA: S-95; Lambert: 1982, 176; ML: 206;
VVB: 2]5; VGK: 1,94; Zimmer: 152; WG: 125
,... serf gl. uoscera Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
serr gl. (alee J 77
s;C'h adj. 'dry' [sychl
MW sych. sich; Me 08 $Cch, MIr secc
143
< Lat. siccus
DGVB: 304; LElA: S-60; LI-IEA: 2R3-4; ML: 209; V(jK: I. 210; VVB: 215
sich gl. arentis Me 13 a.a.
silgued n m 'substance, essential' (sylwedd]
W sylwedd; OB solgued
The word was treated as a loan from Lat. solea or Joltun (ML: 204, cf. 08 sol gl.
bas) with a suffix which corresponds to MW gwailh, see s. v. gurid < IE *yegJr-
'bewegen' (GPC: 1563; lEW: 1119; PECA: 54).
DGVB: 305 and 306-7
silgued gl. creidinem Ang 59 b
sserenn n f sgl. 'star'
Used for sidus, not stella (Williams: 1927, p.260); see .'ieren".
passerenn. pigurthct. loyr in Comp 4
stebill n r pi 'rooms' (ystafell)
MW estauel(l); OC steucl gl. tridinium
< Lat. *stabellum
GMWL: 304; ML: 217; oev: 401; PECA: 96; VGK: 1,219; VVB: 216
ad stebfll gl. ad limina J 52
strotur n r'saddle' (ystrodur]
MW estrodur; aIr srathar
< Lat. slralura; see also the next.
LElA: 5-182; LHEB: 290; ML: 21R; VGK: L 204; VVB: 211
ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. se11a curulis Me 45 a.a.
strotur gurehic gl. samhuca Ox2 43
a
(5.5)
struduguar ?
Stokes: 1865, 422 suggests amendation to stru/UT guar. In view of slrntllr Rlirehic 1
J. Loth suggested (VVB: 217-18) reading this entry as strullir 'selle
d'homme'. According to Craster (Craster: 135). the reading is strlldllguar, hence
perhaps strudur guar (or guas). See strotllr.
struduguar gl. sel1a Ox2 42
a
(2.12)
strutiu n pi 'the old'
air sruith
Contra Thurneysen: 1890a, 93 this should he considered as an OW form. perhaps
cognate with OB strot, from IE ystrll- 'greis, all', on this stem see Schrijver.
DGVB: 309; E. Hamp in Annales de Bretagnc 79 (1972), pp.946--7; lEW: 1037;
LElA S-189; Scrijver: 453; VVB: 217
strutiu gJ. antiquam gentcm J (,
such n r 'ploughshare'
See JulI.
such gl. vomis J 25
\ ..
144
suh n r 'ploughsh.re' [swch]
MW such, B SOUC'hi OC soch 81. vomer
< Lat. SOCCU.J; or vernacular, cr, Olr socc, see huch. See also such.
lEW: 1038; LElA: S-158-9; ML: 208-9; Dev: 142 and 156; PECA: 95-6;
R. Thurneysen, Keltoromanisches. Halle: Max Niemeyer 1884, pp. 112-3; VVB:
218; Zimmer: 152-3
suh gl. uomer Ox2 42
b
(4.6)
sumpl n m 'goad' (swmbwl, swmwl, swml]
MWswmbyl
< Lat. stimulus
An intermediary form ·stum'blU5 « *slimilus) should be posited (for Romance,
see REW: 12,285). Note the exceptional development of st-. See aWAY.
Haarmann, 76; LHEB: 531, fn.. 2; ML: 209; Schrijver: 399; VGK: 1,219; VVB:
218
sumpl gI .. stimulus Ox2 42
b
(4.1)
SfJrg (name 0' 8 letter)
This letter-name was compared by Zeuss with 08 personal name Eusorchet.
VVB: 218; Zeuss: 1059
surg Nemn
T
, pron. (objed.) 3 sg. m 'him'
immit eel irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22
b
(238)
t••erdlllou fi guird••••
According'to I. WilJiams, this line could be read as tiberdutou ti guir douid "Thy
glories (riches), a true Lord". Berdutou, pI. of the (MW) berthid 'wonder, power'
is commonly analysed as an -idJ-ud derivative of berth « IE *bher;;lg- 'glanzen,
weiB', GPC: 274; lEW: 139). For the interpretations of douid, ti, ti, see Haycock
and Watlcins. See also gu;r
2

Haycock: 10-11; Watkins: 1982,32 and 38; Williams: 1980,106-7
t••erd,dou ti guird..... Juv 9 (2.3)
'.ge n m ·peace' (tang)
MW tang, tanc; G tanco-
< IE ",enlc- ·sich zusammenziehen, fest, dicht werden'
GPN: JO: 102; lEW: KGP: 275; LL: xliv
guragun t age Chad 2
'III n m "orehead, front' [tal]
OW (LL). MW tal, OC tal gl. frons; cf. OB talar; OIr talam
< IE ·,,,r(rO- COach. nacher Boden, Brett' , ef. Lat. tellu.ri. For the etymological
summary see OWAV.
145
A.Bammesberger in EC tR (1981) pp.l17-9, and n. lion p.119; DGVB: 310;
GMWL: 210; E. Hamp in Fe 20 (IQHJ), p. 91; lEW: 1061; Schrijver: VVR:
21R
6r guithJaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51
tslcipp n 'bowl'
The word was compared with Olr ttil-ell/the; J. Loth identified this instance with T.
32. 19 agwin tal kibedd. See tal, cip.
LElA: T-18D-2; J. Loth in RC 22 (1901), p. 330; Stokes: 1873,408; VVB: 219
talcipp gl. cratere Me 59 a.b.
tantoo n pi strioKs' Itant I
MW tant; DB tanntou; OIr
< IE *ten- 'dehnen, ziehen, spannen'
DOVS: 311; lEW: 1066; LElA: T-55; VGK: 1,138; Stokes: 1873,410; VVB: 219
tantou gl. fides Me 63 b.a.
tantou gJ. fides Me 63 b.b.
tarater n m 'auger' [taradr]
MW taradyr, tarader; MB tarazr; Olr tarathar
< IE *terhj-trorn, cf. Ok. MLat. taratrum is a Celtic loan. As was noted
by K. Jackson, Uthe svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW·'.
DGVB: 317; GMWL: 273; E. Hamp in EC 20 (1983), p. 91; LElA: T-30; LHEB:
55,337; ML: 210; Schrijver: 87; VGK: I, 134; VVB: 219; WG: 82
tarater gl. scapa uel rostrum (i.foratorium) Ox2 42
h
(4.3)
tsmetor v pres. impers. 'to reckon" '0 compute, to count' (tarn"l
MW tarn- 'to rub off, wipe dry, clean., cf. Lat. crnnpllto (pIlIO - 'to cleanse. to
trim, to coun1'), IE ·ter- (lEW: 1071--4; the Welsh forms arc not quoted); sec also
the next.
Williams: 1927, 263-5
is gur tum tarnetor ir loc guac haibid post. o. Comp 7
tarnher v pres. subj. impers. 'to count' [tarn.. )
See above.
White: 165
hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp 8
niritarn(h)er Comp 10
teg ,uis '?
According to VVB, this stands for tegglli,f 'beau a voir', with tee (W teg) 'beauti-
ful', and guis = Ir [is 'visio·. I. Winiams, however, accepts Zeuss·s (Zeuss: 1058)
reading of the latter element as standing for W gwi"'g, and offers the interpretation
of the former as teg[irn], then
VVB: 219; Williams: 1929, R; 1931, 114
teg guis. gl. aureus Ovid 39
tl
),
...... __ ._.._. __._. _.. --'-'- . --.
leir name card. I 'three'
MW teir; OB teir; aIr te6ir
This form has caused a longing dispute, see particularly Cowgill and McCone. The
most recent treatment is that of P. Schrijver, who suggests *tesres or *tisras. The
reading of G. (La Graufesenque) tidres is uncertain. See also trio
w. Cowgill in Language 33, No 3 (1957), pp.341-5; DGVB: 312; lEW: 1091;
McCone: 10; VGK: II, 127-8; VVB: 220
teir petgured part unc (gl. tertia pars unciae) MP 23
8
(241)
leirban n 'three parts (of the world?)'
A combination of teir (see s.v.), and ban 'part, region'. If the latter is the same as
W ban 'top' (Olr benn) , then to IE *bend- 'vorspringende Spitze' (lEW: 96,
LElA: B-36; Schrijver: 455). The other interpretation of this entry takes into
consideration a possible reference to the cross.
Haycock: 244; Williams: 1980, 188-9
Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
lelu n m 'retinue' [teuloJ
MW teulu, teylu; OC teilu gl. familia; Ir teglach
< *tego-s/ougo-. The first part of this compound (OC Ii gl. domus, OW (Asser)
lig, OIr tech) goes back to tl£g05, IE ·(s)teg- 'decken' (lEW: 1013); the second,
(MW I/u, OC /uu, OIr slog, sluag) - IE ·slougo- 'das Helfen, Dienen' (lEW: 96).
GMWL: 275; LHEB: LElA: T-39; DCV: 80; PECA: 99; VGK: 1,84 and 99;
Williams: 1980, 95
mitelu Juv 3 (1.2)
lenea Idj. 'thin' [tenauI
MW tcneu; OC tenei'en gl. latus; MB tanau, tanow; OIr tanae
The non-Celtic cognates are given under IE ·tenu-s 'dOnn' in lEW; the further
study allowed for the reconstruction of PIE *t1;h
2
-eu- (Hamp: 1965, 232; de Ber-
nardo Stempel: 143)., or "tenh1-y- (Joseph: 40, rejected by Schrijver). The most
recent analysis by P. Schrijver derives the Welsh form from *tanalj!o- (mase.).
DGVB: 278; lEW: 1069; LElA: T-26; DCV: 59; PECA: 99; Sehrijver: 85 and 297
or teneu creaturou gl. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b
lennin n AI 'boundary' [terfynJ
MW teroyn, terwyn; MIr termonn
< Lat. terminus
GMWL: 274; LElA: T-53; ML: 211; VGK: 1,239; VVB: 220
terrnin gl. ora Me 48 a.3..
termin gl. ora Me 48 a.b.
lennisceticioll adj. pl. 'troubled ones' [d. terfysg)
MW terfysg'l Olr tairmesc
An ·et;c derivative from (W) mysg- 'mixture, confusion' (Mlr mesc-) < IE *mei-k-
'mischcn· (lEW: 7L4).
147
LElA: T-14; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), p. 31; VVB: 220; Stokes, 1860-1,235 and
292; Stokes: 1865, 421
termisceticion gl. solicitos Ovid 38
3
terni v or vn 'to reckon, to compute, to count'
According to I. Williams, this is a verhal noun, cf. tarfl- (see s. v. tarnetor); the
dropping of the lenited -[ finds correspondences in the same text, cf. "iti: tritid, or
isid: issi. Alternatively, T. A. Watkins considers this as a personal form of the verh
(2 sing. pres).
Watkins: 1987.59 (fn. 2); White: 304-5; Williams: 1927,2(18
bihit dir terni Comp 16
teu adj. 'thick' (tewJ
MW tew, MB teo, teu; Olr tiug
< IE *tegu· 'dick'
Elsie: 138; lEW: 1057; LElA: T-76; Schrijver: 68; Lane: 263; VGK: I, 99; VVB:
220--1; WG: 131
6r teu gl. obtonso [leg. obtusoJ 1 37
til prone pers. 2 SK 'you' (til
OB ti, te; C ty; Olr tu
< IE *tll 'duo; sec also t••erdlltoll ti guird••••; cf. P. MacC'ana in SC 10/11 (1975/
6), pp. 318-25.
DOVB: 311; lEW: 1097; LElA: T-155-7
gurt trichiti nacgenei C'omp 16
ftdarnestf gl. agitare 1 R8
omnipotens auctor tidicones adianl."••[... ] Juv 9 ( 1.1)
dittihun gl. tibi soli Me 9 a.a.
helghati gl. venare Ovid 3R
ft
nerthiti gl. hortahere Ovid 39
h
li
2
pron. pers. 2 sg 'you"
See ti I. P.- Y. Lamhert apparently considers this gloss OB.
DGVB: 311
ot ti gl. toile Ang 59 a
ti
J
see Ii guird••••
tiis?
The word was compared by J. Loth with W teiJ-han 'coussin'; teyspan 'a coverlet',
GMWL: 276.
VVB: 221; Zcuss: 1063
tiis gl. staptuln Ox2 44a (6.26)
limu;1 adj. 'dark' (tywyllJ
W ty\vill. ty\vylL ()B cf. 0, !!'- Jr temrl
'''.
148
< ·temil-(j)o-, IE 'Item- 'dunkel'
DGVB: 278; HPB: 598; lEW: 1063-4; LElA: T-48; OCV: 196; PECA: 100;
Schrijver: 322
or timuil gl. oocte ceca Ang 50 a
tinetic?
MW Du Hir Tynnedic (7)
Cf. Lat. tingo 'dye, colour'
VVB: 221; Williams: 1933, 114
irtinetic gl. tincta Ovid 4()A
tir n m 'land' [tir]
OW (LL) tir, MW tiT, tyr; OC tir gl. tellus, MB tir, OIr tfr
< IE *te(: )rsl- , cf. Lat. fe"Q
For the etymological summary see OWAV.
Elsie: 90; GO): 39; lEW: 1018; LElA: T-74ff.; OCV: 35; PECA: 100; Stokes:
1860-1,221; VGK: I, 83; VVB; 222
tir teJih Chad 2
ir tir gI. fundum J 73
lOIJDOU n pi 'wa"es' (Ion)
MW ton, OB tonn gI. Iympha; Mlr tonn
Etymology is for a summary, see LElA.
DGVB: 315; lEW: 972 and 1082; LElA: T-I09; VVB: 222; WO: 168
ir tonnou gl. aequora J 60
tordgel n r 'saddle-girth' Itol'lengl)
MW torgengl, torgyngl, torgegil
This compound is traditionally analysed as containing tor 'belly', see s. v., and
cigel, cf. W cengel ·girth, saddle-girth' < Lat. cing(u)/a (GPC: 450, ML: 148). It
was noted by K. Jackson that '·the svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW".
GMWL: 278; LElA: T-65; LHEB: 55,337; ML: 148; VYB: 222
torcigel gl. uentris lora Ox2 43- (5.4)
torr n f 'belly' 1, 'palm' ? Itorl
MW tor, OC tor gl. venter, OE tar, tor; OIr tarr-;
The word has been analysed as a derivative of *tcsV·, to IE *(s)ter- 'starr, steif
sein'; but see E. Hamp who notes that the base could perhaps be eliminated by
'dry', see tir. According to ]. Wiliams, this instance in the text denotes 'tu mewn';
see Williams: 1930, 246.
De Bernardo Stempel: 144-5; DGVB: 311; Elsie: 81; E. Hamp in EC 32 (1996),
p. 88; lEW: 1024; LElA: OCV: 56; PECA: 101; YGK: 1,83
hi torr MP 23a (246)
torth n f 'IoarJtorlh)
MW torth; MCB torth; Olr tort
< lJat. torta
149
GMWL: 278; LElA: T-117; ML: 211; VGK: 1,233
douccint torth ha maharuin in irhaf Chad 3
douceint torth in irgaem Chad 3
iscm hichet triuceint torth Chad 4
till prep. 'over, beyond'
MW tra, OB tra ; OIr. tar
< *triins < IE *ter- 'hindurch, tiber - weg'
DGVB: 317 and 321; GMWL: 278; GOI: 530-1; lEW: 1075; LElA: T-28-9;
VGK: II, 129-130
tra nos Comp 13
tl'8US n (name of a letter)
OW (LL), MW traus; OB tros
The name of a letter in "Alphahet of Nemnius" WHS identified with MW (CA)
traus by Zeuss and compared with 08 tros by Loth, According to Fleuriot, these
words as well as OB trus were borrowed from LHt. trans, for the preservation of -s,
see LHEB: 637.
DGVB: 322-4; VYB: 223; Zeuss: 1059
traus Nemn
trean num. card. (fraction) 'one third" [traean)
MW trayan, trayn; OB troian, troean; G trian-; Olr trian
< *triano from *tris-ano; see trio
DGVB: 32; GMWL: 279; GOI: 250; Greene: 520; lEW: 1092; LElA: T-141-2;
VGK: 1,66; VVB: 223; Williams: 1930,248
dou trean gI. bissem Ang 47 a
dOll trean haur gl. bisse Ang 56 a
har dOll trean gl. tertias duas uni us hore Ang 65 b
trean cant mel MP 22
b
(230)
treidin v pres. (imperf. 1; subj. ?) 3 pi 'to relate" recite" [.raeth-)
MW traeth-; cf. aIr
< Lat. for the quantity of a, see LHEB: LElA: T-122; VGK: I. 229.
As the form follows eet, a subjunctive form could be expected.
White: 121, 216, 255; Williams: 1980, 105-6
cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)
treisguen n 'holy power' ?
According to I. Williams, this compound contains trei.f 'might, force', and gllenn
'white, holy' (see GPe: 1770).
Williams: 1980, 189
Amtrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
trennid adv. 'day after tomorrow" rtrennydd)
W trennyd, cf. aIr in tremdid gl. postridie
A comhination of the word for ·dety· (see s.v. did). nod a *trrn (remod-
elled), see frat traU'.
,
....'.'


J,'

-_. ----- ---------
150 151
-,
LElA: T-135; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9), p. 31; Stokes: 1873,393; VGK: 1,23;
VVB: 223-4
trennid gl. postridie Me 7 a.b.
lri num. rani. m 'three' (tril
MW tri; 08 tri; OIr tn; G. tri-
< Celt. ·(rrs < IE ·'rins, Pokorny's ·tre;- 'drei'
nGVB: 320; Greene: 539 and 507; Hirunuma: 41; lEW: 1090-1; LElA: T-139f.;
McCone: 55; Schrijver: 448; VVB: 224
ir ir tri ui. aUf. Camp 2
ir tri u MP 22
b
(230)
hint tri pimp MP 22
b
(230)
trimul:ein' name rarcl. 'sixty'
OW triucennau (DGVE) possibly for ·trimuceintau
Since Zeuss's edition was considered as a numeral denoting '30', see VVB: 224,
Thurneysen: 1936, 202; Williams: 1930, 232; GMW: 46, for the etymology see
then VGK: 11, 129-30, where "ae. trimuceint ist teils nach '70' teils nach '20'
umgebildet" and lEW: 1075, where trim < ·trem 'durch', Le. trimuceint 'Dekade
tiber 20 hinaus', see also O. Szernerenyi, Studies in the Indo-European System of
Numerals, Heidelberg 1960, p . 11 and LElA. The recent study of the Latin text(s)
by P.-Y. Lambert, however, has shown that apparently this form denotes '60', Le.
3 x 20, then see ugeinl, tri; the presence of -m- is explained as a consonantal glide.
See also Ir;UCenMQu.
DGVB 326-1; Lambert: 1984, 37-43; Lambert: 1984, 37-43; LElA: T-29;
J. Lloyd-Jones in BHCS 14 (1952), p.36; VVB: 224
is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 221» (231)
mntlJul n f [trindod]
MW trindod, OIr trind6it
< Lat. trinitalem
ML: 213
ni guor gnim molirn trintaut JuW' 9 (5.3)
rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7.2)
inungueid gualed trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
Iris' 8dj. 'sad' (trisl]
MWBC trist; Olr trist
< Lat. tristis
LElA: ML: 213; VVB: 224
tnst gl. anxia 1 63
trit; num. Old. 'third'
trifid.
in Inti urd. Camp 5
trifid num. ord. 'third' [tryd)'ddl
MW trydydd; 08 trete, trite. treded C trysse, trege, G tritos
< IE *u;tiio-, see tri and cf. triti.
DGVB: 320; Greene: 542; Hirunuma: 41; Schrijver: 285 and 288
In irtritid urd Camp 1
Intrited retce Comp 2
triuceinl num. card. 'sixty'
See tri,nllce;nt.
DGVB: 232; Lanlhcrt: 19R4,
isem hichet triuceint torth C'hnd 4
froi prep. 'through" (trwYJ
See trlli.
troi enmeituou gl. per nutus Ovid 3S
b
tro adj. 'sad' (troJ
MW tru; OB tru[ed] gl. C Olr truag
For an etymological summary see LElA.
CA: 165; DGVB: 324; GOI: 40; lEW: 1073, 1102; KGP: LElA: T-154;
VGK: I, 101; VVB: 225
mortru gl. eheu Ovid 39
3
troc8r8U€ adj. 'merciful'
MW trugarog, trugarawc; B trugarek; Olr tr6caire
A *-cor- (?) derivative from tru; see trLt.
LElA: T-154; VVB: 225
trucarauc gl. mitia J 42
lro; prep. 'through" [trwy)
OW (LL) trui, MW trwy, drwy; Olr tre
< Celt. *trei-, to IE *ter- 'hindurcfl. tiber - weg'. Sec Schrijver for the details and
cf. troi.
DGVB: lEW: 1076; LElA: T-126; Schrijver: VVB: WG: 404
trui ir unolion gl. per monades Me 7 b.b.
trumm adj. 'heavy' (trwm)
MW trwm; OB (s)trom, trum, Olr trom
Traditionally, < Celt. *trlldslno- < IE *trelld-. An alternative explanation for-
warded by E. Hamp (EC 21. 1984, p. derives this adjective from *(rllkfi-f1l0-.
See also citltremmet.
DGVB: 324; Elsie: lEW: 1095; LElA: VGK: I. 362; VVB: 226
irt
r
urn gl. abrupta J 81
trumrn gl. aegrurn J 88
trybann n (?) 'limit' ?
MW tryfan
According to I. Williams. this is Cl comhinatinl1 of fry· (intensive). tlnd "0"" Ctop.
tip'?), see (('i'''OI1. M. Haycock Cliso to consider the form o"11'\'''n",, (lS Cl
vcrh. cf. the heginning of the linc elf the
, '.
152
Haycock: 244; Williams: 188
Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2
Ilylenn n 'protedfon, reluge' 8dJ. 'much loved'
MW trylenn
Perhaps a combination of the intensive prefix with lenn, see S.V., or with a cognate
of Ir. lennan 'love, sweetheart'. I. Williams compared this entry with Ir Ira chu
'much loved, very dear' (with a query).
CA: 186; Haycock: 244; Williams: 1980, 187-8
Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: I
Ilynit?
Several interpretations have been offered for this word by I. Williams. Try could
stand for 'three' Ctriple'), or alternatively is taken as an intensive prefix. The stem
could be a cognate of gnid 'work', or nyddu 'to spin'. In general, far from clear.
Haycock: 243; Williams: 1980, 186-7
Amdinnit trynit try]enn Pad: 1
tu n m&I'side' [ta)
MWtu
See popptu.
patupinnacc gl. quocumque Me 14 a.b.
n f 'gannent' Itwyg)
MW twyg
< Lat. theca; Stevenson: 113 suggests curbana (which occurs on the next page of
the MS as well, his edition 17. 16) = 'wallet'.
E. C. Quiggin in RC 38 (1920-1921), p.15
tuic gl. curbanam CH 16.21
tuo«hennou n pi (from sgl.) 'sods'
MW teguarchen, tywarchen(n); B taouarc'hennou
The form was considered by T. H. Parry-Williams to show non-Welsh character.
GMWL: 289; CA: 187; Parry-Williams: 122; Stokes: 1860-1, 219; VVB: 226
tuorchennou gl. glebis J 56
tusrois adj. 'Etrusaan'
VVB: 226 (cf. ML: 213) suggests rendering 'etruscans', from Lat. tuscensis; see
also Williams: 1933, 113
piipaur tuscois gl. tubicine 1usco Ovid 3S
b
tus(s) lestr ?
This compound is analysed as containing tuss < Lat. thus, and lestr, see lestir
Stokes: 396; VVB; 226
.i. turibulum gl. acerra Me 8 b.a.
tuslestr g1. acerra Me 10 b. a.
tusletr gl. acena Me 12 a.a.
tuslcstr g1. acerram Me 14 a.a.
153
u
uenou?
Discussing this word, I. Williams refers to MW ygnn (T). and suggests uch + gnou
'famous'. The possibility for a different analysis of this instance is considered by
M. Haycock who notes that nOli could stand for W Ilt1H'.
Haycock: 14; WiJliams: 1980, 113
ceinmicum ucnou. ran Juv 9 (6.2)
ueatiutaut beantrident
This line is not clear.
Haycock: 14; Williams: 1980, 113
ueatiutaut beantrident Juv 9 (6.3)
ug: Latin Contraction?
According to H. Lewis, this could be a contraction for Lat. p"gnlts.
Lewis: 1926, 4
bos ug gl. palma MP 23
ft
(245)
ugaint see douceint
ui n m 'egg' [wYJ
MW wy, OC uy gl. ovum; MB uy
lEW: 763 derives the word from IE 'Ei'. See also PECA.
Elsie: 92; GMWL: 291; LElA: 0-13; oev: 224; PECA: 104; Schrijver: 299-.300;
VGK: I, 66; VVB: 90; WG: 107
nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 10 b.a.
uiidimm n m 'bill-hook, sickle; hedginK-bill' gwddiJ
MW hudhyf, gudif, guedyf, gwydyu, gwdyf; OB guedom. guodoh; Oir fidha,
Lat. vidubium
< Celt. < IE Vyidhll- 'Baum' (lEW: 1177) + V"I11 'schlagen· (lEW:
117). See aWAY.
DGVB: 185--6; FEW: 14,434; GPC: 1607; fI. Lewis in snes I (1923), r. 14;
LHEB: 3R7; J. Loth in RC 37 (1917-19), p. 301; Schrijver: 2R3; VGK: r. 165. 3H9;
VVB: 227
uiidimm gl. ligni[ci]smus Ox2 42
h
(4.2)
uir n (name of a letter)
This name of a letter in "Alphabet of Nemnius" was connected hy Zeuss with W
wyr 'grand -child'.
VVB: 227; Zeuss: 1059
uir Nemn
uith num. card. 'eight' [wyth)
MW vyth, uyth, vlIcth; OR cith: Ir ncht
< *OXto- < IE *01< 'acht'. See also oi,,1.
154
DGVB: 237 and 156; GMWL: 291; lEW: 775; LElA: 0-7; LHEB: 405
iseith uith (·is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
un
l
num. aard. 'one' [un]
MW un; 08 un, Olr ofn, 6en
< IE *Hoinos, cf. Lat. unus. See also hirunn and. ef. unoloion, un
2

DGVB: 327; Elsie: 117; Greene: 538; lEW: 286; LElA: 0-11; VGK: 1,57 and II,
126; Williams: 99-100
gl. quem J 51
dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3.3)
inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)
un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.1)
un
z
nom. adj. l' 'one', 'only'
The sequence guar. un .I. and pimmunt, according to P.-Y. Lambert "sont de deux
scribes different5''' .. He translates the gloss as 'on exprime einquante avec un seull'.
See the previous entry.
Lambert: 1982, 194
pimmunt. guar. un .1. gI. unde quinquaginta Prise'4 a
unc n 'inch'
< Lat. uncia; or otherwise a Latin word.
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi iT hune MP 23
8
(241)
.i. is .Len unc gl. congeus MP 23& (228)
uncenettkion (')
According to Loth (VVB: 227), ia an -etic derivative of canim; he transla-
tes this gloss as lchantant seules'.
uncenettieion gl. solicanae Me 9 b.a.
unn see urfl
uno/ion n pi ·uoits, mOD.cIs' [uDol)
W unawl, unol
An ·01 derivative from un, see s.".
VVB: 228
trui ir unolion gl. per monades Me 7 b.b.
unl.u' n m 'unity' lundod)
MW undawt, vndawt
< Lat. unitatem
ML: 214; VVB: 228; Stokes: 1813, 397
untaut gl. orbem Me 9 b.8.
uld n f'row' [urdd]
MW urd, OB urdhaom (vo in -haom); MB urz; OIr ord
< Lat. ordo
OOVB: LElA: ML: 214
155
In irtritid urd Comp 1
in triti urd. Comp .5
uue prep. 'over' rDch)
MW uch; OB uh; cf. OIr 6s, uas
To IE *upo 'unten an etwas heran'.
DGVB: 326; E. Hamp in BBCS 16 (1954--{), pp. 254--0; Haycock: 16; lEW: IIO?;
LElA: 0-31; LHEB: 572; VGK: 1,75,93; Watkins: 1982.33; Williams: 1980,121
uuc nem isnem intcouer Juv 9 (9.2)
. :i
. 4
, I
.
Appendix I: .inc*glinau
:·r.:
Appendix II: 'To be', personal forms
Main references: GMW: 136-45; Isaac: 371-83; Lambert: 1987. passim.; P. Schrij-
ver, Old British. II Compendium Linguarum Celticarum. Wiesbaden (forthcom-
ing), § 4.8.7; VB: 320-2; VGK: 11,419-41; WG: 346-50; Watkins and MacC'ana;
White, passim.; see also K. McCone, The Indo-European Origins of Old Irish
Nasal Presents, Subjunctives and Futures. Innsbruck: 1991; R. Hernon, A Histori-
cal Morphology and Syntax of Breton. Dublin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced
Studies 1975, pp. 203-12.
"\"'''
A very difficult and uninterpreted gloss. Zeuss (p. 1057) read this as hin cet/inau; Stokes
p.235) as hinc:glinau. The reading of I. Williams is .inc.g/inau.
Williams 1929: 3
.inc.glinau irleill gI. Romanaque pectora Ovid 39
b
hinl
hold
hois
hoys
int
is
Pres. indie. 3 pI.
Imperf. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 pI.
Pres. indic. 3 sg.
To IE *es- (lEW: 340f.)
hint e punt gl. ad sextarium MP 23
lt
(22q)
tri pimp MP 22
b
(230)
hoid hoitou hou hein atar ha heinn cihunn MP 22
h

Oratur. ni hois. ir loe glial' hinnith. in pag;na regular; Comp 6
Cinnit hoys irloc gual' hinnuith In pag.;na regular; Comp 14
enucin di Sihcllae int hinn gl. Erytria quaeque ('urnca vel
Phrigia Me 11 b.b.
int dOll pimp MP 22
h
(230)
is hepdud gl. sine quihus Ang 15 h
iseith uith (*is seith uith) gl. septies octoni Ang 59 a
is douhoueeint gl. XL Ang 5q h
ismod. cephitor. did. hanaud Comp I
is did ciman. haci Comp J
is gur tum zarnetor ir Inc gual' haihid posr. o. Comp 7
Hacet isgurth. ir sereno hai hid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 10
Is aries isid in arl'imeir Comp 12
isem hiehet triuceint torth Chad 4
ismi gl. quem J 3
fshtH gl. quos J 19
ismf Christus gl. quem J 54
is brut m
i
[= rnihiJ gl. est animus J 66
isamraud gl. mens est J 78
isdisl'irr rnieoueidid Juv 3 (3.2)
isahruid icinimer Juv Q
iscimadas gl. par est Me 4 h.h.
is xxx ha guotig MP 22
f1
(230)
I
\""
ISS
isid
Isit
issft
ia
nit
01
oid
be
bein
beinn
bi
bid
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 35g.
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
(relative)
Pres. iodie. 3 sg.
Pres. iodie. 3sg.
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
(negative)
Pres. indie. 3 sg.
Imperf. 3 sg.
Imperf. subj. 3sg.
Imperf. subj. 3 pI.
Imperf. subj. 3 pI.
Future I Pres. 3 sg.
Pres. habit. 3 5g.
is trimueeint hestaur mel MP 22
b
(231)
.i. is .i.exx une gl. eongeus MP 23
1
(228)
amser is eihun argant agit eterin illud MP 22
b
(234)
is moi hinnoid MP 23
1
(246)
isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b
Is aries isid in arcimeir Comp 12
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune isit petguared
pard guoifrit nun MP 23
1
(241)
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina
regulari Comp 15
isscimadas gl. par MC 4 s.b
issmi gl. intemerata MC 11 a.a.
issemi anu gl. Genius MC 11 a. b.
issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.b.
pan aed bid. ad ir loc. guae. issi. in triti urd. Comp 5
issimi g1. ipsa MC 15 b.a.
issi g1. mortalis MC 10 B.a.
issid nes gl. imferiora Ang 81 b
ree issid pellaham gl. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b
issem ir .e. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari
Comp 15
irhinn issid crist g1. Christus quem J 81
irhinn issid ille gl. ut si dicas Anton Hie MC 43 b. b.
fssft padfu gulat gl. celsi thoronus est cui regia eoeli J 19
bichet paniu pet guarid. did di aries Comp 18
nit abruid Comp 6
nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1.2)
nitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9.9)
biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune MP 23a (241)
ti r telih haioid eleu Chad 2
nataid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata MC 12 a.b.
initoid gl. maculata J 78
initoid gl. extinea J 78
fnft6fd gl. pressus J 92
To IE *bheu· (lEW: 146f.)
nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22
b
(234)
paped bi gl. quid J 31
if Joe guac haibid post. o. Comp 8
irloc quae habid post .0. Compo 9
ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .0. Comp 11
ir loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 11
hou nit bloidin salt hai bid im guar phenn circhl naune-
cant Comp 22
bit
hoi
boit
bu
itl.
Imper. I Pres. 3 sg.
Pres. subj. 3
Pres. subj. 3 sg.
Preterite 3 sg.
Pres. indie. 3
Assit [leg. adsit]. i. hit J 32
cenit hoi loc guac Comp 12
piouboi. int luv 9 (R.2)
hacboi gl. (leg. excutiendus) erit Ovid 39a
hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir MP 23
lt
(246)
ir serenn. hai bu in arcimeir. o. Comp 7
To IE *std- (lEW: 1004 f.)
issft padhi ita" gl. celsi est cui coeli J 19
159

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Contents

Acknowledgements Introduction . . . . . List of Sources . . . Bibliographical Abbreviations . . . Grammatical Abbreviations . . Language Names .. Glossary A .. B ... C .. CH . . .

VII IX
XIV

. XVIII
.XXIV XXV I 1 13 20 39
39 51

D.
E.

F .. G .... H ..
I .

57
59

78
88
99

Die Deutsche BibJiothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Falileev, Aleksandr I.: Etymological glossary of Old Welsh I Alexander Falileyev. - TQbingen : Niemeyer, 2000 (Buchreihe der Zeitschrift f(ir celtische Philologie ; Rd. 18) ISBN 3-484-42918-6 ISSN 0931-4261

K. L.
M N.

O .. P .. Q ..
R .. S ..

99 108 116 122 126
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,.

Das Werk einschlieBlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschiltzt. Jede Verwertung auBerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlages unzuUissig und strafbar. Das gilt insbesondere fOr Vervielfaltigungen, Obersctzungen. Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elcktronischen Systemen. Printed in Germany. Gedruckt auf alterungsbestandigem Papier. Satz und Druck: Laupp & Gobel GmbH, Nehren Buchbinder: Siegfried Geiger. Ammerhuch

T. U. Appendix I Appendix II

134 140

.

144 153 156 157

Acknowledgements

, ..

The research which resulted in the present Et)'nJological Glossary of Old Welsh would have been impossible without the help of the following individuals and institutions. I am grateful first of all to the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung for a generous fellowship which allowed me to conduct the research uninterrupted at the Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut of the Friedrich- Wilhelms- UniversiHit Bonn (Germany), and for covering the printing costs of this publication. Professor Emeritus Karl Horst Schmidt has supported my fellowship with the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. I am greatly indebted to Professor Schmidt for his comments and stimulating suggestions on the various aspects of this work and for his making my stay in Germany a most fascinating experience. I thank Dr Paul Russell who went through the earlier version of the (;/oJsary for his critical comments, as well as for his help and hospitality during my stay in Oxford. Dr Graham Isaac was always ready to answer my questions; the discussions of the problematic aspects of Old Welsh alongside the other disputahle issues of Welsh and Celtic philology and linguistics with Dr Isaac were very important and lead to a certain re-estimation of the views of the present author. I am grateful to Dr Peter Smith for his readiness to help; and to Ms Sandra Pragnell for her taking the burden of proof~reading. I am grateful to Professor Stefan Zimmer. the Director. for the excellent facilities arranged for my research at the SprachwisscnschaftJiches Institut of Bonn University, and for the opportunity to usc his private lihrary. Frau Gudrun Eigenwillig, the Librarian of the Institute, was always very helpful. I am indebted to the staff of Geiriadur Pri!VJKo/ (~y,,,rll. particularly to Mr Gareth Bevan, the editor, and Mrs Mary Burdett-Jones for the possibility to check the collection of the dictionary slips and the most generous help. I am very grateful to Mr Andrew Hawke for his help in accessing the computerised data-hase and the most stimulating discussions of early Welsh lexica. I would like to thRnk Professor Geraint H. Jenkins, the Director, and the staff of the Centre for A d\'anced Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth, for their hospitality. Thanks are due to Professors P. Sims- Williams anll P.- Y. Lambert for their readiness to answer my questions, and to Dr V. Kalygin~ who put me on the right path and first drew my attention to the gClpS in EClrly Welsh lexicography. Needless to say. thnt the faults of this puhlication are entirely mine. /\. Falilcyc\"

I
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I

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i

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for the sake of chronological consistency and homogeneity of the word-list" these entries are not included in the Glossary. these \Vere used a~ cn111paranda only. The present glossary intends to hridge this gap in Old Welsh etymological studies and to offer the alphabetically ordered corpus of Old Welsh lexemes with a bibliographical apparotuJ. morphology and the rudiments of syntax have been the subjects of dissertations and scholarly research over the course of the twentieth century. Loth's Vocahll· laire vieux-bretolt in 1884 which comprised the then known data of all the early neo-Brittonic languages. while the interpretation of the place-names which occur in the Old Welsh documents is a separate problem.sary of Old We/sir is intended to offer an alphabetically arranged list of words which are found in the manuscripts transcribed before the beginning of the Middle Welsh period.. The data Only records written down during the Old Welsh period have been used in the compilation of the glossary. Notes and articles which analyse specific Old Welsh words and phrases appear in the journals. more Old Welsh fragments have been found. it does not give references to the scholarly discussions. p. phonology. 20~2~. ~ '.' .sgol eyn. However'l it does not focus on etymological investigation" though provides its entries with etymological comments. For (Old) Welsh glosses in MS Cotton Faustina C I see A. Much work has been done hoth in the field of Old Welsh studies and Celtic lexicography since the puhlication of J. Quite a few Old Welsh texts have heen edited anew. Pedcn in CMCS 2 (19Rl).Introduction The present Etylnolog. The non-appelative vocabulary of Old Welsh was not considered as the study of personal names must be carried out within a different framework. Texts which show Old Welsh orthographic features and which were perhaps first written down during this period but which are found in the later manuscripts are consulted. The same concerns the study of epithets. Old Welsh orthography. and to provide them with the most important published references.cal Glo!. The publication of the Geiriadllr Prif).'.ru (in progress) which considers the Old Welsh forms with accuracy and offers an excellent historical panorama of the development of Modern Welsh vocabulary is a major event in Welsh lexicography.

3. Plural nouns are translated by plural forms. their discussion can be found in the entries which contain 1he first element of the composite word. The IE protoforms arc normally quoted from J. Only on several exceptional o~casions were manuscript readings consulted. Similar or identical instances which were analysed differently are normally considered separately. These. and are not found in the main corpus of the glo~sary. 2.. if at all poS5ible. The forms of the verb 'to be' are collected in the Appendi" II.gfina. As the OW data is salient for the expression of gender of the noun. or the reading is variable.sclres Worterbuch (1959). Arrangement of the entries The entries are arranged alphabetically according to the Welsh standard. 1. for the glosses the lemmas arc given. the components of the phrases are explicitly cross-referenced. The instances where a part of a gloss could be Breton as well are specifically indicated.x The sources The sources for OW known before 1953 are conveniently summarised in K. rather than an authentic etymological dictionary.o!oR. 4.all. Grammatical characteristics of the fonn. the singular Modern Welsh form is given for reference. 5. The Mouern Welsh forms are given in square hrackets. was planned as (l part of a higger project which intends to survey various nspccfs of ()Id Welsh linguistics and r h ilnl. The third part of each entry contnins etymological commentary."ra('~ gan ei chyfnharu ag ()rgraff Hen Wyddeleg. and generally follows the treatment of the corresponding entries in the GPC. and by a misleading "Old Breton 2" in A Dic60nary of Old Breton are listed in the Glossary. Parts of compounds are not treated separately. These are occasionally considered in the glossary.. . The only te1<t which was not used for the compilation of the present Glossary is the Book of Llan Dav. 1... but only in the references. The list of the bibliographical abbreviations is given below.in which all the components could be both Breton and Welsh are not considered. The focus has been laid on the collection of the published analysis of the rudiments of Old Welsh ~ thus the glossary could be viewed as an extended bibliography for Old Welsh studies. Pokorny's l"d()~rr". the components of the phrase are gl~en as a complete entry. the stem is normally given. with an unclear initial is discussed in Appendix I. The corresponding form in Modern Welsh (if any). The Latin words (in case of hornl\vings) are given in their classical forms or are otherwise indicated. see Russell: 1995. when the segmentation is unclear. unpublished). The Old Welsh data: some prohlcnls and desiderata The present Ety". 1. This is followed ny a reference to the source (see the list of sources). to assign these to a certain date or even a language within early Neo-North. ogy. University of Wnlcs MA dissertation 1961. the corresponding forms are cited from Graves's edition. If the entry is a plural noun. it was considered appropriate to prclO\ent only the . cum". Words which show Welsh characteristics are found alongside Old Breton entries in several Latin texts of Breton provenance. The second line of an entry gives I) a corresponding Middle Welsh formes) and 2) Celtic c0111paranda for the entry. If the entry is a verb. lacksoo·s Language and Hislory in Early Britain which was used as a definitive guide for Ihis study. though extensively used at the preliminary stClges of the present research. The indication of gender is not provided for hapaxcs and plural forms. Glosses . First element of an entry.West Brittonic. The glosses which contain more than one word are segmented. The data of this very important document is used throughout as comparanda for the research. The earliest attested examples of etymological correspondences of the Insular Celtic languages (Breton. The word . It should be noted that the compiler made use of the edited and published texts only. The full list of te~ts used for the compilation of the glossary is given below. which still requires to be comprehensively discussed. At this point. Fleuriot in his authoritative Dictionna.\'". 1. Cornish and Irish) are quoted.re des gloses £n vieux Breton. however. 3.. Lewis (As(lIdiaeth 0 (}r~raff Hell Gy.1. Old Cornish stands for the Cornish entries in "Vocahularium (~orni. The fourth part of each entry contains bibliographical references.Cjclr('s rt.i"c. The word as it is found in the manuscript or a conjectured form in the case of an abbreviated or corrupted manuscript reading. and is a subject for research in its own right. It is extremely difficult. Forms which show OW characteristics are found in texts of Irish provenance as well.H.2. XI Structure of entry Each entry contains the following elements: 1.4. however. Homographic I homophonic lexeme5 are treated under the different headings.ological Glossary of (J/d U'e/sl. marked as ''"forme vieille galloise" by L. Forms of the verbs are rendered normally by the corresponding English infinitive. OW manuscripts as well. is not indicated in the references. English translation. it is adduced from the later medieval sources. The most important analysis of Old Welsh orthography hy M. in those cases where the segmentation could be problematic (and this applies to several particular fragments of Old Welsh versification). The compiler of the Glossary felt obliged to consider the Welsh entries which are found in non. The fifth part of each entry gives the form under discussion as it occurs \vithin its context. The Continental Celtic forms (particularly Gaulish) are also referred to.

This method of editing the remnants of Old Welsh could be acceptable at the dawn of Welsh studies. The focus could be laid upon the semantic aspect. The study of the semantic fields. The Gododdin of Ancirin. particularly in the Red Book of flergest or in the Book of Talicsin. T. Special attention should be paid to the possible calques on the Latin forms which the Old Welsh words are glossing. at a later stage the compiler will offer its analysis. Witb a few exceptions it is commonly maintained that the remnants of Old Welsh are rather homogeneous (though naturally allowing for linguisticrorthographic variations). It is hoped. Though several important and thoroug.. It could he noted. Irish. 3~ Old Welsh Le7<icology. The same concerns the presence of the Anglo-Saxon element in Old Welsh. XIII the List of Abbrev. as negligence of this factor will necessarily lead to the distortion of the whole picture of Old Welsh morphology. Baltic. These cases should he also considered.).. however~ that some of them c<Jntain Old Welsh (as well as Old Irish) entries alongside Old Breton.XII data. Not much is d()ne to elucidate Old Welsh linguistic contact with Old Irish. that the other semantic fields would draw the attention of scholars. 4..'ih will definitely open new horizons for Welsh linguistics: at the same time the compiler of the present Glossary feels obliged to note that the notion of the Archaic Neo-Brittonic. etc. Moreover. see OWA V in .~ tlt1empts tc bridge this gap in early Welsh lexicography with the . The (.ever.~). Some ohviollsly idiomatic set-phrases occur in thc corpus of (lid Welsh . therefore. lndic. and the remnants of Old Welsh are no exception here.' discus~ion of the Ol(j Wcl~h agricultural vocahulary (in progress. Old Welsh Grammar. deserves primal attention. The material presented in the present Glossary allows for VEl rious types of in\'es1iga tion. It is obvious. During the work on the Glossary the following problems related to the monuments of Old Welsh were considered as de siring di scussion. German.h studies were dedicated to the problem of the Latin borrowings in Welsh. There is still quite a range of grammatical aspects of Early Welsh which arc in dispute. 1. The formal aspects of Old Welsh lexica are not sufficiently studied as \vell. the non-Welsh element in these texts. Of course the publication of this (iro"""ar of (Jld n"el. particularly taking in consideration the recen t progress in the analysis of the early Welsh poetry. needs further investigation.snry could be used as a source for the future discussion of the models of Welsh word-formation: lists of the suffixes with the indication of their productivity in Old Welsh are to be compiled. and in the texts themselves. Several of the Old Welsh texts have been and are being studied in the likewise manner by the team of scholars directed by the Department of Welsh. The other genre of Old Welsh writing. and the grammatical status of specific adjectival and preverbal particles. both in the vocabulary. To mention just a few of them: the presence of a morphologically deducihle future tense of the vcrh. As it is indicated in the section Sources (below).a. University College Aberystwyth (the results are yet unpublished). the majority of the Old Welsh texts were edited and published (mostly without facsimiles) towards the end of the nineteenth century. 2. that the ()Id Welsh delta presented here \\'ill make further investigation in this field more productive. that the tnethodological (particularly chronological) approach to the trC(\tnlent of ()Id \Vclsh in this grammar a priori differs fronl the views of the conlpilcr of the present (. treatment of certain plural terminations of a noun. The compiler of the GJo~S(1r.Qtion. provided that the data is already collected and classified. It is hoped. C'ardiff: University of Wales Press 1997. Slavic. has been not sufficiently analysed either. that now there is a demand for a comprehensive treatment of these manuscripts. and 2) the concept of early Neo-Brittonic spelling.. . though useful as an instrument of research. nearly absent in ' Welsh lexicology but veTy popular in the other linguistic traditions (Anglo-Saxon.. Koch. The interaction of Old Wel!ih with the other important language of medieval Wales. T. but utilised for the analysis of the Welsh (scribal) tradition and the character of the medieval Welsh scriprar. as well as on their morphological pecuharities. Koch (as reported in J. It can be argued that a parallel situation could be envisaged for the Old Welsh texts proper. the poetical pieces. The Languages. the Old Welsh glosses in these editions are normally given only with a quotation of Latin words (sometimes phrases) on which they occur. It should be noted.\sary. which should be comprehensively studied. The Texts. h()\\. All these issues relatcd to the (Old) Welsh grammar and grammatical description cnuld not he disfussed in the prescnt book. as only the data found in the contemporary manuscripts could he relevantly labelled as Old Welsh. This subject in general has not received the proper attention. that there is no availahle study of Welsh morphology as a whole. Gral1t11lar of Old Welsh compiled hy J. and then in the later poetry. viz~ Latin. \vhich has been advocated by Dr Koch. It is not infrequent that the word could he attested only twice . vi) is not yet availahle. p. they unfortunately do not pay the desirable attention to the chronology and the character of these borrowings at the earliest attested stage of the history of this language.. The two a~rccts "'hich deserve attention are I) the problem of the earlier dialectological relationships het\\'cen the Neo-Brittonic languages.once in the Old Welsh sources. ha'w'e been satisfactorily edited.. which would account for the Latin text (as well as Latin and Anglo-Saxon glosses) alongside the Old Welsh entries proper.Io. It was argued for the Old Breton sources./0. and these should be studied within a wider context of Welsh and C'eltic idiom. The collection of the material presented here points to a considerable amount of hapaxes. however. represented by Irish and Cornish should be extracted from the linguistic discussion. These deserve now a study within a broader con text ()f Welsh poetics. and perhaps the word-list presented in this hook could he used as a starting point for the analysis of early Welsh morphology. therefore. for some of these texts this remains a desiderata.tr.

Phillimore (Philli· more: 169-183). who states thelt ·'the dating of most of the Juvencus glosses to saec. Aeunot to 891~ the relevant glosses were written at the end of the tenth . Comp The Computus Fragment (Cambridge University Library MS Add. fl. Dumville in SC 12/ 13 (1917/8). /I EC 16 (1979).beginning of the ninth century by J. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlii with notes by J. p. 207-22R. 461-7) and The A. with translation and fac~imi'e). J OW glosses (several hands) in Camhridge MS Ff 4. EWS: 16) the !!Iocoses are dated to ninth eleventh centuries. Chadwick Memorial Lec1ure 6. p. The Latin Life of King Alfred composed by Asser about 890 contains several Wel5h word5.IIFIJ: 47 And Wlllkjn~: Itl72 -4. 11 SC 28 (1994). p.'e . An Old Welsh Gloss.begin. The references are to the MS. vol. hut see D. LL: xlvi (alongside Chad il). see also J. p.Jackson (LHEB: 42-6 with further bib1. 93 1 ) The glos!i which is dated to tbe eleventh century was edited by E. M. The earlier edition~ include those by E. LHEB: 46-7). Edited hy I. which establishes the boundaries of a manor near Lladybie. Chad (Lichfield Gospels) was dated to the eighth century by K. LHEB: 56). p. ChH 6 A note in Latin and OW in the Book of Sf. Five ~ncie~Books o~ales (II.C. Asser's Life of King Alfred. The references arc to the MS.256 (the number indicates the line in the edition). Jones. C. forthcoming. <:had (Lichfield Go~pels). 1100 (cr.) K. Edited hy I). The text was edited by J. Asser's Life of King A/fred and other contempo~ rary source!. LHEA: 50-1 and particularly Ha r"ey: 1991 and the further bihliography cited there. The references are to Williams: 1927. mentary.e. ~ indicates AC The "Annale! Cambrlse" Bre found in Harlefan MS 38~9 which fs dated to CI. Morris Jones in MJ: 268-79~ Zimmer. /I ODeS 28 (1 930j. According to K. Chad (Lichfield Gospel5). T. Chid 3 ces are given 10 the MS (brackets . Unedited. Stevenson. The references are to the pages of the edition. J.text of Anna/es Cambriae. The references are to LL. See also G. this text was written in 830-850. 1/ Proceedings of the British Academy 59 (1973). Chad (Lichfield Gospels). Gwenogvryn Evan~ in LL: xlv: cf. 2 (19R2). where a possibility to date this text earlier than ca. Keynes. 197-272. cf. M. i!i dated to late ninth or rurly tenth century (st. The text was edited hy E. The Old Wel~h Computus Fragment and Bede's Pagina Regularis: Part I.xv List of Sources LHEB: 46-7 for the further references). The referen. Ouiggin (1912.1. 411-5). Gwenogvryn Evans. (~wl'no~vlyn I~\'"n~ in 1. Jenkins and M.. p. The Welsh Latin Chronicles: Annores Cambriae and Related Texts. Juv 3 A poem of three stanzHS in CCtmhridgc MS rf 4. Dumville. . The text was edited by E. 233-58 (see also the review of it by D.ses which show OW features in MS Angers 477.. 4 for Ihe date "about 800".JlIvencu~· poetical \'er~ion of the gospels). cf. 1". I! RC 38 (1920-1921). Cambridge: Department of Anglo. M. Une glose en Anglo-Saxon gloste en Brittonique. Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manu<icript of Welsh Poetry: The Camhridge Juvenclis.Saxon.rr"". cf. Jenk. Owen in JO: 91~ further editions include: J. Palaeogrnphical Consideration in the Dating of Early Welsh Verse. see J. (text and translation)~ Davies: 263: ~ee also HW: 214 and PRW: 312. and Celtic 1985). Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlvii (cf.86-100. cf. Oxford 1904. The text was edited by W. EWS: 45. p_ R2 and fn. Huws (Huws: Sill). Chad 4 A charter in mixed Latin and OW in the Book of St. According 10 D. and Celtic 19R5). Norse. Hughes. Glos.ins and M. dated to the end of the eighth . Edited J. 15-16. LHEB: 53. Edited hy Stokes (Stokes: IH60-61. Lindsay in EWS: 46.page and line in Stevenson's edition). dated to the late ninth century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976).) dated to the first half of the twelfth century. /1 Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic C"olloquium.C.. W. Five Ancient Books of Wales H. dated to fir't half of the tenth century. 2~ D. p. '. ning of eleventh century by various hands. p.. Quiggin. Gen The Old Welsh Genealogies which contain Old Welsh onomastics and epithets are found in the same MS as AC. Lambert: 1983 and 1984.261-2. and by p. xlxi i~ unacceptable on palaeographical grounds: they helong to the first half of the tenth century".42. The references are to the MS. See also S. tbis edition i5 used.. 920 (cf. dated to the late Ilinch century (at a seminar in Lichfield (1976). Penguin Books 1983 for the translation and a most valuable com. Williams to ca. Norse.81-95. )CIviL tht ttl(t nh""IHh i" local place-names: no complete edition of it is avaiJClhlc. J. The text was edited by D. 4543). also Bishop: 258. p. ~C' al50 Sims-Williams: 1991. p. M. see JO I : 56: cf. /I (D. 10 I~tliletl (pnnlnlly) hy . 607-11. 42 (. also Stevenson: 16. Arm~trong III. Le Due. Owen (JO: 83). f. Rhys~ W. Jenkins. Huws. 5 fn. see also D. Jackson (LHER: ~ 1-2. II CMCS J (I tJR2). p. 'Tyr Telych' and Gwestfau of Cynwyl Caeo and Cwmwd Caeo. For the history of this text see K. for the collection of the glosses see DOVB: 26-31. A charter in mi1Ced Latin and OW in the Book of St. dated by I. Beutrum (BClrtrum: 9-1. ed. M.':\). also J0 1: 55). 800 is noted" and D. CIIadZ . Oates. Hughes. Gwenogvryn Evans in LL: xlv. For the hands see Bradshaw: 4R4. /I nBCS 27 (1<J7R). Woodbridge: The Boydell Press 1980. The references a re to LL. predominantly toponyms. Sylwadau ar y 'Surexif. No date was suggested for it at the seminar in Lichfield.Dumvil1c. The ro-c:alled ISurexlt' Memorandum in the Book of St. Huws. Camhridgc: Department of Anglo-Saxon.. see DOVB: 8-11. Lindsay (EWS: 53 with facsimile). DNR Six OW glosses in MS Peniarth ~4n (Bcdc·s l)r IIatura .. The text was edited hy J.. 865. also Stokes: 1860-1. cf. p.r. The text is dated by L. CH AD OW gloss ill the so-called Colloquia Hisperica (Bodleian MS. 28R-Q3~ Stokes: IR73. H. 24R fn. The references are to LL. The references are to JO.'e)l: ~(l): ~ee nlso I. Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Chadwick fv1emorial Lecture n. Glan\'ille R. Chad (Lichfield Gospels). Lapidge" Alfred the Great. following Bradshaw: 2RJ-4 and 4R4. References are to LL. LHEB: 54). see JO I : 56: cf. The latter edition iC\ lI~ed. Chad 7 A single line in OW and Latin in the Book of St. Phil1imore (Phillimore: 152-169).. 32. p.). Williams (IQ27) with translation and an extensive commentary.

The referencec. (Corpus Christi College. and in Haycock: 3-16. The text wnll\ edited hy I.to1lien. Zu Nemnius (Nennius).205-224 = WiJliams: 1980. or 817 (EWS: 7. cf. and Celtic 1985). Edited by Wil· Iiams: 1930. I! ZCP 20 (1936). Watkins: 1982. Oxonien.. The Liturgical Materials in MS Oxford. References are to the MS. An Old Welsh gloss in "Leiden Logical Fragment" (MS Voss. Five Ancient Books of Wales (H. Loth. Zeuss: 1054-1059. Oates. Haycock (Haycock: 241-5). The gloss was edited by W. Norse. 5). and passim. 466-7 (text). The references are to Stokes: 1860-1. Zeuss: 1059). Ox2 XVII The MS called uOxonien~i~ Po~terior" (Bodleinn MS 572) which contain~ a Latin text IJe Raris Pahllli. Notes on Nenniu~. A Welsh (Cornish?) Gloss in a Leyden MS. pulsat (fo 38 ) see Williams 1933: 113.rage and line in Stevenson's edition). 228. According to LHEB: 64. F. Lindsay. cf. Brewer 1990.111-53. For the Cornish comroncnt. Stokes (Stokes: J860-t 234--6.HEB: 55: J. and hy M. DGVB: 31 and pa.. 101-110 = Williams: 1980. p. II BEeS 6 (1932). R.32. See also J. 181-(89). Runica Manuscripta.'i f'o. p. Glosses which show OW features in Priscian's grammar (BN lat. J.Hrrior sonl-elles corniqllcs? II RC 14 (1893).. The references are to the MS. 82 and fn. Pndnrn's slnff in Corpus Christi MS Il)(J (n. Bodleian Librllry. lIn dnted to IOHO-IOt)() (Brndshnw: 4f1. perhaps ninth century (LHEB: 53). WilliAms.c. Auc1..as in Cambridge MS Ff4. For the further references see LHEB: 52-3 and cf. see the list of the earlier editions there. M. The Jcferenccs are to tile MS. Ill~)~arn_!!L~~fl1~~. dated to the ninth-tenth century (Bradsttaw: 4~. 70: VKG: I. Tri Englyn y Juvencus... /I CMCS 3 (1982). see also above). the number indicates the line. Bodleian MS. 4. p. 382. Dorolez. p. S.272 pI. lat100). The gloss was considered as insular by F1euriot. Q 2. Notes on the Later History of the Oldest Manuscript of Welsh Poetry: The Cambridge Juvencus. 361. 238-44 (corrections on p. HUM. T.237-8. Edited by W. 226-148 with a facsimile of fo 23 8 facing p. p. Early Welsh Saga Poetry Cambridge: D. Cambridge MS 153). 4. 4. 5 indicates tne late ninth or eerly tenth century as it~ date. De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mereur.l32. The Old Welsh glosses in De Mensuris et Ponderibus (Liber Commonei. 42. Rowland. Lamhert (Lamhert: 1982: cf. coneC110ns p. The so·called Alph/lbet of Nemnius in Bodleian MS. see Hunt. <hid . p. for the date see abo\'e~ cf. Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1. de la Villemarquc in Archive~ des Mi~4\ions sci~-. with a Modern Welsh rendering and an extensive commentary.157-9. p. The references are to the edition by I. 36-7. dated to 820 (I.!i[~l~~s e~tteraires V (185fl). 100 fn. with OW (Clnd presumahly ()(') glosses i~ dated ca. 510 (English t~ans. Cambridge: Department of Anglo·Saxon./1 ZCP 1 (1897).. DGVB: 7 (more precisely as Welsh. The references are to the MS. F.. 37&-42 8 . 29J): Zeuss: IOflO-J: for (1 fClc4\imiJe edition of a part of a folio.Stokes (1873). 11 BEeS 7 (1935)~ p. The references are to the MS (brackets . C. this decision was based on Lindsay's observation (EWS: 22-3).~~~~_~i_l~r~.. p. Thurneysen. An OW four-line verse Oil St. cf. Chadwick Memorial Lecture 6. The OW &I055eS in Ovid's Ars Amatoria (Oxoniensis Prior. with a Modern Welsh rende· ring and an extensi\'e commentary. Stevenson. arc to MS (hrackets . LHEB: 47). fn. IJ.!rY_~l_f_Wn_~~~ 2 (IQ.'5-6: Stoke~: IRfl(l--1. tenth century (Cra~tcr: I~n: EWS: 2": tHEA: 55). Edited by W. The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and line). Les gloses de 1'(). dated to the tenth or ninth century (LHEB: 64). Autt. Stevenson: I-I L prc"iolls cdition~ include: ('ra4\ter: 1. A poem of nine sta nz. where this MS is compared with Ovid on palaeographical grounds.32. Williams. passim. Williams. An (ll<l Welsh Verse. Breen. p. Edited by W. alsc R. F. Williams. sis Prior). ]00-121. see J.-Y. Auct. F. dated to the first part of the ninth century.'ii. p. Auct. 2~ D. 36-7. for 1be history of the MS. Edited hy P. H. Stokes 1860-1. 7. 236-7. the language is Breton on the assumption of the Fleury origin of the MS. Me MP N~. 292. fol.). Brewer 1990. The text is edited hy W. Bodleian MS. A. see BHl<fshaw: 4Hfl: L. LHEB: 54). See also J. 60).XVI the late ninth or early tenth century as its date. J•• . The OW glosses in Martianus Capella. Edited by I. Williams~ Naw Englyn y Juvencus. Ear]y Welsh Saga Poetry. S. I029f»). 100 Hunt: VIII. Watkins: 1982.Hint).. fol40 8 edited (with facs. dated to first half of the tenth century. Hunt: XIII.) b ill EWS: 56).tI). p. fo 208 . The references are given to Williams: 1980 (englyn and hne). The poem was edited by I. sec H. Pad Prise Le. See also Bishop: 262f. Rowland. FA. fl<J-7~ (= Williams: 1980. For the gloss ledit gI. p.89-100. /I BBCS 6 (1932). see also LHEB: 52 for a 1151 of the previous editions. p.11 Archiv fUr Liturgiewissenchaft 34 (1992). EWS: 8. for a facsimile edition.. 3l. For further reference~ see al~o LHEB: 52~ Bromwich: 1980. Cambridge: D. p.page in Williams: 1930). the earlier editions include Zeuss: 1060. DaVB: 261). Brugge: De Tempel 1954~ p.

I-IO. Bartram ::: P. E.n.h Script. BacheDery = E. Evidence in Keltic. 205-IR. EU = L William~. Hamp: 1979 == E.d~n und rtlJ501. 25.) Etimologicheski.t. Gol. = D. ed. Corrected Papers. /I J. Intensives in Briti~h Celtic and Gaulish. Hunt = R. Broderick. Jones Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru. p. Hunt. gan R. p. Aeuriot A Dictionary of Old Breton. A (. Dicrionnaire des gloses en vieux Breton. Lindsay. JRI-lqR. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1938. Gaulish Personal NameJ. Celtica Indogermanica. Hamp. The Corpus Martianus Capella. lannan. GMWL "" T.vpano·Ctftic In. Lerpwl: Gwasg y Brython 1945. G. Ureland. 6 (1957). Heidelherg: Carl Winter 1970. Varia. . Lehmann.. Caerwyn Wil1iams. Greene = D. L. Williams. Winter. Craster" The Glosses of the Codex Oxoniensis posterior. Y. I.S. Paris: Librairie C. Haarmann. Huws. Early Wel. Alrno. II Studio Celth'o Japonica I (. Oxford 1924. Dublin: The Dublin ]nstitute for Advanced Studies 1972.f(ol1brtrl'.191-199. EL = 11. InQs~ruck: Jnstitut fir Sprachwi!'. The Indo-European Roots *hJrrr.·1 11i'ltlfy or H'olt'\. Hamp: 1976-7 = E. Fowkes = R. Griechisches etymologisches Worterbuch.224-235. C.nlc . B8udi~. p. II Huw~ p. Cambridge 1889.r. E. II ZCP 39 (1982).fChot'l . II Erill. Dictionnaire ttymologique de la langue laline. Brad~h. Mo~ow: EWS == W. ed.Evidence of Hihern()-Wel~h Literary Interaction? II P. Toronto: Prepcorp 1985.)onflnJtn. Evans. Davies = W.w = H.. p. Pans: Editions Klincks. English version by R. 1-4. Indo-European Numeralr.s .\. Ellis Evans.rkikh jOlyko\·. Haannann = H. Hamp. p.Cambrian) Medieval Celtic Studies. /)r narum rerum. Lewis. Der lateinische Lehnworl. p.tillltc JIW = J.vcriptinfl of Rntorrito. EaT/Y Welsh Genealogical Tracts.vddol cy""ar. Hamp.·idence for Laryn~eal'i. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1964. Celtic. Aeuriot. Cymru 1931-1946.491-504. Sf D/lllsla. Bromwkh: 1980 = see Williams: 1980.10-I3.~forical PllOnolngl' of nr('/.qRR). DlIl>lin: The Dllhlin In.'r. In~titute for Advanced GPC = Geiriadur Prifysgo/ Cymru. 1982. Frisk. Lan8rtagr Contnct in tire Rr. The Latin charter·tradition in Western Britain. Thurneysen. p.. 1/ EC 11 (1964-5). Henry.erwyn Williams: 1948 = J. Klincksieck. EI~le. A Welsh Manuscript of Bede's fiReS 27 (19781. Haycock = M. (Umhrae Codicum Occi- dentalium IV) Amsterdam 1961. Quatri!me edition.O.'s Classhook fmlll (ila.'yan. I-Iamp. CA = I. Hamp: 1965 = E. Chantraine = P.senschaft 1989. De Bernardo Stempel. Bradshaw. A. Cambridge: at the University Press.. 77-Q2. GMW == D. AP = Arrn~s Pryde. 13~. McKitterick and D. eds. Fowkes. Trubachov. rey. 39--4R. Nauka. A. Williams. GEW = H. Hamp.90-111. Hamp. Leiden: E.m Ky.noderne. . Hamp: 1973 = E. Haycock. "amp: 1974 = E. Wel~h Etymologies. Geirfa barddOfliaefh gymlar f(I'mrae/(. Volt. /1 ZCP 37 (1979). of Early Welsh. Greene. ed . Fowkes: 1958 = R..flaniefu. Oxford. Da\'ies. Lewis. 1974-. Bi!hop. p. ed. Klinksieck 1964. {PI HPB = K. II Bulletin de la societe de li1lgtti5iqttc de Pari.nrischen. IIIne Journal of Celtic G = J.Brom· wich. E. BaudH = J. . p. Simon Evans. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press 19f17. de Vries. Hamp: 1977-8 = E. Manchester: At the University Press 1913. De Bernlrdo Stempel = P. A. Formation indoeuropeenncs ~ second el~ment *-(H(l)k '·'-. Aneirin. D~ yo y Gymraeg. p.Io!·d. C. AEW = J. Brill. Bonn J970. Brittany and Irclanu in the earl" mediaeval period. Jackson. Ctrn. = 1. The Camhridgc luvencll~ (JI(ls~c~ . London '41'. L/yfr Du Caerfyrdd. J.l Hamp: 1982 ::::: E. Edited and annotated by I. 1959. lli. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1991. The Po~fri(J" of Brittonic. The Hague 1965.disches etymologisches Worterbuch. 1(J'~lardJ (In ft"prprNntinn of the Hi.r. Dumville. /I SC 1011 ( (1975-6). Dublin: The Duhlin Studies 1980. A Gothic Etynlological Dicrionar. Blodellgerdd harddas 0 gallll cref. CMCS = Cam bridge (since Winter ~ 1993 . Paris: Librarie C. p.r0111nl0r of Aliddl" »'elrh. DDC = A.H. Notes on Old Breton.m. 1950-. Fowkes. rac wedynJ gan G. p. IJ D. II RC XL ( 1923) p. . 1912. E~k.. A Gramnrar of Old Irish. /I SC 12-1. /I W. Etlen Lddin yn y' faith Cymraeg. sla'.1). slo\'o. Bevan. Lexique ftymnlogiqllt des te"neJ les plus IIJuel~ du breton . Llandyhie 1994. II Transactions of the Cambridge Bibfiograp1tica! 5oc.. tc = tr/-4de5 Ct Jtiq ue. eds. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol GED = W. 1974. p. oR (197. Gvozdanovic. Die Vertretung der indogertnanischen Iiq.. p. Hirunuma. R. Sanscrit Evidence in Studies 2 (1958).'. I I GOI = R. Henry ::::: V. Problem~ of Cymric Etymology. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin I New York 1992. M. A. 1917. II BBCS 13 (1948).. A Glossary of Mediael'al WeI>" Lall'.m Keltischtn. DOB == C. J. . Bartrum. Hamp. 497-554. Harvey = A. Bonn 1979. Chantraine" Dictionnaire etymologique de fa langue grecque. Whitelock. Etn"du t. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1943. Hirunuma = T. Leiden: E. ErnouI. Rennes 1900. .rrordd. Miscellanea Celtica. p. Brill 1962. Hamp.e-N .in the Light of Celtic <lnd Alhanian. :Elsie = R. M. ~4-7J.eiy 4 (1964-8). Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1966. 191-3 and 569-72. Harvey.1ft Board of Celtic Studies. BRCS = Thl! BuJitJin of . 25J-2R4. DGVB = L... Gaulish Ordinals.XIX Bibliographical Abbreviations ESSYa = (0. p.'fih Isles. "amp: 1975-6 = E. 1/ EC 15 (1976-7). /1 Lingua PO'. ](l7-7. Meillet. H.ieck. Gramma. A Advllnced Studies (Q6 7.n. Ireland i" Eal/Y Mtdie"al Europ~. Bachellery. Craster =' H. DGVB. W. J. F_ E\k. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982. 19R6. Lloyd-Jones. 'EmoDt-Mfillet = E. P.~ (l977-R). GPN == D. E. 257-75. Bishop = T. Innsbruck 1987.

Lewis. Lambe. LangliaKe and Ilb.. /I JCS 1 (1950). Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. cds. p. OCV = E. p. Lambert: 1982 = P. Jones. Lane. Rl'\'lIl' Ccltiquc. /I EC 15 (1976-7). The Juvcncus Glosses.20-29. p.40-S3. Owen" The Welsh Marginalia in the Lichfield Gospels. Jenkins. Princeton: Princeton Unlversity Press. C. Joseph. H. Rhys.iige zu.\' Britai". /I RB('S 6. McManus. M.-Y.. LElA = J. Ludwig Reicllert Verlag 1980. /I trill 44 (1993). Koch.. PT = 71. tect".wn. Parry-Williams. Studies in Syntax. Part I. Mayrhofer. part I (192ft) p. N. 1/ triu 33 (1982). p. Die Komposition in gallischen Personennamen. Parry-Williams = T.471-95.allisc"e. (J EC 18 (1981). 244-264. 'Insular Celtic'. Finherg. \' . Tire ARrnrian lli. M. /I EC 24 (19R7). Pacini-Pisa. l\'ei11C y ~lah. KZ = Ztit5chrift fu' l'erglt'ic1rend~ Sprachforschung. Isaac. eds.'\4. Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V ~nerable. Camhridgc: At the University Press. /I Bretagne et pays celtiques.53-73. PKM = I.4H3. The Annales Camhri~ and Old Welsh (. Rivet. R.on: ]975-6 = K. O. PRW = G. Loth. Problemes ~uleves par 12 prep. Russell. Pede. JO = D. Cardiff: UniverC\ity of Wales Prec.H.. Pari~ 1R92. 91-120. Jack. Lambert. Irish Letter-Names and their Kennings. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1997. Klingenschmldt. 2R) 191R.odor 9 (I~R8). Heidelherg. Campanile.127-16R. Van Tassel Graves. /I H. 1972. Brittonica. Williams.Celtic Vocabulary. Schmidt. galloise A. Lewis.l.. R. Post-Roman Wales. Duhlin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1Q6~.es of Ro. Lautgeschichte und Etymologie. Lectures on the Science of Lt"'KlIaKf.~ ctY'l1oloRi.• lli. Phillimore = E. Les gloses grammaticales brittoniques. An Early ()Id Welsh ()rthographic Feature. London· IR71. 'Thirty' and ·Sixty' in Brittonic.and the Origin of CaRa. p. PNRB = A.. p. p. Bern: Francke Verlag.407-10 R = He = J. II TCP R (1912). London IX74. Profilo Etinlolngico del Cornico Antico. Rhys = J.. La traduction du pronom relatif Latin dans les gloses en vieil-irlandals. Jacohs. Caerwyn Williams. 119-143. 208-222. The Germano . (. les la"Klies IJrittoniqlle. ed . Lewis.iqrH' el. /1 tc 21 (1984).11ogi. 1/ BBCS 30 (1982).. R. Lamber1: 1931 = P. II S.. 22~-2JQ and 466-7. Edinhurgh: The Edinburgh University Press. II Eriu Jq (I Q 8R). Caerdydd: (fWl1sg Prifysgol Cymru IQ74..Y.) Tile text of the Rook of L/a" Dal'. H.~ 19Y5. Rennes 1992. Russell. J0 1 = D. p. ag 'avec'. 2&~-308.. 120--123. Glosau Rhydychen... Lambert: 19848 = P. Indogerrntlnisches etym%gisches Worterbuch. McCone.. p. 1/ nileS I (1922). Muller. PECA = E. II Y ()nrn. Schrijver = P. Pokorny. The Poe. p. Lambert. Part II: The 'Surexit' Memorandum. 185-2~. J. Amsterdam I Atlanta: Rodopi IQ95. Isaac = G. Old Welsh Syntax. "CMCS 7 (1984). Phillimore.. V<'fldT.-y. Vieux-gal1ois nou. LIlmber1: 1982a = P"V... The Date of Old Welsh Accent Shift. part 2 (1932). Rowland." y. The Verb in 'he Book of Aneirin.erflint Gruffydd. Lambert" Emplois dissym~triques de la coordination. M.~-11J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Muller = M.173-2L3. p. = Beit. Schrijvcr. p. 1~70-1().~i. (= Y Cymmrodor. LL = (J. Rowland = J. The Old Cornish Vocabulary. cds . 523-31. Lambert.29-43.in Celtic.tnry in Ear'.1859. Kom = J. Les commentaires celtiques a Bede Ie V~nerable.-Y. eds . J. /I RRCS 29 (IQH I). ed . EC\ka. F.37-66. p.r Poe111S of Talie. McManus = D. p. 1/ CMCS 5 (1983). xx lEW == J. The Earliest Words for 'Horse' in the Celtic Languages. ML = J. Rhys: IM73 = J... Lambe rt. Lambert.'fS. /1 lic 19 (1982). 32-55. Tire l'elar SlIffixe.enealogics from HarIcian MS . p. Lambert: 1984 = P. Die kymrischen !=!Ioss~n zu ()xford. LamMrt: 1983 = P. P.. vergleic1tenden Sprachforschung.~lory nf England and Wales.. latins dan. Old Irish 'three' and 'four': a question of gender. nom. Les gloses du manuscrit BN Lat. REWb = W. 1953. C. Brittonic words in the Iri~h ~Io~~aries. p. I (II).w·"('. .iloloRr. Jackson: 1950 = K. p. /I EC 20 (1983). 166-R2..~ lVijrtrr1J"clr. IF 1959. Dublin: The Duhlin Insti· tute for Ad\'lInccd Studies 1959-. SC = Studia (·eltica. KBr p. Falileyev. 10290. /I CMCS 12 (1986). Rhys.'pano-(ial/o-lJriuoflic(l.33-301. Sixth edition. p.121-139. p. LHEB = K. Thr Horse in Cefric Culture. TUbingen: Max Niemeyer 1996. Quiggin. A Fragment of an Old Welsh ('omrlltu~. 1/ Language 9 (1933). Lewis: 1932 = H.JIr Crlt. II nRCS 3.513-20. -Y. I Russell: 1990 = P.ry i" 'Ire Red Ronk of IlcrKc.c I{. Rn". The New Dictionary of Old Breton. N. Wiesbaden: Dr. Martianus Capella. Llanhcdrog lQ11. University Microfilms: Ann Arbor 1962.. 152-18J. ()WAV = A. Edited and annotated hy Sir Hor WilliClms. Davies. Glosau Rhydychen a Chacrgrawnt. Lamben. Jackson. 1-4. p. Pfeiffer. Lambert: 1986 = P... Lane == G.Gwenogvryn Evans.'\82. II. /I Crlth'a 1 (195(. Jenkins.if S'udies. Joseph = L. Jones. Klin_ellKhmidt = G. English version hv J. 'Gallo-Brittonic' vs. E. 281-. JCS = The Journal of eel. Quiggin = E. p.. St"dirs i" Br. Taliesi". Morris Jones. /I ZCP 26 (1957). Rhys.. Celtic lVo. Oxford 1893... 11G-112. .1-2. Lambert."fn%giqlle de l'irlalldais ancien. p. XXI Lewis: 1926 = H.. Lamber1: 1976-7 = P.on. H. inno. KGP ~ K..). Lewis: 1956 = H. Duhlin: Institute for Advanced Studies 1990. /I J.d /-'o""at. . II KIlt vii (1~7J).ca! Pho"ol"RY. L. Meyer-LUbke.. = l"dogermani5cht ForJch"ngen. 295-9. p. 1/ M. A. Russell: 1995 = P. Kelly == P.: 1917 = P . p.an Britai". Kelly. -Y.. p.'. MJ = J. Lam bert. Morphology and Etyrnorog)'. 1974.. Suite.es Oil lVe/slr PI. McCone = K. 69-79.-1'. Peters. Les nlot. The Treatment of ·CRH. Jackson.'·It. Smith. Zur Etymologie des Lateinischen. Old Web. p. /I CMCS 8 (1984). p. Jackson.{. p. JIES = Journal oj lndo-European Studies. 1979. cd. L~.. The Place-Nan. /1 SC 10111 (1975/6). p.1t Agricultural Vocabulary (in progress).

Watkhm: 1987 = T. The sef [. Capkov~. Essays in Memory of C. (h)i. 1913. Stevenson = W. Watkins alld Mlc Cana = A.XXII Sims-Williams: 1981 = P. p. p. Englynion y Juvencus. Loth. p. Vieux-gallois Ke1ler et autre~ prohlemes 3utour de Surexit-Memorandum. Paris 1884.. WG = J. Watkins: 1982 = T. 1987~ p. p... /I BBCS 3 (1927).' (1994). Cystrawennau'r Cyplad mewn Hen Gymraeg. yn. 1/ BBCS h (1933). William~: 1980 = I. Bardo5. Llanbedrog 1910. The Emergence of Old Welsh. Stevenson. II sacs 17 (1957). VSB = A . While .tkins: 1997 = T. Notes sur quelques gloses galloises. 600-800: The Evidence of Archaic Old Welsh. V£rgitichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. Thurneysen. White = F. The Computus Fragment. TPhS = Transactions of rh~ Philological Society. Zcuss. Morris Jones II WfLsh Grammar.. The Accent-Shift in Old Welsh. Willi••s: 1930 = I. Gwenogvryn Evans. " KBr vii (1873). Stokes. Ablq. . Early Scholastic Colloquies. = I. vieux 8reJon. p. Williams. p.tic'i . u a "r . /I R. 1-12 and Zeuss = J. y (= yn). Vocabularium Cornicum. Stokes. 245-272.. Sims-Williams: 1991 = P. VVB = J. William. 1/ XXIII Williams: 1944 92-100. Paris: Librairie C. 112- . Arwyn Watkins.. Watkins: '''1 = T.~ JnJo-C~'tica Miinchen: Max Hueber 1972. II H. p. 2Q-86. . eds.421-3.che Phi/nloKie. Zum hritischen s-. Rrnmwich.euxabreton. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.. II BBeS 5 part 3 (1930). Pedersen. V. {/ A. Sims-Williams. p. Grfl""natica Celtica. Stokes: 1865 = W. 201-5. Oxford: Clarendon Press.385-416. Second Edition.579-91. J Realisation of the Welsh Identificatory CopuJar Sentence. Phil. Williams. 86-93. Stokes: 1860-1 = W. ed. sieck ]964. T = J.203-6. 1929. curavit H.. p. ZCP = Zeitschrift fiir celri. US = W. Yr arddodiad HG.. /I BBCS II (1944). Williams: 1927 = I. Elements d'une grammaire. Pilch. p. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1894. Thurneysen. Zimmer = St. p.s: 193J 118. Stokes: 1873 = W. 204-249. 201-229. Ehel. /I BBeS 5 part 1 (1929). W. p. C. Watkinl: . Editio altcra. Consituent Order in the Old Welsh Verbal Sentence. in: ce. Williams. TharneyRn: l890a = R. Zimmer. Vitae Sanetorum Britanniat tt Genealogiae. Cornish and Breton Orthography. Geraint Gruffydd.. VGK = H. p.n. VocabuJairt v.Arwyn Watkins. Arwyn Watkins.Z26-24S. forthcoming.. Dan do Oide. Williams. Facsimile and Text of the Book of Tolies. The Beginning. Gloses bretonnes. Zimmer. Oxford IlJX5.l-8. Stokes. Zimmer: forthcoming = St. R. p. KlinckVB = L. II TPS 1860-1. 1997.{Jr Poetry. = I. I-II.. Watkins. 149-164. p. J. Cardiff: University of Wales Pres~ t<.. lUnpublished).. . 1/ RC 11 (1890). Thurow. The Accent in Old Welsh . William5. '~ p. Gottingen: Van denhoeck & Ru precht. Glosau Rhydychen: Mesurau a phwysau. t\rwyn Watkins. (l BEeS 28 (1960). eds. Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. /I Journal ol ('rIrie Li1lRII. Oxford University D. p. London. Sims-Williams. ReroJini J ~71.Its Quality and Development. Stokes. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru 1982. /I RC 11 (1890). FJeuriot. ] 909-13.JRO. Edited hy R. Cardiff: University of Wales Press Board 1944. Arwyn Watkins.ist.. Cambrica. Williams: 1'29 = J. 29-43. 11 BBeS 25 (1972-4). The Development of the IndoaEuropean Voiced Labiovelars in Celtic.. H. P.. 0 Cf~ri8h./1 BBCS 38 (1991).. ed. 137-58. II BBeS 34. W. /I Ee. Wade-Evans. Thumeysen: 1890 = R. p. The Old Welsh Glosses on Martianus Capella with some Notes on the Juvencus-Glosses. Willia. Dublin: lms111itiid Teangeolafochta Eireann. nf IVel. Watkins: 197%-4 == T.. Mac Cana. Bemerkungen zu der ausgabe der Oxforder glossen von Zeuss. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. KBr 4 (1865).)tudi£s in tFt~ morphol1nfngy the Early Welsh Verb. Glosau Rhydychen a Chaergrawnt. p.'57 = Af"N)'JI Watkins. T1Jesis..5]-60. 1-25. If BECS 29 (1981).

pres. r imp.European Latin Middle Breton Me Mlr Mllat MW ()R ()C ()HG ()Ir ()W Pict. conj. comp.Grammatical Abbreviations Language Names adj. d. imperf. v VB ordinal personal plural possessive preposition present preterite pronoun singular singulative subjunctive superlative verb verbal noun AS B Britt. CI G IE Lat. subJ. atnl. W Middle Corni~h Middle Irish Medieval Latin Middle Welsh Old Breton Old Cornish Old High German Old Irish Old Welsh Picti!l. roll.dy. . . :-:. prete prone sl sg'. C CD Celt.. MB Anglo-Saxon (Modern) Breton (Common) Brittonic (Modern) Cornish Cornish and Breton Common Celtic Celtiberian Gaulish rndo. impale m name compare collective oomparati\le conj unction demonstrative feminine imperative imperfect impersonal ms!CUJine numeral pen. pi poSe prep. demonstr. . . IUperi. ~ adjective adverb cardinal ord.h (Modern) Welsh .

hoi. Lamhert.529 aguirdou pan dihu JUY 9 (4. IIaycock: 12: Lambert: 1976-7. par-.. lEW: 712. a IE *6 'Ausruf. a fortuna Prisc 24 h " . DGVB: 49. DGVB: 56 a faut gl. /za. ope: 1. relative particle See hoi..3. J. lEW: 3 and 417..2) anguorit anguoraut Juv <) (5. Hamp: 1976-7.3) aceroen hOll gJ.. anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5. C a. cf. JO: 95. GMW for the occurrence of a for n in this meaning. ha. See also IIa. o. cf.•• [. See o.1-2) prep. MB a. this could be Welsh 8 4 as well. Lambert: 1976-7. 160 See also ha crip. 'of' (?) MW a. 2. see also ac. OB (h)a IE *ad-ghe-. 'by' (?) According to Fleuriot.. however. DGVB: 205. Elsie: 18. 191. OB a. MW a. vittre tcnucs Ovid 37:t a hir ctem gl. 'and' r8 J MW a.IJ "I Glossary • . a~. VGK: I. Lat.• -' A B I conj. a in this gloss is Breton 'de...287.. J JUY 9 (1. Cf.. As shown by P. Lamhert: 1987. these instances could be analysed in the entry dedi1 cated to a • See. OIr ope: 1. mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.Y.2) omnipotcns auctor tidicones adioln. VVB: 28 a mcin Cuniou gl.. also 0 2.2) as . GMW: 205. instita longa Ovid J7<l g3 prep. LElA: A-4. 14 and II. e t dolea 1 78 II exclamative particle I a ) a.

gurgulionibus exsectis Me 42 a.m pplel' A compound. p. ad ir Joe. E. WiUiams who offered a very detailed disclls~ion of this word (1927: 261) suggested t\vo possibilities for its interpretation. Williams accepted hy GPC is queried by White in view of the formal and semantic difficulties.') schmonou n pi 'groins' fachfen I Wachfen < IE *ken. 116 rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (R. Isaac: 334. The second component is -brouannou (MW breuant. Olr Joig-).IOZwang. Adams in IF 90 (1985). bruant) 'neck.ur n f 'alphabet' [agwyddor] MW agwyd(d)or. abroid adj. B.nnou n pi 'Ad. VVB: 31. 3 sg '10 need' [anghen-J ct. DB acupot J1le standard derivation from Lat. L~'En. addawdJ MWadawt GPC does not provide any etymology for this entry. VVB: 29 ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl.see Williams: 1930. Schlund' (lEW: 474-6. occupo and the interpretation of I.. malus~ G avallo. 08 ad. OB brehant. OC briansen gI. see ruid~ GPC. for details of the reconstruction. LHEB: 460. GPC. aet" + )'\1'). 100-1 to. 3 sg 'II) tont.b. ML: 131. Hamp: 1976-7. malus~ OC auallen gl. pp.235 and cr.138-9. E.. N01wendigkeit'. if otherwise~ see ad'. ML: 1. p. GPC: .'ZU~ bei.. Willh"n~: IQRO. 257 [ab]guidaur Comp 1 navo: ~~. ad limina J 52 sdsul n m 'site. GMW: IRS. oev: 294. an' (lEW: 3) DGVB: 53. MW achen.. Olr amreid The word is analysed as a combination of a negative prefix with a Welsh word for 'easy·. GPC: 7. 261 ad ir loc.1)~ pp. sd t prep.in' (7) (8chub-] MW achub. and (differently) Isaac: 0319-20. Williams: 1927.49-68. Ab8llo~ Olr ahnll gl. DeV: 48. 52. guac. nfnl). Olr oic.1JR. p. 79-82. < IE -ank. Me het"y 'reach'. cf. OIr abgiter. egwyddor. ~and' sd2 (?) This could be Latin.'frisch hcrvorkommcn~ cntspringen' (lEW: 563). ad stebfll gl.'\0. OIr. White: Rfl-·7.": for the etymology (cf. Williams: 19RO. guttur. VGK: I. CB anken 'necessity. Lc\\"is this could be analysed as corresponding to W. ecen 'need'. De Bernardo Stempel: 107.. T.. exigency'.r sed bid v pres. VVA: .e. Following Fl. GPC: JL E. See aI. issi.'. pp~ 158-166. GPe: 40 and 321. 191. GPN: 128-31.262 nit abruid Comp 6 isabmid icinimer Inv 9 (3.'trcihcn'. retonde J 77 acgene. in triti llrd. VGK: II. Stokes: ] 813~ 404. nJ-.13. LElA: A-26. Williams apparently prefers the other possibility . see De Bernardo Stempel: 85 and the literature cited there). OB aceter. v iDlperf. aballen gl. on nhlll 111. ("'haedd.lbrou.. In7 "'SUCllp nls url'up letter J"v t) (. Hamp in IF 90 (1985). Williams: 1927.2) lie conj. malus. sec no~v F. Comp .a. angen 'need'. 70: VB: 291: Williams: 1927. ar.2 3 . MB di""(1('. ab~ctda. 'dimmit' [arrwyddJ MW atrwydd. throat. DGVB: 51.ium (M Lat abecetorium / abgetorium) DGVB: 52. 607: VGK I: 9tl. Hamp in ZCP 37 (1979). PECA: 10.. Hamp: 1977-78. < IE *ag. lEW: 4. OPC: CJ. seen in cvrroed(/. l •• malum. place. larynx'. guac Comp 5 nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17 Erin 31 (1980). JEW: 45.l) sdismor see dism. 5 and (differently) in IF 84 (1979) p. 203-4. ope: 49~ LElA: A-8. from *g"rdgh . Lindenlan in BBCS J() (198. 6 Cufv in pp. Willia ms: 1927. If: .. pan aed bid. 49-50.lc' (MW nvnl. LElA: A-6. /ab}guid. GPC: 40. see D. cf. PECA: 17. elllyH'. G nd < IE *ad. White: 207-8. Loth·s doullts. cf. 100 and 138. 460.l) I . abgitir < Lat. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976). v~er. 62 hac orachmonou gl. L. 45. Markey in lIES 16 (1988). see OGVB: 89~ LElA: B-76.1 ."as the sense requires a verh meaning ~to rcach~ to arrive' the oed may he for /raedd. 3 sg 'to reach' ~: lag) acet met gl. O. The c of this instance was added later by the original scribe. 'to' MW at. 3 s~ 'to ~o' fall ago. Rowland: 515. Lat GMW: 119. 451: White: 103-4 agit etcrin (ogit? . aellr!vdd (cf. inguinihusquc Ovid 41 h cr. LElA: R-16. tho flrRt clemont I" abal 'n". dwelling' (addod.386 gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16 I. v pres.5 sencum see sor is aencumhal spit .lJ) MP 22 h (234) hegit hunnoid ~fP 22" (~J.C'up v pres. lEW: 1-2. Olr br~ga.'verschlingen.

al]awr~ 08 altor. 'other. 203 moys allaur gl. LElA: A-28. (en 'as. aelod.li. OIr alt6ir < Lat. Zupitza in Beitrage lur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen 25 (1899). I-Iamp in BAC'S 30 (19R3). similis. LHEB: 484. LElA: D-90) . reason' am prep. coniuere Me 4 b. 37). E. ML: 131. 'II!. see a useful summary in White. OCV: 324. similar.a.. GPe: 777). VVB: 36. Gebrechen' (lEW: 411. for a different interpretation of this line.'Zahn· (lEW: 2R9. 476. adnohod (GMW: 14R). PECA: 7. LElA: S-22.(\\lith a query). 198. steep. trybann and the literature cited Hapax in Welsh. White: 313-9. Arntrybann teilbann treisguenn Pad: 2 8mal prep. glabella medietas Me 9 b. Williams: 1980. cf. DGVB: 57. see also im. ut suhigant J 32 8meen adj. V. '.. bcs. surfeil' (name of a letter) (alar] Walar The word is compared by ope to W galar 'grief (OIr galar) < IE *gha/-ar'Schade. 186 Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: 1 amgnaubot n 'sense. cf. humo.with a verbal stem seen in OW dinn 'hill' (OIr dinn). ?) 'to dispute' r8my~ . MJ: 270-1. 188.'eins'. VGK: I. for the different explanations. Celtic forms with 11. amuc . MW fal. ithrirdiuail gl. 3 sg 'to defend' a/eulinn n m 'olive oil' Hapax in Welsh. 184 Amdifuys dauJ had patern Pad: 4 amdinnit v pres. ope: 83.. G. GPe: 1267. OGVB: 60.447 hep amgnaubot gl. heavy'. eyebrow'lael] MWael GPC: 36. possihly to IE *edent. 103. different' ramgen ) MWamgen The form is analysed as *alnbi. 91 ailotou gJ. awful. GPC: 31 and 1342. fcindscligc Kraftauncrung'~ sce also gllogllith. VGK: I. and (MW) diffwv s 'mountain side. see itercludant. JO: 98-9. oPC: 84~ Haycock: 243~ White: 104-5~ Williams: 1980.v. The entry was tentatively considered as Irish by F. aJ'are GPC does not consider this ins1ance. rp. 243-4 amcibret ir maut MP 23 3 (241) amcibfret ir bis MP 23 3 (241) smdifuys adj. p. GPC: 87.n + *gnowhnd.. see S. membra Prise 25 a alar n m 'boredom.36 Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3 smcib(f)rel n m 'breadth. Stokes: 1873. sine mente Ovid 38h amgucant v pret. oliuum J 85 • llaur n r 'altar' lallor] MW allaur. wonderful' [amdill'wys) According to GPC this word contain~ a prefix (*alnbi-). FIeuriot suggests Welsh origins of 1his entry. of equal speed and pace'. retee. altare.es. The latter component = MW llyn 'drink' (OB linnou gl. amgyffred 'gra~p'. J. William s: 1980. accordlDI to. < a.233. 'huge. 3 pi (historical pres. GPC: 86. GPC: 74. width' Morphologically segmented into (aln-)cyf-rhed (GP(~: 713) 'running together. there. E. so' (VGK: II. 390. lEW: 903.and Lat. he does not deny the possibility of its Breton affinities. GPC does not consider this instance. OC altor g1. VGK: 11. and linn. GPC: 79. Perhaps a combination of *a.39-4L lEW: 1128-9. Haycock: 245. Williams: 1930. linda. C like. . the latter is analysed (GPC: 993) as an intensive . Rhys: 1873. Isaac: 289. MW aelawt.b. GPC: 2642. QueUe' (DGVB: 243. ailotou n pi 'members or organs of body' [aeJod] 5 < IE *eln. J MW amwyn. DGVB: 59~ GPC: 18.ifestmachen~ On the grounds that the word is not attested elsewhere in Breton L. F. amgyffryd 'breadth. LElA: A--64. Lane: 253. pr. Mlr aige < *(p)ag/-atu .'encrgischc. abyss'. Olr lind) < IE *lendh. 365. Compound which contains ofeu (see oleu).4 ail n f 'brow.+ cyn.O. (!) "aboul' I••] (!) For MW om see GMW: 182. and the base found in affwYJ 'depth. JEW: 675. and [onj. 'NaB. VVB: 34 itdagatte ail gI. Lindemann in BBC. ' avel~ OIr amal IE Vll(ejik. vpag. lEW: 788. cf. cf. VGK: I. which considers am as a prefix. see s. GOI: 500-1. catenum Prise 12 a Hapax in Welsh. 1808. VVB: 36. VVB: 36 amal itercludant gl. fel~ 08 amal. WiJJiams in BBCS 7 (1933). WG: 148.nbi. White. VVB: 3S alar Nemn ope: 1373). filJ-5: White: lR9191 amgucant pcl Clmtanndi Chad 2 ope: . J65~ 286. VGK: I. GPC: 2642.S 2R (t9HO). p. GPC: 97~ LHEB: 437. VVB: 199 aJeuJinn gl. width' (amgyfFredJ MW amgyffret.

240f). VVB: 39 *0110- lschmahen·.. but see LElA iranamou gl. See amser 1• anbiic v pres. VGK: II. 'because' [amser] MWamser. Suhjunctive form + Ruell is commonly used in the expression of greeting..23-4. p. (Pokorny's Yredh . so that Fleuriot's claim for a Middle Welsh correspondence is not strictly speaking correct. Williams: 1930.H. T. OIr aimser Following I. L'~EB: 607.26) anbithBul adj. han (aIr sain) 'separation'. See gui/ed. prep. Lewis: 1956.300 fn. and the base is a cognate of Irish fossad < *lJo. 3 sg f 'about her' Based on Qm~ see s. ore 'because').) glossing a/terna. Ir.to *ar. LElA: R-3. GPC: I02~ LElA: A-35. and Jai!. magister aue Ox2 46 h (10. White mentions a possihilitv to consider this entry as an imperat. the only other occurrence of this word in the whole Welsh corpus is found in the "Book of Taliesin".ui'aJfafhati is found in the Peniarth 228 (heginning of XVII c.. According to Stokes. 'mad' (ynfydawl] An "0/ derivative of inhith.034. Note the discrepancy in the gender attribution (mase. subj. impudent' (anwyll MWanwyl < Celt. 1 pi 'our' (an. According to H. tempus. gl.-Y. P. Fleuriot notes that in MB the forms gOllestad. ymdeni GMW: 58~ GPC: 79. this could be translated as "whether bullion or coin'~ in view of OC bat ('coin'. GPC: 164 anguastathaoei gl. Lambert suggests dihoth and translates the gloss as "soit malgrc cux. PECA: 8. 289 an nm6th anb6dlaun gl. I -stera. 591-2. MJ: 271 amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2 an pron. Sanskrit sa.nbodlsull ? There are two readings of tbis gloss. *-.).. cf. cf. pudendas J 78 . nummisma).6 7 list of the words found in the Juvencus glosses which show non .. . VVB: 39 anbithaul gl. IE '*h 2 roh 1d". 3 sg 'to be inconstant. 44. Parry-Williams: 121. See also the next. soit avec argent". . . MB (h)amhout. 298. subj. see Loth.. ~n"stad are most commonly found.. T. 36. see Lamhert: 1987. form. For the analvsis of this form as ultimately OB. lEW: 59~ Isaac: 306. passen'). dimissa Ovid 398 MW anaf. fervida J 61 Bnbod/aun see an niboth Bnbodlaun BnguBstalh80ei v pres. VGK: II.statos. GPC: 99. G: 23. 2 sg. VGK I: 80. 2 sg 'to be (from). cf. OIr imm-raid< *alnbi-rad. Stokes: 1860-1 . defects. W bath. pos. hanhout Etymologically. . see PECA: 12. pars inhians nummis J 35 anamou n pi 'blemishes.'illg·. trailing' According to OPC. . in WC. Lambert: 1987. mendae Ovid 40 3 amser tonj. 236 nichoilam hinnoid amser is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22b (234) 8mse~ 'when' (= 'lime') The instance is not quoted in GPC.derivative of a cognate of Irish amm 'time' with no commonly accepted etymology (but cf. Mlr fia/ 'modesty.~ MW amdanei.. L. cf. lEW: 779~ LElA: A-78. mens est J 78 amlsis adj.v.Welsh features quotes this gloss without a commentary. 96 dam ancalaur JUY 3 (L3) dam anpatel Juv 3 (2. . *yei/a· (MW gwyl. in Irish and Breton.v. 78..'fUgen. aIr anim Traditionally considered as a continuation of IE for a sceptical evaluation of this etymology. OC anser (for amser) gl.. oraur (see s. waver' (anwastat-J DGVB: 62 amserpanatos imauou remanserunt iii gl. 295. v. see s.K: 1. rodh.3) The form a. DGVB: 65. deronnities. wounds' (anaf) aml1lud n m 'mind. Parry-Williams in his angui/ adj. which is a borrowing from Latin bn//o. uacillet Ang 70 b an nibo r11 . GPC: 94~ VVB: 37 amlais gl. OCV: 202.. l'aeil/o. fern. anaw~ MB anam. C4-J. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 148 aml. p. sec VC. intention' (amrawdd] MW amrawd. see s.nnd. see Ita11: and the form of the verb 'be' . shame') with a negative prefix.l-4~ WG: 352-3: (differently) VVB: 39~ White: 142 and 265 anbiic guell gl. RC 34 (1913). Williams this should be considered as a conjunction ("am. Etymologically a combination of ·ambi.~er is fel can ys. and consider Irish amm neutral> masc. ein] MW an~ C an~ ME hon GPC: 104 and 1194~ Williams: 1980. VVB: 37 isamraud gl. Pedersen this is a -stera. 'long. The form contains a negative prefix. Guyonvarc'h in Ogam 19 (1967). . GPC: 16R: Williams: IQJ3~ 117 anguil gl. JO: 99~ LL: xliii-xliv. ~ GMW: 147~ GPC: 1822. 162).v.n-bltavati 'comes from ~. 'bold. shameless. come (from)' (hanfodJ MW hanuot. GPC: 106.

hringen' (lEW: 12Rf)~ for this ~tem see Hamp: 1982.. IE *a/i05 'andcrer' (lEW: 25). 8 8nit 'not' (introducing a question before any element other than the v) (oni] 9 aper see sperou sperou n pi 'mouths of river. sor is 8eIlCflmn.G.. 166 ara[terl g1. di aper ferrus (Chad 6). p.Y. Isaac: 152. Mac Mathuna.6) .) could indicate the Welsh provenance of this word. perjuria O\'id 42 8 Gal: 307-9. also enuein. This interpretation is not accepted in DOB: 392. SButOn. see nit. see OW A V... II W. lEW: 3. Lane: 246. OB dicomit..'tragen. and nit. C'onsider also aper huer (Chad 6). connuences' I aber J OW (LL) aper~ MW aber.. hou nit. See also elmet. DGVB: 138. Cf. see also GED: A91). MWonid According to GPC.. Williams: 1933. sec also lei/.'mahen'. OenCI. (?_ According 10 P. see hou. LElA: B-40. messor. VVB: 43~ VGK: I. ed. E. 28. IE yhher. For the gloss and its traditional amendment. VGK: I.a. A derivative of IE y""er. 1(54) p. CT I PT VII.. WG: 126. and metetic 'reaped' an -etic ledig derivative of medal (cf. nullum pulverem Ovid 398 8Btenne'et. OB al(l)all arall~ Gaul. O.onau. pretence' Hapax in Welsh. cf. gurges~ Sc. 95. 'hair-reaped' Hapax in Welsh. Olr oeth. cf.isaencumhal cursus ece stadi(orum) Ang 64 a an{ter1 n m 1 'plough' [aradr I MW aradar. loan were criticised already by M. 162. p. aratrum. consider a reference to H. 46. and (MW) (y)sgeth 'appearance'. CA: 76. II Akten des Zweiten deutschen Keltologen-Symposiums. with a negative prefix. Studicn zurn indogcrrnanischcn Wortschatz.c adj. GPC: 160.b. MU l1er (Muller: 1. issemi aou gl. Payne. 195. Stalrnaszczyk.b. PECA: 6. Lewis in F. *od-bher·t-. lEW: 703. enw. A combination of a negative prefix an-. MB arazr. P. G. n. OIr ainm < IE *en(o)mt:l-. DGVB: 69. 4RO aperth gl. to IE Vei. Witczak in IF 98 (1993). appearance.. MB hanu. 23-24 kat y" aber I ioed y dygy/rane adllr "reller lind die frtihwalisische Schlachtenkatalogtradition. Olr arathar < Celt.. I. the plural form in -Oil (Breton -. second·). inhhir As it was noted by Fleuriot.4m (vn. diaper hen (Chad 6).. Stokes: 1860-1. Elsie: 113. un nouveau retrecissemenl·". Yr aradr Cymreig (Cardiff. Lambert: 1984a. allo-broges~ Olr arail < *alalios. see hanther. Suadae Me 1 a. Ir. apc: 2. Lambert: 1986. bringen' (lEW: 128f). Dum uescitur J 92 8BKeth n m 'phantom.. LElA: A-84-5~ lEW: 62~ PECA: 9~ VCiK: I. diaperthou gl.222 and 291. muneribus Ovid 37 h aprer]thou gl. 170. for this stem see Hamp: 1982. See also apertholl.256. Continuity and Innovation in Early Irish Words for "Water Expanse··. sacra Ovid 38 a srsll pron. LElA: 0-12. offering' I aberth J MW abert. OC aradar gl. Innsbruck 1987. Genius Me 11 a. p. IE *or:1-trOl" 'pntig' Loth's attempts to consider this as a Lat. For a different analysis of this gloss (as OB) see DGVB: 69. 113-4 iransceth gl. Ir edbart < Celt. cf. GPe: 2648-9. apou gl. For the semantics. Ttibingen: Max Niemeyer 1999. VVB: 41. anu di iuno gI. 'another' larall) MWC araB. semiputata J 77 anu n m ~name' (enw] MW env. VVB: 41. lEW: 321. apc: 2. is. VGK: I. Stokes: 1860-1. MW ysge/h.T. perjuria J 21 Bnutonou n pi ·perjuries' See anu. n. prayer' See operth. 11. ope: 175. LElA: nitegid ad serenn araB Comp 17 A-31-2~ Schrijvcr: 321-2~ VB: 267 .'tragen. VVB: 42 anuton~u gl.'gehen'. 107 aor. Rhys (Rhys: 92). 320. victima Ovid 41 h aperthou n pi 'offerings 01 gift. diaper istjl (('had 6). GMW: 176. GPC: 157. 'Name'.292.. VVB: 42 antermetetic gI. Lambert this is a Welsh entry. *o. anutonou gl. VVB: 42 anu di iuno gl. Meid. . see De Bernardo Stempel: 69-70 and the literature cited there. 212. VVB: 44.. L. nratrum Ox2 42 h (4.. See also the next. he segments it into aor = aur 'heure".. etc. This instance is not quoted in GPC·. GPC: 1220. LElA: M-45.. VGK: I. nouveau.. K. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995). F. He lransla1e5 the passage as "puisqu'une corse de 300 stades represente . ostia Ang 17 a aperth n m&1 'victim. < IE *me. W yng 'etroit').·ro~ loath' (W ud(on). lEW: 295. OC aber gl. see A. p. llamp in lIES 1 (1973). aradyr.BU n pi 'perjuries' [anudon] MWan(n)udon < Celt.. WG: 424 anft arber bit gl. OGVB: 58~ GPC: 176. 2) and J. C hanow. for the details of reconstruction. < 0. and hal (= W all 'autre. ope: 1821. gosgeth. Falileycv. Populonarn MC 11a. OeV: 320. OC midil gl. Consists of anter 'hair.~I. 470... methel). LElA: A-36. *aratrom. honit. 13.

GPC: 188.. and Britt. VGK: I. arcanto. A combination of ar ·before' (OIr air. W. and of. Williams. 588. 221. argentarius. G: 42. Lewis: 1932. ark-. armcllll ()x2 4Y' (~. LElA: A-88. arm" (name of a letter) larf) MW arf. bringen' (lEW: 128f). MB archenat. dyuo/. LHEB: 83. OCV: 1Ll. arver. E. instat J 68 srber m 'to take. and diu. LHEB: 467.h. Differently in Elsie: 124. OIr aerann ~ Moms-lones's attempt 10 ~ee in this word < *park. LElA: R-30. LElA: C-163. OCV: 344. Williams: 1927. J. see White. for a possibili ty to consider this entry as an imperate 2 sg. GPC: 203.0. ML: 134. VVB: 44. oerea. arcantodan(os). Stokes: 1860-1. OIr arm r aries. argyfrein < IE ·are-com-reg(i)-no-.reS§' (?) Apart from these two eKamples the word is unknown in Welsh. PECA: 84. CA: 67. aufrichten'. See also ~rcim£ir. LHEB: 453. air argat < Celt. see do"reti(' and cf. VVH: 47 nrmcl gl. VVB: 44. GPC: 201~ DGVB: 162. anna OPC: 192~ LElA: A-89. DGVB: 71. VGK: I. White: 87 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. cf. Comp It in arcimeir aries Comp 13 in eircimeir loc guac (reading of I. ·are-ber-. IE Vbher. sepulti Ovid 39 8 arame. arfer. Stokes: 1873.. VGK: II.'tragen. strecken. Lat. ariant.~) .0. a metaphesis of *karp. Stokes: 187J. lEW: 200. ML: 133. 14 and II. argentum. GPe: 201.JJum) is no longer accepted. 267. then this could be a case for an aries n 'Aries' This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat Williams: 1927. GPC: 675). WG: 418 in arcimeir . 124. LElA: 0-31.(W cyfair 'direction'.(cr. LElA: A-85 and B-40. douli.~ Pict. 'opposite' (argyfair] arki~eir. According to W. partake of" [arfer-] MW aruer.16). carpiscl. OIr rigin. OIr airchomair.. 587. coin' [arian(t)) gueid~ur argans gl. 3 sg 'to e. cf. 107.'i) ~ the word is segmented into ar'before.). White: 288-90 ~nft arber bit gl. LElA: A-12. Lewis in favour of argente(. J. C arv. WG: 161 archenatou gl. o"n. prep. docifis of the text was rejected by H.(Lat. 35. in front of'. GPC: 180. GPC: 181 ~ Haycock: 9-10~ Williams: 1980. calcei MC 5 b. OIr or6it < Lat oratio./lo is attestcd only in uOxoniensis Posteriof'. indo pres of the verb 'to come'.. form. 397. Stokes. reeken. cf. White: 265 araut dinuadu J 1 IJI1IU' 11 r metaphesis to ·ork-. Lat. considering or = are-. ar diu stands for or duiu 'on God'. lenken. Stokes: 1860-1. J. VVB: 45 ardiu gl. i1 pressc". GPC: 117. lEW: 856. Loth translates it as "iI approche. 104. VVo: 45 ha arcibrenou gl. another suggestion (see OCV) considers a armel n 'bracelet" This loan from Lat. gerade riehten. dom. *kom-ar(e)-io. VVB: 47 arm Nemn archrn.10 n 'prayer' [arBwd] MW arawt. lEW: 64. cf. srdbrenou n pi 'buried corpses' [argyfrain] MW argyvrein. OIr arbeir biuth 'jouir de. dirgaJisse). 412.1) nisacup nis arcup leder JU\I 9 (3. did di aries Comp19 arm n m&f 'weapon. to IE yreg. GPC and see s. For the details of reconstruction see De Bernardo Stempel: 77-8 and the literature cited therc DGVB: 72. pp_ 303-4.. DB ercemer.. argent: G argento-. I-I. 392.14f). infixed . If this entry has something to do with dCUp (cE. VVB: 45. Parry-Williams suggests (with a query) that this could be "some form of the vcrh 'to be·"'. Loth in RC 32 (1911). argente(s) Me 9 a. *arganto-. profiter de' < Britt. ardiu? This gloss has caused a dispute.. T. cf.. GPC: 174.3) < Lat. For the etymology.226-7. OB argant.in Argentomagus. GPC: Iq~~ ML: t~3-4~ p~r: lR. Stokes's idea that this word refers to Lat. Caewyn Williams in BBCS 11 (1944).267 aries hithou Comp 13 aries ithou Comp 18 pet guarid. 5 cant armeJJ ym arffct). Parry-Williams: 121. PECA: Qr..d] MW archenat ~ DC orchi nat gL calciamentem. Quiggin and EWS gi~e errcimeir) Comp 13 MW m 'money. GPC: 193-4. Comp 7 in eir cimeir . Ill.b. W rhain 'stiff. etc. Argentocoxos (Dian Cassius 76.'gerade. and in PT (I. VVB: 46 is cihun argant MP 22 h (234) a~8nt n MW aryant.'fJu n pi 'shoes' [archen. 3 sg. OC Brcup " pr~.v. p. VVB: 45-6 ardomaul gl. num uescitur J 92 ardomaul'those who tame' Hapax in Welsh.

MP 22 b (234) • . a loan from Latin II pcig vel haeh gl. this (as well as OB alta!).il n 'building. I will discuss this entry elsewhere. This entry was interpreted by P. Fleuriot to be Breton. of or = Ir. p. J.. Zupitza~s paper thi~ is usually connected with Lat." See Dur l • DGVB: 321 and 77 tripepTannaur. 303. (1) 3 sg /impers~f? 'to leave' (?) this instance. that this could be viewed as a borrowing. 234 I suI n r 'hour' [8M] MW awr. ML: 136. 14. and has a gcminatcd consonant. pitiable' Hapax in Welsh. Williams in BBCS 13 (1950). Elsie: 82.-Y. p. VVB: 49 di assa . aur Comp 3 pan diconetent ir. (. Stokes: 1873.tsr n pi 'birds' (adar) MW adar(en). aur does not consider this instance. 1 t n 'bour' . 183 Amdifuys dalll bacl patern Pad: 4 bach n m&f 'hook. VVB: 151. t(p)arar. 'schiitteln. p. Lambert as a passive preterite form of the verb at.P(~ does not consider this instance. Loth explained this as aur-co. beuteln' (lEW: 632) OPC: 177.-Y. . Lambert: 1986. this corresponds to W aur 'or'. H.< IE '*pet. J. 406 nou iraurleou gl. Schmidt in ZCP 40 (1984).'auf etwas los. GPC: 13~ Lambert: 1984a. Olr uar < Lal. GPC does not consider this instance. VGK: I. < IE *kUit-. lEW: 826~ VVB: 49 hau bein atar MP 22b (234) • fos v prel. aor is aencumhal. of the part. 305. etc. GPC: 12. DB or. *ate-au-. bach. 187.i. horologilun. hOTa. According to Stokes. DGVB: 277. 203 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. Vendryes.) 'opposite situation' and drichetion. VVB: 50 aurcimerdricheticion gl.neir and LElA: (~-163~ for the prefix . miseris patruelibus Ovid 38 8 VVB: 50 aur Ncmn asse n 'as' (1) This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Latin as. of drichu. WO: 95 dou lrean haur gI. < *ar-pat-. MB eur. plin dt gl. ligo Prise J) a t. baculus ope: 249. which is treated as "the pI.a . ~ II wa5 noted by Fleriot that this form in an otherwise Breton gloss "presente une graphie (fapparence gall.) and l(l)e 'place'. ~wretched. etc. bisse Ang 56 a ir ir lri ui.12 arpe'eficion adj. see also oraur. Burleou n pi 'watches' OB orlegh. Lambert: 1982a. for eyfer see s. bacuhun. ML: 135.oder niedersttirzen. Lambert) suggests. as in diasbad. and tal = Ir taile 'salaire'. premises' (1) According to VVB: 49. Ct hataned in hi hatoned (Ovid. assis. fliegen. OB bah. asse bichan . On the OB form see DGVB: 76."r' ! 4l~old. horoscopa (?) Me 46 h. and cf. Ir bachall < Lat. MW bac. Bachellery: 196. s. DGVB: 77: GPC: 246: lEW: 93: LElA: R-3: E. LElA: U-9. orleg..v.contClins prohlematic IE h and a. 1..ner (W cyler. hore trium Ang 65 b . petl. p. atai) gl. p. Loth in RC 32 (1911). contra Zeuss: 1059. for the semantic evaluation. now drycllli 'to make apparent'''. fallen'. GPC: 237. GPC: 242. peg' (bach) OW (LL) bach. Olr baec The word is considered by L. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 BUr . LElA: B-3. and is derived from IE *bflk~ 'Stab a)s StOtze'. As noted by J.v. VVB: 47. III. consists. See ()WA V. cf DGVB: 238 and 278. OIr cO'l1ai. Ir or). vicem Ovid 42 a aurcimerdricheticion (?) The compositum is a hapax in Welsh. Zupitza in KZ 36 (1900). 407.Ito leave'. DGVB: 278. thus ato[i)s = MW adwys (adaw). Stokes: 1873. K. < Britt. Etymologically. this "mot populairc" *hakkn. pass. 13 (aurum. Hamp in SC 12-13 (197718). 22. GPC does not consider this instance . On etymology of drychu. Williams: 1980. gnomonum stilis Me 46 a. see also aur·.a. The instance is not quoted in GPC. cf. ci. aith. G PC does not consider . i . see Isaac: 306. Loth (and now P. aur. arci. or" Cneme ~r I letter) (allr1 According to Zeu~s and Loth. this contains allr 'hour'. see also eJerinn. LHEB: 307. orospica leg.v. Since E. ". < Lat. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14a 8 bacl n r'staff' (bagl) MW bag(y)l. orleh This was considered by Stokes to be a compound of aur 'hour' (see s. see LElA: D-56.107 amserpanatos irnauou rernanserunt iii gl." +air-drichticioll. 225. but its presence in a Welsh gloss could be an argument for its Welsh origin. see eifnerdridou. yay'gern haben' (lEW: 77).

behet hirmain guidauc Chad 4 behet cam dubr Chad 4 '\"'" 1930. Christendom' (hedydd I MW bedyd < Lat.67. lEW: 118. first attested in 1707. fila J 56 bichet see bih.b. poetir" [barddol] An "01 derivative of bard(d) ·poet. As was suggested. Isaac: 393. Philosoph~ cds. Olr hec(c) without sound etymology. De Bernardo Stempel: 80-1. GPC: 363. GPC: 267~ ML: 137. HPB: 232. Stokes).421 fn. MC boell. DGVB: 80~ GOI: 93~ GP(~: J60~ oev: 407~ PE("A: 16: VGK: J85: VVB: 53: WG: 156 assa . 242 biheit hcitham ir cguin hittoi ir hunc MP 2J' (241) bihit prep. Sonlmcr. for a different derivation « *barzdo. the colomaJicus of the Latin text stands for columnat.). tbhi. S.. 'as far as.cus. E. DGVB: 82f. which according to GPC: 271 is a loan from English bares. 151. Per l'etimologia di celt. E. Ir bith < Celt. 'as far as' See be'. Several etymologies have heen suggested for these words (hy Zinlmer. biail < *bisali.. bechan~ OB becan.cUJ~.) Chicago Linguistic Society. Ellis Evans in BBCS 24 (1972). 4L VVB: 53 nacenbfd gl. S. Williams. e. Notwithstanding the semantic difficulties. II§ fsr I§' (bed] MW het. bicit. Beach. rei MC 41 b. . Stokes: 1873.. GPC: 360~ lEW: 468. *hltei-d-. 86-7. Spitze. (X). 'die Stimme erheben'. The etymology is still not clear. OC hoghan gl.2) bann see dib.f. crest' (OIr barr). cr. 0 B bi t. Olr hihdu The Irish cognate is listed under IE 'schlagcn. A. GPC: 256. Schrijver: 323. Williams: lQ27. summit. bichet.i. *bitll!i < IE *g"ei. 183-1. see uea'illfau~ besntrident behet prep.. bet. *bardos. see bet.. < *gllrsdo-) . relating this word to IE *bhfid-.. OB bit. 'Emporstehendes. This reading was considered by J. 268 berdutOD see t ••erdlltou ri guird. stoBen' in lEW: 112. bet prep.110. cf. 'guilty. Loth (VVB: 52) and I. LElA: 8-20). VVB: 51 orbardaulleteinepp gl.. G. hican. be??u gl. MB beuez. VVB: 52-3.g . see also laubael. ni"e. pp. apparently to IE *bhares.heit. 404. GPC: 266. Consider also Welsh "'yell 'little' in toponymies. and ZCP 39 (1982). D. D\\'yfeclt 'Small Dwy' (as opposed to Dwyfor 'Big Dwy·).. o. p. The instance is not quoted in GPC. see bt'FT e. E.. *"'heidh-. lEW: 478.. baptido. Hamp in Be 18 (1981) p.n bardsuladj. 11.6) be??o W. asse bichan MP 22 h (234) irnimer hichan MP 22h (238) ir bis bichan MP 23:1 (241) ban? Both the Latin word and t he gloss over it causes problems. B. The latter (Williams: 1933. Williams: 1980.'schlangen'. bard' < IE *gUer(. bichan. VGK: 1. 26R: Williams: beanhiden. see E. Ir. WG: 415: Williams: 1927. VVB: 50 bahell gl. /I Studi e saggi linguistici 20 (1980). GPC: 26()~ VVB: 52. GPC: 258.. and cf. Dinnych. oolomaticus 0)(2 428 (3. VVB: 51 barr gl. pp. DGVB: 84. Fox. 'small' (bychan) MW bychan. byt. belys(en) 'bundles of haulm or s1raw for thatching'. nulla J 71 biheit prep. VGK: I. 'as far as. VVB: 5J bibid gl. p. until' See bellet. Hamp. Campanile. lEW: 109..14 15 DGVB: 84. See also pbetid. /I (W. the gloss was compared to W bar 'top. culpable' Hapax in Welsh. parvus~ Olr becc\n Note the discrepancy between Brittonic and Goidelic (OIr c = (g] vs Britt. Borste' (see De Bernardo Stempel: 82. WG: 415 bet circhinn frguollcuni gl. LElA: B-49. bicctt 'jusqu'a'. usque sub occiduum coeli J R4 bahe" n f'De' [bwyIU] MW bwyall. until' DB hichit. 'bardit:. epica pagina MC 1a. Pedersen. GPC: 357-8.1) bibid adj. G bitu-. *""au- bichan adj. Stokes (1860--1: 219) suggested reading *belou and compared it with W. bw(y)ell~ MB bou(c)hazl.< IE tbhei(:l)·. betid n m 'the Christian world. 84. 117) noted that this could also stand for benou or bonou. this instance is not mentioned in GPC.t hid n m 'world' (1) MW bid. The Semantics of Poetry in Early Celtic. Papers from the Thirteenth Regional Meeting4 Chicago 1977. LElA: B-48~ LHEB: 411. GMW: 196.a. Apparently an *-agno~ derivative from W haeh. and *g"ed-~ for a useful summary see LElA. 104 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. securis Ox2 42 a (4.'Ichen'.

GPC: 349. see LElA. bis gl. cf. Olr lnlditlz.'Galle'? (only Celtic and Latin). did di aries Comp18 binfic n m 'loan. Ian igerae templs Ovid 38 8 . see GPC: 299 and LElA: B-117-8. bon(h)cd. MB bloez. hairs. Olr. beneficium EL: 25. from IE *gllis-ti-s. pedigree' (bonedd) MW bonhet. *boJsa.16 bihit. LElA: B-20.279 to IE *mel. hliden. nobility.52. ::ltin . *bit-. fur'. gall' [bustl] MW bystyl. VGK: 1. PECA: 15. OCV: 202~ PECA: 15~ G. DGVB: 86. Pennaod in EC 23 (1986). cE. MW hlollt. PECA: 13-14. ~wool bearing' Hapax in Welsh. OC bes gl.'gHinzen' (lEW: 155).14) bis n m 'finger' [bys] MW bys(s). binfic gl. bis truit gI. farina. Lewis: 1926. hra~awdl MW brachaut. num uescitur J 92 bfeuporfhet. 290. fist' (bos) W bos~ B h6z. beneficium Ox2 43 b (5. Lat. 151-2~ lEW: 716~ LElA: M-56. lEW: 102. See also AEW: 339. that which is borrowed or lent' [benthyg] MW benffyg. bohed gl. tribus J 7 bos n f 'palm of the hand. word. bloaz~ cf. GPC: 302. melonoolia Ang 68 a GPC: 299. obscure~ the renex of the root-vowel makes the ('ornish affinities of this entry very likely. VVB: 52. gus. 79. OCV: 51.r. ML: 138. which was linked by G. DGVB: 83. La t. similagineln. 163. II] ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20 bloidin salt Comp 22 bloteit n ? Already Zeuss. bas < Celt. cf. U53--6~ VGK: I. VVB: 54 ir bis bichan MP 238 (241) ir bis hihi erguid MP 238 (241) his! n m 'bile. 84 iT du bisl gl. aIr bos. however. Zirnmcr. Pokorny in ZCP 18 (1930) p. 0(' hint gl.'. ME benhuec < Lat. which is an -edd derivative of non (Ir. see Pennaod. VVB: 54 ope. Elsie: 101. for a possihle connection with IE *bhle. This compound consists of b/eu 'hair. all from IE *nle/-. The attempt to consider this word as helonging to a substratum (J..of the unknown origin. GPC: 361. and Thurneyscn: 1890a. who rejected Stokes' reading he. Laubwerk" (lEW: 480 does not list the Celtic words) in view of OIIG questa.ta.nJred (1860-1: 209. see also bonhed n m 'stock. gyos-. Schrij\'er: 246~ LElA: B-47-8. bess[et] (or bese. co iced 'province"). and porthedig. lEW: 481. gentem J 57 362~ VVB: 57 bissei n 'an intercalary < Lat. Language 7 (1931). a loan from 6g~ ML: 198. has ug gl. W bJau'd. DGVB: 86~ Elsie: 149~ GPC: 291~ LElA: B-59. IE ·bis-(t)[i. OB bis (bes) in innbisiou. VVB: 55 nom irbleuporthetic gl. The instance is not quoted in GPe. 1061 connected this with MW blowd 'farina'. An -au'd derivative (on thiC\ suffix sec St. Then. OC b1i~en. OB unblot gl. digitum. OB blidan. po rra re . hragot: Olr hrnc(c)6it frorn Arit. where it is suggested" that the word stands for pelnhed == Ir. LHEB: 684~ VGK: I. allux.'Gezweig. OB bistlou. palma MP 23 a (245) both see an niboth anhod/aun bracaut n m 'hra~~et' rhra~nd. PECA: 15. 93. The word formation remains. 111) should be possihly ahandoned in favour of a connection with IE *glJes-. then it corresponds exactly to the glossed Lat. OIr bisse (ega) Traditionally analysed as cognates of Old Norse kvistr 'branch'. r)~tin!! the ~. Orr bfad < Celt. GPC: 367. inues.. *bo. VVB: 57 anit arber bft gl. Lane. later blew. pedi~ree" (bonedd) According to I. OC bleu < *bleus. VVB: 54 11 bloidin n f 'year' (blwyddyn I MW blwydyn. hragawt. digitus.4. Ir hunad GPC does not consider this instance. OCV: 57 and 64. DGVB: 84. Hamp in Celtica 10 (1973). Russell: 1990. See also honed. boned gl. DC bistel < rtbis-tl-. VGK: I. Williams (1933: 116). GPe: 272. IE *~ei· ~leben'. 69. p. spumaticunt Ox2 42 3 (3. dir temi Comp16 bichet paniu pet guarid. cf. digiti. bisse(ctus) or bissei Comp 3 dB)" (Latin -1) hit niritarner rann. PECA: 14. VGK: I. bun). etc. see OCV) gl. this instance is not mentioned in arber. bliadain < vi bleid. cf. bon(h)ed 'lineage. rr. this corresponds to MW bon (It)et. apc: 2R6~ LHEE: 'na"\\'nrcf~: I. queried by Pokorny.'Wolle' (lEW: 721 without this instance). VVB: 56 bloteit gl. ennbisiou.c adj.7) boned n m 'stock.. irbissei Comp 10 bit n ID 'fooo' (!) MW byd. hi/is. See the next. 327~ OPC: 284~ E.

'die Stimme erheben' (lEW: 478. XVIII 62). sprieBen'. PECA: 16.0) this compound contains bronn 'sein'. lEW: 143f. 3R~ OCV: 258~ PECA: 19~ Rhys: 1873. missel-thrushes' I hronfraith J MW bronureith. H. VVB: 59 brfth gl. passionate' (hrwdl MW brwd. VVB: 58 ir br~ni gl. 173: P. 'mottled. innamed. IE Vg"Oll.69. Loth (VVB: (. the occurence of the other animal names with the final cit < *-kk. spotted· Ihrithl MW brith. ELI: 19. VVB: 58-9. '''. B breut.21) bl1lch8Ut lee 19 oaVB: 89. ope: 306-7. bronnced gl. aIr mraich.could imply a certain model. LElA: R-fil: K.3 (1974).18 suffixes in Welsh (and their Celtic congeners).(. apc: 325 briceriauc gl. buccula~ cf. bywch~ OC huch gl. etc. einweichen'. coctio. LElA: B-77. melligratum Ox2 44 8 (6. Celtiherian POlisToI" 'cow stable' < Britt. bardaul). hair' < IE *bhreg. OCV: JR9. VGK: II. p. OB hrot gl. VVB: 59 cecinet bronnbreithet g1. GPC: 350: lEW: 482. and breith. for this base see also s. eds. est aninllls J 66 braur n ·judgemenl' (name of a letter) See brQutl~ braut Nemn bred. The extensive bibliography is given in De Bern ardo Stempel. see H.K: II.t17. uitta crinalis Me 4 a. Britain 4(X)-. VVB: 97 bracaut gl. Russell: 1995. LElA: B-106. 'hairy' 'An -(Tl-le derivative of brictr. VVB: 58 did braut Chad 2 brousnnou see s. Russell: 115. voile'). Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Campanile (in ZC'p 3. C bres. 2tl: VVB: 61 huch gl. PECA: 19) the British protoform could he a result of a crossing with Latin uarca. 124. pr. GPe: 324. funke1n". 174. LElA: B-94. pictam J 30 bronnbreithet n pi 'thrushes. E. lEW: 130.Patrick's modebroth and Ir br~th Until recently the word was considered to belong to IE *bher. 48~ lEW: 7J. A. buch) MW bucc. GPC: 326. see bricer GPC does not con~ider 1 his. Y Freni Fawr. VVB: 60 is brut m i [= mihi] gl. See also the next. for which see hr. According to E. According to J. but see for a different opinion Schrijver: 176 and OWAV. G PC docs not mention this instance. p. p. lEW: 739. W I""clr. GPC: 332. Sulla formazione delle parole nclrantico cornico.. He translates this hapax as 'voile pour Ie poitrine·. p. buch. p. bratium. p. braut. cf. ircarnottlul bricer g1. St. traditionally < IE *merk-. ~ee E. N. buch n f 'cow' [buwch.'schwellen. 'hot. OIr mrecht < *"rrik-to. briger An -~r derivative of W brig 'top. PECA: 17~ VGK: I. 115. McCone in Eriu 42 (1991).1 (1986). proreta. Deus Braciara 'dieu de la biere ou du malt'. OCV: 373. GPC: 332).'Rind". Schmidt in Kratylos 20 (1975).a. 251. 271 cf. See also IJronnhre.v. 1990. Bammersberger. Wallman. zealous.373. uacca I. JlEALXeatov) Ox2 42 3 (3. de Bernardo Stempel. cf. Inoch. broine A word with an uncertain etymology.. Wagner in ZCP 28 (1960-1). the Celtic words now grouped under Pokorny's *g"er(~). p. VGK: I. which should not be confused with MW brnnget 'gift of the bosom or heart" (G: 78. wallen' DGVB: 91. faulen. See LElA.1: LElA: M-67~ LHEB: 405. K. long hair' [briger] MW bryger. cicadae Ovid 40 h bronnced? A hapax in Welsh. C. II Studia lin~ istira arnica ct magistro oblata. H. However. 'steif emporstehen' (lEW: 166). proram J 31 brut adj. Eska: 88.. Marstrander in ZCP 7 (1910). n f 'prow or ship' [breniJ MW breni. GPe: 319.10) brachaut gl. DC brag gI.'fiimmern. DC brenniat gl. bulla Ox2 43 (5.) bracem 'genus farris' (Pline.l . Hamp in EC 2. brwt. B briz. 232~ V(. Milano 1991. /I A. PECA: 17. < *bhrll-to < IE *blt(e)rell- ~sich brethi"nou see m"p breJhinnou briar n m&r 4hair of head. aIr braine.3) 01 brscsut bl1lurJ n f 'judgement' (brawd] MW brawt. brofraith The compound consists of bron(n) 'breast" « IE *hlrreli-s. (ace. 1)6-~" ()W 1\ V. perhaps to IE *nrer. lEW: 170. LElA: B-80.275) from brag 'malt'. OC brcdion gl. OCV: 129. Jackson: 1950. juvcncac Ovid ~R.OO: Language and History. GPC: 334. Lambert: 190. crinalis Prisc 7 b brith adj.'Blbrouannou zclotipiae~ Olr hruth hcftig hewcgen. The introduction of G tJ(Jutou into the discussion lead to the reconsideration of this traditional etymology. mulsum (uel melligratum for melicratum. *boukkii.'tragen'. pied. merg. 38."1et. GPC: 311-2. MC bruit. cf. 238. see also Elsie: 84). JO: 106. braich. G. bricrriauc adj. and ced (Irish cedac ~manteau. p.'morschen. instance under brigerog (MW brigerawg). cf. M-66. De Bernardo Stempel: 87-9. flamp in BBeS 27 (1977).

. pubic hair.onr-). Lane: 246. reeds' [c. GPC: IQ7. pres. pr. VGK: I. private parts' (cedor] MW cedor. De Bernardo Stempel: 96~ OOVB: 276 and 96~ D. VGK: II. fence. GPC: 395 ~ callistr (01 callastr) gl. C cellester.v. Haycock: 10. buddug (MW butic) 'victorious. &c' (cf. Breton?) The presence of -eint. DGVB: 94. brooch. ratio cogit ciclos deccnnouenales XXVIII descrihi Ang 21 a c aJisuc n m 'little book' (caeog] W caeog An -og derivative of cae 'hedge. De Bernardo Stempel: 96~ DGVB: 96. 50. 121. OB budicol Substantivised adjective. t) canlou adj.and ar-. callestr. Olr caindel < Brit. indic. cannwyl1~ OC cantuil gl. oPC: 412. Lat.'. 72. OIr buaid (Pokorny's *bhoudhi. 193. Gal: 50l. candela GPC: 414~ Jackson: 1950. scamnhegint) caused Flcuriot to consider this form as Welsh.i. Flechtwerk" DGVB: 94. pp. El1is Evans in BneS 27 (197R).J MW kan-. Watkins: 1982. PECA: 20. loseetic. winner. VGK: I. 4RI. LElA: C-17~ LHEB: 471. OB bud gl. candela. OC kalagueli gl. caJdarlo GPC: 396~ LHEB: 432. see lo)'r. oev: 346-7. budygawl. MB cauter < Lat.). trean cant mel MP 22 h (230) dou etcrion cant hunnoid di assa . VVB: 62 ircaiauc gL libellum Ovid 39 8 alitoir n m&f 'pubes. LElA: ('-31.'singen' Elsie: 128~ GPC: 408~ lEW: 526. COlnand ard(d). DeV: 384. pube Ovid 41 b ca/.'Sieg' ?. ML: 142. enclosure. bright of son~' This interpretation (accepted hy GPC) was suggested by I. C. MIr caither The etymology and the relationship of the words is not clear. ML: 143. The instance is not quoted in ope. JEW: 518. pyrites' [callestr] . triumphant'. lEW: 163. The instance is not quoted in It was noted by L. VGK: I. LElA: C-24~ VGK: II. VVB: 61 budicaul gl. 1 sg 'sin. 20-21. Lat. ending of this form (cL ncrtheint. lEW: 613~ LElA: C-83. MB cantoel1. LHEB: 509). ('aerwyn Williams in BBCS 13 (1950). Etymologically.235-6. cf. pI. OB cant. 225. ME quaezour. Lamhert suggests reading contarceillt and interprets this entry as J pi passive.f (can. and lOll 'bright". Williams. gan~ OC gur cans grueg gl. mit' (to Yk. thus W arRap. 97. OB cant. PECA: 21. GPe: 346..1) cannuill n f 'candle' [cannwyll J MW can(h)wyll. Then. Ir cet < IE */art6m 'hundert' < *(d)jartt6nl '(Zehncr)dekade'.Y. Ellis Evans in BBC'S 27 (IQ78) . conqueror' [buddugol] MW budugawl. oc~ canoris gl.3) canr prep. Williams: 19RO. l-lamp in EC 14 (1974). pp. 96 dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1. W budd 'profit.23) cant l num. vieto Ovid 39b canam v pres. OIr cet< IE *kl!lta 'neben. see LElA B-I07). DGVB: 91. diguolouichetic.. callistr n f '!'Cone which produ ces sparks when struck. VVB: 63 o caitoir gl. geflochtene Horde. lichinunt vel cantel Ox2 44 h (7. WG: 165 ope: 384. see on the lattcr GPC: tR5 and De Bernardo Stempel: 76-7 with an extensive bibliography. bradium. nint. einfassen. C cans.laf) MW calaw. P. . he argues that the form consists of a preverb~ cant. cantrix < IE *kan. ". B cailhastr No etymology for Ihis word has been offered. OB caiou gl. 509~ ML: 144~ OCV: 337-8. maritus . card. 'bright and melodious. guolleuin. minimenta) < IE ·kagh-.'high'. an -01 derivative from W buddig. VVB: 63 cahimennou gl. GPC: 1379~ E. cane~ MB canaff~ OIr can-~ cf. [alaf. a 3 pers. culmos J 25 ca/aur n f&m 'cauldron' Icallor] MW callawr~ OC caltor gL cacabus. PECA: 21. 105 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. and thc stem rap (sec s. *kogh.4tl7-472. 'hundred' (cant. . E.36. VVB: 64 cannuill gl.'fassen. VOK: I. louber.225. stramentum < LaL calamus ope: 390. cantela (cf. 'with' (gan ) MW can(n). entlang. D. abwarts. pp. silicurn Ang 15 b ope. White: 77-ft nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. Williams: 1980.mennoD n pi "stalks. a hapax which contains can 'song' (see canant) . "[he instance is not quoted in GPC. can J MW cant. Aeuriot that the word could be read as callastr. MW cyllystyr. GPC: 446. VGK II: 292~ WG: 4()6~ VVB: 64~ J. 46 oith gueid guar cant gl. GPC: 418~ lEW: 192~ LElA: C-82. VGK: I. asse bichan MP 22 h (2~4) cantsrteint v ? 'they raise together' or 'they are closed' (?. etc.20 21 budiClluJ n 'vidor. PECA: 20.238-9.

'schmahen. DGVB: l20~ GPC: 569.gl. 08 carrec. see GPC: 429.f1l. an -edig derivative from ca. or < Lat. cathedra (VVB. sin. Bartrum: 15) casulheticc adj. Hirsch oder Kub' GPC: 434..b. VVB: 65~ Williams: 1944. cathedralis (Stokes. OC caruu . Lloyd Jones in nBCS (IQ21). Rindc·. 402. G. lEW: 576~ OCV: 252. 430.J: 272 cared n r 'Iran8gre5sion. 83. PT VII. GPC suggests earn + ? od + 0/. Mlr carrie < IE *kar. 'pertaining to a chair' Icadeiriol) W cadeiriol < Lat. '1Ial3' OPC: 435.. W cen 'skin' (C' (. See carrece. M[r eais . on these sec DGVR: 102: JEW: . 'bun-shaped. IE *kiid-. scropea (leg. where this word is viewed as a loan from AS. a. armee'. The instance is not quoted in GPC. etc. LElA: C-20-1. VGK: I.22 DGVB: 96. clan. e. WG: 137 carrecc gl. Catu< IE *k.1510: lEW: 616. Parry-Williams: 121. nequitiae J 86 cared gl. OR ('('1I"f'''' g1. RI cascord maur Gen: 11 [G]urci ha Pcretur mepion Elcuther cascord maur 11arl (cf. for W carn 'cairn. sella curulis Me 45 a. MB cas.HI/ 'chasublc' (Olr co.'io/) < Lat.ot. ceruus~ MB caru < IE *ktyo-s "gehornl. wearing 8 chignon' Hapax in Welsh. purple dye made from the juice of the purple·fish' Icen I MW ken(n) Cf. DGVB: 97 carreic gl. VVB: 64 cared gl.to-. see also carrecou. uitta crina lis Me 4 a.. cerricc. cas.a. eerriee. LElA: C-42. als Subst. magne familie VSB: j 15 (cf. carreec. OIr caire < IE *k!i. the word is used throughollt the "Annnles Camriae··.51 dipennant ircaru Cha d 6 cas n m 'haired' laI~1 MW cas. VVB: 64 ircarnotaul bricer gl. barrow.'harf. C. London 1923. 3 pi 'to go (together)' [The form could be Breton] L. OPC: 553. C carrag. Parry-Williams. 406~ VVB: 66 ircatteiraul rettcticc strotur gl. VGK: I. 23. family'. GPC: 374~ OPN: 171-5: lEW: 534. For the etymology and references se e carrecc and cf. 29. MB quiguin GPC: 449: Williams: 1933. coeun1 Ang 16 a 23 < */c. eerriec. LElA: C-275). LElA: C-45."r01l0. 'wearing a chasuble' Hapax in Welsh. cad~ C.ii. VVB: 65. ML: 141-2) OPC: 377~ Stokes: 1873. satilites meos Ox2 43 h (5.'kampfcn'. Olr ('ri"11) < IF *(sJkpn-(d-) 'ahspalten~ ahgespaltenc Haul. DGVB: 97.. arremu n m pi 'stones' Note the unexpected plural form. Ir cath. JO: 104. p. GPC: 425. OC goscor gl. cared. cosgor(t). cecinet n pi 'jays' [cegin] MW cegin. Stokes: 1873. Elsie: 136~ GPC: 431. Schuppc. Irish Cflire 'troupe. W COJfng 'mastiff (GPC: 570). p.g . Bartrum: II) casgoord gI. body~uard' I cos~ordd I MW coscord. perstruuntur Ang 17 a CIInteint v pres. casu/a.. p. carrec6u gl. strafen' Fowkes: 96. GPC: 438.615. VVB: 65-6 casulheticc gl. also T .• 1. PECA: 22. cf. ceenn n m 'murex.a.b.111. ML: 145. nota Ovid 3gb CIImotsul adj. *ll(p)n-sknrjii (ysker-): 2) Celt. The instance is not quoted in GPC. R~ OCV: 80.27) [Eucrdil] uxor Elidir coscoruaur gl. birschkopfig. De Bernardo Stempel: 93. Carubdim Me 42 a. crime' [caredd) MW karet. cat pencon (s.. 3) cost (as in ()B co. casgoord n f 'retinue of attendants. 187 cantarteint gl. ". Lambert: 19848. DGVB: 96 canteint gl. 93R: J. LElA: naln ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 C-22~ M.K/. GPC). PECA: 5L VGK: 11. cf. cf. cicadac Ovid 40h ope: calreCC n m&r 'stone' [aarreg] MW carree. cliens Several etymologies have heen considered: 1) < Britt.. scrupea] J 26 1 r arreic n pi 'gones' According to F1euriot~ this could be a Welsh plural form. lEW: 530. *tlo·eks· + cor (as in W cordd 'trihe. sc)llla et charybde Ang 18 b canl n m 'dee r' Ics rw] MW carw. familia~ den coscor gl. PECA: 22. 722).3. lEW: 576. Vkar. 2 ncu ti rygosteis kyn h\vyf teu (see PT: 79-RO) + cor as in 2). carreie. E. MB carez..tad 'gardicn·. MC cara. lEW: 532. "u'1. Harvey: 188-9. hoof. penulata MC 14 b. VGK: 1. 390. Hamp in BBCS 37 (1990). Aeuriot queried possible OW affinities of this form. Hamp: 1977-8.115 cecinet bronnbreithct gl. cat n f 'battle' Icad J MW cat. The English Element in Wclsh. carreic. Stokes: 1873. 132 c8tteiraul adj.

spitz. to IE *ak-. kenedyl. D. kantig\ lEW: 18f. this could also have been b<Jlrowed flom qlla e~(J . Wiliams: 1933. 'although.3 cemecid gl. VVB: o7~ Williams: 1929. Sec also cet. cyn: OB cenit~ Olr cfa. tool for dressing mill-stones' [cyregydd) MW kyfegydd An -ydd derivative from cyfogi. cyf-(h)ogi Ito make keen or pointed. non bene passa Ovid 398 MW ('chait.v.1) < Britt. GPC: 396~ LElA: C-54: Schrijver: ~75 and J95: VVB: 67 cemmein gl. White: 21]-4~ Williams: 1980. Schrijver: 36 460. MIl' c:nlrnn ·k. et a. 659. and imperal. p. (~onlr 11 .3) cemmein n m (old pi) 'steps.n. i. T. J. See also chefel. 'skUful. chenetdl. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38 3 cemecid n m 'mill-pick. 298: Williams: 1927. 120-121 tutbulc hai cenetl Chad 2 cenett. Leide n Leech-Book) cres A wOld wi1h no establis. 114 it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. found. ope: 448~ Kelly: 47-50.~frisch hervorkommen. ME quen. cf. The etymology of the word. PT: 31. enspringen. blinzeln' (lEW: 712-3). pp. rohal/us is disputable. Olr ceoel < *kene-tlo. 233. Williams: 1980. LHEB: 387. see De Bernardo Stempel: 95 with bibl. keuyndyru~ C kanderu. 266 cen nit hoi loc guac inter o. "- reis " imp. VVB: 61 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. cein. e. cain. 668. cf.e. cc The connection between the Brittonic and Goidelic forms (eL Ogam Ir el) was suggested by D. ind.l06f. imperf. aIr ceimm. ] pi by White. generatio~ OB chenedl. lapidaria Ox2 42h (4. 1 sg) by I. strides" (cam J MW cam~ MB C cam.0 praise' [ceinmyg-] MW ceinmygA compound. in pagi"a regulari. colle I grauio gl. Greene. VGK: I. Eska: 53-4. Q2-CJ~~ LElA: C-92: Lewis: 1956. cultellus OPC: 751. LElA: C-34 and OW A V. GPC: 454. CI Camanom Perhaps to IE *gheng1l.. for the first component see S.7) ("(lImed adj.ir' [Cllin) MW kein. ()B l'churd. Another pos!\ibility considered by Loth is to derive this word from *ked-t-: Ir ceis 'circuit'. 2 sl seek" (ceis-) MW ceLs(s)-. Charles-Edwards in BBCS 24 (1971) p. White: 266 Ceis ini r loyr Comp 21 -'0 cenetl n r 'tribe. Henry: 75. GPC: 689.g.113 ceinmicum ucnou' ran Juv 9 (6. J.'flimmern.l60 ceCel gl.c. Williams.iru n m "first cousin' I cefnder(w)] MV keuynderv.'. etc. set an edge on. OOVB: 101-2~ ope: 65R. 23. Kelly.v. VVB: 67 celleell gl. IE Yken· 'frisch hervorkommcn. kcnctl. cultellus.io-~ the IE haekgrounds Arc ohscure. kyllell. DGVB: 99 and 331. art[ a]uum Ox2 42 h (4. clan' (cenedl) MW kenetyl.'sharf. ueredus Prise 11 b ~in adj. ope: 461~ lEW: 563-4~ JO: t07~ LElA: (~-M: ()C'V: 91: PECA: 27~ Schrijver: 27 and 36~ VGK: I. on the lalter word see now LElA: C-57. 'fine. deruen. 933. 1 pi (or less likely. ok. Schrijver: 2R8~ VGK: I. GPe: 456. Greene in Eriu 21 (lCJ69). LHEB: 606. LHEB: 668. cestio) states that "l'emprunt n'est pas certain". The second element is *mygu. !'calprum < Lat.2) cr. DGVB: 93~ OPC: 455. dress or pick'. DGVB: 100. ML: 156. reinmicum v 110 honour. OPC: 447. anfangen' GPC: 390~ lEW: 563--4~ LElA: C-16.'schreiten' (lEW: 43R-4).24 25 LElA: C-55. kenedel. in gradibus Ovid 3R h cen conj.hed etymology. The form is analysed as pres. ope does not consider this instance. and its connection with Lat. anfangen' DOVB: 104-5. OB (1.C'. B kenderf From (W) coifn. see s. According to White. in dirmygu < IE *meik. B kOfll'ok see GPC: 709. entspringen. . ML: l47. ~killed' (celryddl refel n m 'horse' [ceRyl) MW ceffyl~ OB pois chefel~ Olr capall There is no certainty that the word is surely Welsh and not Breton in view of the Breton eJ(smples cited by Fleuriot.. LElA: C-27. Loth though listing it alongside the other Latin borrowings « Lat. VVB: 67 ni cein guodemisauch gl.on . even thouflh' (cyd" cyn) OW (LL) cin~ MW kin. VVB: 67. OC kinethel gl. f. roughen. ccluyd.on see uncenett. cf.. ceifn 'third cousin' « IE *kom-nepots) and derw 'true. OC collel gl.a"n. 114 oceenn gl. OCV: 166 and 377~ PECA: 29~ VGK: I. LHEB: 605. Olr cain (possibly a loan from Brittonic) < *kanio5 < IE tken. Pokorny in ZCP 19 (1933). mirice Ovid 408 929-30~ ope: celieell n f 'knife' (cyllelll MW kallel. Ice the dilllcuRRion of it hy P. 168.

dorsum Loth's reading ("pour cengl. haci (Williams: 1927. IE Vkan. obtain. who pointed out to the spelling cecg which occurs in the Book of Llan Oaf (LL: 73 truf irct"cg). The first component of this compound (= Irish (0111. keuen. 34 a cihitun. du lat. nouircerricc gl. along'.. 'with us' OB ceoten ni See cant. coihiton A derivative of W cyhyd (OW LL 73 cellil) 'of equal length. cussedness.'singen· (lEW: 525-6). GPC: 464. 54..2) 1 i cennin gL cipus Ox2 42 8 (3. DCV: 271. ni. find' See chepi. LElA: C-19. cerwyn.0(') contains prefix *knl1'-. cf. MB quinghenn. < *konlbranko-nlogos.2) . 247. For the criticism of the etymology offered in Wei: 415 « *ko-. OC kenin euynoc gl. Lewis: 1956. find' See chepi.no< *nlog-.~id. Schrijver (ibid. on this sec l)c Bcrl1nrdo Stempel: q<J-IOO. VGK: I. this word contains the prefixes *kol1t-ro. cupa The difficulties in the interpretation of this word as a loan from Lat. ci (for cei 1) is did ciman. DGVB: 113. 2 sg 'to have. PECA: 24. corrrcoli. OCV: 56. 260) Comp 3 cihracma n 'hattlefield' Hapax in Welsh. 192. The word is not attested in later Welsh. oriens maior Ang 13 b ci v pres. VVB: 70 accroenhou gl. . Icehes'r~ cepister n m 'haller. kef(u)yn. VVB: 68) was rejected by I. Dauida canorum J 49 cep n f&DI 'pirk8Jle. evil' [cebystr] MB cabestr < Lat. 'to have.26 27 ren. ohtain. n. P. even thou~h' MW ket See cen.218. daffodils' [tennin) MW ceonin. ce/tit from *ko-si/-~ the semantics was compared hy Flcuriot with Irish go siotlr 'to~ as far as'. For the etymology see Fowkes: 1958.(cf. hor elin cihutun hi torr MP 2J1 (24fl) hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23" (24()) centh(i)list n m 'singer' Attested twice and only in the Juvencus glosses. Schrijver: 456. ploughshare' [caib] MW caib.n GPC: 444: LHEB. kennyn.298. GPC: 455~ LElA: C-85. Williams: 1930. VVB: 71. did~ hanaud Comp 1 . frugi Prise. MW gorcheithleit. Stokes: 1860-1. VVB: 69~ WG: 17 ircenthiliat gl. that these words go back to *kasn-ina. For -oe. ke)'p~ Scottish Gaelic caibe SeeOWAV. pres.J. Williams: 19JO. hoe. GPC: 441) < *kantlofn. Elsie: 80. DC chein gl. cautium Me 51 a. see canam. cf.. 1) suggests that "the word is probably not of IE origin. ML: 149.and the stem -. 'alon~~ as far as' Icyhlldlln I OW (LL: 122) orlech cilli/o11 dital ircecyn. GPC: 658. cephitor. VVB: 69-70 cepister gl.ether.. PECA: 25.'reichcn' (lEW: 316f). p. harrels' Icerwyn 1 MW ccruyn. tHEE: 498. PECA: 24. GPC: 469. fosarium Ox2 42b (4~3) cephilor v. where the connection with Sanskrit asman 'Stein. Himmel' is discussed. and IE *(e)nek. GPC: 746. see Sims-Williams. cingulum". An -iad derivative of (MW) cathJ 'song' (B kentel.5. EL: 35. tuns. OIr cainnenn It was suggested by A. carOenll1n are summarised in PECA.. VVB: 69 ceroenhou n pi 'mash-vats. DOVB: 93. camum 0. copistrll.representing lui].96 cet ibcn med nouel Juv 3 (2. Koch: 476 cibracma Chad 4 cihrmo n 'thrifty' OB cohrmo According to Flcuriot. DGVB: 105 and 111 cihrmo gJ. }~1: ML: 146. For the second element.2 43 11 (5.). cel conj. OC kcroin gl. GPC: 710. Davida canorum J 7 centhliat gl. impelS. allium. see carrecc and cf. cihutun prep. cern] OW (LL) c~ecg. MW kein. 3-4 with bibliography.c. GPC: 389.7) cenninJ prep.. GPC: 446 and 390. VGK: 1. OB eehel.60. see lna(. p.139. Dl8ttock..a. 'although. DGVB: 102 cennini gl. 606. fn. from ·kesn. ct dolea J 7R cerricc n m&f pi 'stones' For the etymology and references. II. VVB: 69 cep gl. tabs.-ta. Williams: 1980. casks. ~W kehy~tr.247 hou boit cihitun ceng if esceir is moi hinnoid MP 23 3 (246) rennin n pi 'leeks.2) cet treidin gllel haguid Juv 9 (2. sec Loth in RC 37 (1917-1919). Russian cesnok 'garlic'). Williams. as the vocalism shows". ismod. Sims-Williams: 1991. 587. Lubotsky (see Schrijver: 456). n m 'b8tk' (celna. MIr eetal. corre. OCV: 399-4(X). OB cohiton.

t s~ 'to narrow. and min. LElA: C-157. lEW: 1125~ JO: 5. and this interpretation is accepted by GP(~.. facing' See erc. bucket. VVB: 11 ~ Williams: 1930.Y. LHEB: 668. DGVB: 106 and 99. tolletum Prisc 25 a cimadas adj. Hamp in EC 14 (1974). Two etymologies have been suggested for these words.196. for the etymology of this compound « IE *(s)ku/0. W cyfyng-. GPC: 676 is did ciman. card gl. The first word of this gloss. MW cw/ 'fault. 112 it clu(i)s [it] dihan iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. cyfarwyd. 1986.. sehen' GPC: 6R5. LElA: C-17R. culeiJa. pact. and Lat. Vendryes in RC 35 (1914). 295-6 with bibl. Falileye\' in SC 29 (1995). pp.j. v. 'suitahle. 212-4~ VGK: I. 2R4 and 11. cf. LElA: C-155 ciliauc gt scaelestus Prise 40 a dluin n 'crooked hinder part of the plough' This hapax is ommited in GPC. I will discuss this instance in SC. both times in MP. VVB: 72 and 63-4 isscimadas gl. corresponding. ircilchetou gl. DGVB: 106. pp. LElA: C-99. Haycock: 13. blanket' [cylched] MW cylched. OB cClfnadns gl. Topf.1) cimarcimeir prep. Irish col. company' is commonly analysed as a loan (rom Lat. VVB: 71 cUcet gL tapiseta Ox2448 (6. cimenllhaam v pres.b. the Irish "'ord which denotes 'allience. LElA: A-13. pitcher. celwrn.365: VVB: 72.. ope: 748. entire. which analyses this entry as containing the prefix *kol1r-. LHEB: 475. Williams considers this word as a noun rather than adjective. aduerso Ang 15 b cimarguith('lejt n m&f 'well-informed person. abscenia. is left unexplained. 3 ciluin gl. 201~ 1983.loit. urceus Traditionally. benttin~' IcyraddasJ MW kyfadas. 108 hoy.nan (= English Inan. vessel. *kom·are-LJeid-. DGVB: 106 cimarcimeir gl. sheets. 236 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) is cihun argant agit eterin MP 22b (234) dhutun see cihitun 29 + cilcet n HI 'toverlet. These have beem connected with Lat.. was analysed by Lambert as SW British. Lambert who compared the form with Irish vn ClIfflRohoil. lEW: 3. 'opposite. blankets' See cilcet. Williams: 19RO. sheet. see also ci/chetou. cf. agipam < Lat. iscimadas gl. agipa. 136. OB col gl. par MC 4 a. and MW kyuochael 'to raise. p.. proportionate' The word occurs twice in W. The . CO/lll1lentll/ll. 199. hnhilis.IKrug. hoy/oit.26) dlche'oll n m pI 'co"er]et!. VVB: 12 ~ Willia ms: ] 929. OIr colced gl. VGK: 1. complete' (cyfan) MW kyua(n) Analysed in G PC as < (?) Britt. 'faulty' An -iog derivative of Celt~ "kulo-. with a query). *k011t-ann-. 192. IE Vy(e)di· 'erhlicken. blame'. Lambert: 1982. culpa (Stokes in IF 12. urceus (ch=k). etc. cimachahail uel dimffnuim gl.b. 'equal.7) ciluma n m 'pail. nefariam rem. GPC does not consider this instance.94).21. IE vad~ 'fcstsetzen. Hamp in EC 14 (1974). see E. Mlr commann I. ciman 1 adj. lEW: 951. Hamp in lIES 1 (1973). see/us (but see J. 199. haci Camp 3 ciman 2 n f 'assembly' (cyman) MW cyman~ OIr commant. OIr cilornn gl. anhysbys". 'whole. Loth in ZCP 17 (1927). tub' [celwm] MW kelurn. lEW: 555.28 dhun(n) adj. {} imalitiduch cimarguith[i]ejt Chad 3 . 'Versteck. cf. '. here ci/llpe""er. < IE "~f'P. p. DB chilorn gl. GPC suggests a derivation "cyelf. extol' (1) The meaning and the etymology of this entry offered hy Fleuriot was reconsidered by P. extol'.lneir. urne m J 40 cimachabail vn 'to raise. VCiK 1.1-4. Hinterteil'. OGVB: 94 and 53~ GPC: 674. WG: 125 cilurnl1 gl. for the scepticim in regard of *lp > I. VGK: 1. PN Cilurnum. par est MC 4 b.. Stokes: 187J.25) cileet gL stratorium Ox2 448 (6. LElA: C-166. GPC: 754. E. Parry-Williams: 121. DGVB: 113. . piacu/a . p.352 anu II. 390. Olr cumtlog ti~hf('n' I~yryn~-l . cylchet~ OB colchet gl. GPC does not consider this instance. 322ff and EC 15 (1976-7) p.147-152). Olr cOfllndas < *kom + addas < ·ad-asto~. ordnen'. forthcoming. on this stem see E. GPC: 458. sec s. GPe: 639. see GPC: 673 and 6RO. DGVB: 105. J. buris 0'12 42b (4. Both comparisons were rejected by Hamp due respectively to the formal inconsistencies and the "unusual ancestral configuration". ML: 156. The entry itself is perhaps a hybrid. vela Ovid 38& dli8UC adj. GP~: 744. GPC: 2460) see A. VGK: L 94. with apparently Welsh reflex of the prefix. to ~(i)k~u-. and the clement . cyuarwyd~ Olr comard(a)c < Britt. 191. expert~ (cyfarwydd) MW kyvarwit. p.

hir 'long' and the plural of cimerdrid.nullo Prise 27 n nirincirilcs. cymar(cdig). See also danlcirclli"""OIi. constant' and cyfrde/id 'beautiful't on these see GPC: 684 and 713. little trunks' (cytTyll) MW cyfyll An -yll derivative of cJff 'trunk. Neither Loth nor Lewis mention this among the Latin loanwords.22. see Lewis: 1956. ". 'eng. LElA: C-292. Lambert: 19828. Lambert tentatively connects this noun with MW cyfarthelid 'steady. OGVB: 106. 307. GPe tentatively offers a comparison of this word with W cyma 'battle. IE Yanth .'i GPC does not consider this instance. 107 isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3. cf. though with an unexplained ~eli. this is a loan from Lat. even th()tI~h not" Cf. VVB: 72 bet cfrchfnn frguollcunf gl. VGK: I. It was analysed as a cognate of W cy". ammsef. The instance is not quoted in GPC. cf. P.. William~: 1927. cindraid n 'neap tide' Cf. usque sub occiduum cocli J R4 circh/n m 'circle' (cylchl MW cylch. GPC: 791. and as a loan from Lat.a. p. MW derivatives kyrchynyrtt. For the prefix.en « ? cym. LElA: C-178. cOl1lpendio.cion n pi ? Hapax in Welsh. 'althou~h not. (see hir) + cimer « *kom. stem' (Ir eepp) < Lnt. C yn-kerghen < Lat. 'aufwallen' (lEW: 123). supcrlatiulls . h. circhinn n m 'circle' Hapax in Welsh.v. GPC: 753~ VVB: 72~ Stokes: 1873. ciPI'IIJ (GPC': 727: LElA: C-70~ ML: 155-6). collaclea Me 1 b. Loth considered this as a compound 'long travail solitaire'. W. hi. and 8-4-5. W cymaethu 'nourish together-. comparatill. magaf. of drid. eoncauus Ang 16 Cl cinceu n 'concave' As it was stated by Fleuriot.. ad plurcs sui gcncris fit l"olllparntio Prise 27 a COIlCaVIIJ. on the latter see DOVB: 158. conquestos Me 4 b.247. g: by Fleuriot (but cf. collactea Me 8 a. lEW: 42-3. (. n. ledona DNR 2v cinimer n m adj.. aurcimerdricheticion. ango Prise 40 a elmer n m 'connuence' [cymer] MW cimer.259 seraul cirehl Cnn1r 2 . GPC: 725. 'to arrange' [cymhenn-] MW cymhen-~ ME quempen This word which shC)~ Welsh characteristics and is found in the Breton gloss was not considered as ·f. GPC: 734. cymharu.. cimmaitburess gl. 5ubj. c(y)niuer~ Me cynyucr Contains prefix cy. cirhin(n)~ Mlr cercend. see s..n(n)lls. Williams: 19RO. impers. cindraid gl.DGVB: 106 and 2S0. Stokes: 1873. + pen. Mlr commar < *kom. stock. VVB: 72 cimmaeticion gl. DGVB: 29). OGVB: 106 cinceu gl. Stokes: 1873. v. GPC does not consider this instance. . which he could not explain. 118 di cimer di aper ferrus Chad 6 eimerdrJdou n pi '1 Stokes analysed the form as containing two words. dmmsifhuress n f 'fo!ter-sister' Hapax in Welsh. ML: 156. 395~ VVB: 72-3 ciphillion gl. es. are) + pI. lucubrationum perennium Me 4 b. VGK: I. einengen.a.a.b.13) kyn traeth~ OB cundraid~ Mlr c{)ntracht < Lat. dmpenner v pres. but see Hamp: 1982 for the identification of the IE stem. DGVB: 125~ LElA: C-20)~ lluws: SOl. GPC: 759. 107 cim~ghaam gl. 383.. sec DG VB.bero. but cf. VVB: 155--6 nouirhircimerdridou gl. GPC: 759).and ninter. ? 'compa ra ti \tie" 08 comperel~ OIr c()mparit. GPC: 153. MB kelch LElA C-167. 'equal number' (cynifer) MW ceniuer. circ. ce/l~ a negative form. MW (T 41. cilnpSdlliausauc oirei gl. etc. (JMW: 235--6 Cinnit hays irloc guae hinnuith In pagi"a regulari COTnp 14 ciphillion n pi 'stocks. IE tbher. . Elsie: 114. which he compared with DB emd. surculis MC 8 a. schnUren'.. and cf.. Is analysed by GPC as cym-maeth-ur.30 31 < *kom-ingu-. MB kemper. on this see < Lat. DOVB: 106 Clnd Ilo~ OPC: 755~ LElA: C-UU)~ ML: 156 hClc&oucimp& gl.-Y. conflict' which is considered to be a cognate of Olr com-bag.2) cinnit conj. Loth in RC 32 (1911). < Lat circulus DOYB: IOH~ GPC: 747. cf. ope: 764 ~pan cimpenner aer Ang 65 a cimprre. 387 cimmaithuress gl. DGV8: I08~ GPC: 807~ LElA: C-71~ ML: 157~ VGK: I.391.it Itheoricam'. GPC does not ccnsider this instance. kyrchynurird: OB circinn. contractlls~ for a derivation CO" + *traith..

allis et aspicio A derivative of coe/~ cte. LElA: C-248. For a consideration of a different IE stem (·kld. B kleur. erotol-. plates' See clour.. kyssyllt < Lat. but cf. phitonissa. limite levo J 26 . coqllllS (COCllS) DGVB: 111-2.'frisch hervorkommen' (lEW: 564). GPe: 491-2. DGVB: 109. GPC: 493. Stokes: 1873. lid' [claWl] MW clawr. Petersburg 1998. etc. lEW: 599). VVB: 73. unvcrschrt. for the etymology see s. and *stii'stehen'. cocus. OB cisemic < IE *kentu-stam-. see OWA V. to IE *ken. lehnen' Elsie: 109. OCV: PECA: 24. cf. VVB: 73-4 cithremmet gl. LElA: C-142~ ML: 15L OCV: )RI~ PECA: 2R~ VGK: 1. Pokorny hesitates between *klep. aIr eoic < Lat. DOVB: 113. augur Me 2 a.. OPC: 533. 139. LElA: C-126 in guoilaut clun Chad 6 coc n f 'cook' [cog) MW coc. p. de Lamas de Toledo C~aeilohrig()i. au~uries. daur n m 'cover. commissure hapsidum Ang 13 a I cilhremmel adj. cesseuyn). ML: 158 cis80ltou gl. prelum 1 78 t cled n f 'left' [cledd] MW cled. 14): PECA: 2(" J~: . St. See also coilanl. 401. For a different analysis.: C-113-4. DGVB: 109.J MW coel-. 'even. ()(~V: 143.< IE *ka. Olr clar The traditional analysis derives these words from Common Celtic *klii-ro. LElA: C-114-5. VVB: 74 elaur guicip. 57: VVR: 7R .a. or with the adjective derived from the verh cly"'yd 'to hear'.)2) coilsm v pres. VVB: 77 coiliaucc gl. coyll-. with it causing provection. VGK: I. soothsayer' Hapax in Welsh.. GPC: 540. GPC: 492. VGK: II. consoldo. 22. VVB: 74 ocloriou gl.321. augur. The instance is not quoted in GPe. GPC: 533. and the influence of the authentic \\'ord cledr. 'schlagen.'breit beliegen. Isaac: 408. cog. beautifur. De Bernardo Stempel: 41. 41q: VGK: r..'feuche (lEW: 603) and "kltu. OC chuillioc gl. lEW: 601. pistor Ox2 44 (6. divinations' fcoell MW cocl. faces.Y. OIr cutrummae < Celt. cf. (h)aruspiccm. see A. this could be an onomatopoetic word. MB c]eiz. VVB: 74 nouircleteirou gl. Haycock: 13. 49. Schrijver: 118. augur An -iog derivative of coel. Watkins: 1987~ 53.1) clun n m 'meadow' (clun) MW clun. 399. *kailo. VVB: 76 ft CDC gl.'heil. OIr cle < IE *l<lei-. Lambert: 1982a. OB coilhaanl 'fcxaminc. "- cleteirou n pi 'castanets' According to Stokes. darauflegen'. exact' [cythrymed] MW cythrymhet.'spiilen· (for this base see lEW: 607). v. sec coiloll. qui primus J 70 risso/tau n pi 'connections' [cyswllt] MW kyssvllt. LElA: C-298-9. coilioll. Chantraine: 542-3.1) it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. P. tabellis Ovid 388 cluis? I. OC chuil1ioc gl. Stokes: 1873. pistor. Vendrycs in RC 4fl (IQ2Q). GPe: 819. Ir crothal. Lambert acknowledges it as a loan. Falileyev. Ir eel horrowcd from Brit. < IE *ke/-. Williams: 1980. 'lirst' Hapax in Welsh. b[i]lance libra Me 12 b.-Io. LElA. hauen'. W cysefin (lEW: 1(08). 111 it clu(i)s [it] dlban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. coil(i)ou n pi 'omens.a. OC kog gl. pp. See also cloriou. ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a dsemic adj. *kon-trum-. lEW: 545. OB coc gl. Greek XAtlQO~. see trumm. Loth suggested taking this as a loan (with metathesis) from Lat.oa11' gl. On the other hand. je cOllsultC' in etn cnifl.32 33 cloriou n m pi 'boards. GPC: 5J2~ lEW: 520~ LElA: ('-5<): LJ1FB: 325. kysswllt.b. ML: 150. 'neigen. cuilliogcs gJ. Kazansky in Yazyk i kul'tura keltov.s 'fair. DGVB: 112. N. quod fit super faciem torcularis gI. VVB: 74 6r cled hin gl. cf. W cysefin (MW kesseuin. cloiumn see dolumn < Celt. OIr cluain J. Williams connects this word with MW glll. surl. OB cocl gl.T. auch von gutcr Vorbedcutung·.~es. 10-13. Inser.. hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 23 in ir loscetic circhl gI. crotularum Me 103. C cledh. White: 72-3 ni choilam hinnoid MP 22h (234) nichoilam MP 22b (238) coilisucc n m 'augur. Schrijver: 182. planks. GEW: 872-3. OPC: 510. GPC: 827. circulus [. portents. WG: 137 em ir cisemic gl. coi!iOliCC. 1 sg 'believe' I coeli. GPC: 810.

crainte'. E. Apart from the attempt of L. tilia. achtgchcn' GOI: 123~ OPC': R29. Williams (19]3: 113) suggests a reading corn. *ne'k. 4R5. ceenn) I. IE *tlcgll. D. room? According to Zeuss: 1056 and VVB: 82. UPN: 2RJ).. and hesitates hetween a compounded form co-orn (= *cy-orn) and a simple corn. 'applause'. '. auspiciis Ovid 39b oo.~bewegen. cane" I cors I See corsenn. contains prefix com. cors vel pennas gl. Stokes: 1873.~strctch'. fcar'. cannulas Me 14 h. 399~ VVB: 81 orcomtantou gl. differently hy D. MB correcnn < Lat. VVB: 78 coli gl. /I Homenaje a Antonio Tovar. 105.PC' as < Britt. ment.a. OB limn-collin gl. 115 gurd meint icornoid imolaut Juv 9 (7. D. noitauc gl. WG: 165 corruui gl.19. corrigia.. *ko-tl rkt -. PECA: 25~ VGK: 1'1 124. See also corso OPC: 566. 98 isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3. col. cf. GPC: 546. orn: Celt... the adjectives go back to *koln-anktako-. these are commonly viewed as cognates. Mlr coli < *kosl.e.204-5. VVB: 78 cornoitsuc adj. GPC: 687. Williams: 1980. SS-f) uue nem isnem intcoucr Juv 9 (<). arundine Ovid 40a coueidid n f 'company' Icyweithydd I MW cyweithyd. . pro 74-7: GPC: 4~1: LIIED: 449-S0: Schrijver: 313-6~ VGK: I.4bind'. VGK: 1. 607.b. \vhich is analysed hy (. Haycock.. Williams in BBC'S 3 (1926). p. Joseph: 51-2.a. GPC: 564 cor. LElA: e-296~ oev: 27R~ PECA: 31. LElA: ('-IS2: Schrijvcr: J2(l: Willinnls: 121. According 10 Campanile. GPC: 708.4) COTS n f 'reed. erreichen. cOllid n m 'poem" I cyn)'dd I MW cywyld)d: If cuhaid . extorum Me 2 a. Haycock: 15. E. which contains IE Vreig. in media plausu Ovid 3R h MW colyn An -yn derivative of cor (MW coly. OC du}' chefuidoc g). coorn gl. corigiufn Ox2 433 (5. LHEB: 466. 'full of sores.3) romtantou n pi 'buzzing. 134 fn.i. Several etymologies for this word have been considered.Meillet: lOt. Fleuriot to separate the Welsh entry from the Irish word quoted above. OCV: 32. orcueeticc cors gl. Fleuriot in EC 16 (1979).) ~a 5triking logether. i. Evans (Ir. orn: W. gibberosus Prise 16 b c61gfnn gL a ristam J 26 corruui n f'thong. usually compared to Lat. erlangen' (lEW: 316).a. Evans in SC 10-11 (1975-6). cf. . the traditional etymology derives it from *kom-okto-. calallll1s. bombis Me 10 a. I-Iamp in DDCS 25 (1974). 4 reichen. DGVB: 119.34 35 nouirmiinnguedou .2) couer adj.388-91. I. lace' (carrail MW carrycu. carreieu. GPC: 832. awn' (colyn] instance from Celt. see lanlou. 28) interprets this entry as (lit.orn. romoid n m 'power' (cyfoeth) MW kyuoetb. 'Hasel' DGVB: 243. clapping'. or a cro~~ing of these stems. cane" rcorsen I MW cors(en). ex papyro tcxtili Me R h. \vho derives it from Celtic *ko(I1I)-roreig-. car(r)ci: cf. *org-n-. IT colg) 'awn' < *kolgo.l. the meaning of coorn being thus 'applaudissement'. ope: 2656 refers to this instance (with a query) in the analysis of W or" "blame. . OC korsen (MS coisen) gl. C. 'complete" [cywair I Olr coir IE *~/er.2) MW kyweir~ < *ko(1n)-~/ari·. He derives this corsenn n f sgl. anhyshys. carex. OC coli'iden gl. s De Bernardo Stempel: 99~ Fowkes: 96.. VVB: 83. of tanl 'string'. on which sec Ernout .32. EL: 5.b. cowethc An -id (= -ydd) derivative of (W) cywaitlr. *enk. zichen. this stands for co . ocoilou gl. B korz(cnn): cf."wyd ~boil. lEW: 616.668: Williams: 19RO.and pI. Madrid 1972. VVB: RJ: wc. GPC' docs not consider this instance. 'reed.: 219 ocorsenn gl.. See OWAV.. OCV: 293. 195. LElA C-158. Deus omnipotens. LElA: C-157. V(jK: I. on which scc also E. ope: 546.~gewahrcn. org-no. 8 deep hollow sound' (?) Hapax in Welsh. VGK: I. lEW: 1164. or Vrig. pp. 590. *1Jic. sorc' which is analysed hy GPC as containing corn 4crugyn' and elf. piipaur..< IE *kel4 techen' (lEW: 545). Olr curchas < *kork-s-. coiJiou gl. Evans. corilius. ulcerous' I cornwydo~ I MW cornwydawc An -OtiC derivative of co. In view of the frequent doubling of the letters in this manuscript (cf. LElA: C-286. Olr cumachtae The meaning of this word is discussed by M. E. LHEB: 659. PECA: 29. orn 4tressaille. latchet. fahrcn· (lEW: 1118(. roll n coli.< IE *kos(e)Io. with IE *enek-. corilis Me 8 b.ou see coi!(i)ou ro/ginn n m 'sting. ahscess. 'hazel' (coil] MW coll(en). 19~{)..

Schrijver: 353. 113. OB cualoeh (eL Pers. bill-hook' [cryman] MW creman. Lane in Language 8 (1932). cribrum. n m 'winnowing fan. 104 nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. schcidcn'. cryman. olin.a. Loth in RC 32 (1911). bent. Williams: 1980. quick. frcnesin: C crys: Ir crith < ·ko(m)"l)idu. Loth suggested a derivation < *k(}"l-Y(Jli~.17.< IE *skeri-. Hamp. 134. pala J 14 ere. Lat. 08 croitir gl. W crwydr (MW cruidir.. C. MW 'crooked. creatura. Mlr cromman A derivative from (W) crwm (cf. considered by GPC. Lat. which are analysed either as loans from Germanic (cf. also n m 'sudden.toroo n pi 'substances' (creadur] MW creadur. *kripso. 391 crunnolunou gl. creo. Vyel.6 L) crunnoJunou n pi 'round wheels' (?) See crunn. Schrijver: 374. s. brit1le. Williams: 1980. VVB: 89 cruitr gl. Stokes: 1873. VVB: 88-9 ocrit gl. Williams: 1944.4drehcn. . Mlr cretair < *kred-ro-. PECA: 32.'Zauberkraft worauf setzen. VVB: 8R crin gl. scropibus J 77 crunn adj. LElA: C-232. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b aeirrioo n m r pi 'relics. ~ieve' [crwydrJ Hapax in Welsh. Note the difference in orthography. crispness. 296-7. DGVB: 124~ ope: 626~ Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). criehed adj. pp. OB erin.PC": 2640). VVB: 88 criched gl. MIr crfathar schnciden. Elsie: 124. oui MCIO h.cn tourcr. not in lEW: 948f. cr. woven' W gwcucdir. cryt. DGVB: 124~ GPe: 622.. see Henry: 83). OC croider gl. DGVB: 121. GPC: 583. OC croadur gl. 185 Amcen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: 3 (Teman n m 'reaping-hook. LElA: C-244-5. roaming'. G Crix(s)us) < pre-Celt.dig f~weedi~J . VVU: 90 cuall gl. 'knitted. cromman.'drehen. this interpretation of the latter component was ~uggcsted hy Stokes (accepted hy GPC: 2644) alongside 0/ 'mark. LElA: C-234-5. ar[i]dum J 27 erip see hs crip erit n m 'shivering. ML: 154. cf. winnowinK ~hovel.nan o crummanhuo gl. treasures' [crair] MW creireu. C crom. VVB: 90 nouirerunnui gl. orbiculata MC 4 b. 'round. original' (ereadigol] W creadigawl An -ed-ig-awl derivative of (MW) creu 'create' GPC: 583. apc: 597. p. biegen' DGVB: 123. ML: 153.412.. J. timore (leg tremore) J 5 ernit. . crea/ura. circular' (erwn I erwn~ DB eron gl. ruga Ovid 40 a cualladj. 203 or teneu creaturou gl. p. 'withered. or as an authentic word. kriimmen'. VGK: II. 1873. crebrum. GPC: 578.ra.1) crat see orst cresticBul. enroulcr'. lEW: 938. gibbler. AS < Celt. speedy' (ellalll MW cuall. maturato [leg. monitura] J 90 4 crin adj. cf. See cre. GPC: 619. trace· (on this see (. Stokes: lR60--1.36 37 < IE ·ker.. bicgcn' OGVB: 123. The instance is not quoted in GPC. 4 hridder DGVB: 123~ GPC: 617. Olr crfn cueeticc adj. tornatili.dj. !!\\Ic\\'<. OC coweid liuer (reete co~eidliuer).'vcrschrcn' DGVB: 122. 342 and OCV: 342. MB croezr.spus. aIr cruind < *krundi-. OB crum gl. LElA: C-2J6-7. 584. VGK: I.k' (erln) MW crin. to IE *(s)kerb(h)-. J. lEW: 9. VGK: I. LElA: C-239--40. sickle. 'roughness. cryd. 112: Ilenry: R3: lEW: 946. < IE *(s)ker. baxus Ox2 42 b (4. LHEB: 668. curved'. IE ·kred-dh~. vertrauen' (lEW: 580). crihrt"n. OCV: 213. name Marccoual) J. biegen'.195. lEW: 578. Vendryes in RC 44 (1927). 197.'drehen.a. (s)kremb'drehen. 210. but cf. holy or sacred objects. E. tremble' [cryd I MW crid.. OB crit gl. < *krit~ < IE *(s)ker. for the possibilities of the semantic motivations. does not belong here. curliness' [crychedd] W crychedd An -edd derivative of (MW) crych (MC crech.or *kriJpo < IE v(s)ker. erwydyr) 4 wandcring. IE ·llidhu. 'created. see LElA. glauben. PECA: 32. *krei-tro.'Baum' (lEW: 1177). celeber") in VGK: I. differently ("zu lat. VVB: 87 creman gl. pp. 90-96. Olr cromm) erommsnhuo n pi 'reaping hooks' Note the spelling of the plural ending. VVB: 90~ Stokes. GPC: 615. 31-R. VVB: 87 creaticaul plant gl. MB croeadur < Lat. OCV: 391. see G. Haycock: IO~ LElA: C-264. motura. AS crumb. '. in BnCS 34 (19H7). etc. genialis praeda Ovid 3gb < Lat. See also crummanhuo. lEW: 935~ LElA: C-253. 498. GPC: 836-7. GPC: 620. pp. cf.

b. dagatte v imperf. art[ a]uum (.for k. coniuerc Me' 4 h. VVB: 91.'biegen'. I-Iamp in ZCP 24 (1954). cultrum. DGVB: 186. ME COUIlT. . LElA: C-18.7) miter see the next entry m/tir n m 'coulter' MW kulldyr. cf.125. ope does not consider this instance.6) cusam v 'chat' ? The word was considered by I. ex papyro textili MC 8 b. kntipfen' see GPC: 1608.'fassen. 399. For etymology. 393. minhBunl v pres. OIr cofnid The Britt. White: 76. OIr {ige. cellel gl.1) < Lat.1) MW cet. VVB: 92 cusul Nemn . GPC: 1614. counsel' (name of 8 letter) [cusyl) MW cussyl. WG: 323. mannus . in condylos (nodos) Me 6 b. see Falileyev in ZCP. 176. but the paucity of AS loan-words in early OW makes this assumption unlikely. further etymological connections are dubious. VGK: 1. cwlltyr. illis (nodis) MC 6 b.1 n m 'advice. OCV: 44. p. Le'wis: 1932. find" Etymologically this base points to syncretism of different roots. MB queinyff.a..38 39 cutinn(n)iou n m pi 'locks. cultrum Ox2 42b (4. 96 nicananiguardam nicusam henoid Juv 3 (2. OC cudin gl. kwlldr. Williams: 1980. ML: 155.IE *ghabh. diadThis instance is not found in GPC. Williams to be a variant spelling of eosam. Isaac: 317. equs breuis Prisc 7 h chepi v pres. form could be -kei-n-. ha chepi. the interrelationship between Brittonic and Goidelic forms is not clear. kyssul. eel/eell). concilium. ML: 155. GPC: 627. The gloss remains obscure. < IE ·~eg. see gllorcosam. VVB: 91. let go" (dyad-) MW dyad-. MB kusul D d••raut? For possible interpretations of this entry sec Williams: 19RO. inircutinniou gl. An -edig derivative of (W) gweu 'to weave'. LHEB: 337. the involvement of thc lattcr is rejected hy G. OB gueg gl. WG: 345: White: 79-84.'fassen' (lEW: 518).'fassen' (lEW: 527-8) and *kagh. Alternatively it was explained as a borrowing from AS cuss 'kiss'. textrix.b. Stokes 1873. Eska: 55-6~ GMW: 150~ GPC: 38(r. Russell: 1995.395 orcueeticc cors gl. PECA: 33. Hamp . or cyssan 'to kiss'. 2 sg 'to have. ked ope: 445 isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 choi/am see coi/am ms. VGK: 1. MIr coltar < Lat. OC cusul gl. PECA: 34. Stokes: lR73. tela. LHEB: 503. perpetuis deflebit subsita poenis J 55 en chefe/ n m 'horse' (ceffylJ Notably spelled with ch. Stokes: 1873. VVB: 92 custnud eticc gl. consilium (*cosilium) GPC: 818. confecta Me to a. ringlets' (cudyn J MW kudynn. Sec also digatlna(ou). GPC: 654.233. Lloyd-Jones in SBeS 2 (1925). also art[a ]uum .'weben. VVB: 92 cutinnniou gl. cf. White: 122 cuinhaunt irruim mein gl. kydyn. pr. rit crcis d••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8. (future) 3 pi 'to complain' [cwyo-] MW cwyno. VGK: II. 205. PECA: 56. OCV: 110. Sec cefe/. 291.22<1-3: Isaac: 312-313. sec dirgatiJJe. Isaac. 3 sg 'to leave. coma < IE *keu. see the scheme in Isaac: 313. Lewis rejected Stokes's reading custnudieticc in favour of cuslnud eticc. VVB: 91 celleell gl. GPC: 1113: VVB: Q3.i. oehmen' (lEW: 407-9). VGK: I. LElA: C-I60.i.a. lEW: 1117. Note initial c for g. custnud eticc ? '.7) GPC: 640. 552. White: 20R-9 itdagatte ail gl. cephitor. *kap. etc. 115-6. VVB: 91 cultir gl.i. forthcoming. J. fax" (cedi mltel 0 'knife' This could be a Latin word or a learned loan from Lat. OOVB: 287 pois chefel gl.7~ E. GPC: 568.b. hinn inguir Comp 21 chet n f m 'tribute. obtain. Cf also ci. culter Ox2 42b (4. cultel/us (cf. cultel) Ox2 42b (4. according to E. 112. OC guiat gl.

WO: 27 ordamcirchinnuou gl. PECA: 39~ Rhys: lR73. Ilamp in ZCP 36 (1978). VVB: 94 dBllocou n pi 'places of dehate' Hapax in Welsh. 110. Lambert: 1986. E. LElA: D-16f. Olr dal < *dhH-tlo-. however. guesf [daw) MW daw. Schrijver: 80~ VGK: I.< IE *dhe. According to Stokes. see also the next. (J"Rahilly in Celtica I (1946). dBul n m 'share' Hapax in Welsh. LHEB: 417. ~Q4. cliens Prise 34 b dauu n m 'son-in-law. VVB: 96 dattotimb gl. Lambert in Revue de philologie 57 (1983). lEW: 238. Williams: 1933. see DGVB: 172. OB damcirchinn 'fait Ie tour de' < *do-ambi + cyrchyn. Stokes: 1873.-Y. \vhich is a cognClte of Jclvll. legen' DOVB: 136. 96 dam ancalaur Juv 3 (1.Csetzen. animae J 18 dBmes v prete 2 sg ? The connections of this verb with MW darnu 'to separate' and tarnu 'to dry. pp. DeV: 110. GPe: 900. OC dof gl. ML: 94. see datI and loc. stabulis Ang 15 h dallolimb? According to Stokes. stellen. 392.-Y. legen'. McCone in Eriu 43 (1992). stabllltl1n··. W datod 'to loosen') and limb (W lIun 'hend. then 'demangeaison ou spasme pour reje/e". mynachlog GPC: 872. Etymologically. GPC: 906. agitare J 88 das n m&f 'stack. ope: 870. memher of a retinue. ambagibus J 56 dsmlTlluda/uis [Latin J Several interpretations of these two difficult glosses. VVR: Q7 ordeccolion gl. subtrahet igni J 2 dafraudatius gl. Ir daiss < *dasto.118 itdamestf gl. LElA: D-16. apc: 916: Stokes: 187J. damcirchinnuou n pi 'a going around. IE Vdhe. the semantics. Williams: 1933. M.. K. pp. i'th darnes ti 'in your fragment'. GPC does not consider this instance. OB desi. in argulo foro Ovid 38a W degawl. < *do-ambi-. to IE *do: *d. in both cases is remote. but cf. As for the interpretation of this word. tenth parts' fde~()11 dBt' n m&f 'meeting. dcifraud atuis gl. Mlr dam < Britt. in later Welsh it occurs as a prefix (dam-.'setzen.n'" 'spasm' (W tymmig). Lambert that in fact these instances are Latin (dafiuU5 fraudatiuus). didalll. Loth. 92.round. dym-).3) dam anpatel Juv 3 (2. turn·) ~ he interpreted the gloss as dattot-timb 'a loosening turn'. 399. DGVB: 1)0. both of which occur in the Juvencus manuscript have been suggested. VVB: 96 41 datlocou gl. lEW: 191. VVB: 93. T. Gwyn Jenkins in BBC~S 17 (195R). pp. pp. cattle-sheds' damcirchineat gl. Williams: 1980. 375-7.bout' (dam-] This seems to be the only usage of dam as a prepostion. heap. 115.'zehn'. Campanile in BBeS 26 (1976). gestione Me 10 a. concionator. White: 173-175. DqVB: 127. *diilno· (since O'Rahilly) < IE *don. council' (dadl) MW dad(y)l. h. 231~ VGK: I. pp. file' [diS] MW das. VVB: 95 6d~s gl. pro 252-R: LElA: D-20. 135~ VVB: 95 in irguorunhetic dati gJ. 228. J()5--6. PECA: 36. DGVB: 274 o datsebimou gl. . Perhaps. Stokes: 1860-1. Thurneysen: 1890a.40 d8m prep. a circuiting' Hapax in Welsh. LElA: D-13-4. Lambert: 1987. etc.a. degol An -01 derivative of de~ 'ten' < IE *dekl!t-t. member of a retinue. DGVB: 128. would suggest dat = do + at in combination with dot (W dodi 'place') and li. 4R: VVB: 96 dauu gl. genec MB deuff. The instance is not quoted in ope. See P. fora Ovid 38a dalsebimou n pi 'establishments. however. Fleuriot refers to W datsaf 'stay of blood·. GPC: 883. It was argued by P. the phrase could be nominal. "Ie sens et la formation rappellent Ie lat. for the formation cf. The entire gloss was considered to be Welsh particularly due to the presence of the preposition o. '. Williams: 1980.os 'hollsc(holdr~ see also dOlO". air ddl. cliens Ovid 383 deccolion n pi 'decimals. Stokes 1873.b. see circhinn. see also De Bernardo Stempel: 105-6 with hihl. GPC~: 906: E.306. 184 Amdifuys daul bacl patern Pad: 4 dBum n m 'son-in-law. In general.2) dBmcirchineBI n 'delayer' Hapax in Welsh.J· 'teilcn' (lEW: 175). reckon' have been considered. see damcirchinnuou GPC: 884. cf. OC datheluur gl. assembly. OB dad) gl. demorator Me 6 b. DGVB: 130 dati gl. ~uest' See dauu. F. lEW: 237. ~ on this word sec (iPC: ()(l4. . decadihus Mr' 7 h. concio. aceruo J 45 According to Fleuriot. far from clear. 5-12. GPC: 884. VVB: 94. dat (cf. stellen. 39--45. 193-7.291.

did di aries Comp 19 anu di iuno gl.i. cf. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. bar. It has been noted (LHEB: 90) that the spelling "deruid and lacou are probably due to the influence of Latin writing in Wales. R. 3.b. C del. Williams. LElA: 0-12 di pul irderuen Chad 6 demm ". LElA: D-l11 and T-81. Suadae MC la. diapcrthou gl.« "do-are) and personal form of the verb 'to be'.)c·hi J . 'ISly' Jdio~J f\1W diawc. nomen di cretae gl. Lambert: 1976-7.42 43 bihit dir temi Comp 16 araut dinuadu J 0 di gl. 'to' MW y~ OB da. enuein di iunoni gl. dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4."•• J Juv Q (1. in which b and v are sometimes confused". MJ: 271 imguodant ir degion Chad 2 delehid D m 'lock. 'from' 08 di. enuein di Sibellae int hinn gI. WG: 87. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21-22 di 1 prep. miseris patruelibus Ovid 38. Brittonic Derventio. 1) (surexit tutbulc . OGVB: 126.. DGVB: 129. GPC: 1135.4. Lewis: 1926. Cacrwyn Williams: 1948. cock. JO: 95--6.12) delu n r'image. B deruenn. Olr daur di 3 prep. Populonam MC~ l1a. 1-10 dimedichat Chad 2 bichet paniu pet guarid. Watkins: 1982. 172 ir nider uid hinn. GPN: 188 with bib!. ()B di. darf-. do.r 10 'mystery. ) dierchim tir tclih Chad 2 This form frequently occurs in Chad 6 di1. Benveniste in Word 10 (1954). Lambert: 1983. 'oak-tree' (derwen] MW derven. exclusa medulae 1 38 dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl.3. lEW: 214-211. 3 sg 'to happen' [darfod] MW deru-.1) di 4 prep. schnitzen' ope: 927. inani Ang14 b Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7. GPC: 932. Dummismatis J 80 demen D sgl.. H3Y~ A well attested IE tree-name which is reconstructed (according to Benveniste) I *der-w and II dr-eu (Pokorny's *deru-. who inter aha suggests a connection of this word with Irish dfa". VGK: I.a.a. Williams: 19RO. prep 'to' DGVB: 141 and 136. nitegid. MJ: 272. Friedrich. IOJ-4 omnipotcils auctor tidicnncs adiaI11. *del. di assa .1 h dilitau gl.259. cf. pi~~rr. love dignus Ovid 39h di 5 (particle -?) see diglniuhit diam. 146. munerihus Ovid J7 h hin map di ioh gl. ding: Q{' diue gl.2) haccet. P. Latio Ovid 39 dittihun gl. Lambert: 1987. The alternative readings of this linc were suggested hy M. OB darned. *adiein ior.. Sec di l and cf. 109) was rejected in favour of 'to' hy T.'spalten. statue. LElA: D-47-8. GPC: 930. the form houl 'sun' is Breton. GPe: 892. in aduerso Ang 58 a degion D pi ~nobles' IdeoD I MW deon A subtantivised derivative of the adjective (pI. Ir de. nomen di tauro gl. Olr delb < Celt. OIr do < IE ·'0-. disuc adj. 332~ GPC: 943. Comp 8 irnidibid ir loyr di a. idol' (delw] MW delw. 141. daruid Since J. asse bichan MP 22b (234) di mesur MP 23 a (229.h. 30. Proto-Indo-European Trees. pres. JO: 101~ LL: xliv. pp. Bromwich: 1980. GMW: 14S-(). Erytria quacque ('umea cst vel Phrigia Me II h. lEW: 182. sera Ox2 44· (6. di < IE *de10: 105.285--6. 2RR. 'to' The analysis of this preposition as used to denote 'from' (Caerwyn Williams: 1948.oir. etc. a. VVB: 91 delehid gl. caucassus Me 50 h. See di l • di houl gl.529. 'Baum') E. 131. door. B dleizen GPC derives this fonn from Britt. Haycock: 11-2. lEW: 1068.a.bolt' (dylaith] MW dileith. form) da 'good' < *dag-. VVB: 99 diguorguac gI. p.!d. VVB: 98 delli gl.. Haycock: 9.< IE ·del. 64. Comp 10 . tibi soli Me 9 a. di. 1970. Iterducam et Domiducam Me' II a. *dlekt-. LHEB: 387. 140-146. Loth in RC 26 (1915). Lambert: 19R7. d. see also didi. itsclf a word without an ctymology (LElA: 0-68). or directly < *dagiones. wonder' ? For the paleography of this difficult line see I. Loth (contrast WG: 351) this is considered as a combination of a prefix dar. lEW: 194. p. anu di iuno gI. A. b.1---2) r· . *adiell ior. dyle(y)th. see GPC: 866 and 942. Watkins. '. GMW: 35. Mac[a]roncsos Me 49 b.

lEW: 775. segncm J 93 dib8nn? If the word is dibann. Still another possibility noted by Williams is to read this as in bonn 'melodiously' .GPC: 1026.O. 495" where Lambert's correction is doubted. For the etymology see the next entry. omnipotens auctor tidicones adiam. GPC: 934.3) diliciuou n pi 'lack. A -fa derivative from (MW) dyad. did Comp 18 did braut Chad 2 dicnchiriuetitjon adj. see S. though no grounds or better suggestions are given. a derivative of dechreu 'beginning'. dyt.. LElA: D-64. I"lamp in EC 14 (1974). JO: 106. 3 sg A personal form of eli l (see s. Hapax in Welsh. dibid. The form is then analysed as an impersonal preterite. sec also diu Sill. dyd(d). GMW: 134..1) dicones ihesu dielimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4.V. anti cf. expers Ox2 45 3 (8. E.) + IE *oku-s 'schnell' DGVB: 143. Occurs twice in Welsh.. Watkins: 1982. did. and hoth times in the same text. ()5R: J. For the form.2) didaul gl. deficient.. etc. 507-12. J. 45R. Sec also the next entry. Russell: 1990. want· (difTy~ I MW diffyg. VGK: 1. PECA: 38. see White: 175-6.e. Williams: 1980.1) didsu/adj.472-7.1) gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5.a. j Juv 9 (1. 109 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4. v. Williams: 1980. The word is analysed ns a combination of the prefix di. White: 187-8. 'to make. lEW: 184.. cephitor. diffic~ C dyfygy < Lat. 452 Imidibid ir loyr dLa.111-2 it clu(i)s [it] dib~n iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6.H'. oithaur hinnith Comp 3 did n m 'day' [dydd) MW dit. GMW: J27. Lat. fustuarium Me 41 a. expers Ox2 47 3 (11. F. Stokes: 1873. 195-6 irdicn_chiriueticion gl. area Ovid 37h digntma gl. I.1) dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3. to do' Traditionally analysed as a derivative of a Celtic Ykiin-. circus' t .. lEW: 564). I. deprived or (diddawll MW did(d)awl < *di (IE *de-) + daul. lEW: 526). DeV: 197. According to F..48. VVB : l(XJ didaul gl. Lloyd-Jones. related to Lat.and the stem is found in ffrydio. DOVB: 132. conari (IE *ken· 'sich mtihen" thus J. Elsie: 86. OCV: 141.r••[.1) dibid v pres.31 and 38. 'without a share. Lambert this stands for dich(i)riu-etic-ion. ex·per(t)-s. 41. pi 1 According to P. see also gllotiapallr oi.Y. 103. 138. perfect'. 42. 1. Lindeman.. 3 sg 'to come' [deuaf) MW dib-. 507. VGK: II. Olr dla < *diieu-. Watkins: 1982. see GMW: 61. WG: 83 ismod. n. hinnuith Camp 11 pet guarid. LI-IEB: 351. 3 5g 'to make' For the interpretations of the verbal syntax.6--8 pan diconetent ir. Elsie: 87.Ito give birth to'. GPC: 967. cf. dill". VVB: 101 fonnaul difrit gl. pp.O. 2~n--1: VVB: 102 irdigatma gl. LHEB: 4~7. Williams suggests a link with MW diuan 'immaculate. it is derived from IE *gel1:J. GPC: 791. principales Prisc16 b dirones v prel.f 69~ VVB: IOl "\ "- dironetent v prete (1) Impers. oPC: 1119. who does not explain the gloss. GPC: 1t I~.v). and the form of the substantive verb. Williams (1927 : 260) suggested the reading of the ending as -einr in view of OW e = lei]. DGVB: 229: Lambert: 1982. Lindeman in nocs 29 (1981). pp. Williams: 1980.'singen' (GPC. ME deuaff This form of the verb contains *do-. circus Ovid JR h . cf. dificiuou gl. ML: 160. cL MW deu.. differently by Fleuriot. PEe'A: 37. GPC: 992. ope: 998. LloydJones in BBeS 2 (1925). or a lengthened grade of *kan..(neg. pp.. Comp 9 dibu l' prete 3 51 '10 rome' See s. hanaud Comp 1 is did ciman. Haycock: 13. 104.44 45 < di. VVB: 99 diAuc g1. pers. haci Comp 3 irdid hinnuith Comp 9 irdid. digstma n I r 'enclosure for animals. Lindeman p.17) didu prep. Rhys: 1873. see also DOB: II. dispendia J 4 difrit n m 'a heatin. VGK: I. OC deC OB dcd. dificill1rl GPC: 993.2) GMW: 151.Ju Juv 9 (4. GMW: fiO..~ for the etymology see tii'RGtis. 110 guotiapaur oinler dic. See also the next. Williams: 1980.

l~t' . v.20) diguedhllm adj.342) as a development *mag-s (s-subjunctive) > ·max-. exc('rl'ere~ he also notes.-Y. ) MW dyadu Etymologically. livor daemonis J 15 dinBut n 'pipe. Lambert: 1982. a la Ir~ pers. VVB: 104) this word wa~ analysed as di(privative) + fill 'colour'. cognate with gioiu (see s.("n("('.). \vith a prefix liir. 205. sickern. According to GPC: 1014. ] I. OIr do-formaig Hapax in Welsh which contains V*mag. 2110~ P. adiectionem i. GMW: 166. and etymology werc left unexplained. GPC: 1060. 163f.was explained by J.. est ccrtaincment rcquivalent du gall.'groB'. F. Ir ro) inserted after the prevern. dilill and OC disliu by Fleuriot (DGVB: 134 and 142). 'bright. reproBC'h' (diliw] MW diliw. digat4 adj. JO: 100. etc.< IE *meg(h).). 'hun~ry. Feuchtigkeif (lEW: 9710. and IE *snii. */ug-isk. di + gadu pcrmif (on this see Isaac: 329) with the affirmative particle -r. .-Y. OD d. diU" n m '~ham~.. ·di·leg-n. final' [diwethaf] MW diwethaf A *-samo. \\'hich is a calque on Lat. he divides the gloss into di (verbal particle). etc. VVB: 102 hac diglninhit gl.'r { 46 47 dig. White: 115-9 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 diTKslisse v pluperfect 3 sg 'to leave.h. that ula dcsinencc -osun-. ultimate. . etc. pipinnis (for bipennis) Ox2 42 h (4. GPC: 1113.and an clement which is found in WedliH'. Lindeman in BBCS 32 (19R5).e pronom d'emphase affixe est d'aiJlcurs normalcment -. p. dirgatissc locclau gJ. excerpsimus . C denewy. p. 15a diguormechis . flow..v. concesserat MC R a. t .O.(MW ry. Rhys (1873: 466) this could be analysed as a derivative from W dinou.-Y. diliu~ OB diliu (?) diguoloai~he'k lna(ou). 6last. pret. choose' L. Lambert this word shows confusion of two sterns: ·diguolou-etic (ef.(MJ) or compared to the forms like dybll.). irdigatmaou gl.v.2) diprotsnt v pres. dirgatisse) and a stem found in W lIil1ll'rO.v.(s)le11. (JO). Following J. -aSU'11 . 3 sg 'to add' OB doguormach 'addition' in doguormaheticion. lne word was considered alongside OB deliu. cf.. du sg.562. I. GPC: 986.~ti81 adj. dfliu gJ. O.retic.. Note the presence of p.{"'·""Jl) lah~'i. r. circus Ovid 3g b diglniuhit ? According to J. v. 348. (cadarnhol) -g(w)o-llewychedig..R~ White: 257 dirlimprosuni v pluperfect (pret.(Greek /)vs-). Fleuriot suggested that this stands for dirlil"prOSflll (. degurme(h). Thurneysen: 1890. this contains di. conduit' Hapax in Welsh..-tropfeln. DGVB: 141. F. and gluiuhit which he analysis as a 2 pi imp.derivative from diued.40 diguormechis lucas MP 22b (234) dilein" (vn) ? 6to delete. proditus Ovid 41 b diguorinBch n 'addition' See diguormechis. see s. MJ: 271. f. de plus-quc-parfait de J"indicatif. aboJitione Me 40 a.Y. form of the verb. stream out' (ef. Loth (RC 40 (J923).. could be used to denote intervocal -g. . or otherwise considercd to represent rf] (F.··.404. putative -OSlI11 . according to P. I09~ P. LElA: M-8. Recently P. GPC: 21RO~ Lamhert: 19Rfl. go/au. GPC suggests di.n. permit" (dyad. GPC: 1020.. StoKes: 1873. VVB: 102 diguolouichetic gl. 'to pour. p. yJeug-. hllt cf. pp. Lindeman).(Thurneysen).""'rfi( (~tfW r!\'nt'("'. moy. VGK: 11. lEW: 708-9. cf.172-4 dirlimprosuni gJ. GPC does not consider this instance. Lambert in EC 27 (1990). Strachan (in RC 2H (1907). di-olo 'decouvert') and *fouich-etic (W llewychu 'briller'. Irish snuad (LElA: 5-154). diriuationem Prise. sfar"in~' 'Japax in \Vel"h.b. et mod. 197-R) interprets the prefix as the equivalent of Irish do. is a scribal error for -u-. Williams in BBCS 10 (1941).. water-pipe.. J. p. VVB: 103 dilein gl. 169-170. GPe: 1001. W d.237. DGVB: 144. pp. ret] eliqua Ox2 44b (7. which is explained as a result of douhling of [h) after di. colJegimus Ant! 12 n dirue. Lamhert has shown that the word corresponds to Irish toI011l1llrati. degurmehi te. 3 pi 'to disjudge' (difrod-) MW difrawt A compound of di· and brollt (see s. pp. ?) I pi (1 s~ ?) 'to extract. llewych 'light' < ?Britt. 1re sg.f. Lamhcrt in EC~ 17 (19RO). 198 diguormach gl. O. lliwied.. see s.·.. p. The semantic shift. VVB: 104 dinaut gJ.i. Sec also dagatte.'m. zergehen' (lEW: 657) ope: 1012~ LElA: D-]61. -ch. for the further references.).'nicl3en. Lindeman in Eriu 46 (1995).. Loth in RC 29 (190R). it is also noted that -ch. MB dinou). White: 182-3~ Williams: 1930. This perhaps contains di-.(cf. Loth.ou n pi 'enclosures for animals' A plural of digatma. era8e" [dil-) MW dil-: Olr do-lega < Celt. GPC: 1059 issed diguedbam oJ] Camp 15 Since Stokes's edition (1860-1: 211-2. DGVB: 148. shining' ? Hapax in Welsh. IE Vleg.

Lat. GPC: 1076. Flcuriot's analysis suggcsts a derivation from *dleikt. formation consider LElA: D-6 Stokes: 1813.8. It is not. Stokes: 1873. 70. VVB: III ordomctic gl. Loth as a loan from Lat.0re. 'tamed. The stem was compared to that of diddos 'watertight' (see GPC': 9(9). 08 disc « Lat. LElA: 5-201. f 'two' See dou. Me dor~ Olr dorus. doiumn? According to I. VVB: 101 ithrirdiuail gL glabella medietas MC 9 b. 38.12) n f'dish. Rhys. Bromwich in her commentary to I. LEIA~ D-29. cf. GPC: 1072. diu num. MW deu: C' dow. or dy.48 A . di 4 ) + VlJ. VVB: 106 o disci gl. *durii < IE *dhyr. drained' Hapax in Welsh.a. discis) di~1 < Lat. 80. ~2: VVA: 111 . shout' is not a suitable comparanda. that these two Irish words are unrelated (cf. then I&no great host". GPC: 1149.. Williams. and rui.edh· 'ftihren'. Me deweth. Irish suig.5) dometic adj. 72. listed by Lewis. doro < Celt.b. super ualuam Ox2 44:1 (f). poor' This segmentation of the line was suggested by I. .b. DGVB: 146~ LHEB: 479-80: Parry-Williams: 121. 1-2. lEW: 199-200.77. Watkins: 1982. uber-nachten' (lEW: 1170--1). Instead he refers to MIr discir 'fierce' and doescair 'mean'. card. ctc. The gloss remains ohscure.7 doiumn gl. B doT.(()(I1)~ sec also dill. sugo. Williams: 1980. dos 'drop. Russell: 1990. DaB: 44. Williams: 1929. Jackson: 1950. B divez. DGVB: 226 int dosseheitic gl. disc 'Jus < disculU5 DGVB: 144. dOCIUS. 'sucked ou t. According to Pokorny. astructio Me 40 a.'TOr'. did. ()O dOli: (llr delli. Sec also c/alill nnd ardo11und. Pokorny's *d~. diruestiat gl. R. -Iraheitic. DG VB: 20R). 41-4. Williams in BBCS 2 (1923). 'weight . VVB: 108 doctrin gl. Flcuriot that the word contains the stem dOJ and the suffix -elletic (cf. jejunam J 64 di~irr 4<) n 'common. iad derivative from Celt. see Elsie: 57. GPC: 1047. Sce also elf'll"'. gutatirn Ang 15 b dou num. gueith diu sui inm6n AC i. however. diwet. and sui < Lat. ML: 162. Bromwich: 1980. dillith stands for tluit: W tlawd. lEW: 278-9. domito Ovid 39:1 dor n f 'door' (dor J MW dor. He holds that the word consists of a negative or adversative prefix (di. VVB: lOR. dofedig An -edig derivative of (MW) do! 'tame' (MB doff. 97-8 isdiscirr micoueidid Juv 3 (3. vectc movcri J 90 doctrin? This word was analysed hy J. IE *duyo-. but cf. -hegetic.2) dluithruim n 'lever' The suggestion of W. GPC: 1056. Schrijvcr: dor gl. 97. GPC: 1038. subjected' (dofedi~) W dovedig. He admits. sec Schrijver: 37.1 lists this entry as dOJseheeitic. and the meaning 'fierce' does not fit the context. pp.v. VVB: 106 dissuncgnetic gl. 876 (Phillimore: 166) dosseheitic adj.nos cloillm" (VVB: IRI) should be abandoned. lEW: 1115-6. diad < di (see s. d0I110). C. LElA: D-98. lEW: 913.in view of B dleizenn. Loth's reading . Stokes was to read luitll for dluith (llwyllt 'a weigh t'). dew. VVB: 105. solis (ML: 208). lit. 398. metallum Ox2 42 h (4. 'drippin~' It was suggested by L. < ('cit. \vith no etymology provided). exanclata MC 3 a. la nee J 59 dissuncgnetic Idj.< (or a cognate of) Lat. VGK: I. 226 or mchir dluithruim gl. The etymology is obscure. cf. doctrina. Apparently. JO: 99. diued n m 'end' (diwedd) ~52: VGK: I. d(l < Celt. It was argued by Jackson. W 5ugno. According to J. Williams. card. W doeth < Lat. The entry is analysed by GPC 8S *di + sugn + edig. plate' (dysgl) MW dyskyl. I. diwed. Williams' discussion notes that the meaning 'mean' is attested for Irish discir. trickle' ((iPC: 1077. and the stern *SCOT· 'host'. VGK: I. WG: 251 ho dined Chad 2 diu suI n m 'Sunday' MW dywsu] The form contains diu 'day" sec S. and is perhaps an authcntic word.'verweilen. m 'two" (dati) OW (LL) dou.n = W rhwyf = Lat. Stokes: IR60-1. that the double final ~r is unparalleled. *duyo. LElA: D-98). for the fern. *d01110J (-fi) < IE *d0I11h 2 -o-.. *do--ro-l}es--t < IE *yes. for the stem cf. OIr dead. GPC:r 1051. renlllS. wohnen.. ). 369. GPe lists the word as a hapax. Fowkes: 1958. LElA: D-181. who notcd that W disgyr ~scream. GPC docs not consider this entry. L.. This could be Latin. however. "- MW diuet.beam I oar'. this is a loan from Latin (/0".v.

LElA: D-223~. dyfin. Loth. Olr dub. OC dll~ gl. etc. denfi. GPC: 1097. DC dreis g1.50 51 same protoform as OW dor. dur adj. deugein(t) A compound. and ugain(t) 'twenty' (aIr fiche. dumetum. see GPC: 1101. GPC: 989. LHEB: 336. arel.V. o e leidim gl.'festhaltcn. piece'. a cognate of W difyn 'fragment. for the etymology and further bibliography see s. dub see du dubeneticion adj.8. bissem Ang 47 a dou trean haur gl. 20). LHEB: ~75 eo quod ipse narrauit generationem Christi hcnHd duititft J 0 DGVB: 232 is douhouceint gl.-{) and 538-9. ML: dur gl. Olr dorus < IE ·d1t~or.. Stokes: 1813. duiutit n m 'divinity' MW dwydit A -tit derivative of OW (LL) (Juiu. cruel' rdur J MW dur.'to cut to pieces'. XL Ang. de tribulis J 27 drissi gl. (Greek bQ£o~. DGVB: 152. VVB: 112 dou trean gl. VGK: 1. "the details of the reconstruction of drw. Olr dur < Lat. OCV: 302. VVB: 113 6rd "rissi gl.nf nOID. VVB: 113--4 drus gl.. hi I . Schrijver: 413. canl. Cowgill in MUnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 46 (1985). according to Pedersen (VGK: II. Hamp in SC 18/19 (1983/4). OPC: 905. Df'lIo. < IE *dei·. pi 'cut away' Hapax in Welsh. The presence of a Welsh article allows us to consider this form as Welsh.. Elsie: R3. 129. G Dubis A derivative of IE *dhubh. with a syncope of the first vowel. PECA: 41. dou (see dou). 404. Greene: SQ4. DGVE: 151.'Tur". uepres. though the Breton form must be identical. GPC: 938 douceint torth Chad 3 ha douceint torth Chad 3 ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 douhollce. cf. B ugent) < IE ·'li~t.20-25. See also the next. LElA: D-191. lEW: 264.8. Schrijver: 331. 61b dnts n m 'door-way. lEW: 1177. pOSe 3 sg 'its' lei) . edito Me 3 a. LElA: D-210. GPe: 1096. LElA: D-IR2.n' num.(ydhell-). PECA: 40. this goes back to the edil n f 'plflll~h .80. DGVB: 153. thornbushes' [drysi] MW drys(s)i. processu Ang. VGK: 1. see De Bernardo Stempel: 110-1 with further bibliography. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3. Olr dia. lEW: 228. niger.s 'zwanzig'.. duruJ GPC: 1099.. see S. 'forty' [deugain] MW deu vgein..'schlagen' (lEW: 117).. p. dumas J 87 162~ VVB: 114 E e prOD. for an underlying form *dllbLJo. LHEB: 275. bisse Ang 56 a har dou trean gl.~ This interpretation of this entry was offered by L. Schrijver: 410. MW du. Schrijver. LElA: B-34. Me darat. dris(si). dira Ovid 41 h drissi n pi 'briers. 59b douid see •••erdutoa ti pint•••• dreb n? According t~ ]. OB du.to. to IE *bhei. pp. lEW: 185. claustrum J 66 du adj. halten' (*~rl~"'lii) .116 ir du bisl gl. vepres A widely accepted derivation from ·dris.. PECA: 41. HB) Dub-. . However. OC dlly gl. brambles. LElA: D--6. OPC: 1089~ lEW: 278-9. Fleuriot CDGVB: 274-5). OCV: 209. see lEW: 215) was recently queried by P.see E. MB haczl < IE *segh. spinis J 56 drissi gl. 'hell glanzen'.handle· rhaeddel] MW hacddcl. VVB: 113 guarirdreb gl.'i are thoroughly ohscure". v. LElA: 0-64.3) int dou pimp MP 22b (230) b dOll punt MP 22 (234) b dOll eterinn MP 22 (234) dou~. meloncolia Ang 6R a w. VVB: 114 ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl. gurgulionibus cxsectis Me 42 3. B dir. OB drisoc gl. 'forty' See douceint. 'black' [du] OW (AC. OW (LL). 'hard. OIr driss gl. this is a word for 'las'. G. C ugens. door' fdIV!) MW drws. GPC: 1107.

Olr ingen < Celt.'spaltcn. (cf. Aspekte der germanischen und keltischen Religion im Zeugnis der Sprache. Hessen in ZCP 9 (1913) p.a. (Pokorny's ·onogh-. See elin.1) emedou n m pi 'bronze. wealth. Fleuriot as an impersonal form of W eirifaf. lEW: 888-9. SC'C' Watkins. 'Nagel'). on trionoloc gl. OC elin gJ. traditionally. etc. GPC does not em pron.e. p.'weiG' (lEW: 30) GPC: 1205. VVB: 116 elinn gl.(lEW: 2R I): the quotation from the luvencus glosses ("thafs ir cise11.nmhert: 19R2a.59. Olr umae < Celt. MW eliw)u. 10290 12 h sec E. GPC: 1262. GPC: 1209. pers. OCV: 58 and 64. abspalten' (douhted in LElA). .. present. VGK: 1. to IE V011t. DGVB: 157 melinou uel elinou gI. present form. For the form l"ullid in BN Lat. 7) egid v pres. cf. dies Ang 54 a elbid n DI f 'world' (elfydd] MW eluit. see also elinoll. or from the IE demonstrative *e. LElA: R-31). if' (ef) MW ew. < IE *al. however. I. LElA: A-J4. 22 fn.ic") shows the omission of copula. E.7) elinou n pi 'elbows. H. adungem. 109 and ZCP 45 (1992). cf.266 haccet. forearms' The presence of an 08 form olin caused Fleriot to consider this form as Welsh. lEW: 780. e. Jones in BBeS 9 (1938). --. impel'!l.137. etc.1) e'im/u n m 'great host' [elynu) elin n m&f 'elbow.·. VGK: I. GOI: 47~ apc: 1206. who was followed by GMW. Pokorny. GOI: 2R5: GPe: 117()~ lEW q02-4~ LElA: S-16q~ VGK: II. IE *albho. Alternatively. e. 6.Lat. see s. Koch in Emania 9 (1991). ang~-inii from IE -hJ'Jt·u. p. this is a 3 sg. 135. Williams: 1929.(lEW: 60. The instance is not quoted in GPC.'eins'. cardinales Ang 15 a ellesheticion ? According to Stokes and Loth. which contains a reflex of IE *(o)r. brass.It~' 'music'. 394. nitegid. White: 109-10. pp. VVB: 116 ellesheticion gl. 'biegen' --. hitter· (Pedersen. eluyd. where IE Ye11t. Loth in RC 45 (1928) p. Hamp in BBCS 36 (1989). qui primus 1 70 issemi anu gl. DGVB: 156. 4R--Q. VVB: 115. OB eguin gl. LHEB: 387.Lat. 579~ WG: 273 isem hichet triuccint torth Chad 4 (see Watkins: 19Q7. unguis. 4-5 edil gl. reifl. Williams in nncs 10. nouacula Ox2 42 h (4. 173.87-9. angulus. Koch in BBCS 38 (1991). e~incarn gl. Meid. T. 115. T. stipa Ox2 42b (4. v. scm < IE *seln. triquodru111 see I.f'number' (Olr dram) < *ad-rimo-. efydd. p. elin gJ. (1940/1). this is connected with consider this instance.. Sec r. etc. see also Hamp: 1977-8. due to the facts that 1) independent form could not be expected in W after a negative particle. See also J. E. ulna~ OR olin 'coude. Innsbruck 1991 gUT dicones remedau(t] elbid Juv 9 (5. luxury' . 127-30. VVB: 115. Watkins suggests that this is a 2 sg. GPC: ] 209~ Williams: 1980. Stokes: 1873. GOl: 130. lEW: 307~ LElA U-IR~ LHEB: 595: OCV: 56~ PECA: 42. Krogmann in ZCP 21 (IQ1R). mela Me R a. cf. Schrijver: 326. angle' in tri-olinoc~ aIr uilen < Britt. Schrijvcr: 259. eliflu . 217. PECA: 45. hinnuith issid digucdham 011 in pagina regulari (·omp 15 em ir cisemic gl. a pI of elin.68-9. <llso I. ulna. 08 em.< *o1n-eio·. Watkins: 1987. and lu 'host'. copper' [erydd) MW euy(d)d. 164.lc. pp.?) '10 more.o r111itl . GPC: 1196. oaVB: 50. IJ)~ consider.b. lEW: 26.'roh. OC euuin gJ. Williams: 1927. OaVB: 157~ Elsie: 102. unguis. DGVB: 169. 'to count' [eirif-) This entry was considered by L. *rei. 08 aHin gl. 107. but see LElA: A-60). *omiio. W. Hamp in BBCS 28 (1980). Ir Albu < *olbiio-. The instance is not quoted in GPC.20-2.~nahren'. 2) other forms with -id suggest a relativizing suffix and 3) there is no need to consider in all the cases the omission of loyr. Hamp: 1919. pp. Comp 8 nitegid ad serenn ara)) Comp 17 eguin n m&r 'nail of the finger or toe' [ewin) MW ewin. MIT a/om. W. lEW: 985-6. 109 dicones ih~u dicJimlu pbctid Juv 9 (4. RClchcllcry in Fe 11 (IQfl4~~) pro 111--112. W eir. DGVB: 276. di. cf. WG: 131 ir eguin MP 23a (241) eirimo'or v pres. GMW: 119. Genius Me 11 a. *o/fno < rE *el-. independent 3 sg 'he. Olr altain < IE *(s)p(h)el. C ef~ Ir som. J. hor elin MP 23 3 (246) elinn n f 'razor' (ellyn J MW ellyn.a. travel' According to I. A. G Albi(o)-. Williams. p.'fOt' is postulated.. forearm' [elin) MW elin. ferula. Elsie: 87 eirimotor gl. ungula. VVB: 117. Watkins: 1997.52 ~ 53 GPC: 1804. etc.59. Schrijver: 134. 5RO) issem ir .~ A compound containing the affected form of ala! 'herd of cattle. elyflu. 2 sg (3 sg . 170. VGK: 11. T.

10.'zichcn. copper' (elydd) See emedou. IE *(s)l'en-(d). Itcrducam et Domiducam Me II a.b. p. Donostia: San Sebastian 1989. White: 183-4 rit crcis d••raul inadaut prescn Juv <} (H. IE *ok u.el. rostru/n vel clauufn Ox2 42b (4. 16 sive enderfc gl. Pedersen this goes back to *'Jdhi-pon.. White: 270: Williams: 1980. VVB: 117 ir emedou gl. gimlet. lEW: 19. pp. *ak~I·f1to-.1.lfU~H<'{(') offered hy L.-Y. em-~ OB em. Ir indcin According to 11. PECA: 8. W gwo-). VVB: 120. 3 sg -to prevent' (1) Hapax in Welsh.sn n m&f 'anvil' (eingion I MW cin(g)on. aincch . innun. request' See erehint.54 . Diccionario etimol6gico vasco.8) emmi guollig v pres. For the root he suggests a connection with OIr leim (W lIam) 'to leap". butirum. nouiremid gl. VGK: r. LElA: 5-141. ask for. meaning 'to prevent. PEC~I\: 4L VVB: 121 epill gl. Pedersen in JCS 1 (1950). enderic . that OIr im I imm in relative clauses becomes imme. 08 en. ann.b. GMWL: 296. ope: 1173.1 (.32. P. epill n m&f 'auger. borer. VVB: 118 ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 emid n m 'bronze. lEW: 775-6: PECA: 42. H. spitz.r with a probable Basque connection (see M. imma. 'opposite' See arci11leir DGVB: 165 emeninn n m 'butter' (ymenyn] MW emenin. wvn~h: nc ~neh PI. ein(i)on. Erytria quaequc C'umca est vcl Phrigia Me II b.'scharf. backs. incudo Ox2 42 h (4. VVB: 119-120 haln hoi cncp gl. chilhocra leg. wimble. DGVB: 160. and cf. OGVB: 157). kantig' GPC: 1155. Aguid.. GPC: 1190. lEW: 777. For a a derivation *ando-daTi-ko. Hamp: 1973.269-70 Salt emmi guollig hinnitb if bloidin hunnuith Comp 19 en prep ·'in' (1) IE *en.. on this difficult base. flamp: 1974. LElA: U-24. MW OM (n)eir 'heifer'. rC(llIest' Sec erehinl. Ir smcitThe connection with Greek f. signs. ebyll. 75. Stern in ZC'P 5 (1905) p. ope: 1213~ LElA: A-76~ LHEB: 508. VVB: 119 nacenbfd gl.4) ercimeir prep.a. sec Chantraine: 881-2. 347. I ) rntp n m 'rIfe' (wynfhl MW vinpn_ vvnpn.55 DGVB: 216. babtuta Ox2 42 8 (3. Lambert in EC ~27 (1990). Schrijver: 394. anticipate'. Jackson: 1950. VVB: 119. contra Ang 60 a ercit v imp. cJanus: MB (h)ihil < Celt. VGK: 1.. in. Schrijver: 351. cf. A. emmi (with no reflexive force) stands for W am-. spanncn' (lEW: 9RR).81-3. VGK: I. 10) enmeituou n pi 'nods. 114 ennian gl. I Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia: Diputaci6n Foral de Guipuzcoa. pp. See also OWAV. oemid gl. OB enmeitiam gl.'schen' DGVB: 160. Olr imb < IE *'J~-en.e. Stokes: 1860-1. Williams: ]927. per nutus Ovid JR h enn. ex aere MC 46 b. emncid. ereis.166. 5-6. aeris Me 4 b. ask for. I ) ercis v pret. steer. p. 865-7) and with an unexpected preservation of -nd. cf. brass. the root of which he compares to Greek 1tfVOJUll. with a prefix (Ir 10-. OC obil (for cbit?) gl.'in' . nulla J 71 enderic n m 'bullock.261-270.'SaJbe' (= *n3ngU-1J): see also emmeni. 3 s~ 'to seck. WG: IJ6 troi enmeituou gl.(cf. White: 9~. DC amanen gl. vitu 1 J 0 us ercimeir gl. According to I.5) enuein n pi 'names' See anu. piercer' lebilll MW chill. emenyn. et totaln facieln mealn Ox2 41 h ( I.96-7 namercit mi ncp leguenid hcnoid J uv . hints' (amnaidl MW amnaid. WG: 151. i.see Hamp: 1977-8. GPC: 97. 402 was rejected by Vcndrycs. VGK: 1. 46. emmeni gl. cnuein di Sibellac int hinn gl. emmeni n m 'butter' See emeninn. cf. naQina: OR cnen uucrt: Olr cncch. lEW: 312. OCV: 333. IE *ak.. see White. clrtUllS. ereit.3 sg 'to seek. aera Ovid 388 < *(ep)-eni-Hoku-ii. 291 considers this as an intensive prefix. For further possi bilities for the interpretation and their possible draw. Williams. lEW: 779. chilhoern gJ. he notes. ym-. LHEB: 587. VB: 120. Tovar. ~bull)calr MW (h)enderic. B annoer. An -ig derivative.38. cnuein di iunoni gl. oev: 367-8. Midlr a(i)nder.

Gael. .. JO: 96. fionou n pi 'roses. GPC lists this entry as Brcton conlparanda. pI. cf. DGVB: . . rosarium Prise 24 a rox·~loves' (monl MW f(f)ion.44..1 ~ __ J: "~ _=_ . for hlhl t. bitten'. luck' (fTawd) MW herwyt.. lEW: 824.. IE V·'J~id. Craster: 135) etmet " imp... IE vpet. For various possibilities for its interpretation see OWAV. 244. . _. esC'eir n f 'limb' (esgair) MW. DGVB: 17t~ GPC: t2RQ~ E. heruit: OB heruid < Celt.: . OC elescher (possibly for uel escher. n... VGK: I. .. aitheamh 'fathom' < Celt. DGVB: 210. OIr ast· < Britt. . _ _~ . OC fodic gl. 413. in el herwydd. MB archass.'sitzen' (lEW: 884).. r_~_ . a fortuna Prise 24 b feciaul n 'napkin placed over the face of a dead person' errei see nam hint erre.. rnsnrum t\1(~ <) h. White: 266-R acet met gl. 70. Ir escir 'ridge' For the difficulties of the derivation from *eks-kara. *etami-. Prusskii yazyk... 132. pp.(cf.. apc: 127(). see V.. see Williams: 1930. tibia.'ausbreiten' GPC: 1163. auc derivative of fion.. GPC: 1242. VVB: 123 ceng ir esceir MP 23 8 (246) estid n 'seat' (eistedd) MW eistydd. VVB: 125 feciaul gl. rods' (ffonJ MW edeu. ffyn. for the semantics. DGV8: 171 fionauc gl.. see LE IA: S-R 1.. WO: 414-5 guotan amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23 8 (241) MW faud..< Celt. See atar. 'fragen. falll" . GPC: 179.. VGK: I. Lane: 249. 6R: VVB: 12ft l1ouirfinnou gl. yam' (edao) Hapax in Welsh. 403 finn gl. [0"". facialis GPC: 1280. GPC: 1301-2~ LElA: S-172~ lEW: 9R9. Stokes: lR73.. ffawt. ·ari-uid-. which cannot he used as a solid argument against the presence of this word in OW. instita longa Ovid 378 eterin(n) MW ffon.. felix < LuI.56.. < Lat. Irish cara) see PECA.. VVB: 123. Elsie: 109. (. __ . DGVB: 170 n6 ir felchou gl. 1-.. retunde J 77 erchim vn 'to seek. (f)\ . : . OW fionauc gl. PE('A: 46.. theatro Ovid 3811 etem n m 'thread. lEW: 821.: . VVB: 126. . Elsie: 135. agit eterin illud MP 22b (234) ir pimphet eterin MP 22b (234) dOll eterinn MP 22 b (234) See also foionouc.l3~ cf. . 444~ n m sgl.PC' dot'S not consider this instnl1l'l'.. edau.. . IE ysed. fascia J 91 felchou n pi 'spleen' According to Fleuriot.a. see OWAV... 112 estid gl..._. *estied.. 255. etc. Toporov. 92) gl. Schrijvcr: Stokes: 1873. Moscow: Nauka 1975._~_~:_.. PECA: 43-4. . t S-115~ _... ope: 1200. ~ ~_~. For the IE etymon.. OB estid. DeV: 63. Williams: 1933..56 57 with aeddfed (GPC: 36).. ML: 167. .. ef. 3qR~ VGK: I. ()('V: 140. VGK: I. VGK: 1. ) dierchim tir telih Chad 2 erguid prep..a. crouitorio Ox2 41 b (l. VB: 272. gurth cimarch. eskeir.. VVB: 124 a hir etem gl.'see. Ir sonn < IE *sp(h)endh.. White: 299 (surexit tutbulc . VGK: I.. rosarium~ Mlr sion These words were analysed hy H. arch-... 'bird' fionlluc n 'rose garden' An .. LElA: A-86.h.sk-.. ask for... see Isaac: 326. 'according to' (herwydd) F fsut n f m 'fate. purple . see also [onnaul and cf. It is not attested in MW and W.. LElA: A-97.sed·.'Holzcimer'.. . VVB: 115 etlol g1. placentarum Ang 55 a finn n pi 'sticks. GPC: 1860. request' [arch-] MW erch-. 113-5~ LElA: Schrijver: 2Rl. dr. ~ . DGVB: 167.. etc. Olr arcn < *arka < ·pr.~ etlol? This gloss is obscure. the word could be Breton.. see fionoll. see Williams: 1944. see DGVB: 170. Siovar' A-D. cf. VVB: 123.. ML: 167.. . 2 sg 'reap again· A .. pila MC 38 a. though it is preceeded by the Welsh article..236-7.. 20J a faut gl. IE Vperk-. t.. cf.'..pion. see also ercit and cf.. esgeir. See also heruid. "{amp in CMCS IH (I()H9). -eks.. DGVB: 138. Pedersen as cognates of Lat. pr.. MB felch alongside with Irish selg is traced to *Jpelgil-.

223. PECA: 46. OB funiou gl. Chicago 1975. 366-8. Bromwich: 1980" 95-8. EL. Vance. MB hual~ cf.3) fralldll'uis see dsmfraudaJu.Hlla. p.2) Hapax in Welsh. DB fleriot gI. form of the plural finn (see s. locell vel fonn gJ. Gahcl' see lEW: 40Y. ML: 17R: Schrijver: 160: VGK: 1. see s. 221: VVB: 12R fruinn gl.58 rlSll n 'fistula' 59 the discussion of the form is very controversial. The unexpectcd vocalism was explained (differently) by P. consider the attempts to see in it a verb (VVB: 127) or the dispute ahout the formation of the adjective (Rhys: 1873. fionauc. Hamp. frcnu"1 Ox2 43" (5. cleft.3). by the influence of the Latin original (P.a. VGK: J. 402-3) was to consider this as a sg.91. Hamp). LHEB: 597.. see Williams: 1980. 236-7 and 467). VVB: 127 Connaul difrit gl. aIr sibal(l) The Brittonic words are usually considered as loans from Lat. fruyn. prolific'. Loth maintflincd. The semantic aspect as it was noted by Loth (VVB: 127) makes this assumption ra ther dubious. The troublesome initial in OW was explained by a "fluctuating changc". see A.l. stink' Imair) MW ffleir. Stoke": 1~7J. and nnt a plural form. Williams was challenged by A. spear'. 58-9. gyve.1.io. (iPC': 1.402. I. conlpes Ox2 43<l (5. shackle. 259~ LElA: S-I04-5: LI-IEB: 276. Cf. Stokes: 1873.11) Iminn n m&f 'bridle.). as J. the radical is Breton. I am going to reconsider the suggestion of Stokes in SC. fertilitas Ox2 46h (10.220-1. MW gaflaw An -ow derivative of *gohl (all Kohl gl. 'smell. alternatively. pp. DaVB: 171 foionouc gl. T.uo) MW ffun. San.3. mature. B. see also ruinn. fruidlonaid gl. GPC: 1904~ E. GPe: 1319. bonds" (hual) MW hual. Stokes: 1813. Williams: 1980.1) fruinn gl. For the Latin context ~c~ Stokes. olacem Me 14 8. and the dialect variation (E.b.\ ~1C (. Rowland in CMCS 26 (1993). paglum Ox2 43 A (5. See [ionou.~ h. 95 mi am franc Juv 3 (2. !!rl·vythloll 'productive. Rehel)."\70. Williams in BBCS 7 (1935). finn 'stick'. rudentibus < Lat. [JGVB: 17. A. OC flair glo oder. /lagro < fragTo DOVB: 171.. ML: 168. cf. J. 'split open. cds. fertilc' (GPC: 1320). 225. OIr srfan < Lat. fistula (si]bilatrix MC 62 b. hcrc W (1675) [[rwyth'onaidd 'fruitful. for a different view see ML and LElA. E. .v. 'pertaining to a stick or spear' Hapax in Welsh~ an -awl / -of derivative of [onn.98-9. oe. VGK: I.V. Gabelung. II R. VVB: 12R fual gl. fructus (W ({. W ffistwla was borrowed from English (GPC: 1290).6) Cl j franc n m 'foreign merfenary' MW franc < MLat [rancus This interpretation and derivation forwarded and advocated by I. Rees in BBCS 18 (1958-{)(). DCV: 335. n. Olr RaJ"" < IE *R"ahh(o)ln~ 'Astgabel. rosetum Prisc 35 b fonn'1 The suggestion of Stokes (1873. pp..1 nnd cf. 1. VVB: 126 fistl gablau gl. without specifying it (LI~EB: 276). < Latin fIStula. foionouc n 'rose garden' (1) Though the form of the suffix looks Welsh. forked' (~anawl fnlirllnnsld ? Thou£h the stem of the word is an apparent Joan from Lat. OPC: . fibula Ox2 43 (5. In her note len ny Rowland argues for the traditional interpretation of this lexeme. Bachcllery in EC R(IY5H). Schrijver and E.1302. GPC: 1310. ML: 171. Papers fr0l11 the Eleventh Regional Meet!!!g. LElA: S-IR6. ML: 171. p. F1euriot points to the possible Breton origin of this entry. AP: 53: E. Hamp. not registered in GPe..§ Iuniou 0 r pi 'band. Falileyev in Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Texts and Transmission (submitted for puhlication). fillet' (". restraint' (fTrwyn I MW fruin. EL: 17. For the discussion of this entries and the arguments for the "Cornish symptoms" they betray. Haarmann. VVB: 126 flairmaur gl. que redolet < Lat. ML: 168.n·rth). Schrijvcr). GPe: 1292.ir n . ferculum Me 14 b. this could be a bretonised Welsh form . Chicago Linguistic Society.4) fual gl.3. fustuarium Me 41 a. vittae tcnues Ovid 37" G gllblllu adj. fihula. fistula Jsi)hilatll. (f)frwyn. 149-51 and in BBCS 37 (1991). IUIII n f m 'fetter. pp. Mini-laws. fonnau/adj. pp. funis DGVB: 172. The word perhaps also occurs in Juv 3 (1. 404: VVB: 12H fistl gablau cl. GPC: 1324-5. 404. Breeze who considers this as a loan from AS franca 'javelin. 21-5. VVB: 128 a mein funiou gl. GPC does not consider this instance. [renlon. forthcoming.a. Breeze in Notes and Queries 236 (1991). pp. GrossmCln.

this could be an abbreviation for Lat. foratoriu. gylfin.404. IE yg(e)i. geluin. schimmern' lEW: 429. ox ~oad' (icrthi) Schrijvcr: 17J: VGK: .J10 5. VVB: 129 lathar~uc 1.'glanzcn. Stokes: 1873. gefyn.< IE *ghel:l.-'). LHEB: 596.102 o glanstlinnim gl. VVB: 130 gflbin gl. e~p. ope: 1368. OCV: 219-20. ostrum Prise 14 h gil? ? . and as an early loan from Germanic in PECA.a. Zimmer has argued in favour of analysing this word as a Welsh hapax. secaliu111 Ox 2 42<t «('raster: 136. however. orgarn gl." Ox2 42 h (4.'gHinzen. munctorium. This dry stylus gloss was found and read by H. 'blue. OPC: 1794. OB golbin. nippers' [gefel] MW geuel. According to Zeuss (1061). GPC: 1386. VVB: 130: WG: RJ gins g1. Olr gulhan < Britt. nehmen' (lEW: 407 f. DeV: 157. for the discussion of 1he similar cases with somewhat different approach.U.79. DeV: 338.r· gener? . stimulus. in preparation.7) gi/b n m 'sharp point. PNRB: 440. chain' (gefyn] MW geuyn. famine sancto J 5 g/ss adj. Loth analyses this word as 'gouffre'.60 61 MW icrthi. MB gevel The word is compared with MW gafl 'fork' and was considered to go back to IE *ghabh(o)lo. a (learned !) loan from Latin genere. schimmcrn. DB glas gl. Schnee' DGVB: 196. Ir gart The word was tentatively considered as a loan from AS gierd by ope. griin' (lEW: 4. B garz(h)ou. forthcoming). Surexit tutbulc filius liuit hagener tutri (Chad 2) gennec-7 J. Giamon[ios]. < *glllsto. 'hervorsteeken' (lEW: 440). 609. Schrijver: 101 and 108-10. or h. pincers. iacinctinum. p. contrast VVB: 129. see Schrijver: 17J for the identification of the IE stem: De Bernardo Stempel: 117.1998). OC garthou gl. OCV: 201. sec Schrijver: 173 for the form of the root. *gulbfno. sharp·pointed instrument. see OWA V. 5 gilb gl. rostrum. VVB: 129 . E. DGVB: 172. Ir gem. garan. see Lambert: 1976-7. Jenkins in BBCS 28 (1980). For a derivation from IE *gh er. ope: 2012. see s. tgiiam·.4) gilbin n m According to I. v.G gillstum 'woad': OIr glas Parry· Williams: 121.. OC geuel hoern gl. 66. cacrula . iure Dx2 42 h (4. cf. VGK: I.~/lillllil. 118: Williams: 1929. (g)erthi. VVB: 129 gebin g1. Sec also gilbi".. GPC: 1794.527. Craster as ~.em n m 'winter' (gaeal] MW gayaf. OPC: 1401.) should be perhaps considered here. St. n r 'sharp stick or olher pointed instrument formerly used for prodding and etrh'in~ oxen. DOVB: 178 and 175. gaeaw. G Pt': 14(0) and stli""i"l. dolabra Ox2 42b (4. GPe: 1380 does not list this example under gar. generario (Zimmer. when plo. Olr gulha < Britt. alternatively. sec Parry-Williarns. consisting of glon (MWC'B gl(l". this stands for garr 'coes' ('leg').05. VGK: I. he writes.~. gylyf. OC goyf gl. OB PN Regulbium.'. 10: 95 and D. The traditional interpretation of this entry considers this as a Latin word for 'sonin-law. medio Ovid 378 gebel n r'tongs. see also Zeuss: 1054 for the identification with MW garr. Dr Paul Russell and the compiler of the present CJlossary re-cxnrnined this en try (13. Most recently.'fork' by GPe.5) gebin n m 'gyve. PECA: 47. Those assumptions are based on the presupposition that the preceeding ha stands for the later 0. *gllibio-. culleo Me 39 b.'fassen. green' [glas) OW (LL) and MW glas. Elsie: 101. Latin context 3. This instance \vill he discussed in a paper hy Falileyev and Russell. Williams: 1929. knife' (gylf] MW gelef. PECA: 51-2. DGVB: 176. gclh. shackle. ghjn~. < IE *glrrl. lEW: 432: LI·IEO: 1. lEW: 367. the last letter looks like a small It. gili gl. Parry-Williams: 12L VVB: 130: White: . ga(i)m ) t.5) glsnst/innim vn 'pure I holy speakin~' A hapax.5 gebel gl. lEW: 425. 194. Olr gebend < IE *g£m. glosses roslnlll1. 118. the first three letters are definitely gil. gaeaf. fetter. Lat. see gilb and also the next. barathri coeno J 81 ~erth.'schaben'. PECA: 48. hyemps. r 'point· (gylfin) MW gyluin. where this is rendered as 'milieu'). 1-1.'Winter. G. IE *ghabh. LHEB: 559. gennec gl. LHEB: 417. ()Ir gla". Lambert: 1982. For a possihle Irish influence.. VVB: 110. PECA: 48. OB guoiam. VVB: 129. IE *gelebh. LHEB: 359.'fassen (Fessel)' (lEW: 368) GPC: 1386. lEW: 409. OC geluin gl. i. < Britt. Williams (1929: 5. VGK: I. see gab/au. MC' glas. acumine J 70 gilbin gl. WG: 100 in irgaem Chad 3 gam? gerthi gl. g.12).

lEW: 462. Stokes: 1873. that the form is Kl'lulou. VVB: 131. The form gofail in voce has been also considered as Welsh. see De Bernardo Stempel: 117-8 with further literature. suggested hy Williams. tinea. cf. faher I.62 63 greliat n m 'title-deed' glas gt viridis J 72 glas gl. lorge' [gerail] MW geueil.1I n m 'the (lear or a liquid' (gloyw] MW gloyw. also DeV: 270.t (5. OC~V: 44. 'empty' l~wa~J MW gwac. DGVB: 199. VVB: 132 guapeJi gl. yalina Me 5 b. G Gobannitio. VVB: IJI grephiou gl. stilos Me 5 b. Jackson: 1950.' see digJlliuhit goba. which he compared with OC goufJan gl. Stokes: IR73 . VGK: I. \'OCffIlJ (UOCIIS). Watkins: 1982. Stokes was accepted by J. v. Jackson's note. A derivative of W gof (OW LL gof) 'smith'. 'continuous. ultia Ox2 41. gridiron.doff. 34b goudonou n pi 'moths' . see also grefiat GPC: 1523. Note the spelling -Ii for . Williams. with the unclear further connections. 117 piouboi' int groisauc Juv 9 (M. Williams (1933: 117) pointed to the possible readings gletu. glauci J 75 glas gl. is historically impossihle. und Germ:. ocellos Ovid 3R h adj. unceasin~' (?) .71. GPC does not consider this instance. PECA: 53.! . < Lat.! D r'smithy. glitu and gloiu. GPC: 1534. nur Kelt. GPC: 1404 gJasliu gl. grois8uc adj. accepted hesitantly hy GPC in view of K. DGVB: 1R1. 10: 106 grefiat guctig Chad 2 grephiou n pi 'styles' [graifTt J glBsliu n & adj.1) This entry was analysed by Stokes as a plural of goudon.. R. and not . GPC: 1536. Haycock. The etymology is not clear. Hapax in Welsh.t (). see JO. 13 gIJ8C guapeli n m&r 'saddle. OIr gruad < IE *Rhrolld. gwag: OB guac < Lat.4) guopell gJ. Haycock: 15--6.31. officina Prise.. cf. graphillm + iatl.192. p8D. ML: 174. OC gof gI. see also the next. 388 nouirgoudonou gL tinearum MC 2 a. IE *ghlei. .~ 'cross'. I. See s. geueyl The pos~ibility of considering this form as Welsh is based on the presence of an epenthetic vowel (Aeuriot).uh. gra tella for cTatelJa GPC: 1518.. aIr glc < *gJoi-f:!o-s. LHEB: 325. These are traditionally derived from *goban(n)-. OB gloeu.5) + clf. Olr graif < Lat.b.v. MW grud(d). Williams: 19RO. liquidum J 86 glu. gl ebis J 56 MW graifft. 5 gratell gl.8) MW gobell The word is analysed hy GPC as "go -II. gloew. 22. "- grate" n m&f 'grindle. Another possibility is to connect this instance with W. pad' rgobellJ .267.67. Comp 5 ir loe guac Camp 6. 'blue colour' [glasliw] MW glasliw The compositum contains glas 'blue'. OC grud gl. PECA: 50. PECA: 51 offers no etymology for the latter and quotes only B gQo~an.b.a. Williams: 1929.'von gew(llbten K(lrperteilcn. contrast VVB: 225. bakestone. 17 irloc guac Camp 14 irIoc quae Comp 9 loc guac Comp 12. The interpretation of this hapax is that of I. maxilla. VVO: 130 gletu gl. Lambert: 1982a . WG: 98. and the varintion -liO. elldo. GPC: 1417.2) grudou n pi 'cheeks' [~ruddJ glo.(lEW: 432). GPC: 1411./ -"(1-. and liu 'colour'. VGK: 1. graticula Ox2 42b (4. Williams: 142Q. gnte' [gndell) MW gradell < Lat. iacirtrum [leg.6. GPC: 1529. ML: 175-5 ad ir loc. cror. DGVB: 177. GPC: 1386~ GPN: 351. and this is disclissed by M. see also glas. ML: 114. OCV: Ill.nnhyshys pel'''. where it is stated that the connection· of this word with Irish gresaeh.112 gobaiJ gl. hyacinthinum] DNR IV gletu? This reading by W. Williams noted. . sudaris Ox2 4J. Loth. aIr gob(a)e.. 86 and 11. guac.5 grudou gl. graphill111.130 gloiu gl. GP(~: 1552. I.

(lEW. amusement. OCV: 403. vass-. chwarae / gwarae. iuuenem J 32 gusmBm y pres. Schrijver: 216. inti j7ccht so. fahren· (lEW: ) IHf): for the set-phrase. lEW: 1040. MB choary. GPC: 1577 and 841. cf. annhuariat. VVB: 133 eicentem gu~rd gl. 117 . this is 'throwing of the covering'.fi marchauc 'groom.1: VGK: I. MB gourffcnn. OIr forccnn A combination of the prefix guor I guor with the word for 'head" I'('"n" see s. scena Ovid 38:1 gUBS see also slI'uduguar gubennid n m&f 'pillow. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a gual' see strudugusr grJan. cf. DOB: 531 where the enry is rendered as 'out of').d n f 'time. see guardt • Stokes: 187. 77. lEW: 1106. gwarwyfa: OB guarima gl. which is attested only in Celtic and Slavic. theatre' [parae J DGVB: 182. PECA: 67. 1005) DGVB: 199. gue. p. chwerth-. J" Loth treats them separately (just question marks). stable-boy' I~W8S] OW (LL) and MW guas. VGK: I. see s. stipulationcs. games' (gwarwy J MW guarvy.96 I!"aro.I. VGK: 1.'Jachen'. E. VVB: 13. ziehen. VVB: 133 guaroiou gl.25) guecriStiiou n pi 'girdles.maou n pi 'plays.38f. DC hI>er~in gl. J. plaYRrounds' [gwarwyfa] MW gwarwyua. a. IE *kerd. Williams: 1980. VVB: 133 oguard gl. guarai g]. -"n llll K'eith. cf. edito Me 3 a. Is identical with guar 1.-Y. see pc"". LHEB: 69. LElA: C-66.'bewegen. groom' in gUR. chawarae. adultcr Ovid 41 a gUBS MW gwar(a)e. n m&f 'play. VVB: 133. see guaroimaou. guaroioll. v.ou n pi 'plays. ope: 1589. GPC: 1417-8. now'.d derivative of * ~l()·kuenn. see gflarai. Ir. that there is no need to reconstruct this IE stem. Sec also RlIc. p. gl. Me hwary No etymology~ VGK suggests *worigo. aIso the nex t . Lambert: 1982. cushion' (gohennydd) ? Stokes connects this (for gwarth 'covering') with guard 2 . II. bolster. MB goupener An -. Vstd. theatris Ovid JR 3 guaro. cf. According to Stokes. Lambert "sont de deux scribes diff~rents·'. This is a cognate of ()C gr"gis (MS grug'. cf. ftPB: 432-3.1. frolics. Olr foss < Celt. MW gwregis. oith gueid guar cant gl. cf. VVB: 134 gubennid gl. GPC: 1590. the Celtic namcs for \belf arc thus considered to show the same semantic change as their cognates in Slavic: the latter nrc analysed as a suhstantivized prepositions. DGVB: 276 and IR6-7: (fPC: 1564: Williams: 14XO. p. occasion' r~waithl MW gweith. OB guocrisiuou This form is quoted as OB by GPC: 1701. guar" un .434.1 a (1938). see oev: 342). OB guos gl. Vendryes in EC 3 (1938). 406. VVB: 133 guaroimaou [sic] gl. see DGVB: 276 and 181-2. guarima. n-nln/crlll 'on this occnsion.a. OW (Gen. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi (Ang 21 a. IR. 'with' The sequence guar un . termination' (gorfTenl MW gorffen. risus.I gwa. The meaning 'avec' of guar in this gloss was compared with its usage in the gloss on fo 18 of the same manuscript.1 guas marchauc gl.16 (19R5). I 51 '10 laugh' ((hwardd-] MW chward-.1) 504~ White: 78.64 65 gual't prep.th. + *-ma. OB Ran Guarai. Hamp in Eriu . 412. v. ope: 1589. oi rodiodlir guar un sHab 'on ne fait pas de sens avec une seule syllable'. Stokes: 1873. however. gusI'd p8~2? l MW gohen(n)yd(d). C guas: G. 194 pimmunt. GPC: 843-4. DGVB: 182. teathra [leg. LElA: C-239: PECA: 5. Old Church Slavonic 'IPb3h \through".v. OW (Ae) gueit 'hattie' < IE *~legh. 'otter' See guor. cf.< IE *upo-Jtho·. guoroiou. gvarycu See guarai. see ESSYa: 4. maessid. ope: 1483 hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunccant Comp 22-3 n m 'boy. and pimmunt. It was argucd.) (rishan. flammeo Me 44 a. . LHEB: 533. Schrijvcr: 407. WG: 100 . . DGVB: IR5: lEW: 579.niguardam Juv 3 (2. cf" Irishfuirech < ·fo-rig. according to P. thcatra] Ovid 38h gUBr phenn n m 'end. Elsie: 108. guar2 prep. circus < glloro. hapsidum cxtrcmequc Ang 1. 42 inom ir guccrissou gl. *ljo-sto. aries ithou guar kalendis ianuariis Comp 18 guarirdreb gl. anhuariatan. MB huerzin < IE *s~lard.. guaroimaoll.'under-head". MIr !ochruJ" explained as *"([')0kr d -Sll -.. ceruical Ox2 44" (6.1. Schrijver: 112.as a protoform. for c~ wa.41. J" Vendrycs in EC 3 .'gorten'. belts' (gwregysau) .

66
oith gueid guar cant gl. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.3)

67

gueimmonou n pi 'seaweeds' (gwymon] OB gumouo; C gumman; OIr (emm This form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1769. The Celtic forms were tentatively considered by J. Pokorny in his entry *ueib-, *lJi-m-b- (to *lJeip-, y.eib- 'drehen'), see lEW: 1132 which follows T. O'Rahilly (in Eriu 13, 1940-2, p. 163). E. Hamp notes that the better established IE root is *y.eip-, and proposes north-western European *lJis-mon-, allowing for contamination *yipsma- x *,:!is-lnon. The other suggestions are 1) to analyse these as cognates of Sanskrit vapat; (VGK: I, 93), or 2) to discuss them with reference to IE *yes- 'futtern, schmausen' (R. Thurneysen in KZ 48 (1918), p.67). DGVB: 186; E. Hamp in BECS 28 (1979), p.213; E. Hamp in Eriu 39 (1988), p. 194; lEW: 1132 guiemonou gl. marinis herbis Ang 16 a gueith n m 'battle' [gwaith]
Used throughout the "Annales Cambriae", cf. gueith cair legion (s.a. 613), gueith hirford (s.a. 760), etc. Note the following exceptional spellings in AC: gueiht (s.a. 750, "the h of this word is added above the line", Phillimore: 161, fn. 2); gueit (s.a. 848); gueith (s.a. 157; &'the e of this word added above the line", Phillimore: 157, fn. 5). The word is well·attested in this meaning in the later Welsh. For the etymology see S.v. gueid.

< Celt. *LJo·leg- , IE ylegh- ·(sich) legen, liegen' DGVB: 238; L. Fleuriot in EC II (1964/5), p. 15(); GPC~: 162R-9; lEW: fJ5R-9: LHEB: 446; oev: 346: PECA: 55: Schrijvcr: 6R; V(,K: I. 9R and II. )AO: VVB: 135 gueli liein gl. cuhile Ox2 44 11 (6.25)
guell adj. 'better' (gwell J MW gwelL guell: C gwel, B gwell Perhaps to IE *yel-, etc., ·wollen. wahlen' (lEW: (137), see the discussion in
GPN: 272f. GPC: 16~O; VGK: II, 12l: VVB: I.lS anbiic gucll gl. magister auc Ox2 46 h (10.26)

Kuerc/aud n f&m 'meadow"
MW gueirclaud, gweirclod

Igweir~lod(d)J

The compound contains a reflex of Celt. *yesro- (Olr fer, W gwair) 'grass' (see E. Hamp in Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 12 (196Y). rr. 156-7, and pp. 158-69 for an inventory of IE *tles-~ cf. P. Stiles in KZ 9R (19R5), pp. 295-301), and claK'dd ·ditch, gutter, trench' (C kledh, cleatll ·ditch, trench', B kreuz, OIr clad < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, haucn' (Elsie: RR: GPC: 491: E. 'lamp, Cia,,,: Lucus a non Lucendo. 11K. J. Klar et 01., cds .. A Celtic Florilegium. Lawrence 1997. pp. 4(}-1: lEW: 545ff; LElA: C-I09). See OWAV. GPC: 1622~ VVB: 136 guerclaud gl. prato Ox2 41 h (I. I ~)

pel n m 'gnss' [gwellt] OW (LL) guell; MW guelt, gwellt; OB guelt; OIr gelt < Britt. *ljelt- (cf. HPB: 239). Though the words are found in Pokorny's entry *rJel- 'Haar, Wolle' (cf. guiJlihim), it was also noted that these could belong to IE *gel- ·verschlingen' (lEW: 365); for the connection with MW gwyllt 'wild' with an extensive bibliography, see Sims-Williams, and contrast Schrijver. See OWA V. DGVB: 1878; Elsie: 100; GPC: 1632; lEW: 1139; Schrijver: 60, 67; Sims-Williams: 1981,224-7; VGK: ],96; Williams: 1980,106 eet treidin gllel haguid J uv 9 (2.2)
gue/en n 'calendar or religious festivals' OB guiler, guiteri; Olr. (elire
The word occurs twice in Welsh, and both times in the Computus Fraglnent. < Lat. uigi!iarium or an -eri derivative of W gwyl « Lat. vigilia, ML: 176, cf. Schrijver: 225). DGVB: 191; GPC: 1161; Lambert: 1983, 123; Williams: 1927,267 in irgueleri. Camp 16 i:n irgueleri Comp 17 , Rueli n m 'bed' (gwely) MW gueli, gwely, DC gueli gl. lectum I. lectulum, liein gueli gl. sindo, kala gueli gl. ~tramentum, dillat gueli gl. fulcra

guerin n m&f 'people' (gwerinJ MW guerin, gwerin: OB guerin gl. in duas fnctioncs: Olr foircnn gl. factio < *{iorfllii , IE *yer- 'hindcn. anreihen·. see Schrijver: 12Q for *Ua- / *u c -. DGVB: 189: GPC: 1643: lEW: 1151: LJ-IEB: fl05: J. Pokorny in KZ 45 (IQI3). pp.36o-1: VGK: L 375: J. Vendrycs in RC' JJ (1912), r.47J: VVI3: 1.17 guerin gT. factio J 24 guetid v pres. 3 sg 'to speak" The interpretation is that of I. Williams. according to which the form is a cognnte of dyu'edyd, etc. The IE backgrounds arc disputahle: *Ur/- of this form was c1Clim cd by GPC to he a varinnt of IE *Urd- (Sanskrit ,·ndali). \vhieh is not in lEW. Bromwich: 1980,99-100: (,PC: 1152: White: 110; Willillnls: 14HO. (}l) dou nam riceus unguctid Juv J (3.3)
4

guetig adv•., prep., conj. 'after(wards)' See guotig and cf. JO: 102-3. rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2 dimcdichat guetig hit did braut Chad 2 grefiat guetig Chad 2 Iluiannuin n m
'sprin~~ (~wanwynl

MW guah"nuyn. guayanuhin. gtlahanuyn,

gUClcnhucn.

g\v:lnh"·yn.

~\va(ca)n(n)-

/1

"

.

~/'

.s:'

68

69

wyn; OC guaintoin gl. ver < *,!esanteno-, IE vyes- 'Frilhling' GPC: 1575; lEW: 1174; LHEB: 361; 137 o guiannuin gl. vere Ovid 40b

guin n m 'wine' r~win J MW gvin, gwin, OC guin fellet gl. accetum, MB guin, guyn, Olr nn

oev:

200; PECA: 53; VGK: I, 74; VVB:

< Lat. vil1um
GPC: 1662; ML: 175; OCV: 371-2; PECA: 57~ VGK: I, 210; VVB: 138-9 guin gl. uinum Ox2 44 a (6.20)

f..

guich(i)r t adj. 'violent, fierce, (brave)' [gwychr]

MW guychir, gwychyr; OB guichr gl. ferinus; OIr feuchir, feuchuir The entry is traditionally connected with IE *,!eik- 'energische, bes. feindselige Kraft3uBerung'. The -ch- is left unexplained. See also the next entry. DGVB: 190; GPC: 1749; lEW: 1129; Loth in RC 38 (1920-1), p.299; VGK: I, 122; VVB: 137 guichir gl. effrenus J 27 guichr gl. effera J 69
guichr'- n (name of. letter) See guich(i)r1•

gui[ n?] cip n f 'wine-press, wine-vat' A hapax in Welsh. The compound consists of gu;n (see s.v.), and £",." Lat. cupa. GPC: 1664; Stokes: 1860-1, 222; VVB: IJ7-R claur guicip gl. prelum (quod fit super faciem torcularis) J 78 guinlsnn n f 'vineyard; vine' (gwinllan I MW gwinllan See guin, and lann (it/ann). GPC: 1665; Stokes: 1860-1,221; WG: 73; VVB: guinlann gl. uitis J 77

'ves~e"

<

I~q

guichr Nemn
guid n coli. 'tree(s)' [gwydd] MW guit, guyt, gwyd; OC guiden gl. arbor, OB guid, OIr fid, G. vidu< IE *'lidhu- 'Baum' DGVB: 190; ope: 1753; lEW: 1177; oev: 290; PECA: 56; VGK: I. 41; Williams: 1980,106 cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.2)

guir· n m 'law' [gwirJ MW guir, gwir; OC guirion gl. verax; OB guir; G Covirus; aIr ffr < Celt. *LJiros < IE *l.Jero·s 'wahr' (lEW: 1166) GPC: 1666; JO: 99-100; MJ: 271; DeV: 186; PECA: 57: VGK: I. 50: WG: 75 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 gui,.J- adj. 'true' r~wir) See guir·; see also t••erdutou t1 guird•••• ha chepi. hinn inguir Comp 21 issguir gl. verum MC 13 a.h. guird adj. 'green' rgwyrdd] MW guirt, gwyrd; OC guirt gl. viridis. MB guczr: Ir urdai < Lat. viridis OPC: 1762; LHEB: 58; ML: 177; oev: 210; PEC~A: 5R; VGK: I, 214: VVB: 140 guird gl. herbida Me 6 a.a. puirdglll... adj. 'sea*~reen, dark-~reen' 1~~·yrddl.~1 MW gwyrd(d)las; B gurlas See guird, gIllS. ope: 1783; Lambert: 1982a, 22; VVB: 140 oguirdglas gl. salo Me 3 a.a. nouirgu1rdglas gl. sali resplendcntis Me 3 a.a. /JuirdJiu n & adj. 'green (colour)' (gwyrddliw J MW gwirtliv, gwyrdliw, gwyrtliw; the ()W form not considered hy GPC' This compound contains guird 'green', and fill 'colour'. See Rllird, hll and cf.
glas/ill. GPC: 1783 guirctliu gl graminCtJrll nNR I'"

goil.t adj. 'merry, glad' [gwylad) MW gwylat An -at derivation from guiJ, see guiled.
GPC: 1760; VVB: 138 guilat gl. hilaris Ox2 45 3 (8.18)

piled n m 'modesty' (gwyleddl MW gvilet, gwyled; OB guiled gl. honestas; aIr fele gl. honestas An -edd derivative of Celt. *'leiiv- (MW gwyl, guyl 'modest', cf. Irish [fa/); for the further history of this etymon see VGK: I, 181 and (differently) T. F. O'Rahilly in Celtica 1 (1950), p. 365 f. This word was recently considered by E. Hamp (in BBCS 28 (1980), p. 213) who analyses it as a participle in *-10- of the root *lJei- 'drehen, biegen', on which see lEW: 1120. Cf. also anguil. DGVB: 191; GPC: 1761; VVB: 138 6 guiled gl. pudore J 5
"\ ".

guillihim n m 'sheep-shears. stissors' (gwellau] MW guelliu, guelle(u), gwellau; MB guelteff A~dcrivative from gwallt 'hair" (OC gols, OB guolt) < IE *uel- 'Haar, Wolle'; note the suffix. See also gulan.
GP(": 16~1~ lEW: 1139; VVB: IJR guillihim gl. forceps Ox2 42b (4.8)

70

71

guirdou n pi 'miracles, signs' [gwyrth] MW guirth, gwyrth; OIr firtu < Lat. virtus ope: 1786; ML: 177; Williams: 1980,109 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4.2)

De Bernardo Stempel: 112~ DGVB: 193: Elsie: 145; GOI: 64; 207; PECA: 49~ VGK: I, 60, 128~ VVB: 141 guJip gJ. fluctibus in Jiquidis J 60 gulip gJ. lequefacta (timore) J 60
guobri adj. 'dignified, honourable" Igofri I MW gowri, gofri

ope:

1685; DeV:

pith see quith guithennou n f pi 'veins' [gwith(i)en J MW gwyth(i)en A -en derivative, cf. W gwyth (MW guyth, gwyth(i), DC guid gl. vena, Olr [eith 'vein·; OB goed (Leiden Leech-Book) does not belong here. According to J. Pokorny this is a loan from Lat. vitta; according to E. Campanile the words go back to ·witt;- "d' ignoto etyma". For the discussion of the (proto-)forms, see E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974), pp.201-4. GPC: 1791; lEW: 1122~ OCV: 60; PECA: 56; VGK: I, 14; VVB: 140 guithtnn6u gl. uenae J 43
guithl8un adj. 'angry, furious' (gwythlon] MW gwythlawn, gwythlon A -faun (see s.v. reulaun) derivative of W gwyth, for this see guoguith, guithennou. GPC: 1792; VVB: 141 or guithlaun tal gl. fronte duelli J 51

The word contains a prefix gllo « *tIO) and the stem hri ~honour' (C brv, 08 cumbri, uuobr;, MB hry, Olr brfg) < *8"cr-i-, Vg"('r- 'schwer· (lEW: 477: US: 185;
VGK: L 101 and 11,6(1). L. Fleuriot in EC 20 (19H3) pr. ll4-{); VVB: 142 guobri gl. gravis Ovid 40 a

ope: 1432,323; LHEB: 456; LElA: 8-90;

guobrisch adj. comp. 'more dignified' Comparative degree of gllobri, sec s. v. GPC: 1432; LHEB: 448, 459; VVB: 142 guobriach gJ. sapientior Ovid 37 h guoceleseticc adj. 'tickled'

Hapax in Welsh; an -(i)edig derivative of W goglai,4j 'tickle·. gnKleis;o 'to tickle' < go + clais (cf. OIr clas) < IE *kliid- 'schlagen, hallen', see GPC: 4R9; lEW: 545; LElA: C-114. See also guerclaud.

gulan n m 'wool, down, soft hair' [gwlan] MW gwlan; OC g)uan gl. lana; MB glan; OIr olann from British < Celt. ·~I:1nii- < *LJel- cHaar, Wolle' De Bernardo Stempel: 134; GPC: 1680; lEW: 1139; LElA: 0-19; DeV: 360; PECA: 49; Schrijver: 177; VGK: 1,158; VVB: 141 gulan.gl. lana Ovid 401

ope:

1437; VVB: 142

natoid guocelcscticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. b.
guodemis8uch v pret. 2 pi 'to sufTer, bear, tolerate" r~oddcf.1 MW god(d)cf; C godhaf. B gonzav; Olr fodaimI. Williams suggested reading gllodenlisoltch instead of the previouslv accepted guodeimisauclt. Etymologically, Celt. *tlo-danl- to IE Vde/n~"~. dnnl;J: zilhmen, bandigen'.
4

go/at n f 'country, kingdom' (gwlad]
OW (LL) gulat, MW gulat, gulad, gwlad, gwlat; cf. OW (Oen: 10) gu)etic; DC gulat gl. patria; 08 guletic~ OIr flaith < Celt. ·yla-ti-, < lE ·gal- 'stark sein' OGVB: 193~ GPe: 1676~ lEW: 1112; oev: 310; PECA: 59; Schrijver: 171-2; VGK: I, 157; VVB: 14J ~ WG: 82 fssft padfu it~u gulat gi, celsi thronus est cui regia coeli J 19
pled n r 'feast' [gwleddl MW gulet, gwled; OC Ceenguled, cf. G. Vlido-rix; aIr fled < Celt. ~,/ida < IE "~ldQ, VLJel- 'wollen, wahlen' (lEW: 1137) De Bernardo Stempel: Ill; DOVB: 193; GPC: 1682; VVB: 141 gul~d gl. pompae J 86 gulip adj. 'liquid, ~el' Igw.yb) MW gulip, gwlyp'l gwlyb; DB gulip, OC glihor gl. humor; Olr fliuch < IE -flilc-fl-. V'dr'''. 'fcuchL naB· (lEW: 1145)

GPC: 1425; lEW: 199-200: LElA: D-IO; V(,K: II, 295. J74~ VVB: 142: White: 186; Williams: 1929,5 ni ccin guodemisauch gl. non hene passel Ovid J9:l

guogs/tou? Stokes considered this to be gila-galt 'energy', cf. gafft ? Stokes: 1873, 409~ VVB: 142 guogaitou gJ. fulcris Me 61 b.b. guoguith adj. 'vanquished'

, ..

~

Hapax in Welsh; contains prefix guo- and the stem found in OW (lI"gllcant~ see s.v.
GPC: 1517; VVB: 142

guoguith gl. victtls Ovid 41 a
Kuoi/aut n m 'hoftom, ha.. e' r~waelod'

()W (LL) gurei)ant. MW gwaChl\\'t: MB gOOf'lcd. ~'1(~ gnlc\;

1..'(sich) legen' (lEW: 658). 24J-4~ cf. E.224. ab invito Ovid 39h or. DGVB: 148. J. guaret(-). 'over' [gor-. 540f). apc: 1489. 9~ Williams: 19RO. Cl'Il. 92-3 niguorcosam Juv 3 (1. Morris Jones's alternative explanation (IE *upo-ped-lo. gollewein. set free' I 'release' [gollyog-] MW go))ug. avoid' [goleithi-] MW goleith Etymologically. For the etymology. gwared(-).adj. gollw(n)g < Celt.Williams. GPC: 1474: LI-lEB: J71: VVB: 1~5 is xxx ha guorcnnieu guotig MP 22 h (2JO) guonr. 62. Lat.Haw ~t() "'atch over' (see gosgnr).v. ruid gl. 110 anguorit anguoraut lu\' 9 (5. extension' l~orffrydJ OW LL 56lanworfrit. 31.lor-". Stokes: 1860-1.in view of Lat. oguordiminntius gl.'schwach. which according to R. Williams compared the cos in cO. OC renniat gl. guOI guorennieu 0 pi 'fractions" ounces' OB doguorennnam gl..295. Another possihility (I.'ltou'g and postulated cO. 114. Hamp in SC 7 (1972). pp. See Schrijver: 434. DB guor-. dry and liquid measure of uncertain capacity'. naVB: 198. Ir for < Celt. Parry· Williams: 121. relit ]oyr _.'oid' prep. 3 .t 0 m 'addition. < ] E • uper. which is exceptiollClI for this period.. tuh.1) Kuordiminntiu. uacuum J 65 popelJ see goBpel. Parry. 215 guorfric MW (g)orffrit~ cf. according to Parry-Williams: 122 this instance shows Irish interference. as in gor!r"t « *{. the word is quoted in lEW: 1111 in the en1ry . gordiwynt According to GPC. gorllewin This reading (instead of the earlier guolleuni) was suggested by T. Note the plural ending. GPC: 173 and 1459. usque sub occiduum coeli J 84 guoJlung "n 'to let go MW gordyfynt. WiJlicl ms. vcrkundigen' (lEW: 5(6). VVB: 144 guollu ng 1. DGVB: 219~ GPC: 149. elend'. 'I gaoled vn 4to retreat from.K: II. WG: 247) was claimed to be more persuasive. 118-20 inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8.1) is to see in this word a cognate of W rhall" cf. Williams: 1980. Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953). VVB: 143-4.4feierlich sprechen. p. G. exertion' This word is found (twice) only in the Juvcncus 9. LHEB: 50J~ VVB: 145~ Williams: I<}JJ. and llaith. contains go-. In his 1943 paper I. cf. Loth in RC 41 (1924). 124.10.\'l'O. GPC: 1448.72 A derivative of (M)W gwael 'miserable'. pcrfundo Hapax in Welsh. this vcrh contains preposition (prefix?) guor-.155-6 VVB: 132 Intrited retec. C gor. OIr fo-reith < -¥o-re. cf. Ilaycock: IJ~ Watkins: 19R2. p. GMW: 188. oberhalb' (lEW: 1105).(~ee s. pessi· mus. cf. Brnmwich. to save' [gwared-] MW guaraud.(neg) + *'''('/It-.. cf. IE *kell.. see Williams: 19. V(. GOI: 513. Williams. cf. ".'l. pro 400--40. Etymologically.gnim molim trintaut Juv <} (5. ~rhe one chosen by GPC is to see in it the same clement as in danRos.3) ope could be identi- f guolleu. fn. sllperstitiose Possibly a cognate of Irish sret". Loth in RC 39 (1922). Lloyd Jones in BBCS 1 (1923) 7. Sec also elisa!. dillisor. Ill. Lloyd Jones (to IE ·'onk I jenk). pail. J. Schrijver: 132. 'entirely empty or . GPC: 1483 isit petguarcd pard guor frit nim MP 2J Cl (241) KllorKnim n 'great toil. J. H. And the KUorrosJlm 11 r"f \\' ~nr\vac . 1 ~g 'to talk' (1). J.-. White: Ig8~ Williams: 1980. "~o-eks·rong. toil' (OB i11'gIl08"il". then 'I do not keep guard'. White: 292-5. *ld o . for this see LElA: R-7. 4to watch over' (1) Accordi ng 10 I.2) pres. air 8"(11'. gwar. GPC: 1457.-. cf. see also guar and guor- cosom.·. let fall. which according to cal with the word for 'death' (OPC: 2091). Schrijver: 115 73 stem is cos-~ the latter allows for a multiple interpretation.e. gives "excellent sense in the englyn". see also guorit.81-2. aIr !orgnent. GPC: 1582. MW gar. and means 4hig vat or vessel.'tiber. ilfccurro.3) nitguorgnim molim map mcir Juv <) (9. See also afncibret OGV8: 202. i. 124~ E.n n m 'the west' (gorllewin] MW gollewin. see loyr. 08 gurprit gl. The word is perhaps a derivative of lieu 'light'. differently by J. < ? gor~ + di. guorhir seraul.e1lt-) 4 l' ~ the clement -illS is thus left unexplained.). Bromwich: 9J~ GPC: 56R~ White: 7J-5~ Williams in BBC·S II (1943). LElA: 5-93-5 for etymology. drop. White: 302-3 ni guo.9) K"orK"sc. WG: 40 bet circhinn frg60lleuni gl. The word is analysed hy GPC' as Ro·gre.~ the second element is attested in the law-texts (GMWL: 16J-4). pp. gllor. gor-.< IE *legh.fi n m 'perverseness" repu~nance' r~orddyrlnt I in guoilaut clun Chad 6 f 1. GPC: 1550. see retec. zea GPC~: 1473. gwor-] OW (LL) guar. pitcher. sg 'to deliver. PECA: 90-1: see rann. Williams: 1980.. Voretovirus. and 8"il1' 4labour.lJai. Lat. 287 Ian Worfrit.circhl Comp 2 guOl1lut v pret .417. 2551ann gurfrit. GPe: 1549.

cf.)~ The presence of the second prefix (*-en. Olr fan 1 guorsengir gl. H. 72-~: (fPC: 1603: E. J.v. cf. is noteworthy.> *yor-ymod. Lambert 1983. Loth"s criticism of the theory of the second prefix could be adequate if the word is a later coinage see Sims-Williams. MB gueun: British PN Vagniacis. 1 1 L. F. pp. Olr t. impel'S. T. DGVB: 199 OW (LL) guoun. DGVD: 200 and 224-5~ Lamhert: 19X2a. and guac. see also P. 110: LElA: T-7f1: LHEB: 455. 109-10 guotiapaur oimcr didu Juv () (4.()n ? guol'!e"giT v pres.is superseded by that of E.. 08 guet(i) or guet(ig) gl. 7.. // A.c. The reading is suggested by H.. Sec OW A V. 131 diguorguac gl.. GPC: 160R.1. Lewis.. MB krrrrrn) ~noise'. E. Williams. Russell in Eriu 39 (1988). (g)wedi. Williams (1930: 244) == () dan~ on () da". 'under' Following WG and I.'stechen spitz'. J()3: Williams: IQJ.1 (1950).64-5. ~uotiapaur oimer (didu) ? The reading of the line.1 DGVB: 200.r ? ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 Kuol1lnlretic adj. OPC: 1492. Russell's comments. ~gch()gcn seine. Sims-Williams. W gorl·vag (GPC: 1504 does not mention this instance) is analysed as containing prefix gor-. Hamp who considers here a chain ·uks-mod > *ymod. see Haycock: 12 for the further suggestions.'\6 (IQ1:<'). On the other 1 OGVB: 190.3) guotig prep. Hamp: 1977/78. was suggested hy I. GPC: 1495~ Hamp: 1917-8. guorsed. for the etymology of the latter see Schrijver: 423.according to J.607.and the stem sed-. MB goursez.l04. secundum.' di !!uoun hen lann ('had (l . guted < Britt. )' dOll 5ee J. An -edig derivative of Rorl~n (cf. contrast WG: 95 (lnd J. excessive. 12-3.'sitzen (lEW: 884 f. Henry (lnd accepted by Loth. Henry: 132: lEW: 1120: Loth in RC . OIr forad The word contains a prefix *~or.30-1 and 139. see Lambert: 19R2a. 12(i inn() ir guotodinou gl. Williams: 19RO. J.)1. Ford & Bailie: Van Nuys 1990.g-: Illig. hall' [gorsedd] MW gOJ5(s)et.2) guonnod adj. which is far frorn clear.. Schrijver: 113: VGK: L J75: VVD: 146 is xxx ha guorennicu guotig MP 22 h (230) ~lIotodinou ? hand. or *uks. 1 porsed n m&r 'assembly. nec delata diu J 4 guoun n r'meadow" [gwaun) W gorseng-. I: L(lmhert: 19HJ. WG: 78. 115 nouinnguo/tricusegetic/ion gl.. cds. MW gwawn gwcun. W godrig: on the latter see (.('1usepet. 290 is *LJog-nii from IE *y . Lloyd-Jones in BHeS 2 (1925). Morris Jones. *LJo-tig. Instead he suggests that the gloss contains not a prefix.and the radical sang. White: 102-3 anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5.Y. OB guotric.74 75 P. 2) fn. It contains a prefix guor. Sec also guetig in 1 which i-affection is indicated. IRI: OCV: 31J~ PErA: )9: Sims·Wil1itlm~: 1<)<. a dan. p. The gloss is rendered hy P. DOVE: 141 and 332. Fleuriot in EC 2~ (19R6). 'too much.' v pres. OC gucn gl.ban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. lEW: I016~ Lamhert: IQX6.117 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20. who compared this entry with W diorwac. E.6-7 and PKM: 170. 'after' fgwedi J MW (g)wedy. p. Lewis in BBCS II (1944L p. pp.according to E. P. Its relationship to Lat. Lloyd-Jones (cf. OPC) to analyse this word as *upor-tttbhimod. The spelling however. but rather a preposition di. court. pp. superfluous' [gonnod] MW gormod The suggestion of J. Celtic Language. Lloyd-Jones in BBCS 2 (1925). p. Loth in RC 36 (1915). campus: OB goen. and corresponds to W y orwac 'au vide'. see S. Some Celtic Otherworld Terms. in arguto foro Ovid JR:l gu(o)tan prep. H4: VVI3: 145 in irguorunhetic datI gl. see s. 'noisy' Hapa)E in Welsh. Sec also (Iidll.615-7.13. Lambert: 19H7. inani Ang 14 b GPe: 1502. pp. 3 sg '10 deliver.1) 1 I Meaning unclear. P. IE *(s)teig. 396. gW8rsangThis form is quoted as 08 by GPC: 1495.. hieme ethesiarurn n(ltll Allg 6H h ~lI()tr. D. VVB: 145 149~ Schrijvcr: 116~ WG: 399 irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22h (23R) ho hinnoid guotan amcibfret MP 23:1 (241) 1 1 guo'. Hamp) presupposes the antiquity of the term. Melia.Y. Lamhert as "des guotndinou": for the considerations on the etymology of this \vord and the meaning of the Latin context. GMW: 209.PC': 142. Caerwyn Williams in BBC'S 1. p. Williams: 1980. 112-3 it clu(i)s (it] d. The traditional reconstruction which was suggested first hy V. 1I0KlIJ is disputable. '10 press' [gorsang-] ('C. Hamp in BBC'S 26 (1976). Matonis.. eKprimi tur Ang 15 a '\"'" guortholle. p. Lambert rejects the reading of Fleuriot.V. to save' See guora WI. Celtic Cul1ure. IE ysed.lI~-.

lEW: 1074) perhaps Kurthdo v pres. C'omp 7 tI. See also gurd. helghati gl.O v pres.a.(IE V/eyl/. 'opposite' See Klir/ l • and KlIrtlrre/. DaB: 537.I. *ter. 127) 11 is used here to indicate a dipththong. LL: xliv. greg.'. Schrijver: 151. GPC: 1478. resist' I prep.Atlanta: Rodopi 19Y7. haeet isgurth. VGK: 1. Williams in Celtica 3 (1956). which \vns corllpnfed hy I. MB gruec. inquire. conl-I'"/0. the Celtic forms reflect Celt.2) A comhination of ~II". Williams: 1980. increment' W gorthwf. lEW: 1156. E.arch.3) gurth cimsrch vn 'to address. Thi~ \\'ord finds a perfect match in W gu'r/lrgJlarclr. Amsterdanl . see s. tocharisch A U·01l/-Wrll. n. lEW: IOX2: [JliVR: J25 nnd 334). Willillms nn the connection of this Welsh word with G (Coligny) VERTOMV. ZilnmeL Gallisch I)IVERTOMV. Ir fri(th) The traditional reconstruction derives this preposition from IE *LJer-t 'drehen. Sound Law and Analogy. OIr fer < IE *yiro . guragun v.1 pi "to make' [gwn-) 77 a calque on de-cido. Zimmer: alongside a tentatively offered proto-form for the riaulish word as *di. IE *lJerg-.(.. gllr (MW lnf.124-5. 2 sg 'to decide' (?) Hapa. According to I.151-89). ~nhvshvs. or lon~s for somethinJt· Hapax in Welsh. 'atcording to' [wrth) See gllrt. according to P. It was noted hy F. 12~ St. MJ: 271-2. According to Loth (RC 36 (1915).. Evans in BBCS 17 (1958). pr. pp. PECA: 59. s 'Mann' (lEW: 1177) DGVB: 201. GPC': 1725-fl penngurthcimarch gl. OC grueg. GPC: 1715: VVB: 149 gurtharet gl. ()13 < IE *110110. appetitofium Ox2 4J" (5.. 267-R~ White: R4-5 gurt trichiti nacgcnci C'0J11P 16 gur tum n m 'over~rowth. and (l persona) form of the verh ·to .263 is gur tUln tarnctor ir Inc guac haihid pos. wenden".e. The origin is uncertain. OCV: 106.orl _ri<. sambuca Ox2 43a (5. the second cJenlent here is for 'vcnt.(Ope: 1459).h. Elsie: 148. in Welsh.n. "!. GPe·: 1499: Hamp: i<J77-X. and mallr ~big'. c. tor..v. *ljreg.h) De Bernardo Stempel: 115.c'.. C. 08 lar: but see S. p.. gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7. venare).. VVB: 148. A rather tentative suggestion of I. see erchi. gordwf 111aU. E.95 mitelu nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1. VVB: 147-8 strotur gurehic gl. though GPC does not quote this example.1). nno flo" [~orthwfl .·wirken. MW gur. celebrat Me 4 b.vflr" ·cut' (IE *trrllk-. Schrijver (in Eriu 45 (1994). sec s. OC.'rciben'.. Williams. LHEB: 337. lEW: 1168. ~'jth the ~tem Jr. GPC: 1698. JO: 101-2. huge' [gorfawr) MW goruaur A combination of intensive prefix gor. 161. guor. o'er. 145. WilJianls "'ith thnt of Juv. 'look upon· (with the root < IE *derk.. r('elc [)IVERT()MV. consistes [i. imp. White: 270-1 guragun tage Chad 2 gurd prep. tun' GPe: 1688-90. + elf. OOVB: 2R4. hut the orthography of Rurt triehiti makes this assumption dubious. J. Williams: 1927. primas Prise 37 a gurthBret n 'one who strives. gwr. hns heen fecentlv considered by St. lEW: 21. p." Kurth 1 prep. GPC: 1718.. contra quemvis] Ovid 39b .253-4: Williams: 1927. Isaac: 333-4. DGVB: 203. WG: 406. Analysed hy GPC as gu. Williams: 1980. 15-21. Schrijver: 158. pp. White that it is possible to connect this entry with MW verb Kwrth(dd)rych.\lick'.. mercurius gl. 'RJ!ain~t th£'m' (?) The form is analysed as a vcrh (gllrt". Hamp in BBCS 15 (1953). v. 115 for the meaning. i.i..) The gloss has heen rendered as 'head of the council': sec also ('en". Luhotsky. ir SCfenn C"ornp 10 gurth 'in comparison with.3) gurrhie adj. gwrth-trychi-di (cp. ed .43-44.V. VGK: I. S. 76 gur n m 'man' [gwr) OW (LL) gur. 3 s~ 'to oppose.(sec Rur/") + (\10rclr. 08 gurth Me (w)orth.'schwcllen') he elahoratcs several other suggestions. cf.. VGK: It 42.f.e.. GPe: 1693. see guar..it-i (PIE dative or locative of the root-noun *~ct-). DGVB: 311. VVB: 147 gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5. cf.. 3 pl.(sec RUf. cr. 'against' [wrthl MW wrth. ask' I~wrth~)'farch. According to Flcuriot. 126-148 gurt paup gl.'hlickcn'. PECA: 53. pp.5) gurmaur adj.rs. GMW: 213. kymrisch /lower.. pp. OB gur.'ik..1) irgur hunnuid .+ *tler-Ioy-/nn.. '"ery great. LHEB: 337. D. DGVB: 325.. ()Ir free/l1orc.\f . compared with' 2 Sec gurth t • Ameen creirriou gurth cyrrguenn Pad: -"' gun prep. /1 A. It is analysed as gl~'r/Jr. 'female' A cognate of W gwraig.

:: that it is synonymous with it". gener haluidt iuguret Chad 2 douceint torth ha maharuin Chad 3 ha douceint torth Chad 3 ha huch Chad 3 ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 h[a maha]ruin Chad 4 ha guorthoueir emeninn Chad 4 cet treidin gue' haguid Juv 9 (2. prefix gor-.e. gurth + rhed-. This instance will be discussed in an article by A. retrograde' [?gwrthred-] MW gwrthred-. har dou trean gl.~ h a. Stokes: 1860-1. GPC: 1501 o gurucheltoii g1.1) ha 2 conj. however. . 65.. I. pigurthet. gurth GPC: 1720. IJcnry. DGVB: 215. VVB: 149.l~ ~'1(' tl. run opposite. Lambert: 1976-7. loyr in Comp 4 I ! proche/leroa n pi 'heights" [goruchelder] MW goruchelder Contains base ucheJ (see s. Williams (Williams: 1980.42) argues for its interpretation as a conjunction. \vhich suggests the meaning '(lnd' (Lamhert: I97(}--7. dodrantis (Ang IJ h).v. uuc). ha crip. 'and' See hal. I-Iaycock: I L Lambert: 1976-7. Isaac (in progress). 231). C hagen. hinn inguir Camp 21 hagener tutd Chad 2~ but see S. this is a variant of the preposition 0 'of. excusiendus (leg. hoi. l~his \\'(lS not considered hy Fleuriot (DGVB: 207) as a Welsh form.v. however' f ha~en ) MW hagen. MW erih. Sec hal. Hamp: 1973. Williams: 1927. sepulti Ovid 39" gurth(rJet" pres.261 passerenn. 'and' See al. this could be perhaps considered as Welsh. 'qui pcignc'. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b ha chepi. 3 sg 'to run back. the next. excuticndus] erit Ovid 39:1 hac orachmonou gl. see relec. haci Comp 3 irloc quac habid pOJt ..~O: \Vr.91-2. parthred) or I .. T. GPC: IXII: Henry: )0): VVR: l. Recently P. It was suggested by E. )) ha4 relative particle See hai and also a'5. and cf. parthed. Morris-Jones Stl~!!csts Cl protoform *aggis(. v. i.lli. followed by verb. sec s. the first part is identical \\lith a(c). This instance is not quoted in GPC. and ('rip (n m&f 'comh. in Compo this is "either a scribal error for gurthret or a variant of it (cp. GPC: 1131. r : /1. 'hut. Williams. is did ciman.529: Lamhert: 19R7. hut as it is folhn\'ed by a Welsh \\·ord. see S. ha J prep.. according to I. wool-card. A.: 44.0.v.289 considered this entry as a preposition (see S. and crih as a personal form of the \vord 'to comb'. . White: 98-7. Williams 1933: 115 gurthdo gl.1 hacefl gl. hacen conj. It \vas suggested hy P. VVB: RR. Larnhcrt h(ls reconsidered this in favour of H. 3) ha hanner gl.nnlhert this stnnds for 'Clnd·. see DGVB: 5: ope: 594. Hamp.1). 107 dicones pater haritncd presen Juv 9 (3... According toJ.18 come'). Lamhert that this is a gloss over pectens: he nnalyses ha as a relative particle. 79 2) is xxx ha guorcnnicll MP 22h (230). ha erip 'who combs' Most interpretations of this entry consider it as a gloss over elln. cry": MB crih). 529: Lewis: 1926. curry-comh·.3: Williams: 1930.20) ~ . obsistit J 3 l ). hac in irgueleri Comp 16 hacboi gl. Watkins (Wat~ins: 1982. pecrine and rendered this phrase as the combination of the conjunction 'and' (a). According to .2) un harned flapuiJ baper Juv 9 (9. this form could be also Breton. ha crip. Comp 9 harodes Chad 7 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha hcinn cihunn MP 22h (234) ha~ exclamative particle See a ha arcibrenou gl. . let] eliqlla Ox2 44 h (7.V. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h hac diglniuhit gl.J.s2Y: Williafns: IYHO. Willianls. Hamp: 1975-6. B hogcn Several analyses of this word have hccn offered. 11(1«('). that the form should be segmented as pigurlh ret ("what star against-which runs the moon").1 hac conj. 'or' ? According to P. in which case the verb is a simplex ret-. JOO ha crip gl. Loth and V.-Y. Lewis's reading. 120).Y. See also !1ac.Y. Contrary to I.V. pectens Ovid 42. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a plan see guofllll H hal conj. and suffix -der. deffectum gl. h:lb("h. According to Aeuriot. Falileyev and G. who considered this instance as a relative pronoun. 'Iod· (with ~8riou5 interpretations) I) un harned Jrapuil haper Juv 9 (9.

a. Jones in BBCS 11 (1944). horog ·dirty·) 0 B haloc gl. ha. scmuncias horarum Ang 1.10) VVB: 151 . LHEB: 461. Stokes: IX7.v. 178-9~ WG: 287 ir serenn. did. and (with guttural suffix. J.'schmutziggrau'. GMW: 63. : MW han. 3 sg '10 pass away. abgesondcrf. DGVB: 206~ Elsie: 88~ GPC: 1815-6. Loth in RC 43 (1926) pp. pp. 216-7~ lEW: 907. ismod. superlatiuus multo Prisc 27 a hail relative parlirle MW ae.<2 46a (9. 103. see h. manure' Hapax in Welsh. sce I~am tlert: 1984a.(2 44h (7. 'different. W. sec also Izanalld GPC: 1818.(*JeI11· 4Sommcr'.'that (which)'. ai. GPC: lROH~ E. cladis 0. C areth: Olr airccht LElA: A-43. other' (han I t. .'ftir sich. ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir . GPC: 37.28) 9 I'll A ng . C. VGK: I. Isaac: 57.. VGK: 1. cf. DGVB: 205. for the MW forms ~ee GMW: 145. lEW: H60).tero. hanter JO: 107 tutbulc hai cenet] Ch ad 2 hair n r 'war. ay According to P. alium Me 51 a. OIr salach < IE *501.217. -- h8m = (h)s'm 'and my'. '. LElA: A-82. battle' reer] MW aer. Comp 7 ir loe guac haibid post. di. Camp 8 iT serenn hai bid in eir cimeir . Comp 11 iT loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 17 hai bid im guar phenn circbl naunecant Camp 22 tir telih haioid ilau elcu Chad 2 hai 2 'and his'. p. this word which is not attested in later Welsh contains ac 'and' and et (as in nogyt. See a..0. For the ~ uloss hanther see hanner hared n m&f 'song..(sec S. Schrijver. pp. GPC: 176~ Haycock: 14~ Williams: 19XO. Williams: 1927. this could go back to ·sosin.·lreiben (lEW: 4) DGVB: 58.< IE *selli. noget) 'so'. MC haf. Williams: 1927.271 . MW hanner~ OB hanter. lugubri.0. ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt C'omp 20 haur see allr . lEW: 90S) DGVB: 206. ad l ). hanaud Comp I hanner n m 'hair (hanner) Ow (lL).265 haccet. Schrijver in Briu 45 (1994). and notcs the ohscurity of the "'ord fnnnation. o.1.a. Hamp: 1982. 10: 96. GPC: 181R~ Schrijvcr: 195~ Williams: 1<J27. LElA: 5-19' Schrijver: 460.216. Hamp in BBC:S 2R (1979). 'and hBm n m 'summer' (hart MW haf~ OB ham. 1. 186-7. VV8: 34-5 hair gI. A cognate of OIr sal 'salett~'.V. OB air. o. G. air sam RI so' According to I. Lloyd. LElA: S-16. verse' raraifh) ha' see 80r is aenc:umha' ha'ou n pi 'filth. cephitor.1) hathid v pres. De Bernardo Stempel: 156~ DGVB: 2{)7~ GPC: IH2L 'Iarnp: 14X2. and the form of the verh 'to he'.'cins' (lEW: 9(2). Howels in SC 1 (1966). cf. P. I. Sec also anter1netetic. < IE *S1!1IJ. 46. o.. Ir ar < *agro. Irish a n. Camp 10 hac&aucimp& gl. see ha. GMW: 231~ GPe: 5. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4t b (1. GMW: 59. MW halauc. GPC: 30. sec s. G. J. 407~ VVJ3: 1)1 han gl.72. vanish' Prefix ad. D. 3 sg m 'out from/of him I if See han. Isaac: 3X(l~ LElA: S-14-15. Williams.80 hscet see hac(c)el hac(c)et conj.139-l41. lEW: 879. ysel11. 114 it cluis it humil inharcd crlmed Juv 9 (7.1 h dou punt petguar hanthcr scrihl MP 22 h (234) < IE *s1!. 217: LElA: A-49. aIr sain~ according to GPC. hBnaud prep. and the development of • hoi (n-) to hai and a is explained by the loss of stress. m ham hoi enep gl. VGK: 1. VVB: 150 halou gl. nitegid. Samon[ios). Camp 8 Haeet isgurth. considers here IF *rek'briillcn.133--6. schrcien' (cf. stercora 0. which does not mention the ()W instllflce. This instance is taken as the scrihc's mistakc for (1"(1111. p. 5) MW araith. Verogri. 25R-9. this is the only adjectival usage of 110" 4scparation' in Wclsh < *selli. IE '*ag. LHEB: 503. dung. hai bu in arcimeir. VGK: I.71 ' in irham Chad 3 han adj.~X~ VVB: 151 moment ha hanner gl.

herp philologia gl. PECA: 62.1.. 'aus' DGVB: 167.'Lallwort' (lEW: 1056)... MW eithaw. hervit. sec also the next. I()(): William~: IYRU. pr. OCV: 116. henoid Juv 3 (1.h. 1 f...03: VCiK: J. IE *. malnma (PECA: 76). heruuyd.3. 'accordin~ to" after" I herwydd I MW herwyt. VGK: I. B hep. IE V selg. 'Nacht' r. VVB: 152 hendat gl. heruid prep..: 415 herufd duiutft J 0 he. 12. 402-J. eithaf. Thurneysen: 1890a.. in uenando Me 39 a.taur n r&m 'measure or quantity' Ihestorl MW hestawr. 79. 131: Lamhert: 19R7. DC hendat gl. lEW: 762: V( j K: 94-5 and *. Haarmann: 123. Lamhert: 19RJ. ausgieBen' DGVB: 68. GPC: 18. p. ·selg·.28) henmam n f 'gnndmother' [henfam] MW henvam.a. Dumngual hen. '. LL hen(n).10.1. Stokes: 1873. lEW: 900. A brittonised lrish form (OIr senchas. 2<Jl is hcpdud gJ.'sagen' GMW: 154. 'to-night' [henol MW heno(eth). on this see K. lEW: R97.1.v. PECA: 62. GPC: 1861.10.1: WC. VVB: 152 hencassou gl. Elsie: 10.1: VVB: 15.1) . see also er8uid.<1. herp Marcianc gl. White: 268-9 helghati gl. nosccre MC~ IJ <1. heh. Ir. name Seigovae < Britt. 3. Stokes: 1860-1.82 8. helghB(Ii) v imp. hepp marcia gl. sen) < IE *sen.10: lEW: R97. sine mente Ovid JR h hepdud prep. pertulerim MC~ 11 a. venator. WG: 387. 41. hestaur < Lat. Mlr sech< IE *sek".hcstaur gJ.'. MW hen~ G.. sum her Geometria gl. Percurslls hrellitcr tcrrarunl sitlls M(' 51 n. ego ipsa rcragraui Me' 47 a. VVB 152-3 henmam gl. hepp Gcometria gl. see s.28) ope: henoid adv. Ef": 5-60. helhpur gI. VVB: 15. 40H.w'·noXI. GPC: 1844.. see GPC: 2332).b. C heh. probably In the tnbe. n 'extremljy. Be tad) < IE *tata. hepp marcia gl. VGK: I. 106.'alt'. Olr sech < IE *sek". WG: 176 biheit he[iltham ir eguin MP 23a (241) (iMW: 221. 13R. LElA: 5-84.\"0-.OB a olguo gl. henfam The compound contains OW hen 'old'. indagatione~ MB (verb) (h)emholch. GOI: 5.. derived from IE *ma.('k"-t~. DC helhiat gl.l . etc.&Ioslassen. [ . *l1ri-yid-. LJIEB: 514. Sec "cp. VVB: 151.. her\vir. 129. he/cluJ inhelcha gl. McCone In Enu 46 (1995). hcr\vyd: < Celt. auus Ox2 43 b (5. Lamhert: 19RI.1 hepp Philologia gl.217-8. VVB: 15] hi hestaur mel gl.fi analy!ied as a loan from Lat. and mam (MW mom. 3 pi 'without then. OB hentatot gl. DGVB: 209~ Elsie: 94~ GPC: 1850.h. Me (verb) ~elghya. Je:rtar.a. he/11th. ML: 17R. 3 sg 'to say' (heh-I MW heh. hendat. VVB: 152." This instance could he OB as well. v. sestcrtium MP 2J h (2..1) hep prep_ 'without' IhebJ OW (LL) heh. Z sg 'to hunt' [hel. WG: 404 hep amgnauhot gl. LElA: 5-80.)~ see also s.a. Lambert: 1987. auus The compound contains O\y hen 'old' (OW (Gen: 10) [R]iderch hen. hepp philologia gl.404.u.'folgcn'.) MW hel-. intcllexcram conspicari Me II 3. VVI3: 15. Hamp: 1975/6. ow (LL) eithaf. lEW: 907..'Lallwort ftir Mutter' (lEW: 694). Irish selg. proscipio Me 4(1 a. GPe: 1202. 146. persecutor. . paternus auus (?). 93.a.295. venare Ovid 38· hen see hends' henC"sssou n pi 'antiquities' . GPC: IR60. m 'to hunl' See helghaJi. 400: White: 99-100.. OC mam. aduerto Me 45 h. end' lelthaf) < *.1. GPC': IR. DeV: 76-7. H<1mp in E(~ R (llJ5R-9). MW hep. (iPC·: IHS2-J.'\ and II.. DGVB: 232. 2. or on heTuill: C' hCT\vyth DGVB: 210. 1851. sine quibus Ang 15 h hepp v pres. ensenden. .. C haneth~ MB henoez EL: 40. habira Ox2 43 b (5. OB etam < IE *eghs. monimenta J 49 henda' n m 'grandfather' [hendad] MW I}entat~ hendat~ hendad. LHEB: 467. uicit Me 14 h. VGK: 1. werfen. Seno-. hendat. lEW: 292. E. and tat 'father' (OC tal. in scxtario MP 22 h (230) is trimuccint hestaur mel MP 22 h (231) . LElA: 5-62-64..

er Wil1inrnc. Loth in RC 41 (1924). hin map di iob gl. edge' Hapax in Welsh. in. limite levo J 26 hinhsm n m 'head. amhiniog. pp. easy' (Z: 1061. chier. they' See hinnith. GPC: 1186 isem hichet triuceint torth Chad 4 cihutun hi torr MP 23.. LElA: S-113. ETytria quncquc Cumea cst vel Phrigia Me 11 b. is ... pp. retit loyr . that.303-306. in (1)' MW y. m sg 'this' (hyn) MW hyn(n)~ CB hen(n). henne. 8 amcibfret ir bis hihi erguid MP 23 (241) hin n 'side. VVB: 154. 190f. they' See hinnith. according to GPC: 1987.2 42a (2.circhl C'onlp 2 (c. GPC: 1914~ LHEB: 279. lEW: 891. in sextario MP 22b (230) hih.84 85 hinn prone demonstr. but cf. Williams in BBCS 2 (1925). OB i. 'it. hinnoid. ut si dicas Anton ille Me 43 b.b.< IE *sero-. those. lord' [hynaC] MW hyneif. irdid hinnuith Comp 9 retit loyr irdid. 'it. 'it. MW hyweith is first attested in the R 1222. etc. irhinn issid ille gl. WG: 298 ha chepi. ir hestoriou oleu MP 22b (231) heuei[th] ~(not 1) difficult (1)' MS heuei. Another possibilit)' is perhaps to consider this as a reduplicated pronoun 'she'. 39~~ I. lucubrationum percnnium Me' 4 h. hinnuith. that. hestoriou n pi 'measures of quantity' See hestaur.. 22-3. VGK: 1. hinnuith Comp 11 irloc guac hinnuith Comp 14 issem ir . VVB: 155.. nit arcup betid hicouid canlou Juv 9 (2. for a summary1 sec LElA.. hu""oid. lEW: 891-2. Irish sin A word with a disputable etymology. that..: t<·)27. CB hir~ G (Ecritu)siri: Olr sir < Celt. OPC: 1976-7. Watkins: 1957. tall' (hir] OW (LL) hir. GPC: 1869. LHEB: 641-2. heuei[th] gl. werfen. fa1len 1 Elsie: 110. y. they' (hynny) MW hynny(d). her. See also hiflnoid. DGVB: 216..32) "\ . those. hUfl110id. hir 2 definite article The follo\\'ing two instances arc considered herr: Intrited retec. 3 sg 'his. I. see s. e MB (h)e < *esiiis . its' [eil MW (h)i. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 ir loe guac hinnith.(246) hi 2 prep 'to. Far from clear.74. his conclusion was to take it as yn ei. 'long. love dignus Ovid 39b hinnith prone demonstr.2. GPC: 1972-3~ lEW: 905: LElA: 5-111. y'se(i)· 'entsenden. Williams (I. ut arithmrticfl Prise )4 h: the \\lord fnl1o\ving hi. 56-7 or cled hin gl. bynaf Superlative of hen. 51.. J. Klingenschmidt: 219: VVB: 155 pan diconetent iT.. instita longa Ovid 37 a nouirhircimcrdridou gl.b.e. Williams in BBCS 3 (1926). VVB: 154). in pagina regular. OIr i.1) hi hestaur mel gl. MW hiniog. pp. patricius qui sedit iuxta regem in sede (after sede) Ox2 46 (9. Schrijver: 31. pos. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 ir bloidin hunnuith Comp 20 hint see na(m) hint errei hir· adj.26) hit pron. . see also it . The amended form heuei[th] was compared with W hywaith (hy + gwaith) 'beneficial.122-3. .? I. Christus quem J 81 enuein di Sibcllae int hinn gl. guorhir scrllu1. prinit hinnoid MP 22 h (234) ni choilam hinnoid amser MP 22 h (234) ho hinnoid MP 23 a (241) is moi hinnoid MP 23 a (246) hinnuilh prone demonstr. MW hir. Williams: 1930. and 11. VVB: 154-5 a hinham g1. 'binden" GPC: 1867~ Harvey: 192. 2~q) hir doguonimereticaith J!1. non dificile 0. Mlr sfn < IE 'lSi. *siro. those. hinn inguir Comp 21 iT nider uid hinn Comp 22 irhinn issid crIst gl..hilli. 244-5) has considered several possibilities of interpretation of tbis passage . etc. VGK: II. VVB: 155: WG: 84 a hir etem gl. OB henneth (DGVB: 2(9) should be excluded. LElA: 5-115: VGK: I. DOVB: 208~ GOI: 304. v.a. superior. hendat. hini or hem. See . Comp 6 Salt emmi guollig hinnith Comp 19 hinnoid prone demonstr.

Williams. MW (mase) ynteu According to I. C why. un(n) It was suggested (Stokes.139. werfen. 'ir (oj MW o(t) . yny. himnn see ir. GOI: 231. 'whole. MW huyc. p. OIr 6 IE *all.·Y. tan tum ne [. Russell in BBCS 30 (1983). 'until' OW (LL) hit. 218) that this could also stand for yr hwnn. MW wynteu. In the corrigenda (ibid. this may have the force of 'also' in the text rather than 'then'. or (h)w)'tlrell. 08 hui. irbissei Comp 10 hitt verbal p. 213-4. (conjunctive) 3 sg f'she (her. pp. ni. oil. MJ: 272. IE yse(i).'ydeu. P._86 Breton. (h). Jackson states that the meaning and etymology of this word is unknown. oni. hue.. hloimol gl. uilc < *(05)0/-£0. MW (h)oll~ Me oj. pp. JO: 106. The former view wins the support of P. hoid hoitou hau bein atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22 h (234) hit prep. it) too' (hithau] MW hithe(u). 290). oellz 'difficulty'. 3) 'scarcity'. ct total" facieln mean.273 hoid hoitou hou hcin atar ha bcinn cihunn MP 22" (2J4) hou boit cihitun ccng ir esceir is moi hinnoid MP 2J" (246) hou nit conj. DGVB: 235. 2 pi 'you' (chwil MW chwi. he reconstructs 3 sg f as *hih-t:Jf. DOVB: 213-4 holoinou gJ. pronoun was the 3 pl. Sau'. VVB 156 ham hoi enep gl. GPC: 1928. aD hoch gl.'entsenden. glomerarium Ox2 43 8 (5. rotis Ang 12 b honit conj. MB huy: Olr sf < C~clt. GPN: 237. LElA: 5-120. . to IE *ili. Williams (1930: 237). G ollo-~ cf. hid.24 and 97R). DGVB: 210. hou nit hloidin salt C"omp 22 huch n m f'sow' (hwch) OW (LL) huch.10) holoinou n pi 'wheels' Could be Welsh or Breton. WG: 272-3 aries hithou Comp 13 aries ithou Com p 18 hloimo/? VVB: 156 suggests seeing here a cognate of W lIu 'host'. biheit heitham ir eguin hiUoi ir hune MP 23 8 (241) hithou pron. Me ythe cf. OC hoeh gl. S~/rS-. apart from' (onid] See anit GPC: 2648. apcr. See olin. See hit. 'except' Sec anit. however. ho diued Chad 2 8 hOT elin cihutun hi torr MP 23 (246) 8 ho hinnoid MP 23 (241) hoitnu ? A verv difficult word. Schrijver: 323: VGK: II. Ox2 41 h (1. ir hou conj. Williams: 1927.. See O. See OOB: 483. WG: 446.rticle See it. Oir oil. LElA: S-15R: O('V: 255-5. GMW: 244. "onil. GPe: 1879. fallen'. quem J 51 R7 (h)oedeu. *slIkko-. hwch. See ir. DGVB: 212. 1860-1.'dariiber hinaus'. OIr sith< ·si-tu. huch. lEW: IOJR. where K. See also the next. MW hyd. see (h)o. wcg von' See also 0.---------------------------_. hyt. ganz' (lEW: (}79): differently in lEW (to *0/. PEC'A: M ha huch Chad 3 hui pron. Possihle interpretations therefore include 1) 'difficulties". ] unquam J 5 J hor (ho+r). VVB: 156-7 honft riamrfllJi gl. IE ySlI-s ~Hausschwcin. Olr soce < Celt.. GPC: 262R refers to this entry in the discussion of W. this could stand for . Russell that the base form for this (and the other) conj. GPC: 1949..'herab. 'unlD' hoi adj. ope: 2611~ lEW: 72: Williams: 1930. porctls.30-8. WG: 84 hit did braut Chad 2 hit ni conj. 'except.or *(o5)ol-no· to IE *solo· 'wohlhehalten. 08 het. Williams: 1927. LElA: 0-21. but see LHEB: 479. hOll nit. see Lambert: 1981. entire' (011 J OW (Ll). hit. MB (h)oll.5) ho prep.212. GPC: 1948. 08 itou. Lambert.~ihr' MW hyny. Stokes rejects this possibility. 'from. Elsie: 78: GPC: 2646. hOll. It was argued b)' P. 367. pers. 266 hit niritarnher irdid hinnui th Camp 8 hit niritarner rann. DGVB: 212. 2) 'plenty'. According to I. nit ir nider uid hinn. hfronn gl. out of' (oj "\" . lEW: 891. (h)oethell.

VGK: II. she (her). gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv <) (7. ad phares sui gcneris fit comparatio Prise 27 a i 2 prep. Ii"" . *siglo-. it' MW hun(n)u. 'that. WiI. and a useful summnry. VGK: I. Mlr eidn Several etymologies have heen suggested. quae Me 63 3.rUmprosuni -j pron. infixed genitive 3 sg Sec hni iecllim sis ? Stokcs: IR73. see GMW: 89f. irgur hunnuid . ho\\'evcr.2) Ii/dO/Ie n (pi ?) 'pagan temple" hun renexive marker '(one) selr [hun] MW hun. Rhys. E. Genius Me II a. VVB: 157 huil (Nemn) humil adj. demonstr. ()'Rahiltv in Eriu 13 (1942). 40 for the interpretation of this i as i J ). celebrat Me 4 b.th.?) 'to drink' (yr-) MW yu-. p. IR: lEW: 2<n: ()('V: 22. *ieros < *pfp·ero. hon(n)o See flinnirh.a. see Schrijvcr: 104--5.i. Q6 cet ibcn med nouelJuv -" (2. OC yar gl. hune see une hunnoid pron. the Irish form is then not convincingly explained. 'his. Klingenschmidt: 219 h ir pimphet eterin diguormechis lucas hegit hunnoid MP 22 (234) b dou eterinn cant hunnoid MP 22 (234) hunnuid pron. 1 sg 'I' See d. GPC: 1911 dittihun gl. 168f. Olr ihid < IE *p6(i)-/pf· \trinken' Elsie: R9~ CiMWL: 292: lEW: R3<)-40: White: 212-5: Williams: Il)RO. denote \hrlndlc'. in fanis Me 7 h. idol < Lat. cimp&illiaus3uc oirci gl. GPC: 1931.". 196. Schrijver reconstructed Celt.a. who offcred Celt.a. PECA: 66. 'that. mi mihun gl. nnd Ie 'housc· (see telll). I pl. hunnuid. iehnlinn? According to Loth. icctlim sis gl. VGK: I. iar.. tibi soli Me 9 a. pos. ipsa Me 51 b.~) \\'ith Latv. hinnoid. 114 it cluis it hurnil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7.1) iar n f 'hen' liar) MW yar.a. etc. CB ev-. nirinciriles. MB uvel. hwyl. pen. VVB: IO(). see a summary in LElA. 483. ('1) for ('""lilri". GPC: 1937. (past subj. According to Pokorny this goes hack to IE *iero-. 14R: PEC": 105: Schrijvcr: 104-): V(.in view of Lat. haioid ilau clcu Chad 2 it c1u(i)s [it] diban iciman guorscd Juv CJ Elsie: 149~ GOI: 254. 'humble' MW ufyl. hut sec Watkins: 19R2. OIr seol Several etymologies for this word have been forwarded.. 13l)~ Lambert: 19R7. lEW: 514. gallina. fani Hapax in Welsh. pipio. AS segl). 282. OCV: 189. p.3. ML: 214. he (him). quos J 19 hui gl. huil n f 'sail' (name of a letter) [hwyl] MW huyl. \Jahr'. humilis.a.3) gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7. hunnoid. -. LElA: S-88-89. hinnuith. 2HR o i nerth gl. OIr indidaJtaigac gJ. 392 statcs that he cannot explain this gloss. I -j pron. he (him).88 89 i' pron. it was often considered to be a borrowing from Germanic (OHG segal.2. hinnoid. then 'one year old anirna". GPC: 2000. LElA: 5-101-2.t. DGVB: 217~ GPC: 2009: Isanc: 210~ Stokes: IR73. For Stokes's equntion (llS: 22. demonstr. etc.Wcl'\h enllyn 'anything eatcn or drunk \\'ith hrca<i'. LElA: U-25.~amr). VVB: 157 ishut gl. A compound. she (her). Schrijver: 357. (Rhys: 7lJ. Olr umal (6. GPC: 850. idnltlln. cf. l·his nlll<.h. 'in' See hit. OB idolti.. uvel.3) issemi anu gl.. ifhe \grouse'. sua ui Ang 15 b isabruid icinimcr Juv 9 (3. Iiams: 1980. uwil. . alcs J R2 iben v imperf. hum ilis LHEB: 276.394. This was noted hy O'Rahilly (sec also . OC huuel gl.~: T. it' See hinnith. cu-. 2~4-5) flr"/. uffil. hinnu.K: L 6): VVB: I)(}' iar gJ. this could he ielr" (= Ir ig 'anncau') + 'hoisson': according to J. apollo MC' 5. its' See l1i 2 • OGVB: 275 and 216 : Lambert: 19RI. Most recently P. V\lB: 15R inir[i]dolte gl.1) < Lat. mercurius gl.. Hamp in Eriu 40 (19R9).

(~mwedd(.'ziehen' (lEW: 220).d.ottilli01l !!1. GWML: 297 imladunl gl. Thurncyscn (1980): 205-6).calcd. apparently. ()I r (./. 163f. where the meaning and etymology of this word was claimed to be unknown.242 and 269. The verb. DGVB: 217. According to J. see E. Lewis rejected Stokcs's re<lding i"".()I: ~21: IF\V: . (·ollid this stClIH. gh1eddi ~ etc. verhtillcn'. H. 11. G. Cl derivative ~ cf. suspite)..\\'ith the vcrh I(/)tld-~ sec ledit. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. p.. 3 sg 'to hide' The line where this form occurs has caused a dispute. we should rend il1"11('1 ccli. Parry. VVB: 162. As was recently suggested by G.9) JO: 101. VVI3: 161. MJ: 272. a verb in the impersonal. I. mo\'('· ? I ~'m()di-I 11.Williams..'bergen.lf. see s. 3 sil. maintai ni ng d = (b) . See also the previous entry. goes back to IE *deuk.. this stands for *in liausauc. p. DOVB: 218. G. go' (then "they came together"). 231. attritu Ang 15 h inJmisline v imperf. thus J. ·. See 10. 'around' (1) MW am~ OB am.? I According to 1'. naunecant Comp 22 ima/iliduch 1 This passage freom Chad 3 has been read in several different ways. 2010~ VVB: 159 jechuit Nemn . Hamp in Eriu 24 (1973). thus I.90 Cf.14: LEI/\ ): (~-)3: \Vhitc: ~7 immit eel irnimer bichan guttln irnl<lUr nirner MP 22 h (2J~) immotetin ? fymodi.3). Williams) and *{ledh· 'to lead. JO: 104-5. Gwenogvryn Evans (LL: xlv).\'Ill-yd-gc/: thel1 .(lEW: 34). Following I. WG: 405 nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 illisusaur'in pluralit y1 MW lIuossauc According to Fleuriot. subj . GPe: 2227 nirinciriles. cmlndA cOJnhination of n rcnexivc prefix i".) h. LHEB: 479. 'to say (to each other)' '"\ "- J. allinebat Me R a. 'to smear' I ynllyn-1 MW emlyn-. p. or a confusion of the two stems.. cclo. Morris Jones).: 404 OB~ prep. Williams in BBCS 13 (1950). Parry-Williams: 122. Isaac in EC 30 (1994). See also am. PKM: 245..2. then d = [d]. 08 iae gl. infixed pronoun: for the etymology. 3 pl.. from IE *kel. see linisanf.·um-herum.1: VVR: ltd imrnotctin . Jenkins and Owen (JO: 116) interpret this as y vel yth 0youch.nguotant and connected it with dy. Isaac: 3JJ~ LL: xliv. in I prep. 240).h. 'in' (yn I Gin."""oIC(. White: It)2-4. 41. Hamp in Eriu 28 (1977).(W. \\'hich is attested olll~' in Modern Welsh. cf. immit eel v pres. ansa Ox2 53 8 (4. MWC yn.("'.(jllll) 'to nHlvc'. MJ: 271. F. for the etymology see Schrijver: 103-4 with. 'between them' This entry is traditionally considered as a case of metathesis of the form. sec also White. geslicltfaliollc. Isaac: 365.'edafflosay~. Morphologically it is perhaps a plurnl vn \vith (l rcncxive prefix. White: 209-211 immisline gl.i. imalitiduch cimarguith[i)ejt Chad 3 . leads thee'. similar to the (later) attested y-ryngdun(nt).: (. The latter is an -Que derivative of lialls.' Sec ttlC next entry. this could be a copyist's error for itridu. \Vatkin~: fl)'\7: \V(. Olr imb To IE "amblti. hai bid ~m guar phenn circhl. MW celli 'hide. LL: xliv. DGVI3: ~ 219.112 irnmotimou gl. Williarns (Willianls: 19. see JO.4in ': see also .1.\'. amb-. DGVB: 279.395. iehnlinn gl.201 imguodant ir degion C~had 2 iechui' n m 'health' (name of a letter) (iechyd) MW iechyt~ Me yehes An -yd derivate of W ioch (DC iach gl. E. and cf. LC\\'js \\'ould sec in i""nrl 'ym my(j' (Lewis: 1926. 'prayer'.10.*g""edh. nGVR: 22J and 221 ~ FI~il': 10(. ymlynThe form contnins a reflexive prefix. bibl.l'. According to R. ad plures sui generis fit eomparatio Prise 27 a im prep. tlntl a . this should be read as y vel yth c5ybwg 'as . White (White: 145) mentions inter alia a possibility of reading this phrase as val i dydduch 'as (it) may lead'. sanus. Lat... iactata J ()() immottimoll \'n pi (?) ·to touch: handle. pupis gl." 1: "VO: 162. conceal".. GPC. nlotus od<lruJl1 MC' «. MB en: Olr in < IE *en. I nstcad he suggested the reading which is quoted here.od. Stokes: 1873. 3 sg. DGVB: 50~ (. Lewis: 1932~ 111-2. p. which is argued to belong to a pattern CONJUNCTION + PARTICLE + ?PRONOUN + VERB.. v.od: Fleuriot suggests the devisioJ1 ..~ \\lith il11111rl == Olr ilnhcd 4hc<1ucoup· and.h. OB a". 1'his \\'OHi could he the plural form of the vn y".1 for .~ridu im/adunJ vn (?) 'to light· I ymladd-I MW ymlad-. Several other connections have been ~ forwarded.fd 4 ."' sg. *. em-. sec ott. White: JO(.""n-of-('lill.mguodBnl v pret.PC: 455: lEW: )5.-. this is to he cOJllp<lrcd \\'jth \V y". Stokes: IH7.145. Isaac.O\vcnogvryn Evans (witb much hesitation) read this word as .

nle.103: Williams: 193J. 23. 583. 183~ Lambert: 19R1. Stokes in TPhS IRR5 . iwd~ OC iot gl.-j:. . Williarns thnt this could he C1 H\\'clshiScltion" of Irish GMWL: 299. . III'''''''' Nt't' 111/".1) rit ercis d•••raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8. guac.b.. in 2 adv. VGK: II... hapsidum extremque Ang 13 a inno ir guotodinou gl. OB iot. see DGVB: 15Q. 121 int dosseheitic gl... For the 08 form.3) inircuitinniou gl. potta~c.2) uuc nem ismcl1 intcoucr Juv Q (9. VVB: 202 pcrmedintcrcdoll gl. in-helcha gI. also it and t he previous ent ry.-Rom.·erh.93 92 in ir loscetic circhl.4vermcngen. ('xfa hut more likely is the pi of . inir[i)dolte gl.0.b..'nr·.a.21. which is vcrv unlikclv. . poftrtgc') gl. Camp 11 in pagina reguJarf Camp 12 Is aries isid in arecimei r aries Comp 12 in eircimeir Joe guac Comp 13 In pagina regular. 198~ Watkins and Mac (~ana: 25. ModB ind. pal". DGVB: 22. ~ . circulus [.n~ particle? .1 ·f t I ('f. in pagina regulari Comp 6 hai bu in arcimeir . ion condy1os Me 6 b.n J B dye rbi al pa rticle See into inguir Comp 2l . p. 150. Comp 14 in pagina regulari Comp 15 hac in irgueleri Camp 16 hai bid in irgueleri Camp 17 in ir salt Comp 20 Ceis inir loyr Camp 21 in ois oison Chad 2 in irham Chad 3 in irgaem Chad 3 in ireguorunhetic datI. the interpretation of which presents difficulties as \\'~II. lr · See also S.. hieme ethesiarum flatu 68 b . Stokes equated this form with 08 cnhit gl. pre~sus J 92 inn predicative particle (cr. in arguto foro Ovid 38it cluis humi1 inhared cclmed Juv 9 (7. noted oy JAckson. i f t init conj. In irtritid urd Comp 1 Intrited retec Camp 2 in triti urd Comp 5 ir loc guac hinnith. 7. gl. l~. part) MW yn. Stokes ( IH60-1: 215 and 21'4) this upcrhaps stand for . i. issi.\'.~ and cf. Williams: 193J. GMW: 72: Lewis: 1956.uv. pigurthet. derivative fr(lm . than \\'ith Mod'" .4 see \ if/iaBsBur . )'no~ Olr and LElA: A-15~ Wiliams: 1927. cf. 117 ibith gl.] nrdentlor In ruborem Ang 13 u Inom ir guecrissou gl. 137~ Lambert: 19R7. rahicrn (vcntorurn) J 64 . ad. maculata J 7R initoid gl.2) interedou pi ? According to W.. 'mad' Iynryd I MW ynuyt W. F. 115 nouinnguotricuscgeticion gl.1l/rrRuec!"fI. / part. in uenando Me 39 a. puis. in triti urd Comp 4 iot n m 'pap. .. ad ir lee. porrid~c' I uwd I MW iwt. ncc delata diu J 4 int adverbial particle OB int. mcdullis J 51 q I . ilia J 35 opermedintcredou gl. sec. inbith adj. gutatim Ang I) b piouboi int groisauc luv () (R.. Wiliams: 19RO. .I. gl.1 (1942). extincta J 78 initoid gl. 302. dihilis.'er('d.261 passerenn. p. LHEB: 55. Lambert: 19R7. Strachan in RC' 28 (1907). iutta < *ieyto-. cpo o1lguedoll gl. Bind.1) inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8. (?) For the analysis of this form nnd its MW parallels see J. contrast VCiK: 1. OIr ind 'The origin of this particle is not clear. hci der SpCiSC7uhcreitung·.. IE Vicu. s. It wns suggested by I. 299 in pan aed hid.. ()'Rahilly in f~:riu 1.5-6. If \\'(1..v.. W. in ranis Me 7 b. Olr (h)fth (·pap. :P' nnr". 'I This instance is considered to be in origin the demonstrative pronoun. plus: G. tayr in Comp 4 .··. that thc \vord (ns \\'('lIllS ?Lnfinised . sec helo\\') (l~r('cs hhcttcr with ()C' inf. Camp 7 in eir cimeir .0. where the word is analysed as a loan from AS IlIlW. ent Lambert: 1982a. initoid gl.0""".hen' [yDa) W yna. 'there~.

Jones in SC 10/11 (1975-76).. M. MP 22 11 (230) ir petguar pimp MP 22 h (230) ir hcstoriou oleu MP 22 h (23 I) ir pirnphct ctcrin MP 22 h (234) irnimcr hichan MP 22 h (2.il. ir serenn Comp I (J retit loyr irdid. Jackson: 75-6.a. n. in condylos M(' () h. 1/ Sache art und Wort.la.'Steinplatte'.i. Thurneysen in Anzeiger fUr indogermanische Spraeh. irmaur nimcr MP 22 h (2. VGK: II. LHEB: 441.a.a... Comp 8 irdid hinn uil h Camp 9 irloc quae Com p 9 Irnidibid ir loyr di. a.a. guarirdrcb gl.ou n m yeu~ r 'yok.] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a "inom ir guecrissou gl. inir[ijdoltc gl.2 428 (3. cdito MC' J a. pultum 0. iugum.ll.lH): seC' i"".'H6hle' . glahcl1a mcdictils MC l) h. nouirguirdglas gl.'Joch' or < Latin . Comp 2 pan dieonetent ir. (coleferum) ius Ox2 428 (3. 26.6) < IE ·iugo.i. oui Me 10 b..73-4. tincarum MC' 2 a. p. inircutinnioll gl. o. R. circulus [.. p. iugum. sclla cllrulis MC 45 a. 326-44..----- - 94 FEW: V. "Vocabularium Cornicum") ieu gl.h. 91~ GOI: 39. lEW: 508. Jud). cautium Me 51 a.a~.. coiliotl g1. iugum 0. J.n. ir tri . lucuhrationunl pcrcnniurn MC' 4 h. a nThe defcnite article goes back to a demonstrative pron. 277. quamis ad nonas portiones tria rcmanserunt Ang 14a in ir loscetic circhl gl. hirunn. irril. cxtorllfll M(' 2 (1. guac Comp 5 ir loe guac hinnith Comp 6 ir serenn. hinnuith Comp 15 hac in irguelcri Comp 16 ir lac guac Comp 17 ir loc gunc hai hid in irguclcri ('omp 17 ir bloidin hunnuith ('ornp 20 in ir salt Comp 20 Ccis inir loyr Cornp 21 imguodant ir degion Chad 2 ill irham Chad 3 in irgacm Chad 3 di pul irdcrucn Chnd 6 dipcnnant ircaru ('had 6 nouirrniinngucdou . ircarnotaul hriccr gl.. hieme ethesiarum flatu Ang 68 b ir parth alall gl. nouirccrricc gl.. (FS J.. ithrirdiuail gl. DC (Welsh?. oithaur hinnith Camp 4 ad ir loc. aur. ut si diens Anton il1c M(' 4J h. hai bu in arcimeir.a. HPB: 238.r t definite article [yr) MW yr. Brittonica et Gallica. WG: 109 iou gl. ircattciraul rcttetice strotur gl.2 42 b (4. B.-----~----.65.a. pugillarcm rnginarll MC' 6 h. mcrclirius gl. Pokorny in ZCP 17 (1928). KGP: 227. uitta crillalis MC' 4 a. WG: 42 iot gl. lEW: 507. Comp 7 ir loc guac haibid post.e' (iau) Veriugodumnus MW iau. acv: 156-7.. VVB: 164-5. Schrijver: 340. trui ir unolion gl. with n > r. iav.t eel. an. hapsidum extremeque Ang 13 a no ir felchou gl. MB G ]OUYI. placentarum Ang 55 a ir du bisl gl. nouirhircimcrdridou gl. pp.16) .306.a.h.1) iotum n 'pap. CA )xvii-I1(X~ GMW: 24~ R.". J. pottage' See iot ioturn gl. nouirfionou gl. nouirgoudonou gl. VGK: I. gnomonurn stilis MC' 46 a. see aWAY L.. hinnuith C'omp II irloc guae hinnuith Comp 14 issem ir .4.h. irhinn issid illc gl. 177~ WG: 191-4 amserpanalos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. nouirc1eteirou gl. rer monades Me' 7 h. See also 'r and cf.und Altertumskunde 26 (1910) p.. crotularum MC' 10 a. GPN: 357-8..Ul(l)(. Hubschmied (jr) Bezeichnungen fur ~Kaninchen' . rosarum MC" 9 h. aev: 374. nouircmid gl. y. VGK: 1. meloncolia Ang 68 a ir lanu gL aestum Ang 68 a inn6 ir guotodinou gl. pp.e. 98. nouirerunnui g1. irhissci C'onlp I() hacet isgurth. Gen~ve: Zurich 1943. /I EC 23 (1986). Hofmann in Glotta 25 (1936). Olr ind. his litoribus abiens Ang 62 b In irtritid urd Comp 1 ir ir Iri ui.118. J. p. o.1~) ir his hichan MP 2J ll (241 ) . irgur hunl1uid . PECA: 68. PECA: 68. yeu. acris MC' 4 b.b.8) iotllm gl. h. 'r. relchrat M(' 4 b. ius Ox2 449 (6. VVB: 165. in fanis MC' 7 h. in 5. irpoul1oraur g1. Comp 9 hit niritarncr rann.u.3. GPC: 2002..h.a..h. nou iraurlcou gl. Aeuriot. Me en.a. sali rcsplcndcntis MC' .

La!. Davida canorum J 7 Ir breni gl. 3 s~ 'to proclaim" MW (CA) sdlinet. 'low· lisell MW is(s)el. mendae Ovid 40 irtinetic gl. and belo\\' DGVB: 232~ GPC: 2033~ VGK: I.h. 209.2) ise/adj. 161~ Parry-Williams: 121. . Loth in RC' ~18 (1920-21). yr (er). ys. DGVB: 230. splent!c. sec Schri.. d. DGVB: 232 isclach gl. sec Willianls: I <JXO. Sec aho\'e. nummum J 80 irhinn issid crfst gl. he toole th is to have the force of Ir ar 'for.. 'low· The form was considered Welsh by Fleuriot due to the presence of the o in this gloss. 297. abrupta J 81 (Reading: Stokes: 1865. GPC: 2031. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 21 naf" ir ni be C85 igridu Chad 2 t isselach adj. GPC quotes this instance as Welsh. Schrijver: 435-H: Stokes: IHAO-1. J.(lEW: 2H5)~ sec also }. MC" ysse1: Olr fscl See is. fundu m J 73 irmesur gl. Christus quem J 81 irtfum gJ. DGVB: 233 isselach gl.v .r . This instance is not quoted in GP('. compo 'lower' As opposed to isselach. vela Ovid 38 iransceth gl. humili Ang 15 a rrero~ition ir 2 causal conj. Lewis: 1956. 10: 103-4. See also isseI. in arguto foro Ovid 38 15 ir emedou gl. Sec ahove. p. Olr IS < IE *ped-sll-.. for a different treatment. er~ OB ir . is prep. 'throu~h. Ofr sluindid For the connection with Lat. ti ncta Ovid 40· a ironguedou gl. 18 Irnidibid iT loyr dLa. Ilanlr. ct < IE *it(h). g»'ar (ar) a~e . per). Sec ahovc. this form was considered hy Flcuriot as ultimately W. usque sub occiduum eoeH J 84 irdicnchiriueticion gl. nlinchat Me H a. loquitur J 4 irJ prep. it. 'under. a~d this is the only q~oted ~xamp~e for this meaning. VVB: 168.1--4) notlnvithstandillg the scepticism of LElA.inc. this form \\'a~ considered hy Flcuriot as possibly Welsh. exta Ovid 41 ircenthiliat gl. see also the next. immisline gl. Ian ige rae templa OVid 38 8 in irguorunhetic datI gl. intcriorcs Ang 12 h issei adj.ff. 411) bet circhinn frguolleuni gl. )2H. ex humili J 5 i~fielach adj.259-60 i ir tri ui. DGVB: 232 and 275 6 issei gl. DGVR: 2~4~ E. cdc.glinau irleiLl gl. White: 105 istlinnit gl. DGVB 2()2~ Isane: 232~ LElA: S-13H~ LIIEB: 527. X. ~ GMW: 219. prep. Comp 9 iT hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20 ir oider uid hinn. throughout. 50 uuc nem isnem intcoucr Juv () (Q. Romanaque pectora OVId 39 11 iranamou gl. that Utile prepositions ar.._ .v . The word is traditionally denved from IE *per das Hlna~sfuhren tiher'". aera Ovid 38 8 ircilchetou gl. E. 50: VVB: 16H: W(i: 24H o isel gl. VGK: I. circus Ovid 39 11 ireaiauc gl. aUf... The instances quoted from JU\' q (lllo". qui primus J 70 ir tir gl. advocating a double treattncnt of *spl-. nullum pulverem Ovid 3~ 8 irdigatmaou gl. Wh~' Synt. III and cr. submersior Ang () I a istlinnit v pres. DB gurstli(n). libellum Ovid 39 • b .t~ Needs PIHlllnlog\'. area Ovid 31 8 nom irbleuporthetic gl. DGVB: 228. Vred. Williams. principales Prise 16 b 97 is prone (infixed) 3 sg. sec s. Comp 2 itl preverbal particle OB it. This instance is not quoted in GPC. MJ: 272. proram J 31 euinhaunt irruim mein J 55 em ir cisemic gl.ver. GPC: 1221: lEW: 810~ Williams: 1927. helow' [is I OW (LL) is. confused in Welsh··. J. MW is. Stee\'er rf al. irdigatma gl. Caerwyn Wiliams In BBCS 11 (1944) p.'Furr (lEW: 790). I S.~- 96 ir maul MP 23 1 (241) ir eguin MP 23 8 (241) ir hune MP 23 8 (241) ir bis MP 23 8 (241) ir esceir MP 23 11 (247) h . It was noted by I. on account for.. sec S. compo 'lower· As opposed to iselach. OB iscl.(' (VC1K: f.. 'for' [yrl MW vr. during' (er] GPC lists this under er (C cr..

. evil' (name of a letter) OW (LL) and MW cam: 08 camln. yntre. OGVB: 2J6 Tafa < IE *'}ter. which do not find parallels elswhere. Stokes: 1860--1.) A compositum. coniucrc Me 4 b. kalcndis prinllim nHlrtiis Ang )~ h ilhaD see hi_hoD /s. ()B iorch gl. ('aprea. Lc\\'is. OIr etir. ithr) + cludant (cludd. ()WAV. MW}'f (cL OC hitaduer gl. iyn:hetl /ais 2 ? This gloss was found hy II.1) K kam n 'wrong.h. VGK: 1.hinein". The first clement is the name for 'corn" . then Itl. lac/ads. intr-. laeidum t(ran)s diem gl. PECA: 64. Hamp: 1979. W iU'f('h (0(' yore" gl. cter.98 Papers from the Parascssion on Diachronic Syntax. pp.?). ytlan~ OIr ithlaind (Oat. GPC: 204J: VVB: 169. CI en lac. Stokes: 1873.d"m? L. Chicago 1976. and cf. area J 14 289~ VGK: I. VVB: 169 ithr prep. lEW: 794. 348-64. OB entr-. agitare J 88 it clu(i)s [it] drban iciman guorsed Juv 9 (6. VVB: 168 itdarnestr gl. Itercludant allows for the two segmentations.140-1.v. MW ythr. aT ? Stokes: 1873. ('aprell. Lambert: 1987. Zeu~s: 1059 kam (Nemn) itercludllnt y pres.a. total/til' ucncratioflc slipplicall\ ~fC 1~ h .1) it cluis it humiJ inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. 21X~ VV13: 170 hlis gl. Hamp in EC 23 (1986). 3. Isaac in EC 30 (1994). L lac/ad di? Stokes: IR7J. Eska: 66. lacJadsi ar Me 9 a. Dc Bernardo Stempel: 109-10.~ '. cr. sec lEW: SLl OC'V: 254: PECA: 1()6~ Schrijvcr: 61 ~ VGK: 1. glabella medietas MC 9 b. 289. if adverbial partirle 08 it. Lewis: 1932.b. cOlnpar~ a.1) itdagatte ail gl. p. . 397 left this gloss uncxplained.a. ~between· [ythrJ OW (VSB: 315).&zwischen .412. OC~ C"'I11(-): G C~arnh(): Ofr camOl The name of a letter in uAlphahct of Ncmnills" . White: 119-20 amal itercludant gL ut subigant J 32 ca. see De Bernardo Stempel for the further anda and bibliography. itlann gl. for the second part see lann t. C inter. cf.3. I"rca) < IE *i ork . See also into DaVB: 234. cut off' (1) A very difficult gloss. 397 left this gloss ullexplained.41).'Trank" Speisc' (DGVB: 167. hicgcn' (lEW: YIX: PEC'A: 20).306. diffussa J 70 . caprca Me 12 h. DGVB: 227. FlclIriot queried the Welsh nffiflitics of the \\·ord.167-8. laxus GPC: 2081~ ML: lRO~ VGK: I.'l'icr aus der (jruppc dcr J~che·. 401 iurgchcll gl. MB eth) < IE *pitu. For Cl different approach see E.424. obscura J 36 iUrRcheir n r 'femel e roe-d eer' Iiwrch] MW yerchel. Stokes: IH7J.. iudeoit gl. VB: 286--7 it cluis it humil inhared celmed Juv 9 (7. MB ez The origin is not clear. pp.49-S0." itlann n f '8 threshing-Ooor' (ydlan] MW ydlan. pp. VB: 278-80.s' adj. iter (see s. G. 9Q An -ell derivative.a. VVB: 169. 3 pi 'to block. iudeoit? ~ lllis gloss is obscure~ see Stokes: 1860-1. Isaac: 391-2. Witczak in Flistorisclle Sprach~orschung 107 (1994). or it ercludant. the meaning is adduced from the Latin context. If it is Welsh. 231 ~ VVB: 169 ithrirduail gl. lEW: 313. DGVB: 94-5~ GPC: 396.1. cf. GPN: J21~ LElA: C'-2(}: VVB: 63. (lull particularly K. 'loose" (liaes) MW lIaes: Olr lax < Lat. Inclad dii Me 9 a. It was suggested (White) that that the gloss is Irish. "'hich rcmnins altogether unclear.'ns identified with MW 'curvus' by Zeuss: GPC does not consider cxnnlplc in its treCltfnent of W cal" < *(s)kalllh· 'krUmmcn. VGK: 1. 112 lais gl. 210. T. messis.

J MW IIcithaw. sartago Ox2 42 b (4. this word "~as ~he look of an Irish derivative of the stem lath. aIr lann . pfli.3) lann gl.'hreit und nacho aushreiten'. fordaliu11' Ox2 42<1 (3. ()B litcrenn~ ()Ir liter < Lat. heat' (liad-I MW (I)lad-. aula celi 1 15 Isnn 1 n 'frying paD' Etymologically identical with IannI. and cf. 1(1)aw~ 1(1)8u. see also the next.8) lanu n m 'tide. For the orthography cE. *latlclliio-. laicus GPC: 2172-3~ LHEB: 605. IE *lendh.'freies Land. OB 10m in lomrod. VGK: I. VVB: 171 lann gl. VGK: II. who criticises the analysis of W. flieBen'. lIewenyd. DGVB: 236-7. 97 namcreit mi ncp leguenid henoid .'gieBen. 53. LHEB: 416~ MJ: 270. littera: for the Celtic for!'t1s (without this OW instance) see LHEB: 399. pauimentum. 257: Lf'lEB: 287~ oev: J29~ PECA: 74~ VKG: I. OC leic gl. GPC: 2094.17J~ Williams: 19RO. Steppe' (lEW: 675). lefel gl.i. VVB: 171.. I07-R nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3. OPC: 2111: VVB: 172 lauhael gl. manus.. Elsie: ]06~ GPC: 2079.. platca Ang 51 b leder n pi 'letters' (llythyrJ MW lIyther. Williams: 1933. aet[h]ra . pulsat Ovid 3R~ (Williams: 19J3. oev: 324~ PECA: 72. Heide. zergchcn'. Olr lar < */oro. Loth (VVB: 170) as a compound which c. DGVB: 2J7~ GPC: 211R~ lEW: R06~ J. Stevenson: 3.. /su n 'hand' Ina. church-yard' [Ilan] OW (LL) and MW I(l)an. GPC: 2109~ Lf-IEB: 387~ VGK: I. Jackson: 1950. 113) Ieee-e. Kuith/8un. OCV: 72. which is "'characteristically Cornish in orthography" (LHEB: 55). GPC: 2095-6. The instance was considered as Welsh hy GPC'. r Jepuenid n m 'joy' (llawenyddl MW IIcuenit.] MW 1(I)av. Loth (VVB: 172) compares this entry \\'ith W flr!ritll 'rnilk.. DC lor gl. lai3per gl. 20n. OB LOlluinid < Britt.f. T. . For the ety~ologies of the components of this compound see lau. 100 ' .~tr()pfen. reulsun and cr.l-: plii. ML: IRI. is analysed by J. ] 13 ledit gl. alann.. OB lanu The word is preceded by a Welsh article and identical with OB. OCV: 56-7. GPC: 22R4. sickern.. laiclIs < Lat. PECA: 73. lEW: 798 ir lanu gl. v. Jackson. p. cf. secuJario Ox2 42h (4. Me' lowene. Loth (Stokes: 1860-1. DOVB: 244. IE Vpei~.. 4H laur gl.< IE *p/iiro. See OWAV. 71 latharauc I."62 () (' k'idirn gl. lEW: 805-6. Craster's reading) lann t n . GPC: 2104. aestum Ang 68 a latarauc adj. 3 s~ 'to strike.·erhelltcn.291. l'hc form is compared with B /eiz. . hit. Koch in EC' 24 (1987). 630. n f 'laywoman' IlIey~esI MW Icic. lacticula Ox2 42 8 (3. Schrijver: 17R. ML: IRJ. 'swampy' (Irish word showing Welsh features] According to K. DGVB: 246. (I)led-: OB ladam gl. Stokes and J. PEt'A: 71: VVB: 172 leeces gl. Ian. littera. Elsie: 102. locc/su. DGVB: 274-5: OPC: 2150 and 20QL lEW: 657: VGKL: II. IE y/oll. lIawr. YpCI. VVB: 171 Isun see s. barathri coeoo J 81 U • ledit v pres. also DOVB: 236). C. DC lof gl. Olr lam < Celt. genicBen' (lEW: (55).2) Welsh context. g~nnec gl. now' (llaDw] MW lIanw. De Bernardo Stempel: 123.7) nc\\' milk'. See OWAV. W /Iairll (Ir. o PC' mentions the possibility of the Welsh affinities of this entry. Schrijver: 163. anhodlsun /aur n m 'Ooor'l place' (llawr I MW laur.. 'church. MB leizyaff This was considered hy Fleuriot to he a Welsh form flppnrently hecause of the WG: 82 haioid ilau eleu Chad 2 "\ . LElA: S-126. DOVB: 236 . lIywcnyd. 1(I)eye.ontains faith 'Iai. IBabBel n r 'hand-halthel' MW llaw vvwell . Williarns: I <JHO.8. balle/. 101 laiiJwer? This gloss.'mud' with the Welsh termination _QlIC This entry is not given in Thurneysen: 1890a or Parry-Williams as an Irish or an "irishised" gloss in the Juvencus manuscript. < IE */cg-Io-. Craster: 135.. Y/eg.'breit und flach' De Bernardo Stempel: 123. leg-). OB lor gl.JllV 3 (3. JO: 96-7.224. ~nd ~~r which is hesitantly compared with W gwyr. British (Vindo)-Iand(a). caedo: M(~ latha~ MIr slaidid A well-attested word in Celtic~ without etymology. The word IS translated as petlt-Iall. Etymologically. maritae J 80 lefet? J.vpel. lIether~ OC lithcren gl. *lama . This instance is not quoted in GPC. proccssu 1\ ng 61 h . < IE ·pl1}lJo. VGK: I. I) leidim vn 'to moisten' (lieith.

Puhvel. width'. DGVB: 241 ~ GOI: 120. palu( de ls Ox2 44 h (7. however. epica pagina Me 1 a. caricofc"l. MW 1(l)uch. ·anfCfll ~fC ~ 3. pallae Me 5 b.rface' (lIedwyneb] MW lIetwyneb.<. 179. E. linter). veksla. laCllJ) should be vicwed as horrowings from North (·Central) EUfopcCln suhstratum. DGVB: 240. OCV: 4()~ PECA: VGK: 11.~n~ Stokes: lR73. cf. OCV: 128. 38R. 178. ~rhc . " ( leueJirc ? According to Stokes. 2 p.102 leiJl pron. enepp.. 3 pi 'to make smooth. OC lester gl. tonoent J 44 lin proper name.~ LElA: s-t. Linus . lEW: 680. so Stokes. dish. pp. liein duilof gl. OPC: 2139~ Hamp: 1974. vekslu < *les-tlo-)~ cf. Aeuriot in EC 23 (1986). lentllfn: Olr siemon lsnlooth' Traditionally. DOVB: 166 and 240. vol. 12). I0l11raid. who followed Ebel. for einepp. Campanile derives thcse words from Britt. cortina~ G lenna~ Olr lenn These Celtic words are derived from Celt. 'jc pourris·. DGVB: 244: GPC: 22J4~ LI-IEB: (loR: Stokes: IR65. swamps. White: 120 linint gl.v. GPe: 2091.. lini ~1(' 4. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prisc 27 a OW (HB. aIr lethenach This compound contains let (lied 'breadth.25) limnint" pres. glossator prohahly took the I fltin "'ord for a proper nanlC. 'other(s)' MW (pl. < IE *(s)lei. 41J~ VGK: I. manlltergiu. cortina Me 62 a. DGVB: 242. commodum. ypel-. Hamp in Historische Sprachforschung 101 (1988). and the Brittonic words "must sh()\v connation '\lith another cty. saga Ox2 4411 (6.a. quam multos Ovid J9~ lisuS8UC see il1i8US8UC lieRt n m&f 'SOllrl'e of ri"er or welle « '("'eel 11I~'~Rdl les n m 'benefit. noulin gl. . differently by P. pleraquc nomina: MC lues. mantilc E.'Ieuchten' GPC: 2261~ lEW: 687. shining·?)"".Orcl in IF 100 (1995). Iyes: cf.36 dilicat dipul retinoc Chad 6 I I leJtir n m 'cup.270.386.a lenn gl. Ir. pp.inc. cloth' (lliain J MW Iycyn. Stokes: 1873.non ('light. see also arall. IHO for a comparison of this form with Ir. Romanaqaue pectora Ovid 39 DGVB: 245. Isaac: 374. rati J 61 l~'einepp n m 'page. PECA: 71 nirinciriles. oculus: MB lagat < IE *Ieuk.'schlcimig. Iliain: OB lien gl. DGVB: 241. 122--4 and the references cited there. the further connections are obscure. pp. Hamp (ZCP 4(1 (1994). lEW: 833. OIr alaile < *a!a1li-. *linda.-Y.'Lein' in lEW: on this entry see no. Stokes: lR73. DB a(l)all. VVB: 172 b . 1(I)iaws~ on lios g1. 75-6. licin. P. also Lat. LL) licat. Ir leas For the connection with Greek 1tOAU~.glinau irleill gl. DGVB: 242~ GPC: 2173~ lEW: n91~ PECA: 72: VVB: 174 gueli liein gl.79-80. lenn gI." h. manutcrgium I.) lleill. OCV: 147. vessel' [llestr] MW llester.. for the derivation from IE *Heelt.1. navis. lichou n pi 'lakes. Mouton 1984. 1(I)\vch: OB loch. OC len gl.: fhe forms arc found in the entry *lino. pp. OPC: 2156. Hittite Etymological Dictionary.b. Elsie: 111~ GOI: 235-6~ GPC: 2t74~ Loth in Re' :'7 (lqI7-9). cuhile Ox2 44~ (6. thcsc (cf.n. For the formation see Hamp and cf. p. marshes' [lIwch I OW (HB. veil" [lien] MW Hen.~) liein n m 'linen. L. Olr Ifa < IE *ple-ias-t-.v V. MW 1(I)ygat~ OC~ lagat gl. OB letenep. crowd' [lIiaws I MW lIyaus. R4~ VVB: 175.nn gl. lIestyr.indol. L. or 'half' according to L. 422: VVR: 174 lichou gl.n: 0(' liein gllcli gl. aIr lestar was borrowed from Brittonic. pa]]am J 30 lenn gl. ausglc iten·: see. Elsie: IJ2~ GPC: 2255~ lEW: 6o:. VVB: 173 lenn gl. PECA: 71~ VGK: I~ 81~ VVB: 173 lestir gl. PECA: 71. OCV: 347. see s. 117): ()B li. Fleuriot. DB escei lenn gl. GPC: 21 RI discusses this \vord in their entry dcdirfltC'd to \V IIi" 'flcl:x·. sagum. LHEB: 337. GPC: 2151. */fsan!n. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994).26) lisus n m&f 'multitude.. cf. 21 and 22. ~ . VVB: 173 Icucsicc gl. sec L<1'nhert: I<">X2a. 6R: VVB: 188 morliaus gl. this is lau 'lice' \. + esic (ysig 'fretting'). Lamhert in EC 17 (1980). VVB: 173 orbardaulleteinepp gl. logo. LL) luch. host. VGK where < ·'ent.'one of a pair' see J. Loth. advantage' (Ies] MW lies.268-70'. ·'es-tro. DC les gl. 39-9~ VGK: I.(= Umbr.a. Schrijver: 321.(::= Lat. Loth considered th i5 as an -icc derivative of leues = *Iogas. durch N~sse glitschiger Boden. OB lestr Traditionally < Celt. p. GPC: 2159. 103 lenD n r 'curtain. pelll 'Mengc' (lEW: ROO) DGVB: 243. see PECA.Iro. polish' IlIyfnwJ MW lIyfn (hut see Williams: 19JJ. Ie!!. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. Olr loch According to E. Fleuriot connects it with OB 'oed 'sordide' and MW lIoedd.

pp. gubernaculorum Traditionally. OC liu gJ. The second component is . Lambert. PECA: 88. VVB: MW Ileisw. The instance is considered as Welsh by GPC. decoction' [lieisw] oev: IJ2. p. LHEB: 451. OC leu gl. Olr If < */f-yo-. EL: 41. apc: 2149.V. etc.104 105 liniSllnt v pret.37 linnoue in gl. abbey. ausgleiten'. ope: 2287. Lambert: 19828. DOVB: 243.181. OC loch gl. pod. B lid. ('religious settlement'.20) lita" n 'Latium' MW lIydaw. PECA: 72: VGK: J. GPC: 2272.·Y. See also immisline. VVB: 10 t n m 'calr (110 J 176 lissiu gl. there arc smfliler illegihle lettcrs under the upper loop of the c. 'hiipfen. color. ' gie8en.. leisso.22: VVB: 177 )6 sive enderfc gl. OaVB: 14. to IE ·(s)lei.'schleimig.-NaB. nicf3en': for a different explanation see aWAY. OCV: 320-1. in lacis lacunisque Ang 16 b lirou n pi 'seas.a. 93 litimaur gl. OC lin in pisclin.267-R: oev: 258-9. 22) < */iipego· to IE *Iiip.'Ieicht in Bcwegung und Oc\\'ichf (lEW. birthdays' The present reading and interpretation of this hapax was suggested by I. oceans' (llyrJ MW Jlyr.) . pp. J. Stokes: 1873. which compares this to Olr /ftl. Thc form is analysed as containing suffixes ·0/. pp.v. referring to Bedigeiduran uab Llyr. Latio Ovid 39b . R. Russell and myself has shown that it should he read as loe. 3 pi 'to infect.408 noulirou gJ. (.o. (60). litim. London 1()7R. T. Pedersen (VGK: II. tillers" (lIywJ MW 1(I)yw. Davies. Thurneysen read the word as linmaur and considered it as Irish (cf. "the i between t and m is very faint [. see GPN: 217-R). Pokorny in ZCP 24 (1954) p. DB lisiu. Loth in RC 44 (1927). helm~. Jackson. LHEB: 535.evi(lti()n for 10c 'monastery'. 212. lEW: 663. PEC'A: 71: VGK: 1. According to K. The gl(lsS is perhaps Latin. 154-5~ PEC A: 7J. \/plat· -breit. VVB: 175 linisant gl. OPC: 2196. Olr lend.218. 'populous' Several interpretations of this difficult word have been considered. aequorurn Me 51 b. 51 6 rud liu gJ. cE.'rinnen. Loth in RC 44 (IQ27). G. 37f. clauus. According to P. VGK: 1.21. I.. cenito/aidall) who followed Zeuss: 1057. GPC: 2273. Husiu gl. EL: 41: GPC: 2202. F. J. this is a ~'terme poetique qui designe lui aussi des entites mythi· ques".'Kuh' (lEW: 654). natales Ovid J9h liu n m 'colour.267. Jackson: 19~O..(on these and the etymological lay-out. the recent examination of this gloss (13. the W. lEW: 654. abundance'. 121 f). to IE */eg"h. 'festival'.: lR2 In gl. The second i.n n pi (a plural dublet) 'lakes. j. Stokes: 1860-1. OieBen'. OIr lenaid Perhaps. and the criticism by J. durch Nasse glitschiger Boden.m is a~t~-h. s. This etymology is queried in ope. fn.6-7 litolaidou gl. hchcn' (lEW: 667). wo: 107 liuou gl. 177. lEW: 965. however. l{nmar 'nombreux'). Mlr ler < -li·. VVB: 176 dilitau gl. vitulus J 0 01 10 2 'church. VGK: 11. According to Stokes. OB lin. pools' [llyn) OW (LL) and MW lynn. tl. lotion. from IE *p/ell. MB leue: Olr Ineg According to H. Most recentlv P. Pokorny lists these forms under *Ieig. 118. 154-5). Litu. DGVB: 241.. liuou n pi 'rudders. ()~. Quelle'. monastery" A dry stylus gloss on Lat. Williams: 1929. VV8: 176. OPC: 2176. Alternatively T. ligones J 25 liS5. ML: 99. OPC analyses this hapax as containing (MW) llydK' 'host" compa nyt perhaps connected with (MW) lledw 'plenty. see A. Williams: 1933. GPN: 217. rodi 42 8 (context 2. lixa < Lat. Iliw. on this word see S. ] This should perhaps be luithmawr from luilh" (cE. VGK: 1. O'Rahilly in Eriu 13 (1942). lauare J 98 linnoue. F. fo. Studies in the Llandaff Charters.61. gratia J 25 t . OB liou gl. O'RahiJly (in Eriu 13 (1942). (colour of) complexion or skin' (lIiwl MW lIyu. aIr innaluac gl. litolsidou n pi 'feast-days.1(. DOVB: 142. OIr Letha < IE *p{Jo'!ia. OPC: 2192. IE *(J)/f~ 'hUiulich for the semantic development which is found in the instance taken from the Juvencus glosses see I-Iamp: 1977-R. < *logioJ (cf. v. lEW: 664. lEW: 836. 71-2: MI. roseo colore Ang 17 a liu gl. Jixiuim DGVB: 244. O(~V: 208. pp. P. GPC: 2252~ Harvey: 192. see also aleulinn. defile' (llyn-] MW llyn·. US: 253. grelin. Schrijver: 309-310. 199R) hy Dr. lixam Ox2 44b (7. see W. see s. Vie. Williams (contrast VVB: 68. J. DB linda< IE '*[endh. Harvey. it was accepted by OPC. GPC: 2275. 116). flasch' (lEW: 833) De Bernardo Stempel: 125-6. loch euhic gl. Thurneysen: 1890a. An Early Welsh Microcosm. hinnulus. ncuum. still exists.naur. common in LL. uitulus. frequens J 18 t MW 110. luidt).ur adj. Schrijver has argued in favour of Pedersen's interpretation. lEW: 675.21: Craster: 1. Litavi·. White: 186.U n ID 'lye. and -aeth.

ipsa [i.o-. GPC: 2248. VVB: 178 louber Nemn louhi? The gloss is obscure.b. 17 irloc guac Comp 14 irloc quae Camp 9 loe guac Comp 12. Olr luhgort The compound contains a continuntion of Celt. MW liven. pp. Ilwyn.(=::: E. GPC: 2211 in ir loscetic circhl gl.c adj.. ope: 2199 loiraul gl. 219. ] ardentior in ruborem Ang 13 a louber n m 'light' (name of a letter) [lIeufer I MW lIeuuer. 'muddy' (llycho~I MW lIychavc An -ouc derivative of OW (Nennius. GPC: 2198. DGVB: 247-8 and 244~ GPC: 22)0~ lEW: 653~ VC. GPC: 2244. PECA: 75. 13 3 107 DGVB: 223. circulus [. or 'flow·.27. VGK: 1. rosarium Ox2 42 b (4.. luna. *gn..'Ieuchten. . cf. cf. VVB: 177 and 127 locell vel fonn gl. DGVB: 246. OCV: 33. sbrubs. guac. monath Ang 55 a los~et. OC luir gl. *!.her. progenies.. arsura. OB loc"~ aIr loch~ sec licholl. Russell in CMCS 9 (1985). 8. fo IF . IIwyth~ OB loit.-Ieuchten.73 haluidt iuguret Chad 2 luith grethi Chad 3 luird n m 'vegetable or kitchen garden' (lluarth) MW Illarth. 44-5. cf. *Iuh. The instance is listed as W. licht'). 431. I"ilh n m 'tribe. OB loc . 402. see Inyr). lichf. VVB: 177 loinou gJ. locus. Vleuk. lEW: 690. B logel < Lat.'Ieuchten.. while P.~('r· ·~r('ir('n. Stokes: 1873. ML: 183. umfnssen' (IE\V: 442). bringen· (lEW: 12Rf). frutices Ovid 37b loirau/adj.. f~s"('n.(IE V/euk. OC' leid gl. see also datlocou and cf. Stokes: 1873. 'Iunart [iloerol] An -01 derivative of W JJoer. Jock). Comp 5 ir Joe guac. cntrindrn': flnd ('elt. loch (menech). loinou D pi 'bushes. GPC: 2167-8.) < IE *1('. loculus. LHEB: 465. loee/au? Stokes suggests reading foc faun or IDee/au. p. lorell n m&f 'litter' [Iogell ) MW Hogell.240 and 247. pigurthet. lignum by Loth and Lewis. VGK II.-Y. Illid. loeo (in PN) The word was considered as a loan from Lat. Lambert.r. lEW: 687. vitulusJ Ovid 38 8 lo~ n f 'place' [lIog] MW 1(I)oc. on this stem see Hamp: IQR2. 49-50 retit loyr Comp 2 passerenn. charred' Ilosgetig] MW lIosgedic. lescsit An -tdig derivative of Welsh lIosg: llo. 292 10 gl. /ocellus DGVB: 244~ GPe: 2203. 246. by ope. EL: 41. flistoria Brittonum. lichf DGVB: 245. IlIir~ G luxtos. OC luporchguit gl. virgllltllnl~ n linrz. PECA: 74. and was described as "unklar'" by Pedersen. ·nhschfilcTl. VVB: 177 dirgatisse locclau gl. loitret. OCV: 326.361 luchauc gl. this compound contains 1011 (for lell. OB loin. lose < *luk-sk·.. Schrijver: 357. See also 10. Russell suggested a derivation from */ukno. OIr lucht < *luX t-. etc . 10: 97-8~ lEW: 68(1~ LHEB: 405: DeV: Q()--I: PECA: 73.5) lo]'r n f'moon' (lloer) MW lIocr. Jones considered this word to be authentic and suggested *lllgno.. Ir. /0 2 . holoit.106 10 ? According to P. loyr in Comp 4 Irnidihid ir loyr Comp 6 relit loyr Comp II Ceis inir loyr Comp 21 Juchsuc adj. brakes' [liwyo] OW (LL) luhyn. VVB: 178 louhi gl. to IE leuk. 395.b. paluster Prise 26 a luidl. IE ylellg.K: 1. P./. The instance is listed as Welsh hy ope. Elsie: 112.'hcrh' ()Ir f. concesserat Me 8 a. OB loscitic.e. ML: 182..'tragen. M. OB loir < */ugrii. the gloss remains obscure. 10. PECA: 73. OC logel gI.gaf" OC lose gt. EL: 41~ ope: 2202~ ML: 182 ir loe. Lambert: 1987. Ir loc < Lat.'brcchcn' DGVB: 214. linea~e" family" (lIwyth J MW luith. 'burnt. VGK: 1.84. and the second part of it allows for the two etymological interpretations. cf. Comp 6. see GPC: 2234) llichiein. Jones in TPhS 1953. D. Ileufer As was noted by GPC.1'-. see loyr. lIoskeddig.. this could stand for Lat.. DGVB: 244. ferculum Me 14 b.

OCV: 296. VVB: 180 mair gl. 49-50. H.'groB'.248. (or from ?) Olr hran. M. mas) + oen 'Iamb'. On dating and archaism in the Pedeir keinc.10) mair n m 'one of the administrative officers of the court (in the Welsh laws). "The compound consists of 1nap 'son' (sec s.. Essays in Memory of C. GPC: 2474-5.'yn > haJl1en > haJen. */11ok"o. aIr mace < Britt. Capkov~. of a bold leader'. abhauen'.. msinswr n f 'distria. eds. OB mair. /I Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.. 99.a.a~"os 'jung' DGVB: 249.a. leled to hal. OIr -mm. GPC: 2311. Stokes: 1873.nd 8dministntlve unit' (mlenor) MW rnaynaur.·hauen.) and (pI. filius. Stokes in TPhS lRR5-7. map.26. lEW: 691.~-------------------~---~-- -- -- 108 DGVB: 247. love dignus Ovid 39 h m8h8R1in n m 'nm.215-6. GPC: 2349. PECA: 75: YCiK: L 128. Slow and uneven change. GPC: 2293. Dublin: Institiuid Teangeolafochta Eireann.nai/. om· cial' [maer) OW (LL) mair. pI. deceptus Ovid 4l h msnnuclenn ? The word.. R. GPC: 2293~ lEW: 690. LL: xlv ha [do]uceint mannuclenn Chad 3 map n m 'son' (mab) OW (LL) rneibion. p. Mlr m~er < Lat. Hamp. l"his loan is not attested in any of the studies of Latin borrowings in Welsh. 96-7 mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1.< Celt. V. 1 sg 'my. LllEB: 354. p.PC: 320: LrIA: R--Rl: VVB: 5R. maenawr.. EL: 15. m)'baren According to WG. OW (Harl). eds. prepossitus Ox2 46 8 (9. malgueretic gl. N. Jacobs. maenaul The word occurs twice in Welsh (see also . LElA: M-l. DGVB: 253. . VGK: 1. which is a hapax in Welsh. cf.35) maessid D pi 'fields' IAllesJ OW (LL) rnais. note the spelling ai for oe. Lewis in BEeS 4 (1928). MW maer.. Gaulish -magus. lEW: 690. Notes de celtibere.9) hin map di iob gl. Brcc7c in ZCP 47 (1995). VVB: 179 map brethinnou n pi 'swaddling-tlothes ll mail g1. '. cf. defective' [moel] MW moel.nni. ()R mah. Lambert. MW hrell1y11(11) lc1oth. Ahlqvist. Loth (VVB: 180) suggests a comparison with Irish mel/a. oev: 96~ PECA: 76. n. E. BaudiS: 144. The word is hesitantly compared by GPe with Welsh mehyr. 564. p. Olr mag. L. steward. OC' rnah gJ. DC mair gl.3) namercit Juv 3 (3. MIT mae] < ·. ma~ar.) hrrthifl1l01l. Magurix. 9()~ (. DGVB: 250.-. Schrijver: 146-5. LElA: M-8. handful or armful (of corn).1) ham hoI eneti gl. *mtg(h). 109 ope: 2215. myhyr 'spears.. MaCasi(a)m < Britt. PECA: 75. was considered hy J. meir. 1997. woollen cloth' < *bratlino·. Davies: 1982. MW maes~ OB maes.< *mas-~ro 'male' (~ Lat. sheaf. mar~ cf. . 1974.i. ()('V: 79. Eska.naphrith . responsible for land supervision and the selection or dues.< IE *". 2. p. to me' ['ID] MW m. Geraint Gruffydd. G\\'cnogvryn Evans (hesitantly) as a diminutive of banu' 'a sucking pig·~ the initial consonant was explained hy Baudi~ as a result of nasal mutation. hut see I.) Hispano-GalloBrittonica.. 6 Clerigh. from Lat. Williams: 1980. see also merion. bart. R.v.20) mair gl. ad suum praeposituln Ox2 45 3 (8.erritorial . or derivative from Inaen 'stone'. spear. officer. 'bald. wether' [maharen] MW mahar(a)en. Lane: 253~ P. W. I)avies. 11l011l1cio/(1111l).136. *1nopo.3. horti Me 50 a. LHEB: 445.) D~n do Oide.. MW mab. I. . pp. LElA: M-6-7. mail adj. me.J1EB: 641. 263. Rhvs's reading is accepted though queried by W. II (J. OB -m. maior. GPC: 2310 Ostendit ista cosripsio nobilitateln mainaur med deminih Chad 6 < Lat. Considered by GPC (with a question mark) as an -owr (hist. PKM: xviii-xx. pI. GPC: 2312. GPC: 2321. the further etymological connection arc douhtful. *mages-tu· < IE ·meg(Ft)-. et totam faciem meam Ox2 4l b (1. Fleuriot (DGVB: 251) considers this word in his discussion of OB lnaloilloc. praepositlls. 389 f maessid gl. G. lEW: 709. p. plana Ang 17 a malgueretic ? J. 405. WG: 114 ha maharuin Chad 3 h[a maha]ruin Chad 4 . mutilum Me 42 b./1 (A. VVB: 180 nitguorgnim moUrn map meir Juv 9 (9. ML: 1M3. Schrijver: 216. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.-Y. fig. and the phonetic development of the last syllable is there paral.< IE ·. Richards in EC 13 (1972) p . (iPC follo\\'s the rcadin!! offered in HW and interprets this word as n f? 'handful (of !!rain). sce A. 01l1l0li). VVB: 178 luird gl. -arills) luith see laidt M m prone pel'S. LElA: M-7. 1995.

OB marh. ahmesscn·). lEW: 703. 'big. VVB: 183 mein gl. gurmaur. MB meut Without established etymology. VVB: 182 or maur dluithruim gl.10) hi hcstaur mel MP 22h (2JO) is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 22 h (231) ". Joseph: 54~ LElA: M-32: Schrijvcr: 175. Armjano-kertskije izoglossy. etc. H. abmessen'. control' Hapax in Welsh. GPC: 2323.35 map brethinnou gl.nhrnt-. GPC: 2394.l10.'groB. see the discussion and bibliography in 10. see E. Thomas.. KGP: 242. marchauc.V. dimension' (main') MW meynt. 08 mel gl. mela) < IE *meli-l 'Honig' DGVB: 253. VVB: 181 mas gl. ML: 185. ermesscn' (lEW: 705). The War Chariot as Described in Irish Literature. (j Mcdugcllos ('!)~ Ir rnic. OIr m~r.I.:. MB mel. see Williams: 1929. lEW: 704. KGP: 77-80. Parry-Williams in OBCS 1 (1922).1I Kelty i kel'tskije jazyki. GPC: 2357. I. Ofr mass < Lat. mcd. lieblich'). great' (mawr] OW (LL) maur.42: White: lOO~ Williams: 1980. *nlei. VVB: 182 ir maut MP 238 (241) . gracilis. this stands for mapbrith(i)onnou or mapbrithinnou. lEW: 707. lEW: 703. see s. mBul n r&m 'thumb' [bawd) MW baut. aequester. LElA: M-50. Contrary to I. Williams who considered this instance as a verb. (*". p. maS5a. GPC: 241R. Parry-Williams: 122. Russell: 1990. Greene. OB Inoin gl. Solta). /I Ch. *mo. OC mel gl. LElA: M-20.+ -yclt.1) medichat D '8 ruling. cf OW map brethinnou. olacem Me 14 a. lEW: 723. Lane: 253). OB mas gI.l < IE *InedhuGPC: 2394. ed. Henry: 200-1. MIr marc) < IE *marko. On the Irish word see D. rvittae] tenucs Ovid 37<1 meint n m&r 'size. 110 III ope: 2294.e-. m-e·t. flairmaur. Pokorny hesitantly lists this entry in his *me-. possession' [meddJ MW met. p. 120 marcach An ·-dko. H.v.i. gracilcnta Me 4 b. adulter Ovid 41 8 n r'mass of metal. G. DaVB: 251. nectare.+ -ad. GPC: 2322. mcd. onnou gl. OIr med < IE *111cd. G Su-meli. ansehnlich'. VGK: 1. mel.'etwas abstecken. DGVB: 251. Parry-Williams. See also litimaur. stagnum.a. OIr mil (gen. Me mcth. in cunis Ovid 39b mapbrith . traditionally analysed as Y/nedd. 247. messen. H. 110 mapbrith . Elsie: 82. VGK: I.2) med gl. substance. LElA: M-23. abundaDce' [mas] MW mas.'mcssen. Me marrec. Olr mcit < IE *. London 1972. for a sceptical evaluation of the comparison with Annenian motn 'finger' (Meillet.49. MW mawr. dulcis) for these see DGVB: 2s8~ lEW: 711-2 (s. OB mor.. GPN: 114-6. VVB: 181 guas marchauc gJ. DGVB: 254. OIr med l n m 'mead' (meddl MW met. 7 for the reading and contrast VVB.. meint. OC muer. mor < IE *mi·. GPe: 2370. PECA: 81. DGVB: 259.292 m8ur adj. nl-e-l. equus. LElA: M-49~ Watkins: 1982. Kelly: 46. p. messen. 265.derivative of march 'horse' (DC march gl. Sec also lninl.'mild. G. cf. mild' (Oe nllli" gl.. PECA: 78. weich. GPC: 2379~ GPN: 223-8. J. PECA: 81.3) mel n m 'honey' (mel] MW mel. VVB: IRJ trcan cant mel MP 22h (2. DB mar(c)hog gl. VGK: 1. apc: 2294. (Gen) maur. LElA: M-48~ VGK: I. slender' rmain J MW mein Compared (hesitantly) hy GPC to W Inu'yn 'tender. 50. Makajev.4) mIlS un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. 37~ VVB: 182 med nouel Juv 3 (2. vecte maveri J 90 flairmaur gl. For the etymology sec nled 2 • GPC: 2400~ JO: I05-{}. T.20) med 2 n ? m 'authority. maro-. Williams in ODCS 7 (1933). Me myns~ on mcnt. a mein funiou gl. T. Parry-Williams in BBCS 1 (1922). sicera Ox2 44 3 (6. irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv () (7 . metallum Ox2 42b (4. maur.a.'etwas abstccken.i. onnou n pi 'swaddling-clothes' According to T. 'fine.58-9. matter. conabula (leg cunabula) J 8 mBrchauc n m 'horseman' [marchog) MW marchawc. A. 191.'Pferd' (lEW: 700. T. Moscow: Nauka 1974 G~: pp. MJ: 272 dimedichat Chad 2 mein adj. LElA: M-18. Watkins argues for its interpretation as a nOlln. Haycock: 16. Harvey: 1991. Kelly: 45-7. The Iron Age in the Irish Sea Province.

independliDI 1 sg 'I.v. monile J 26 minn v pres.. GPC: 253~: LElA: M -SJ--4: . 115 ismi gl.a. mel. f1auus. LElA: M-41. melyn. ipsa Me 51 b. See ~(-. see PECA: 106) dowomisurami gl. GPe: 2346. cf Olr muince. GPN: 68. LHEB: 604. Stokes: 1873. J. cxtorum Me 2 3. Lewis the reading .. PECA: 78 melinou uel elinou gl. ML: 187. OB misur in doguomisuram. cardin ales Ang 15 a . 137. p. Me my. claim" (mynn-) MW min(n)-. ML: 186. perhaps to IE *meli-t 'Honig'.1) rit pucsaun mi ditri"taut Juv 9 (7. 112 me/in IdJ..1) melinou n pi '(com)mills' (melin] MW melin. 2. GPC: 2409. B rna. Williams: 1980. mi phiJologia gl. GPC: 2422. the entry could he read as niinglledoll.. Jackson: 1950. VVB: 185. VGK: I. uiolas Me 8 b. Loth connects the Brittonic words with the IE base ·mh/-nt. According to P. OC (Book of Tobit. ad Jjbram MP 23 1 (229) . einfasscn' (JEW: SIR).a..95 miteJu Juv 3 (1.1. J. molendinum. Vendryes in EC (1 (1953-4).~: VVR: l(. VGK: I.iinglledoll (W "'i" . JEW: 702. DB monto) For the absence of the relation of these words to G mantalo-.u1'eddoll). menn'. OIr me < IE Cl ·.12. collar' (mwnciJ MW mynci. and this was compared with DB nino Lamhert: 1982a. nummum J 80 di mesur gJ. VVB: 185 irmesur g1. OCV: 288. LElA: M-25-6. molina DGVB: 254. 3 sg 'to want. meint). Me mynnas. Lambert. nunc ego quem J 3 ismf Christus J S4 mi am (franc) Juv 3 (1. 16. Vendryes in EC 1 (1936). DGVB: 257. me. OB me (1: see Lambert: 1986. Olr rno GPC: 1271. LHEB: 596. fuluus I. v. va. mel/hionou n pi 'clovers. GPC: 2440. ·melino. PECA: 106.3. stewards' See maer merion gl. molam. melin. OB milin gl. DOVB: 259.b.a. 396. p. OC melin gl. OIr mulenn It was noted by fleuriot that the form could be ow. Hals· (lEW: 747). This compound was considered to contain IE *. m. mi mihun gl. me' [mil MW my.97. K81es' (mantol] MW mantawl.(see S.. MB melchonenn This plant-name is sometimes considered to belong to IE *meli-t 'Honig'. and *kagh. VVB: 184 mellhionou gl. see s. Haarmann: 124. DaVB: 261. mesura). giluium Ox2 43a (5. perhaps horrowed from Welsh. see lEW: 724. ipsa Me 51 b. DeV: 393.i. uoco Me II a. miinnguedou n pi ? According to H. 250. merion n pi 'omtials. n m 'hames. coiliou gl.383. actores J 78 mesur n m 'unit 01 measurement' (mesur] MW mes(s)ur.257... 113 Elsie: 105. mil prone pen. mi. LElA: M-72: Parry-WiJ1iams: 122.ind. 110-1 ~ Stokes: IH7. trefoils' [meillion] MW meill(i)on. 10: 107. MB men nat < IE *l1lendh. 22~ Lewis: 19. OB molin gI. MW melin.1.ny.·rddnll or . cf. Ichhaft sein' (lEW: 730) GPC: 2537.ne- r .'fassen.1. .R < Lat mensura (MLat. Instead he suggests I1.2 prone pOSe I sg 'my' (ry J MW fy.198-9. pp.2) mi mihun gl. ho\vever. VVB: lR6 minci gl. wreath of nowers' The word is attested only in M(~ and could he also the next. 44.3) namercit mi nep Jeguenid hClloid Juv 3 (3.'seinen Sinn worauf richten. < Lat. however. bilance Me 12 b. compensabo. WilJiams: 1980. PECA: 78. flauus < Britt.n01l0· tNacken.2) issmi gl. GPC: 2SIO~ lEW: 74R~ J. 'yellow' [melyn J OW (LL) melen. LHEB: 331. ML: 186. intemerata Me II a. 109). DeV: 210. DC milin gI. PECA: 78 melin gl.a. hnrrcl\ving from Irish ". LElA: M-75. the similar suggestions for the history of Middle High German me/de. see J.(1. Loth in RC 45 (J928). ope: 2420. EJsie: 114.a. considers this entry as DB. myn(n)-. DGVB: 147. OIr mesar mine.nllnnKliedoli offered oy Stokes (accepted by Loth) is wrong.2) micoueidid Juv 3 (.-Y.u/ n f 'balance. GPC: 2452. 3R7~ VVB: 190 nouirmiinnguedou . 'nth in R. 337 and ct. White: 100-1 nis minn tuthulc Chad 2 minn n 'crown. VVB: 184 menntauJ gl.

GPC: 2488. WG: 253-4 mortru gl.J. see molim. WG: 153 omorduit gl. did. catenum Prisc 12 a muhit n m r and adj. mord(r)wyt. hanaud Comp 1 115 This can be an unaccented form of fna"r. stemmata MC 10 a. 120 is moi hinnoid MP 23a (246) mo/aut n m 'pnlise. OB mod.3) molim vn 'to pulse' (mol-) MW mol-. LElA: M-18. cephitor.. OIr rnolFor the possibilities of etymological analysis. Schrijver: 197 and 213. ~ marl exclamative particle 'so (great).a. tauschcn'. v. cf.a. oev: 6O~ PECA: 81. hut cf. Olr roo < *. 08 mor.. DGVB: 260. to IE *mater· 'Mutter'. GPC: 2519: lEW: 710: LElA: M-59-flO:.ne. GPC: 2515. lEW: 704. mui. such (af [mor) MW mor. GPC: 2485. VVB: lR9. MR mar .-no.nn minnou gl. femine Me 51 a. mwy. Hamp in ZCP 46 (1994). VGK: I. .114 minn gl. VB: 249.nartulus (MLat. GMW: 38 and 43. haunch. GPC: 2472. OC modereb abar~ mam gl. 239. Loth in RC"' 40 (142. MB morzat The traditional connection with OHG fnuriot 'thigh' (then < *morieitii) was queried recently by P. malle'" rmorthwyl J MW morthwl. how (~reat). oe morpoit gl. and the problems related to its interpretation (McManus: 156-7). sertum MC 7 b. morthol n m 'hammer. mormeluet n pi 'sea snails' (mor-falwod I W morfalwen (sg.'i MW molaut. DGVB: 261. and "leluet 'snail' (DC melpen. myrthwl.'MeeT' (lEW: 748. lEW: 700. but see E. Lamhert: 1987. mofn < *. exaltation' [molawdJ moys n 'basket. *mo. *nlortlilo ?) EL: 42~ GPC: 2494. p. modus DGVB: 258. OB roui. muchyu Word without etymology. matertera < Celt. GPC: 2661 pamint gI. molawd An ·oK'd derivative of rno/(im) . See DGVB: 260-1.ntiills. ope: 2499 11Ut. MW mOT. 78-9. see LElA. 408. myrthyl: M(' morthal. molaud. VI11Ci. tcstudinum Me 51 a. seta Ox2 42b (4. quam multos Ovid 39a morl n 'sea" see mormeluet morduit n m&f 'thi~h(-bone). VGK: I. ML: 188 ismod. VVB: 187 modreped gl. LHEB: 665~ ML: 188: VGK: I.'groB. mint 'much. matertera. minoou gl. VGK: L 7()~ VVB: 188. DoVB: 261. LElA: M-56. femur. larger. GPe: 2473. lEW: 716. more' [mwy] MW muy. many' See meint. PECA: 78. ~44-·~: VVR: IR9 muin Ncmn \ . 129. MB morzol < Lat. see GPC: 2330.nel. OC~ mOT.'wechscln. 'how' [mood] MW mod. GPC: 2479 gurd meint icomoid imolaut Juv 9 (7. oev: 86.b. quam J 31 mod adv. schlagen. rr. ebeno (Leidcn) muin n m 'treasure" (name of a letter) (mwynJ MW mwyn. Schrijver due to the phonetic difficulties. comp.1.) This compound contains nlor 'sea' (OW (LL). SchrijveT: 240. 08 motTep gl. LHEB: 257. GPC: 2489~ Stokes: 1873. 66 and II. VVB: 189 mormeluet gl.5) f modreped n pi 'aunts' I modryb I MW modryb(ed). Olr mod < Lat. *mdtrVk". 11). minn gl.n". to IE *me-. mwrthwl.9) muhit g1. sec s. White: 299-301 ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5. minnou n pi 'crowns.29) moi adj. sertum Me 6 b. ansehnlich'.. dish" L. MB meuliff. CA XXXII. LHEB: 288.1).3) riitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9. Olr muir) < IE *mori. matertere m[e]re Ox2 43b (5. Irish ogam letter-name . hamper. Fleuriot noted that this word could he 08 as well. Hamp: 1973. MB mclhued) < IE *. wreaths of Dowen' See m.a.. GOI: 237.a. eheu Ovid 39a morliaus gl. 193 moys altaur gl.h. PECA: 80. LElA: M-62. Lambert: 1982. cf. WG: 113 morthoI gl. 'ebony" (muchudd) MW muchud. serta Me 9 a. mahlen'. morthuyl. 3 mor dru. MB mOT. ham" (morddwydl MW mortuit. 'bigger.. GPC: 2479.'zcrmamcn. CA: 165. Olr mafn. 293.. VVB: 188-9. LElA: M-25.

116

117

muiss n r&m 'basket, hamper, dish' [mwys] MW mwys; DC muis gL mensa, OIr mfas < Lat. mensa; see also mOJ5. DGVB: 260; GPC: 2523; LElA: M-47; LHEB: 543; ML: 189; 82; Stokes: 1873, 407; VGK: 1, 208-9; VVB: 189 muiss gl. disci Me 46 a.b. munutolBU n 'twigs' Hapax in Welsh. OB minutolou gl. samentis < Lat. minutal(ia) OOVB: 257; GPC: 2502; ML: 188; VVB: 190 munutolau gi. fornilium Ox2 44b (7.27)

oev: 365; PECA:

nam 'except" [nam(n) I ? Was considered as a suspension of nom11,"ill (MJ: 272, for this word see now AP: 43 and E. Hamp in BBCS 30 (1983), p. 288) or na""nll; (10: 103), see s.v. GPC: 2551 considers this as belonging to na1".\''' and cites examples from MW and W (nom, nanl" 'except'). It was suggested hy St. Zimmer (forthcoming) that the word belongs to the previous syntagm. and he translates the passage as '(un) cheval. trois vaches, (plus) precisement trois vaches qui viennent de veler". nanl iT ni be cas igridu Chad 2 nam hint erre; ? This difficult gloss caused dispute. According to L. Fleuriot, this could contain nam, into and errei (for rei 'kind'?). Alternatively. P.-Y. Lambert sees here naf1'hint = W namyn, and er-rei = ir-r~i, MW y rei, translating Lat. quaJ. DaB: 522; oaVB: 263; Lambert: 1982, 204 nam hint errei gl. sed quas Prise 34 a nsmmu; adv. 'only' MW namwy; Olr namma See na, ,noi. GMW: 233; GPe: 2551; LElA: N-2-3; VVB: 191 h6nft namrfnji gl. tantum ne r... ] unquam J 51 nant see pennant nat negative particle (in a relative clause) (na(d) I MW na(d); MB nad Sec na. DGVB: 262: GPC: 2544; VB: 276; VVB: 191 natoid guoceleseticc gl. nulla ... titillata Me 12 a. h.
nsunecsnt n 'cycle of nineteen years" Hapax in Welsh. GMW glosses "Olltler as '19' and "ollneca,,1 as 'a cycle of 19 years'. ope (with a query) lists this as a noun 'cycle or period of nineteen years'. and this is the rendering of P.- Y. Lamhcrt. 'pcriode de dix-neuf ans', cf. Ir. nofdecdae. Following Quiggin I. Williams compares this with B "onfldec '19'. and refers to WG: 232 for the suffix -anI. cf. Evans: 1976-R. 237. It was also suggested (1. Loth in RC 34 (1913), p. 147) that the second clement could he cant 'cercle·. cf. DGVB: 95, but see Lambert: 1984,33, where it is tentatively argued fOf a po~sihle -t- derivation. The formation finds a perfect match in OB noudeca"t. Etymologicaliy, nOli 'nine' and deg 'ten', for the etymologies see "011011, deccolion. DOVB: 264; GMW: 45; GPC~: 255H; (Jfccnc: 540; Lamhcrt: IlJX3, 12H; Lamhert: 1984, 33; Sehrijver: 212; Williams: 1927, 272 circhl naunecant. Comp 23

mur n m '".11' [mur] MW mur, MB mur; OIr mur < Lat. murus The instance could be Irish as well. GPC: 2502; ML: 189; Haf"\'ey: 191; LElA: M-76; VVB: 190 moenia aul .i. mur bethlem J 1

N
n pron. (infixed) I pi 'us' See an. Haycock: 12; J. T. Koch in Eriu 38 (1987), p.165 fn. 21; Watkins: 1982, 43 anguorit anguoraut J uv 9 (5.2) anguorit anguoraut Juv 9 (5,2)

na negall"e particle [na(c)] MW na(d); Me na(g); DB na(c); OIr na(ch) See also not, nammui. GPC: 2545; Williams: 1980,96-7 gurt trichiti nacgenei Comp 16 namercit J uv 3 (3 1)
I

na(m) bill' 1 Obscure, Bint was suggested (DGVB: 63) to be a form of the verb 'to be'. DGVB: 263 na[m] bint gl. tan turn dissyllaba Prisco 34a

nam n m 'lord' [nan MW naf J. Loth in Archiv fur celtische Lexikographie iii (1905-7), p. 39 derives this form which does not have any im mediate cognates in the other Celtic languages from
*nahho- (cf. English navt'); see R. Fowkes for the semantic evaluation. Grc: 2548; Fowkes: 1958, 2-3; Williams: 1980, 98
tinn n!.lln ririPlle: 11M allPti£1 Til U 1. (1 1)

118
n8UOU num. pi 'nine' lnaw] MW nau; OB nau; OIr nof-n < IE *neY1}- (GOI: 247~ LElA: N-19; VGK: I, 61) The Welsh affinity of this entry is based on the preceeding definite article. This instance is not quoted in GPC. DGVB: 264 amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gI. quamis ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14a

119

nerth n m&f 'strength' (nerth) MW nerth; OB ncrth gl. robur; G. ncrto-. Olr nert < Celt. *ncr-to- < IE *ner- '(magische) Lehenkraft. Mann'. This instance is not quoted in ope. For the gloss. cf. W n nertll 'hy the pCl\vcr of. hy. through, with the help of. See also ncrtheint, ncrthiti. DGVB: 275 and 266; GPC: 2571; GPN: 237; lEW: 765; LElA: N-IO: J. Loth in RC 41 (1924), pr. 207-R: VOK: I. 136.414 a i ncrth gl. sua ui Ang 15 b nertheinl v pres. 3 pi 'to make stron~(er), reinforce' (nerthaf: nerthRul MW nerth-; cf. air nertaigid A -hall derivative of nerth: sec s. v. a. nd cf. ,,('rthiti. ope: 2572; VGK: II. J]8; VVI3: 192; Whitc: 121 ncrthcint gl. armant J R9
nerthi(tJ) v imp. 2 s~ (or pres. 2 sg) 'to make strong(er), reinforte, ~frengthen'

nedim n , 4a dze, a~e' (neddyf] MW nedif, ned(d)yf~ MB ezeCf
A derivative of the verb reflected in W naddu 'to cut' (= Ir snad-), on these see GPC: 2548 and LElA: 5-146; to IE *(s)nadh- 'einschneiden, schnitzen' (lEW: 972-3). GPC: 2561; VGK: I, 165~ VVB: 192 nedim gl. sscia Ox2 42b (4.3)
nem n f&m 'lleaven' (nel) MW new, nef; OC nef gl. celum; OB nem; aIr nem IE *nebh- 'feucht, Wasser' (lEW: 315)

I ncrthaf:

nerthu I

DGVB: 265; GPC: 2561; LElA: N-8; OCV: 32; PECA: 82; VGK: 1,255 uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2) uuc nem isnem intcouer JUY 9 (9.2)

MW ncrth-; MB nerziff; Olr nertA dcrivative of "erth ~ see s. v. and cf. "ertheint. GPC: 2S72~ Lamhert: 19R7. 29S~ VGK: II. JJ7~ VVB: 192: White: 26R nerthiti gl. hortabcrc Ovid 39 h
nes adj. comp. 'nearer' [nes J

nemheun.llr 'at all' This very di fficult sequence was considered by several authors. According to G PC (which follows 8 . Rees) this hapax perhaps contains neb (see s.v. nep(p», mewn (OIr medon. < IE ·medhi- ~mittlerer', lEW: 706, LElA: M-28), and aur (see s.v.) Bromwich: 94~ ope: 2569~ B. Rees in BBCS 20 (1963), p.125; Watkins: 1982, 40~ Williams: 1980, 93-4 niguorcosam nembeunaur henoid Juv 3 (1.1)
nep(p) proD. "someone, anyone' OW (LL). MW neb~ OB nep; G. nepon; OIr nech < IE ·ne-kllo-s~ see also nepun DOVB: 265; GOI: 311; GPC: 2560; LElA: N--6; VGK: 11,211-2; VVB: 192; WO: 312-4 nep gI. oe quem] 70 namercit mi nep leguenid henoid Juv 3 (3.1) panepp gl. quis Me 7 a.a.

MW nes; MCB ncs, OIr nessa; G neddamon < IE *ned- 'zusammcndrchen. kniipfen' DGVB: 234 and 266: GPC: 2573: lEW: 75H~ LElA: N-12: V(,K: I. 4RO issid ncs gl. imfcriora Ang HI h
nil pron. pcrs. t pi 'we, us' (ni) MW ni, ny, MC~ ny, OB ni~ Olr sni < IE *ne- 'wir' (lEW: 75R) DGVB: 102; Elsie: 144~ GPC: 2581~ LElA: S-150; VGK: 11,168: VVB: 193 cennini gl. oriens maior Ang 13 h isid ni gl. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b nouni gl. nostrum MC 44 b.h. ni 2 negative particle 'not' (ni( d))

nepun pron. 'someone, anyone, somebody' MW nebun. neb un; 08 nep un alall; Me nep onon Contains ntp and un 'one', see s.v.v. DGVB: 265f~ GPC: 2560; VVB: 192
nepun gl.. qua Ovid ~8b

MW ny(t); MC ny(ns); OB ni(t). nc(t); G ne-: Olr ni. nf; cf. C'I nc *1] (Wortnegation)~ sec also nit. DGVB: 267-9; DaB: 526-7~ Elsie: 116; OMW: 173-4: GOI: 15)~ GPC': 2581: lEW: 756; LElA: N-14; VGK: I. 250 II. 252f.: VVB: 193: WG: 422-4 Oraur. ni hois. ir loc guac hinnith. in pagi"n regulari Cn,np 5 nitarnhcr C'omp 8 haccet. nitegid. dLa. C~omp 8. Irnidihid ir loyr di.a. C'omr l) niritarn(h )er Comp 10 cen nit boi lor !!tlnr i,,'f'" 0, ct a. in pa~~;"0 rf~lll'il";. f'OJllf' t 2

< *ne (Satznegation). <

120
Cinnit hoys irloc guac hinnuith In pagina regulari Camp 14 nitegid ad serenn arall Comp 17 ir nider uid hinn. bOll nit bloidin salt Comp 21 nam ir oi be cas igridu Chad 2 nis minn Tutbulc Chad 2 niguorcosam Juv 3 (1.1) nieana[m] Juv 3 (2.1) niguardam Juv 3 (2.1) nicusam Juv 3 (2.1) nit arcup betid hicouid canlon Juv 9 (2.1) nisacup nis arcup leder J uv 9 (3.3) nisacup ois arcup leder J uv 9 (3.3) ni guor gnim molim trintaut Juv 9 (5.3) ni choilam hinnoid MP 22b (234) nichoilam MP 22b (238) oi cein guodemisauch gI. non bene passa Ovid 398 nirinciriles. cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a
nihn (n.me of • letter)

121

nom 2 ?
This entry is very controversial. According to Zeuss (p. 1(55) /lon, here glosses te,npla and corresponds to W n»1 'sacrum, sacellum'; this was accepted (with modifications) by Loth. H. Lewis connected this word with W neuadd 'hair (see s.v. nOllodoll). Fleuriot keeps to the traditional interpretation, thus 'sacred place, temple'. P.-Y. Lambert, following W. Stokes and J-1. Bradshaw, suggests seeing here a particle introducing genitive (see also nOll, etc.); this is not accepted in OOB: 528 and cf. scepticism of GPC'. OGVB: 271; GPC: 2596; VVB 194-5; Lambert: 1982a, 23-4; H. Lewis in BBCS 15 (1953), pp. 121-2 nom irbleuporthetic gl. lanigerae templa Ovid JR:l

nos n f 'night' [nos] MW nos, DC nos gl. nox, OB nos; cf. air innocht < *nokt-stu, IE *nek"-(t-), *nok"-(t-) 'Nacht'; for tra nos, cf. C ternOJ, MW trannoeth. OOVB: 271; Elsie: 115; GPC: 2597; lEW: 762; OCV: 198; PECA: 123 tra nos Comp 13
R3~

VGK: I,

This entry in the so-called "Alphabet of Nemnius" is usually compared with an ogam letter-name nin, without etymology, on this see McManus: 151-3.
LElA: N-17; VVB: 193 nihn Nemn
niinpedDI1 see mlinnguedDu

notuid n f 'needle, pin' [nodwydd] MW not(t)wyd; MC nasweth, MB nodocz; aIr snathat < IE *(s)ne- 'weben, spinnen'; cf. W nyddll 'to spin', GPC: 2590; lEW: 973; LElA: 5-148-9; VGK: I. R5; VVB: 195
notuid gl. acus Ox2 42 h (4.8)

nim n 'measure'
I. Williams hesitated between the readings nim or nun, with the line over the last two letters. His suggestion was to consider this as an abbreviation for nimer (see s.v.) which he translates (1930,245) as'mesur'. Williams: 1930,244 guor frit nim M P 23& (241)

nou? A higly controversial entry. G PC' refers to neu 'or", and preverhal particle. P. - y.
Lambert connects it with OW (LL) ynfnu. See the literature cited here and also

s. v.v. nOln 1-2.
GPC: 2599; Lambert: 1982a; Lambert: IQR7. 28R: VVB: 195 nouirmiinnguedoll .i. coiliou gl. cxtorurn Me 2 a.a. nouirgoudonou gl. tinearum Me 2 a.h. nouirguirdglas gl. sali resplendentis Me J (l.n. nouiremid gl. aeris MC-' 4 h.a.
nouirhircimerdridou gl. lucuhrationllm perennium Me 4 h.a. nouirfionou gl. rosarum Me 9 h.h. nouircleteirou gl. crotularum Me 10 3.a. nouircrunnui gl. oui Me 0 b.a. nouni gl. nostrum Me 44 b.b. noulin gl. lini Me 45 b.a. nou iraurlcou gl. gnomonum stilis MC' 46 a.a. nouircerricc gl. cautium Me 51 a.a. nouJirou gl. aequnrum Me 51 h.a.

nimer n r&m 'number" (niCer) MW niuer, nifer, OB nimer~ Ofr nuimir < Lat numerus; see also nim. DGVB: 268; GPe: 2582; Haarmann: 125; ML: 107, 190; LElA: N-24f; VVB: 193 irnimer bichan MP 22b (238) irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) maior nimer gI. grauior numerus J 91 (I). See nou and cf. nom 2 . DGVB: 211; GPC: 2596; Lambert: 1982a, 25; Lambert: 1984,185-6 Inom ir guecrissou gl. hapsidum Ang 13 a no ir felchou gl. placentarum Ang 55 a inno ir guoloJinou gl. elhc~iarum Ang 68 b
nOll

nom l ? Scribal error for

nou conj. 'or' Inell I

MW

nCll~ ()lr n{l.

",i

cimp& il1iflusauc oirei gl.. (10) and 2) e~plained as a Latinism. nec delata diu J 4 noue! adj. VB: 290-1 o gurucheltoii gl. see OWAV. orduhenecticion abalbrouannou gl. mature. Lewis~in BUeS 15 (1953). "SC 28 (1994). p. rosen colore Ang 17 a or timuil gI. dc tribulis J 27 6r teu gl. timore (leg trcnlore) J 5 o glanstlinnirn gl. See J. salo Me 3 a. Haycock: 14~ Williams: 1980. temp/a. ex acre Me 46 b. vecte moveri J 90 orbardaul Icteinepp gl. oguard gl. a flection of n. JIR and 125. formidinc Berne 167 (see P. by' [oJ OW (LL. cpica pagina Me la. aceruo J 45 or guithlam tal gl. ohtuso] J 37 6das gl. o o prep. The lack of an expected i-affection in the first element (for which cf. It was noted that the latter word should be perhaps amended to nowe([ (G: 26).-Y. tabellis Ovid 38 il ordometic gl. Schulze-Thulin). processu Ang 61 b or ree issid pellaham gI. orcueeticc cors gl. deffectum gl. The troublesome ending was 1) compared to that of the notorious /Jestr.339--40) or bissei Comp 3 diprotant gener tutri 0 guir Chad 2 ocrit gl. inguinihusquc Ovid 4t h nirinciriles. sua ui Ang 15 b or teneu creaturou gl. 'of. this word is analysed as a compound of the two elements. hombis MC' 10 a. 41. E. ed' (1) Hapax in Welsh. and 10 'calf' (see 10 1).a.8).615. from.438) See ho. GPC: 2005-L1. mirice Ovid 40 3 o guiannuin gl. 080. humili Ang 15 a o i nerth gl. lld plnres !\ui ~cneris fit cnmp. OIr 6.a. flammco MC 44 a. DGVB: 213. pp. famine sancto J 5 6 guiled gl. auspiciis Ovid 39h oguordiminntius gl. pp.122 123 GPe: 2515. sllbtiolioribus elcmentis Ang 15 b . orcomtantou gl. pp. rota Ovid 37h ocloriou gl. obtonso [leg. domito Ovid 39 3 ocoilou gl. see nom 2 • GPC: 25-75. noun (B. gurgulionihus cxsectis MC 42 3. a superioribus continentur Ang Rib omort gl. Schulze-Thulin. ex papyro textili Me R h. OW. pI.tratin Prise 21 a nouooou n pi 'halls' [neuadd] MW neuad GPC (which follows H. nouidIigi. For the interpretation of this term as an Irish entry. femine MC 51 3.-Y. medio Ovid 37il o olin gl. tres uache nouidligi Chad 2 o datsebimou gI. o.aur.121-2.. MW 0.b. oemid gl. Lambert: 1987. harundine Ovid 403 oceenn gl. OW (AC) neguid in gueith dinas neguid. 303. conuexitatibus Ang 14 a p issei gl.h. Lewis) derives the W forms from Britt. s. Caerwyn Williams in Y Traethodydd 135 (1980). Williams: 1933. puhc Ovid 41 h hac orachmonou gl. 96 med nouel Juv 3 (2. MJ: 272. LElA: 0-1. GPC: 2599~ JO: l03~ LHEB: 607. LHEB: 50.? 'newly-tal.b. stabulis Ang 15 b o rud liu gl. Schulze-Thulin). Lambert in EC· 23 (J9R6). limite levo J 26 6rd'rlssi gl. lance J 59 o crummanhuo gl. 'bright. the word is usually compared with anawell 'clear' found only in "The Book of Taliesin'" (T. 23.'herab. Lamhert in EC 27 (1990). ambagidus J 50 o discI gl. see Philimore: 168) ~as explained by 1) orthographical inconsistency or generally variable state of it in OW and 2) the influence of the Latin context preceeding it (8. *nom-o-d (with queries) and refers to a putative nom gl.287. H.b. wiCh. ab invito Ovid 39h ocorsenn gl. LElA: N-l1.a. pudore J 5 o isel J 5 or cled hln gl.a. clear' Hapax in Welsh. lEW: 72. 115 nouinnguotricusegetiion gl. palatia Me 7 a. P. JO: 99. ordeccoIion gl.a. orgarn gl.3. ua IE *QU. GPC: 2557. verc Ovid 40 h o caitoir gl. omorduit gl. HB). Lambert: 1987. scropibus J 77 or maur dluithruim gl. nocte ceca Ang 50 a o e leidim gI. dccadibus MC 7 h.119-80. mcdullis J 51 ordamcirchinnuou gl.46-7. cf. Lambert: 19828. B. fronte duclli J 51 opermedintcredou gl. VVB: 196 nouodou gl. 921. hanoud. oguirdglas gl.a. represented by W newydd 'oe w. weg von' (differently VGK: 1.2) nouidligi adj. pp.

issem ir . 6es. cf.6) 125 DGVB: 156 and 276. 1. oram. VGK: I. Greene: 540. CI aiuisa§ < *a. VVB: 198 hesitantly translates it as 'coffre de voiture. see also uilh. for the . J. ochcul gl. yr. OPC": 2651. ora meet serious phonetic difficulties. see aWAY. DaYB: 277 and 164. PECA: R4.464. 'all' See hoi. see oiJ. spitz'. the form in the MS is ongllcdoll. 'excrements d·animaux·. According to I. For the authentic origin of the word and its connection with MW eryr. VVB: 148 ir hestoriou oleu MP 22 h (211) olin n f&m 'wheel' [olwyn] MW olwyn. DGVB: 274~ GPC: 47.. onnpresen gl. CClcrwyn William!"" .8) oimer see guotiap8ur oimer didu onguedou? According to 1.. see also S. als. Schrijver: 350 oith gueid guar cant gl. etc. Me eath. cf. sting a connection with Greek OVTOc. Williams: 1927. oleum.412. oed. lEW: 18. point.with W pres 'a qui est aigu'. G. 'eigh t' [wyth I MW wvth~ OB eith. LElA: ()-26~ VYB: IY9 or Nemn *ai-to. 137-141. IE Vai. raster Ox2 42b (4.e. because" See ollr. p. chariot couvert'. E. CI rd.e.lacht'. PECA: 66~ VGK: J. DGVB: 275~ ope: 2620. ('omp 15 ochcul? An obscure word. Jackson: 1975'6. 'since. lEW: 11. lEW: 10.. cemecid. 'geben. JO: 107.lior. LElA O-IQ. 44. space' (oed] MW oet. centurie!' See ois. 194. period.< IE to. see I.r. ca psus Ox2 42" (4. olellll1n) EL: 12. GPe: 237 oleu n m 'oil' [olew] MW olew.2) oro/uin n r 'whetstone' [agslen. century' (oes) MW oes. DB oit~ OIr aes This word is derived in lEW from < onnpresen? A very difficult word. LHEB: 405. ML: 191. in ois oison Chad 2 oil n f&m 'time.. dygyfor listed under Pokorny's *er.Ih num.4) or n f&m 'limit. and considers here W cwl 'corl' (in fact a late loan from English cow!). rota Ovid 37b 011 pron. on an" a or. exta Ovid 41 a ois n f '8ge. VGK: I. i. Loth (VVB: 199) translates this as 'instrument a creuser".. 375~ VVB: 199. LElA: 0-6-7. cf. he turned hack to the reading offered in the manuscript. VVB: 197-8 ocet gl. p. GPe: 2638. erion gl. DGVB: 273. ~ difficulties of derivation and further literature. OB orion gl. GPe: 2627. VVB: 198 ocoluin gl. ok .271 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 20 'l). LElA: A-21. lEW: 22. 0. aged. Olr. DC huis gl. diauc and cf. OIr ocht. cotes pro cautes < IE *ak. Gerat mit Spitzen'. See also crunIl0l"nOIl.124 oee' n f 'harrow' (oged] MW oget. VVB: 199 o olin gl.(I EW: 328). Loth" onn~lledou of the text perhaps stands for nUJ11ngliedoll. 122. ora. 'scharf. sharpness'. oithaur hinnith Comp 4 < IE oeh n m&r 'ed~e' (awch) This entry is usually compared with MW awch 'edge. oisou n pi 'ages. sugge. IE *ondlr. WG: 204 for the final -d. Ir. Eska~ 40.CEgge. LElA: A-21. 6is. VGK: 1. o/ell1n (MLat. ratio cogit ciclos decennouenales XXVIII describi Ang 21 a or bissei pan dcconctent ir.v.iand lin. and och. zuteilen'. Williams in BSe"S 4 (1928). holoinoll. Far from clear. Williams. . cr. fulumain < IE *e/. cos 07(2 43 a (4. Cf.and suffix -glled. MJ: 273. and the second . however. see LElA. orr. lEW: 775. GPC: 2644. OC oleu gl.to. 56 in ois oisou Chad 2 oev: 197. aIr olae does not quote this instance. pp. Williams: 142lJ. MB oguet *okra.. GPe: 2641. calenJ MW agalen~ 08 ocoloin gl.'biegen' (lEW: 308). LHEB: J67. DaVB: 213-4. 412 och gladi gl. and also oisou. [. foratorium Ox2 42 it (4. and compares (following Stokes: IR65. later.t. Lloyd-Jones in ZCP 7 (1910). boundary' (name of 8 letter) lorl MW or.. mochera J to < Lat.. oxtumeto[s] < Celt~ "oxl. ·ok oraur conj. Olr 'es. St'c J. Stokes: 1873. Greek dXoVll 'pierre ~ aiguiser' (Chantraine: 43). 422) the first part of this word with Irish onn cpierre'. seculum. H ironguedou gl. Olr or The attempts to see in this word a loan from Lat. hinnuith issid diguedham all in pagina regular. Loth in RC 40 (1923)..

GMW: 234~ GOl: 509. fliegen. loyr in ~ aed bid..). guac. Hamp: 1975/76. note that the word is masc. pp. DGVB: 271. which does not list this OW example.262 Oraur. pedd p . for which cf. Pedersen connects these Celtic words with Armenian uirn and traces it to IE *ordh. OB parth~ OC *parth deduced from ahard. 08 ord eMS or) gl. parth n m 'part' (parth) OW (LL) and MW parth. orubimnit gl. 'their' ? OW (LL). H. this is a combination of or « Lat. guac. VVB: 200 considers the second element as the name for 'bronze. OB ot a te gl. see LElA. Olr an.62. Hamp: 1975n6. 'throw' (Fleuriot) [od-j MW ott-~ cf. pa (sec s.5) om n (name of • letter) '1 This instance was compared by Zeuss with W om 'blame'. VVB: 201 pa~serenn. papedpinnac gl. toile Ang 9 a ou pron poss. that' (pan) MW pan~ Olr can Perhaps to pi (see s. r. 'to he present. 'whence. GOI: 289. See also Isaac: 438-9. pigurthct.11 (01 snow). p. VVB: 199 ord gl. pe~ 08 pe <: IE *k"a· ope: 2661. loc. 292~ GPC: 2677.16) ot v imp. brass. GMW: 79-80~ ope: 267R~ LElA: C-29 Or bissei ~ diconetcnt ir. interrogBti. J. 127 ord n 1 'hammer. GPC: 1255 hac&oucimp& g1.e Bnd relative 'which. ad ir loc..) + di. See also pan 2 • DOVB: 280. toile (Ang 58 b) GPC tentatively derives this word from IE *pet. hie. pa diw According to J. pigurthet. quam J 31 papep bi gl. aurum) and "dunker" ubimnit. aharh: Mlr pairt < Lat.(1). litorihus nhiell~ Ang 62 h teir pctgurcd p(tTt MP 2:l tl (241) isit prtguarcd p. for this word see GPC: 2656. 1995. LElA considers these forms as "proprement celtique et d'origine inconnue". ni hois. VGK: I." . Comp 3-5 bichet paniu pet guarid. Stokes: 1874. Lewis in BBCS 6 (1931). pp. R.lnl MP 2:r' (~·ll) . quoduis Me 43 a. Geraint Gruffydd. pron. maleus. VVB: 200~ Zeuss: 1059 om Nemn padiu 'to whom. superlatiuus multo Prisc 21 a pan 2 pron. quid Ovid 41 8 pant pron. OU.. Lewis: 1956. KG?: 252. ped. See also pan I.2) ombimni' ? According to Stokes (1865: 422). Comp 4 aguirdou pan dibu Juv 9 (4. in pagina regulari Comp 5 pamint gl.. nGVB: 281. in triti urd. 6Of. LElA: ('-272 amserpanatos irnauou remanserunt iii gl. did di aries Comp 18 papedpinnac see pa. issi. LElA: 0-29.304-8.~'.'auf etwas los. Caerwyn Williams. E. N. Jacobs. 3 pl. why' (paddiw) MW padyu. GPC: 2694-5~ ML: 191~ LElA: 1'-2 and ('-77~ ()('V: Hfl: PEe'A: (.. hurl'. ope: 2667./conj. and an. Me py. quid ? J 37 panepp gl. ir Joe guac hinnith. papedpinnac gl. E.b. v. for a possibility of crossing \vith an authentic word. patupinnacc gl. what for. Williams: 1927. yrd. ad ir. pp. cf. part. VVB: 201 ir paTth alnll gl. mallet' [(g)orddJ MW orth. VVB: 200. 144. in Irish. fallen" (lEW: 825) and refers to Greek 1ttwt6~ and Avestan tiitd-( < *ptiitd-). OOVB: 279~ GPC: 2616 ot ti gl. ~ec LElA: P-2. quam is ad nonas portiones tria remanserunt Ang 14 a in pan aed bid. copper". 3 sg pres. malleus Ox2 42 b (4. quoduis Me 43 a.a. auricalcu m Ox2 428 (2. II J.oder niederstiirzen. 217-33~ WG: 293 ISSft padiu itau gulat gl.h. quis Me 7 a. cds. ope: 1468. ord. 'to snow or sleet.298.126 Notulae.393. G ordo(vices). loyr in Comp 4 pard. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. OB pan. 63-4. MW eu~ DB ou DGVB: 279. DGVB: 66. Me pan~ Olr cuin or can Apparently from IE *ktto-~ the connection with Goidelic is still disputable.v. Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica. what' [pa) MW pa. pinnac papep see pa. be of value' GMW: 77. oithaur hinnith passerenn.. 'when 1 (pan) MW pan. quocumque Me 14 a. pars (portis).b. OIr ord H. cclsi thronus cst cui regia coeli J 19 padiu gl. Eska. C'aerwyn Williams in BBCS 23 (1969).

12. pp. Hamp in EBCS 17 (1958). paup. the word is then betid. everybody' [pawb) OW (LL) paup. The word is not otherwise attested. (head of a) valley" I pennant I MW pennant GPC considers this as a compound. GPC: 2671. MW paub. ped per 0 m 'chief. 216) that the form in the MS is "apparently papep. VVB: 202 pelechi gl. OC pup.'machen' (lEW: 641). Rhys (1813: 467). 'the farthest' < Lat. G penno < Celt. Hamp: 1973."('1-. VGK: I. DGVB: 287. OB pen(n). sartago The only other known record of this word is found in RRC 11. cf. DaVS: 283. DB pell < IE *k"el·s~n-. partuncul gl. 'far. pcrging . a superioribus continentur Ang 81 h penn 0 m 'head' [pen] OW (Gen: 12) pennissel. lord' (pair] MW per. (LL) and MW pen(n). see s. MW pal 'spade. not considered in GPC: 2723. DGVB: 278 and 282 o ree issid pellaham gl. IE *k"er. pett-. Olr cenn.3) DGVB: 282. MW padell~ DC padelhoern gl. Thomson.'gehogen' GP(~: 2551: lEW: 7('4~ PEC'I\: R2). Pict. primas Prise J7 a 0 m 'uplaod. pinnae pBUp pron. petia terrae.. 212~ VVB: 202 gurt paup gl. J. pcb.3) Due to its presence in a Welsh context the word was considered as Welsh hy Fleuriot. v. but the last letter must be Il". 128. OIr cach < IE *kuok"o.41 (ew a guant penpalacll).1) ped n m 'thing. < IE *nlll-IO. pen 'top. see GPC: 2688. OIr cuit. cf. French piece < IE *k"esd-. VGK: I.e. A superlative degree of pell 'far'. for the e1ample found in the Juvencus glosses. pawb. VGK: I. JO: 99. See also Rllrth ci111arch.v. to make· . papep bi gl. femorale Ox2 43 a (5. to ·kuo-. Williams: 1980. 120 un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. WG: 127 amgucant pel amtanndi Chad 2 pelechi 0 pi 'cudgels. pyth. Lat. (Owain. LElA: C-3. 08 pel/ant. *k"enno. which contains pen (sec s. PECA: 84. pp. vessel' [padell] OW (LL) petill. See. MB pez. see pel. Williams. ~tafTs' r parth see pard parth (name of a letter) See parth. Rowland: 514. shovel'. L. G nanto. object' [pe'h] ' \ III.. ed. E. this is a scribal error. GPC: 2789. 109 dicones ihesu dieJimlu pbetid Juv 9 (4. particularly LL 78 irenn nant eilion.'fern" pep see pll. GPC: 2723.< IE */. Elsie: 93. Watkins: 1982. see also popptu.128 129 part see pard partuncul n 'hinder part' According to J. ML: 192. peir GPC suggests a connection of this with the verb para/: peri 'to cause. hoe' (perltin I MW pergy(n)g. however. parth Nemn pIItel n f 'bowl. GPC: 2726~ LElA: (~---(. Elsie: 103. Williams: 19RO. lEW: 645. LElA: C-281. for the etymology.5-o~ OCV: 40: PE(~A: 86 penngurthcimarch g). Lloyd-Jones in Eriu 16 (1952). 123-1JI. long' rpelll MW pell~ Me pell. it was noted by Stokes (Stokes: 1860-1. GPC: 2754 dipennant ircaru Chad 6 patupinnac see pa. quid ? J 37 pel adj. a set of examples listed in GPC: 2727 S. 158-161. LL: xliii: MJ: 271. superl. pop. 187 and II. cf.1) perc-ig n m 'mattock. R.88-91. this corresponds to MW pardwngyl. 232. MC peth. contra quemvis] Ovid 39b pbetid pennllnt According to I. line 283) pardwgyl y kyfryw 'the partuncuI of the saddle' = 'hinder part of the saddle'. MW peth. GPe does not consider this instance. GOI: 311~ GPC: 2703. OB pop. M. 37..b. OC pen gl. sumrnit". Dublin 1968. Schrijver: 261 papedpinnac gl. Williams: 1980.with no exact parallel in the other IE languages. capud. patella GPC: 2665. quoduis Me 43 a. yk"eJ. clubs.v. w. ope: 2670. 96 mi amfranc dam anpalel Juv 3 (2.) and nanl 'v(lllcy' (OC nans. lEW: 640. consistes [i. claure J 94 pel/shllm adj. this is an -aell derivative from *pal. OCV: 388. 'everyone.

pp. 08 pem(p). Schrijver: 285 and 288. patupinnacc gl. VVB: 203 biehet pani u pet guarid. ligo Prise 35 a penned n m 'gut(s)..1. Elsie: 97. See OWAV. The etymology of Irish gllidid and the outcome of *g"'h in (·chic. passerenn. unde quinquaginta Prise 14 a According to Fleuriot. un . Willillms's rcading (contrast VVB and Zeuss: 1056. C'the three last letters are very doubtful" (Stokes: 1860-1. ope: 292R: lEW: HOR: K(jP: 256: LElA: C-143~ LHEB: 496: Sehrijvcr: 27: VGK: I. pymhwflC ()B pinllnont < *pil11pont < IE *penk"i. Rhys: lR7J. Schrijver: 122. 37: VVB: 2().1S h pimmunt num.2) pipenn n f 'pip~" fubc' Ipihl'nl OW (LI. GPC: 2113. 113 piipaur tuscois gl.1: (.h. 196. (what)~oever' Ihynna~. 14a. permidit < Lat.6~ ope: 2771.-kollll1.301 permedinter~dou gl. DGVB: 284. pimhed: MB pempct.02.~': J. VGK: I. guar. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1980. petveryd. piou(bol) 'to whom belongs. Caerwyn Williams in SBeS 23 (1969). 23J~ Williams: I()J.~ int dou pimp MP 22 h (230) hint tri pitnp MP 22 h (230) ir petguar pimp MP 22 h (230) pimphet num. where the readings piSl'olir and tihicine are offered) is now accepted. DGVB: 284. I. penn!!: ()B pcnnac DGVB: 2H. II. E. pigurthet. lEW: 642. VVB: 202. medullis J 51 ~. tHEB: 668. 'fourth' (pedwerydd] MW pedwerit. pres. 'fifty' [pumwnt] MW pynlwnt. pynag. pcm(h)ct. penlpc-: ()Ir «lie < IE *penk"e 4ftinr~ for an explanlltioJl of the Irish vocalism. quoduis Me 43 a. lUI. m 'four' (pedwar] MW pedw8r. card. G petuar< ·petlJores < IE *"ue1llo. 239. 'five' (pump) MW pimp. gweilging and does not provide etymology. GPC: 2929. ilia J 35 opennedinteredou gl. 65 for the analysis of this passage (cf. Greene: 542. petwared. 194. sec W. GMW: 80-1. Sec also I'a. Olr cuithe < Lat. and contrast DGVB: 285~ GMW: 80-1. p. fn. Watkins: 1982. eds. Peters. pimmunt. puteus. OB permed. b(y)nnac: Me pcnnk. M. ML: 200. tubicine tusco Ovid . mud' [pydew] MW pydew. M. quocumque Me 14 a. lEW: HOB. McCone: 56.b. Wieshaden: Dr. 11M. p. Hamp in BBCS 26 (1976). loyr Comp 4- . card. J. pempe-. Jenkins. tbis is a compound consisting of par (= Ir car 'javelin') and caine 'branch'. intestine' (perfedd] OW (LL) and MW perued. 309-11 ~ Hirunuma: 41-2. pit. VVB: 202-3 ir petguar pimp MP 22b (230) petguar hanther scribl MP 22b (234) pimp num.. Stokes: 1865. 130 ~ J.'fiinfzig' See also guor. The Welsh Law of Women. Icnitedl MW bcnnnc. see Schrijver: 288. ML: 195. pi pron relB tit'e '(against) which' < IE *k"i(c!).205. Owen. form of the verh 4hc·. 422). EL: 12~ GPC: 2959. OPC: 2(02). Co\\'gill. Mayrhofer. OPC: 279L I-Iaycock: 15. VVB: 202 peteu gJ. where a deriv(ltion from IF *I"~lk"· is offered. ?:. cistern.PC: 364 and 2644 papedpinnac gl. GPC: 2774. ord. VKG: II.) pibrnn. and 3 ~g. G pinpctos: Olr c6iced An *-(e)to~ derivaivc of the cardinal numeral '5'.. LElA: C-282.'vier'. 213. O. DGVB: 2R3: Elsie: 95. G petuar(ios) < *petYQrit-~ see petguar and perguarid.. DGVB: 284~ GPe: 2110. piht'l1: :\flr "'pCIl petguarid see petgusred .- peteu n m 'well.9) petguar nUIII. pyeuwu. see pipe"" I. 21-30. LHEB: 397. tank. Pfeiffer. OGVB: 286. see Hamp: 1975(6. For the hesitation on the form of the IE suffix. pcig vel bach gl. Wiliams in ZCP 21 (1938). pieu A combination of pi (sec pui). p. OB petguare. ". 135. pump. D. Greene: 539. pymp. ad puteum Ox2 41 b (1. 116-7 piouhoi int grnisauc Juv <) (R. Greene: )()9. scC' GPC: 1!J27~ Greene: 542: Hirunuma: 42 ir pimphet eterin MP 22 h (234) petgulJred num. GPC compares this with W. Me aberveth. ord. 08 petguaT~ OIr cethair. G pinpe-. E. permedius nGVB: 284. L8mbcrt: 19R2. GPC: 2793~ VVB: 204. LElA: C-86. cf. Lewis in BBC'S IJ (195()). Lautgcschichte und Etymologic. p. cord. Ludwig Reichert Verlag 1980.l. MW pyprl1. gl. 'fifth' [pumed) MW pym(h)et. pp. did di aries Comp 18 leir petguared part unc MP 238 (241) petguared pards MP 23 8 (241) """'1'_ pinnac(c) prone '(who)soever. eds. 42-3~ Williams: 19RO. .' 131 piipllur n m 'piper' Hapax in Welsh~ an -Qwr derivative of pih. who owns" (piau) MW pyeu.

puluinar. 3 sg 'to huy' (pryn. 1) pressuir adj. OB prin. compri: 0(' prinit in eaid prinit. pugi/(/)arGPC: 2790. 16-8. Arm. Olr eland < Lat. pus. diutino (see I. desire' (?) MW puchaw ? ope: 2926 does not list this instance in the entry dedicated to puchaf. There are two major possibilities for interpretation of this form. ML: 196. VVB: 205 plumauc gl. Stokes: IR73. ML: 19R dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3.essels. adfixa Me 4 b. pipennou gl.'Schulter.) MW pryn-. to follow VG K (]. however.b. ML: 201. posti/e1la GPC: 2862. arterias Me 14 b.derivative from of plu(f) < Lat. GPC: 2293.132 An -en derivative from pib 'pipe. puluinare Ox2 44 8 (6. prcssvcl. continuous' (preswyll MW pres(s)wyl. MC poys. An ·ako. 08 prcsquor g1. The second element (W tu. GPC: 2794~ ML: 195. 116. see S. LElA: P-II. pipennou n pi '.281 and 291. this could be a metathe~ siscd spelling for *PUCQJll1l (Loth. 20R.i. OIr tofb) is listed under *(s)teigU . 'cheval de somme'. OGVB: 286~ ope: 2829. fodie ntur J 88 plum. W pwys (B. Haycock: 15: Loth in RC 2<1 (ICJOR). paup. VGK: I. VVB: 205 postoloin gl. lEW: 64R. White: 100 prinit hinnoid MP 22 b (234) pucsBun v imperf. PECA: 88. VGK: I. 393.?) 'to plant' [plann-] MW plano-. ML: 19R.11 prlll/owr. (future) impers.'kaufen' GMV: 119. < Lat. < Lat. LHEB: 416. pW)'s~ OB puis. cf. PECA: R9. Haycock: 11. VVB: 206 pressuir gl. mannus . MW poptu GPC lists this entry a5 a compound. 're8Ihered'. if it is a pluperfect. < Lat. Lambert: 1982. equs breuis Prise 7 b pois n m popptu n m 'et'ery ~ide' [pop. VVB: 205. Accoding to LElA (T-92) it is preferable. Wiliams: 1933. VVB: 205. LElA: C-112. R. I pluperfect (?) 1 sg 'to love. DGVB: 290~ LElA: C-229. 8Uhstativised 'pillow. 128. r. The etymology of the word is F1~ yet unknown. If chefel is Welsh (see cefe'. GPC considers this instance as B retoR. cf. VGK: I. pluma. then pois chelel could mean 'cheval lourd'. genialis praeda Ovid 38b plant honn". aIr p6laire. though the separate treatment of the entries seems still possible. p. OCV: 347-8. Thurneysen in KZ 59 (1932) pp.25) r 'weight' [pwys) MW pvys. VVB: 206~ WG: 332. VVB: 203 pipenn reu laon gL st[i]ria J 14 GPC: 2RSO. 222. Williams. amhifarium MC 12 h. 116) where a comparison with Lat. this could be OW too. the word is found only "The Book of Talesin".302) OOVB: 289. WG: 109 irpoulloraur gl. tube' < Lat. GPC': 2879. planta postoloin n m 'saddle-crupper' (postolwyn I W postolwyn < Lat. According to I. 192. Schenker in lEW: 1018. 207. ~1 (lnd 41. chfjel) . antclla Ox2 43~ (5.Iuv () (7)) GPC: 2818. guuprineticion. Parry-Wiliams: 122. pauez). Olr chl(i)m. White: 122 pl~nt h6nn6r gl. H: White: 206-7: \VCltkinC\: lQR2. liS Tit pucsaun mi ditrintaut . VVB: 205. this is an imperfect. . LHEB: 503.b.1) rit ercis d••• raut inadaut prescn Juv 9 (R.3) poulloraur n 'writing-fablet' Apart from this occurrcnce in the OW glosses. MIr pis Fleuriot hesitated as to whether it was not a Breton word (peus). see S. Parry-Wiliams: 122. ML: 195. OIr cren< IE *k"rei. cushion' [p'uog] MW pJuoc~ OB plumoc~ DC plufoc gl. pugillarem paginam MC 6 b. see Lambert.b.v.in disapriner.226 133 popptu gl. apc: 2794 hesitates about the link with the previous en try. dutts' A plural form of pipenn. See also WG: 422. see also reu/aun. For the first part. pensum DGVB: 70. . *pipa (1). v pres. VGK: I.v. (pres. 'constant. '. Williams in ZCP 21. subj. LElA: C-l28.b. OB tu (DGVB: 324) Me tu. ML: 200 pois chefel gl. presen n f m 'the world' (presen) MW prcs(s)en(t) < Lat. tibia is offered. White).u) . GPC: 2953. prinit v pres. LHEB: 496. 503. plant n pi 'children' (plant] OW (LL) and MW plant. planto GPC: 2817-8. T 25. VVB: 204 creaticaul plant gI. present· GPC: 2877. DC 8dj. Williams: 19RO.

a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b or bissi Comp 3 bihit dir 1emi Comp 16 orbardaul leteinepp gl. Williams this could he a cognate of Ir ra"" 4verse' rather than of W rltan 'part. -. LElA: P-12. SchTijver: 25R.'verkaufen. VVB: 208 rasel gl. DGVB: 29J~ GPC: 2995: LElA: R-R. ML: 200.. DaVB: 293. VVB: 2()7~ wc.b. ope: 299R.. VVB: 206 hint c punt . quith could stand here for guith._. VO K: I. 11-20. inguinihusque Ovid 41 h 3. lEW: 637. 404. lEW: 815. 292.a.v. V. E. miseris patruelibus Ovid 3R.MP 23 9 (229) ordubenecticion abalbrouannou gl.3.. quid Ovid 41 a puil n mall 'wisdom' (pwyll] MW pwyll. ML: 201. pp. GPC: 3035. sartun. hintiberbringcn' (lEW: HI7). punt.a/ro~). f.(l-7: VVR: 20R rcatir gl. VVB: ZOR rat Nemn reatir n pi 'waterfalls. to IE *per.'verkaufen. rasp' (rhasgl) MW racsgyl. pa. OIr cia < IE *kuei-. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b or tirnuil gL. epics pagina Me la.rt icle See . raeadyr. - . Me ran. Parry-Williams. VGK: L 52 hit niritarncr rann. Loth. 49. PECA: 59. see also s. contribution' (rhanJ MW rann.2) dou punt MP 22b (234) Q HI 'IDger' (1) (name of a letter) As it was suggested by Zeuss. see guoguith and cf. cf. GPC: 2946-7. Interrogative 'what' (pwy] MW pwy. Hamp: 1975/6. LElA: R-7 mentions a possihility that Irish ran" \quatrain. rheeidr. sibi J 67 ran n 'verse' (1) According to I. irbissci Comp 10 rasel n f 'spokeshave.- : ~. *riatrf (sg. GPC: 2929. voran'. LElA: R-7: lEW: 817: Schrijvcr: 177.o. lEW: 3.H. raschil < Lat. G Suratus. ~.. J. C puns..'FlicBcn' apc: 2997.r. OCV: 175. Caerwyn Williams in EC (l (1953-4).. VGK: II. 3R5.. pondo) < AS pund. p8rr~ sec ra"". LElA: C-92. medio Ovid 37 ft dir arpeteticion ceintiru gl. See also ran. VGK: I. Olr rath To IE *per.'Ih n rann n f 'share. orau. The English Element in Welsh. . torrcntum J 2X R 'r definite . LElA: R-2R.\ ordometic gl.'vorwarts. < IE *pro-ko-. '. OB pou. b(1rnbi~ MC to a. GMW: 14. 'some' 'rhoi J MW reL MC'R r('~ rf. DGVB: 126. OC gurbulloc gl. Me ras. 113 ceinmicum ucnou ran Juv 9 (6. orcomt:tntou ttl. Ox2 42 h (4. orcueetic con. 135 pui proll. OB racdom A 3 sg personal form of W r(h)ag. C pyw. cf. ex papyro textili Me R b. nocte ceca Ang SO a har dou trean gl. gl.10.. 134 ". LHEB: J37. cf. 01 r riathor gl. VVB: 206 pui gl.. insanus. Schrijver: 224. cf.. contra Loth. ran. Olr ran(n) < * IE *pfsnii-. OB Raduueten. guilhlann. this is now considered to be an English borrowing. 490 un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9. OB ran(n). or teneu creaturou gl. to IE *re. MW rac-.'worauf aehten' GPC: 2948.: 401. T. VVB: 206. p. cataracts' [rhaeadr I MW rayadyr. lEW *kllti. hinilberbringen'. *r.-_-------------~-~~----~. VGK: I.. 30. share'... 220. Zeuss: 1059 quith Nemn q. Olr ciall < ·k"e~-. Schrijver: 178.1) punt n I 'pound' [punt] MW pun(n). Williams: 1980. I ree prnn. LHEB: 317. ()Ir rc . strophe' is etymologically identical with Ir rann 'division. racdam gl. raskel. rag-. 59.).3) rat n m 'grace (name of a letter) (rhad) MW rad. domito Ovid 39 ft hac orachmonou gl. OIr pond « Lat. tOTTens < Celt. tertias duas unius hore Ang 65 b or ree issid pellaham gl.b. LElA: C-93.ro. London 1923. varn. Parry-William~: 123. De Bernardo Stempel: 136. ordecoolion gl. GPC: 3030. gurgulionibus exscctis Me 42 orgarn gl. rasc(ll)/-: see aWAY. Dc Bernardo Stempel: 135-6. raedam prep. 'before (himf rrhsll-) OW (LL) rae. decadibus Me 7 h.

irhissci Comp 10 < *pro. Hamp in JIES 1 (1973). Elsie: 133. 'icy' Etymologically.(MW . OCV: 34.'Iaufen· (lEW: 86{j). P. ct a. also locclall.circhl. lEW: 866. oPC: 3030.. redyeu.ned. Geraint Gruffydd. see l-lamp: 19R2. the form allows for a variety of interpretations \vhich are conveniently collected in the \vnrks referred to. cf. ML: 201. stri]ria J 14 ri particle MW ry. see T. as \vell ClS the general spelling inconsistencies. ". 'ferny' (rhedynog] OW (VSB: 72) redinauc. (. Vendryes in RC 32 (1911).-Y. Parry-Williams: 122~ Williams: 1933. MIT . Sims-Williams: 1991 31. See ree. malina DNR 2v riceus v ? Due to the ohscurity of the line where this word occurs.1) aIr ro. Jackson: 1975--6.296. cursus.see lEW: 850. DGVB: 278 and 295. 99. Eska. 10-1 dipul retinoe Chad 6 7 rei pron.a. red-. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995.'gieBen. rhyferthi I MW ryuerthwy. J. fOT nn extensive hihliogrnphy see Isaac. /I J. Loth in RC' 30 (190Q). See also riCfllS. Elsie: 97). 'some' (rhail This interpretation by P. DGVB: 296.heeni. De Bernardo Stempel: 131. see Russell: 1990.v. N. ru-~ remed8ut n m 'wonder" I rhyteddod] MW reuedawt. Williams: 1980. in pagina regulari. ryuerthi~ OB rehirthi gl. (] ro retec vn 'to run' Irhedecl MW ret-. GMW: 157..41-4. See also rei. rell (W rhett' 'frost. 3 s~ 'to turn' I rhed. 212 -retin J 20 reulsun adj.'1 (on this suffix seae VGK: 11. Joseph: 33~ lEW: 79R. rhyeni. p. see s.. hinnuith Comp 11 retit loyr irdid.'vorwart. Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. filcx. GPC: 3047~ Ll-IEB: 293. Gratis. seJla curulis Me 45 a. 68.Williams: 122. Watkins: 1972.. OC redegua gl. De Bernardo Stempel: 123. allhodla. OB row. pp. 202 nirinciriles cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. LElA: R-5~ PECA: 90. 203-4~ Watkins: 1972-4. reid n m&r 'spear' [rhaicldJ MW rheiddiau.)relin? The last letters of the word are preserved on the margin of the manuscript. IE ·ret(h). riberlhi n m 'spring tide" I rhyfcrthwy. eds. 6. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a retit v pres. rhienawl < ·pro-gen-al. a. Camp 11 retteticc adj. Parry. Lambert is accepted by DOB and GPC. pp.38) derivative of ri. VOTn. GPC: 3030. VVB: 209 reid gl.259 Intrited retec. 'icc-fuJI'.. Stokes: 1860-1. Huws: 501. 215-223. < ·prellsu'o-. ry wedawt. this was used for the dating of Chad 6. patrii] J 57 raith). < *ret-ek. 437. OIr rethid. hinnuith cen nit hoi loe guac inter o. perhaps a cognate of OW rann. VVB: 209 ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. see E. Isaac: 387-RR. Hillen'. 224. voran' (lEW: . gllithlolln. Jones in BBCS 9 (1938). 110 gur dicones remedau[t] elbid Juv 9 (5. guorhir seraul. Jacobs.) See rctee and gllrthret. G ad-reticio A vn in wee. PKM: 165-7). J. for the formation cf MW ehedec 'fly'.136 The etymology is speculative. 20R. retit loyr . LHEB: 453. MW redynawc An -or derivative of Cell. p. see s. (MW rcdyn. n. Loth in RC 42 (1925). Eska: 90~ GMW: 166..-Y. VGK: I.. PECA: 90 Intrited retec Comp 2 RI~-4). LElA: R-36.. Lambert: 1982. retee. rit(ec). LElA R-I0 or ree issid pellaham gL a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b 117 regensu/adj. ice'. OC rcdcn g1. cf. J. spicum Me 62 b. VVB: 209 ir regenaul gl. malina: Olr roharta To IE Vhlrer.1). p.'tragen'. R. and -Iolln 'fuJI' < IE *pel(. tTa'i. For the etymology. 116 pipenn reu latIn gl. Me resek. 235. DGVB: 294.v.v. LElA: R-23~ White: I06~ Williams: 1921. pro 1-~6 hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp R In niritarnher Comp R hit niritarncr rann. 'running' Hapax in Welsh. OB retec. GPC: 3043. GPC: 3044. DaB: 527. ()Ir relld. riberthi gJ.. ancestors'. < IE *pr:Jti. 95--6~ cf. radius GPC: 3093. 'parenta'" (rhien(i)ol] W riennoll. patris (leg. p. Hispano-Gallo-Brittonica. reidyeu < Lat. Lambert. It "PelS stl~~('sted thClt the fnrnl i~ (l retinoc adj. For the quality of the vowel in the suffix consider the dispute hetwccn Watkins and Jackson. ryfedawt An -0". 131-3. see s. also liES 2 (1974). W rieni 'parents. C'omp 2 retit loyr irdid.

Lane: 260. OW (LL).2) rit ercis d.~~4.. rodesi' " pret. 'easy' [rhwydd] MW rwyd. OIr reid The traditional connection of the Celtic words with IE *reidh. Isaac: 365.ermanic cognates (Gothic garaidido 'arranged" English ready. nirinciriles~ cimp&illiausauc oirei gl. pp. less convincing. . who consideres this to be "no more than a possihiJity" and insists on closer links with the (. Eska.. purpureum DNR 1v Tit particle See rio The identification of . R. OC rud gl.. CA: 121 where a segmentation rhy-go-tres is offered. impers. DaB: II." 139 3 sg. cf. Loth in RC 46 (1929) p. Williams: 1980. pp. Lambert in BBeS 36 (1989). DGVB: 297.. -roud-: Olr rtiad < IE *roudho.Y.-Y. lEW: 317. indo (with ry. or 3 sg. from IE ·~et. ogganio Prise 17 b rod adj. It was claimed by T. 'to speak'. 'red colour' (rhuddliw) MW ruddliu See rud. Watkins: 1972--4. adj. roseo colore Ang 17 a rodcoch adj. rifed. 87 d 14) '(when) the protection is needed'. etc. W rhyngu bodd rhywun 'to reach someone's pleasaure' > 'to please someone'. For the sernantics.. also Early Irish ro-icc les meaning 'attains to the benefit (of). 174 () rud liu gl. Jacohs.Y. The most recent analysis of this word hy P. 6.). cf. ~ispano-Gallo-Britto­ nica. or derive it from IE *do. 47~).117. Lambert (Three Brittonic Lexical Notes. Williams: 1933. secret' (cf. pp. OB ruet. Lambert: 1982. VVB: 210.denoting potentiality).Ocraint Gruffydd. 116--20 rohodrisauc gl. renkout 'faHoir'. pres. 156...'fahrcn· has heen recently queried by P.: ~R6.114-5' rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut luv 9 (7. in -us.. 3 51 '10 give' [rhod-] MW rod-. Lloyd Jones in DDCS (1921). cf..3) Elsie: 99. which consider its relationship with Sanskrit ra 'give' (Vendryes). MB reiff . 98-9 dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3. pride' for which ope: 1420 provides no etymology. MJ: 272. P. GMW: 166. necessitatis meae (Wh. 3 sg 'to give' [rhod-) See the next. VVB: 211 roenhol dei patris gl. glasliu. see s. P. a cognate of god 'adulter. arcana Ovid 38b roenhol? Until recently this entry has been considered as an adjective. 'red' I rhudd] OW (LL). pret. rudliu gl. igneum DNR 1v . from gwedd. . Williams: 1980. mid adj.. see the literature cited helow. J. Schrijver in Eriu 45 (1994). lEW: 872: LElA: R-147: ()CV: 209: PECA: 91. pi (1) 'virtuous' [rhinweddol] MW rinwedawl This compound is traditionally analysed as containing a form which corresponds to W rhin 'virtue. rlld: the second element. inheritance' .'gebeo' (\Vr.'rof nGVB: 300. 'to need' [rhyng-J MW ryng-. reg-. LElA: R-53) and guedoJ. 'of a lineage. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 1995. OIr run.raut inadaut presen Juv 9 (8. White: lR4-5 rodesit elcu guetig Chad 2 rimed n 'wonders' (rhyfedd] MW ryfed. Schrijver.. 548. DGVB: 299.1) rindr v pre!. rudcoch gl. rwyt. originally meaning 'kingdom· > 'patrimony. N. See also ahruid. 'purple red' I rhuddgoch J MW rudgoch For the first element of this compound. or.1) rodes " pret. perhaps connected with Me keusel 'to speak'. B rankout. A. harodes Chad 7 rudliu n & adj. Williams in BBCS 1 (1921).138 ~. II J. VGK: I. J. 24 and 29-30. Williams: 1980. GMW: lIR-9. Isaac: 441. MW rud. ro-n-ecar less inna diten (MI. cf..199. causor. 107 dicones pater harimed presen Juv 9 (3. MW each 'red' is a loan from MLat. affectation'. Lamhert suggests rlty. lEW: 867. MW rhyodres 'display. White: 88-92 and 102. 14. 196-7. JO: 102 (with Bihl). Lambert: 1982. 23 d 9). VGK: Il. 10 ringuedaulion gl.v. Various etymological e~planations of this verb have been offered. LHEB: 50. P. see DGVB: 297. god-res. VGK: II..( with the preverbal particle yt was deemed implausible by Scbrijver. Elsie: 12L GMWL: 260. patronymic'. cds .182-3. liu. patrii pecoris J 45 rohodriS8UC ? An -aue derivative. MB an pez a ranquer 'ce qu'il faut'. ad plures sui generis fit comparatio Prise 27 a ringuedalJlioD subst. < IE Vreu--. p. pp. needs' in neich roiccu a Jess gl. ('1\: . foee. cf. ryuet < *ro-medI. 96-1(0) analysis this instance as a noun cognate with OB roi(a)nt. from cael. See al~o the previous entry. cf. all from Lat.. Watkins that 1his is a mistake for ringuedolion.. 'form'. ruher: OB rudd: G.

Jeril'lI/r"" T.. DGVB: 206.a.. Orr salt < Lt\ t .\nllll.: ~02. diiudicarc < IE *sker.-------------------------_. . LElA: S-IR Salt emmi guollig hinnith ir hloidin hunnuith C~omp 19 ir hat bid oit guor mod in ir salt Comp 21 ir nideruid hinn.22) scrihenn n f 'writing' rysgrifenl MW yscrivcn. 87. scriipII/'l1n. 193 haloiu aur. cf. VVB: 212 guollung I. snore' < Lat.. 08"'5 See also nis. 112).. As \vas noted hy T.-Y. lellant J 4 scipBur n f 'barn' rysgubor] MW cscubor.a. VB: 262 nis minn Chad 2 nisacup nis arcup le<3er Juv 9 (3. stertore Me 57 b. scsmnhegint v pres. DOB: 456.'t scrihl n 'scruple' I a unit of currency J MW ysgryhyl. OC scauel gl. cscrihil: cf. 3 51 (iDrDed~ 'him. r(h)ombus.. l' ~(. scrcpul < Lat.ap.pron. See fruinn. Sec also P. Sims-Williams. OB romb (MS rob) gl. Ir . ML: 203. Stokes: 1873. MB scaff. uacuum J 65 58~ 141 mimmeln n pi 'bonds' (rbwym] MWruym < ·reig. . 140 DGVB: 225~ 300.. tripus 62 a._ --. 20R: VVB: 214: White: 121 scamnhegint gl.615: VVB: 214 scircnn gl. senhrllunt (Jca".nn was suggested by P. scriven: C scriven. _.. horrea J 14 scire. JEW: 861. VGK: I.~scoparill1n.b.. WG: 136 cuinhaunt irruim mein J 5. VVB: 213 rump gl. ruinn gl.'light' ~ with no estahlished further connections. PEC'A: 9J. scriptura Me 39 h. This is not found in Haarmann and EL. ()(~V: J14. the same loan in the other C~eltic languages._-_ . gl. Parry-Williams: 1922~ 123: Sims-Williams: 1991. i in this word stands for II [uJ.-Y. LHEB: 330. 3 pi 'to IiKhten' rys~afnh·1 MW yscafnhau. allinebat Me 8 a. ungulum Ox2 42b (4. GMW: 55.._-~ .FIA: . cscryhyl.. Lambert and was accepted in DOB. Parry-Williams.. PECA: 9J: Stokes: lR60--1. stiua which was rendered by Fleuriot as 'manche de charrue' was alternatively explained as an abbreviated catchword in a Latin gloss by P. GMWL: 302: LElA: S-56: ML: 216.rl/II'" ~ EL. stella Ox2 44 h (7. ... cf. ncn. 44: 11. White: 297-9 runtniau gl. 'splinter. __. • f sgl..3) nisacup nis arcup leder Juv 9 (3. scribendLElA: S-54.3) immisline gl. GMWL: 261. cf.5 minn n m f 'bridle' This reading [f]Tu. 1 "FR: hQ~ I.'schnciden'~ lEW: 9JRf. Lambert: 1982.... DOVB: 299. VVB: 213.-".. 2S~ Stokes: 1860-1.. pulmo. it' MW ·s. Thoncus~ note the spelling ·ntn..4) mnm.I reig. lath' rys~yren J MW escheren. 'binden~ lEW: 862. ML: 205. ()Ir. Schrijver: 224-5.au n pi I Tn 'snore' [rhwDc] MW rwnc 'snarl.<:cr.derivative of *skarnno. B skirienn. VVB: 212-3. Otherwise this could he an -awr derivative of the word horrowed from Lat. ._-~. (~hnrlcs-F(h\'nrds in ORCS 24 (1<)72). ('MW1. ML) EL: 4H. VGK: I. Mlr scam For a summary of etymological suggestions~ see LElA. ML: 215: VVB: 215 scribenn gl.. a.. 408. LElA R-16. II. glomus Prisc 13 a romp n m 'auger' (rhwmp) MW rump < Lat. leg. DGVB: 302: GMWL: 303: LHEB: 56: VCiK: I.ruid gl. escubaur: C scibor The word was considered by Loth (ML) to he a loan from Lat.-. scahcllllm~ MB scahcll < Lat. smen < IE Vreig.for .... 21 ()~ VVB: 214 scipaur gl. scribenn gl. VVB: 214 scamell gl. Lambert (Lambert: 1986.. hou nit bloidin salt Comp 22 scsmeJI n f 'bench' ysgafelll r W ysgafell. DGVB: 301.I *skabno. s '. on scarat gl. OC sccucns gl.a.- --_. LHEB: 503. aIr scrib < Lat... s1erope. It could he analysed as a *-sag. scriptura MC 38 b. scoro. LElA: S-31~ LHEB: 45~~ OCV: 50. n 'saltus Lunae' 15111t) 08 salt.

cf. perhaps cognate with OB strot. Greene: 540. LElA S-189. Zimmer: 152. sich. WG: 125 serf gl. -01] An -awll-of « ·-alos) derivative of ser 'star'. OCV: 33. 197. This form could be also Breton. According to Craster (Craster: 135). VVB: 215 sich gl. Lambert: 1982. *stabellum GMWL: 304. ML: 215. silgued n m 'substance. OC steucl gl. bas) with a suffix which corresponds to MW gwailh. VVB: 211 ircatteiraul retteticc strotur gl. 'star' Used for sidus. all'. E. vomis J 25 s. station8ry' [sefydlOl] MW sefydlog. VGK: 1. 5~rra or < IE ·se'pti. 'stal1}' (senwl. PECA: 96. LI-IEA: 2R3-4. Scrijver: 453. strutiu n pi 'the old' air sruith Contra Thurneysen: 1890a.ice qui est fix~. p. G Sirona. pigurthct. hai bu in arcimeir. tridinium < Lat.260).946--7.a.122.94. salsicia EL: 46. 08 sterenu.219. VGK: L 204. VGK: 1. Olr ser < IE ·ster. 'dry' [sychl MW sych. See strotllr.142 5-53. PECA: 96. OC steren gl. sausage' [selsigl MW selsig. OB solgued The word was treated as a loan from Lat.. solea or Joltun (ML: 204. see s. lucani[ C]3 Ox2 428 (3. Hamp in Annales de Bretagnc 79 (1972). septem. LElA: 5-182. gurid < IE *yegJr'bewegen' (GPC: 1563. DGVB: 309. seuydlog. p. LElA: S-60. V(jK: I. not stella (Williams: 1927. see serenn seraul circhl Camp 2 serenn n r sKi.5) struduguar ? Stokes: 1865. C8rd. struduguar gl. Comp 11 nitegid ad sereno arall Comp 11 serr n m 'hillhook' (serr) MW ser~ OB ser gl. GMWL: 267. lEW: 1037. Bachellery in Be 11 (1964-5).a. ML: 217. 78 ir sereno. strotur gurehic gl. Gal: 95. se11a curulis Me 45 a. E. Hamp in EC 14 (1974). uoscera Ox2 42b (4. LHEB: 605. from IE ystrll. DGVB: 30?~ lEW: 1021~ LElA: 5-90. VVB: 216 ad stebfll gl.6) serr gl. on this stem see Schrijver. DGVB: 305 and 306-7 silgued gl. siccus DGVB: 304. sel1a Ox2 42 a (2. lEW: 909 iseith uith C·is seith uith) gl. stella. DGVB: 305. oev: 401. DGVB: 305. 422 suggests amendation to stru/UT guar. hence perhaps strudur guar (or guas). OB seith < IE *sept'tJ 'sieben'.'Stem'. 'seven' (saith] MW seith. 373. Lambert: 1982.. septies octoni Ang 59 a selsic n I 'black-pudding. such gl. see also S5~renn.C'h adj. (1) 'star'. 'standing. passerenn. adsecula Prise 34 b seith num. see . Loth suggested (VVB: 217-18) reading this entry as strullir ~llnJ 'selle d'homme'.) (seren] MW ser(en). VVB: 217 strutiu gJ. B silsig < Lat. MIr secc . In view of slrntllr Rlirehic J. krummer Haken'. ad limina J 52 strotur n r'saddle' (ystrodur] MW estrodur. 'Iidus' (in Comp. essential' (sylwedd] W sylwedd.'greis. ML: 209. Camp 7 ir sereno hai bid in eir cimeir .. lEW: 911-2). lEW: 1119. air serr < Lat. VGK: I. such n r 'ploughshare' See JulI. see also the next. the reading is strlldllguar. sevylyac < ·sabetlo.1) senlu/adj. 176.0. place' 143 < Lat.('Sichel. Schrijver: 423. slralura. fiscina (fuscina). Me sec1l~ 08 $Cch. LHEB: 530. creidinem Ang 59 b sserenn n f sgl. samhuca Ox2 43 a (5. VVB: 215 selsic gl. (alee J 77 . LHEB: 290. See OWAV. ML: 206. o. VVB: 2]5. 210.'ieren". p. seyth. ML: 206. LElA: S-95. loyr in Comp 4 stebill n r pi 'rooms' (ystafell) MW estauel(l). GMWL: 267. ML: 21R. aIr srathar < Lat. 93 this should he considered as an OW form. PECA: 54). v. 205 sebedlauc gl. VVB: 215 petguar hanther scribl MP 22b (234) sebedlllu~ adj. E. VGK: I. arentis Me 13 a. antiquam gentcm J (. C. pp.12) 1 DGVB: 304. 08 sol gl. or < Lat.

. to trim.r 2 • Haycock: 10-11. OIr talam < IE ·. cf. 2. ML: 210. see Haycock and Watlcins.. lEW: 1038. to coun1'). OC tal gl. VVB: 219 tantou gl. I.'to rub off.. (objed. 114 teg guis. 134. VGK: 1. ML: 209. fn . ti.) 3 sg. Halle: Max Niemeyer 1884. GPC: 274. this line could be read as tiberdutou ti guir douid "Thy glories (riches). lEW: 1061. VVB: tslcipp n 'bowl' The word was compared with Olr ttil-ell/the. cratere Me 59 a. LElA: T-18D-2. and guis = Ir [is 'visio·. White: 165 '. Uthe svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW·'. For the interpretations of douid. see REW: 12.b. 'to reckon" '0 compute. 32. fides Me 63 b. GMWL: 273. Schrijver: R4-~. Haarmann.. p. a true Lord". Winiams.3) VVB: 218. LHEB: 531. G tanco- hit niritarnher irdid hinnuith Comp 8 niritarn(h)er Comp 10 teg .r(rO. OW (LL).408. lEW: 1068~ KGP: 275. stimulus An intermediary form ·stum'blU5 « *slimilus) should be posited (for Romance. ef.6) A. then teyrnwi. R.106-7 t•• erd. Comp 7 tarnher v pres. Hamp in EC 20 (1983). William~: 1931. tanc. For the etymological summ ary see OW A V . See aWAY. gl.. strioKs' I tant I MW tant. and n. PECA: 95-6. however. p. sec also According'to I. ~ < IE ".144 suh n 145 r 'ploughsh.337. Olr socc. 19 agwin tal kibedd. Olr tarathar t£QEtQOV~ MLat. J.uis '? According to VVB. fides Me 63 b. m 'him' immit eel irnimer bichan gutan irmaur nimer MP 22 b (238) t•• erdlllou fi guird•••• tsmetor v pres. Zeuss: 1059 surg Nemn < IE *terhj-trorn..~g. E.32 and 38. lion p. Williams: 1927. impers. this stands for tegglli. B SOUC'hi OC soch 81. cip. tellu. lEW: 139). Williams: 1929. VVB: 219 talcipp gl. Berdutou.b. taratrum is a Celtic loan. cf. Brett' .'glanzen. As was noted by K.ge n m ·peace' (tang) MW tang. accepts Zeuss·s (Zeuss: 1058) reading of the latter element as standing for W gwi"'g. 112-3. VGK: 1. Schrijver: 87. Zimmer: 152-3 suh gl.foratorium) Ox2 42 h (4.dou ti guird. see huch. dicht werden' GPN: 261~ JO: 102.J. Loth identified this instance with T. Juv 9 (2.COach. OB talar. swmwl.. Watkins: 1982. tantou gJ. o. LElA: T-55. MW tal. DGVB: 317. ). Jackson. fest.219. tarader.. tantoo n pi 'chord~. R. GMWL: 210. cf. VGK: I. fronte duelli J 51 sumpl n m 'goad' (swmbwl. LHEB: 55. weiB'.f 'beau a voir'. LL: xliv guragun t age Chad 2 'III n m "orehead. LElA: T-30. VVB: 218. vomer < Lat. tarater n m 'auger' [taradr] MW taradyr. Williams: 1980. 330. ti. ziehen. LElA: S-158-9. stimulus Ox2 42b (4. clean.410.285). aureus Ovid 39 tl \ . 'to count' [tarn. 76.·sich zusammenziehen. Ok..l17-9. impers. pron. Thurneysen. Schrijver: 399.'dehnen. and offers the interpretation of the former as teg[irn].'to cleanse. front' [tal] frons.138. MB tarazr.ri. SOCCU. Loth in RC 22 (1901). the Welsh forms arc not quoted). WG: 82 tarater gl. power' is commonly analysed as an -idJ-ud derivative of berth « IE *bher. See also such. See tal. . Stokes: 1873. 91. scapa uel rostrum (i.lg.(lEW: 1071--4.a.119. DB tanntou. E. to count' (tarn"l MW tarn. p. VVR: 21R 6r guithJaun tal gl. spannen' DOVS: 311. T . DGVB: 310. wipe dry.. 91. See also gu. Dev: 142 and 156. Lat. nacher Boden. Stokes: 1873. pp. OIr t~t < IE *ten. Keltoromanisches. swml] MWswmbyl < Lat. with tee (W teg) 'beautiful'. crnnpllto (pIlIO . WilJiams.Bammesberger in EC tR (1981) pp. cr.. J. Lat. Hamp in Fe 20 (IQHJ).1) SfJrg (name 0' 8 letter) This letter-name was compared by Zeuss with 08 personal name Eusorchet.enlc. 218 sumpl gI. subj.3) the next. ) See above. Note the exceptional development of st-. uomer Ox2 42 b (4. lEW: 1066. VVB: 219. pI.. 263-5 is gur tum tarnetor ir loc guac haibid post. or vernacular. VVB: 219. IE ·ter. ML: 208-9.re' [swch] MW such. of the (MW) berthid 'wonder.

Lamhert apparently considers this gloss a~ OB. GMWL: 275. _.341-5. Olr tu < IE *tll 'duo. Watkins: 1987. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). tertia pars unciae) MP 23 8 (241) leirban n 'three parts (of the world?)' A combination of teir (see s. T. tanow. tibi soli Me 9 a. C ty. 95 mitelu Juv 3 (1. sec also t••erdlltoll ti guird•••• . Dienen' (lEW: 96). p.(see s.IE ·slougo... J. Schrijver derives the Welsh form from *tanalj!o. cf.'vorspringende Spitze' (lEW: 96. 188-9 Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 LElA: T-14. the dropping of the lenited -[ finds correspondences in the same text. who suggests *tesres or *tisras._. OIr tanae The non-Celtic cognates are given under IE ·tenu-s 'dOnn' in lEW. confusion' (Mlr mesc-) < IE *mei-k'mischcn· (lEW: 7L4). 'thick' (tew J MW tew. DOVB: 311. I 'three' MW teir. The other interpretation of this entry takes into consideration a possible reference to the cross.h 2 -eu. ty\vylL ()B tcmocl~ cf. or "tenh1-y. 'thin' [tenau I MW tcneu.. 31. WG: 131 6r teu gl. Williams. Cowgill in Language 33. v. terminus GMWL: 274. VVB: 220. ML: 211. Sehrijver: 85 and 297 or teneu creaturou gl. VGK: II. teyspan 'a coverlet'. OC tenei'en gl.. DGVB: 311 ot ti gl. White: 304-5. solicitos Ovid 38 3 terni v or vn 'to reckon.'mixture. latus.-. rejected by Schrijver).. --'-'- . OC /uu. aIr te6ir This form has caused a longing dispute. 2). terfysg) MW terfysg'l Olr tairmesc An ·et. VGK: 1. lEW: 1069. Schrijver: 455). fif'Hi~n" !!'. LElA: T-155-7 gurt trichiti nacgenei C'omp 16 ftdarnestf gl. DCV: 80. LElA: T-26.'decken' (lEW: 1013). Loth with W teiJ-han 'coussin'. to compute. VVB: 220 terrnin gl. lEW: 1057. helghati gl. If the latter is the same as W ban 'top' (Olr benn) . VVB: 220 teir petgured part unc (gl. obtonso [leg. The most recent analysis by P. lEW: 1091. LElA: T-76.-_. 'troubled ones' [d. 0. Alternatively. VGK: I. The most recent treatment is that of P. de Bernardo Stempel: 143). GMWL: 276. MIr termonn < Lat.239. ora Me 48 a . 147 leir name card. 2 SK 'you' (til OB ti. teu. OC teilu gl. pp. OIr tech) goes back to tl£g05. Ir teglach < *tego-s/ougo-.(Hamp: 1965. VVB: 221.59 (fn. teylu.Y. DCV: 59.. til prone pers.'das Helfen. OB teir. Schrijver: 68.235 and 292.(Joseph: 40.c derivative from (W) mysg.84 and 99. pers. toile Ang 59 a ti J see '~t/H~·erdu'ou Ii guird•••• tiis? The word was compared by J.. (La Graufesenque) tidres is uncertain. pres). MacC'ana in SC 10/11 (1975/ 6). pp. see particularly Cowgill and McCone.). 232. VVB: 220--1.a.3. --.v. MB tanau. Zcuss: 1063 tiis gl. IE ·(s)teg. Olr tiug < IE *tegu· 'dick' Elsie: 138. terwyn.b. LElA: T-53.. __ . Haycock: 244. DGVB: 312.1 adj. region'. No 3 (1957). sluag) ."••[. MB teo. PECA: 99. LHEB: 440~ LElA: T-39. te. OW (Asser) lig. Stokes: 1865. The reading of G. tarnetor).2) lenea Idj. A. 'dark' (tywyllJ W ty\vill. 421 termisceticion gl. 318-25. P. __ .. hortahere Ovid 39h li 2 pron. 127-8. tarfl.. Watkins considers this as a personal form of the verh (2 sing. DGVB: 278. staptuln Ox2 44a (6. "iti: tritid. cf. lEW: 1097. this is a verhal noun. ora Me 48 a. familia. Lane: 263. ] Juv 9 ( 1. Williams: 1980.1) dittihun gl. LElA: B-36. 99. pl. to count' According to I. OIr slog. venare Ovid 3R ft nerthiti gl. See also trio w. and ban 'part. the second.. cf. PECA: 99.). 1860-1. or isid: issi. agitare 1 R8 omnipotens auctor tidicones adianl. 2 sg 'you" See ti I. Williams: 1980._ . the further study allowed for the reconstruction of PIE *t1. Williams: 1927. obtusoJ 1 37 lelu n m 'retinue' [teuloJ MW teulu.(mase. lennisceticioll adj.t('nchr~(': Jr temrl . termin gl.. McCone: 10._. VGK: 1.26) limu. P. (MW I/u. subtiolioribus elementis Ang 15 b lennin n AI 'boundary' [terfynJ MW teroyn. The first part of this compound (OC Ii gl. Schrijver. domus. then to IE *bend.-------------------""--~--.2(18 bihit dir terni Comp 16 teu adj. Stokes..

66. LElA: T-33~ OCV: 56. . GOI: 530-1. White: 121. LElA: T-I09. 216. steif sein'.. trans. VGK: I. 222 tir teJih Chad 2 ir tir gI. OC tir gl. v. PECA: 100. beyond' . Jackson that '·the svarabhakti in e is more OC than OW". see LHEB: 405~ LElA: T-122. Greene: 520. VGK: 1. GOI: 250.' . this instance in the text denotes 'tu mewn'..'. aIr in tremdid gl.'dunkel' DGVB: 278. 'day after tomorrow" rtrennydd) W trennyd. DGVB: 311. aequora J 60 J.'hindurch. OB tra . Williams: 1930. nod a prero~iti()n *trrn (remodelled). 1. lEW: 1024. oocte ceca Ang 50 a GMWL: 278. trean num. LHEB: 55. Elsie: 90. 'palm' ? Itorl MW tor. Hamp who notes that the base could perhaps be eliminated by 'dry'.2) treisguen n 'holy power' ? According to I. card. It was noted by K. torgyngl. see s. OCV: 196. VVB.'starr. DGVB: 315. tar < *triins < IE *ter. W cengel ·girth. 129-130 tra nos Comp 13 tl'8US n (name of a letter) OW (LL). DGVB: 322-4. cf. . IE 'Item. venter. OC tor gl. torgegil This compound is traditionally analysed as containing tor 'belly'. cf. 'over.. GMWL: 278. lEW: 1018. subj. ML: 211.. ?) 3 pi 'to relate" recite" [. LElA: T-74ff.~~~~. postridie A comhination of the word for ·dety· (see s. GMWL: 279. WO: 168 ir tonnou gl. trayn. tiber . ML: 148. tincta Ovid 4()A tir n m 'land' [tir] OW (LL) tir.221. but see E. LElA: T-28-9. VVB: 222. aIr tr~chtaid < Lat. 246. Iympha. (fraction) 'one third" [traean) MW trayan. Schrijver: 322 or timuil gl.(5. Elsie: 81.weg' DGVB: 317 and 321. lEW: 1063-4. MW traus. Stokes: 1860-1. fe"Q For the etymological summary see OWAV. HPB: 598. ML: 148).83 hi torr MP 23 a (246) torth n f 'Ioar J torlh) MW torth. see frat traU'.v. and cigel. Wiliams. cf. 88. tor. MB tir. According to Fleuriot.f 'might. GMWL: 278. bissem Ang 47 a dOll trean haur gl. 255. LElA: T-48. LElA: T-117. G trian-. colour' VVB: 221. OE tar. 189 Amtrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 trennid adv. tingo 'dye. saddle-girth' < Lat. VGK: I. cing(u)/a (GPC: 450. this compound contains trei. these words as well as OB trus were borrowed from LHt. YGK: 1. VYB: 223. tinetic? MW Du Hir Tynnedic (7) Cf. did). a subjunctive form could be expected. see tir. Olr trian < *triano from *tris-ano. VGK: II. lEW: 1092. lEW: 972 and 1082. to IE *(s)ter. PECA: 100.' ~.. PECA: 101. force'.4) torr n f 'belly' 1. As the form follows eet. MW tiT. VGK: 1. Zeuss: 1059 traus Nemn tordgel n r 'saddle-girth' Itol'lengl) MW torgengl. bisse Ang 56 a har dOll trean gl. Mlr tonn Etymology is uncertain~ for a summary. Williams: 1933. cf. Lat. and gllenn 'white. (imperf. Williams: 1980. see Williams: 1930. LElA: T-141-2.raeth-) MW traeth-. torta treidin v pres. OB tros The name of a letter in "Alphahet of Nemnius" WHS identified with MW (CA) traus by Zeuss and compared with 08 tros by Loth. troean. see LHEB: 637. OIr tarr-. fundum J 73 lOIJDOU n pi 'wa"es' (Ion) MW ton. 229. lEW: 1075. OCV: 35.248 dou trean gI. GO): 39. p. for the preservation of -s. OB troian. Williams. OIr tfr < IE *te(: )rsl.233 douccint torth ha maharuin in irhaf Chad 3 douceint torth in irgaem Chad 3 iscm hichet triuceint torth Chad 4 till prep. uentris lora Ox2 43. The word has been analysed as a derivative of *tcsV·. Williams: 1980. Hamp in EC 32 (1996). OB tonn gI. Olr tort < lJat. OIr. see trio DGVB: 32. see LElA. 114 irtinetic gl. Lat. tellus. holy' (see GPe: 1770). 105-6 cet treidin guel haguid Juv 9 (2.337.. MW tra. 83. According to ]. De Bernardo Stempel: 144-5. tertias duas uni us hore A ng 65 b trean cant mel MP 22 b (230) '''. tyr. MCB torth. LElA: T-65. VYB: 222 torcigel gl.148 149 < ·temil-(j)o-. E. VVB: 223. traetare~ for the quantity of a.

McCone: 55. trugarawc. Lambert: 1984. 'through" (trwYJ See trlli. VVB: 225 mortru gl. DGVB: 324.'drei' nGVB: 320. Szernerenyi.b. DGVB 326-1.b. VVB: 225 trucarauc gl. 'merciful' (trogaro~1 263~ LElA: T-154. see (('i'''OI1. tiber . Camp 2 ir tri u MP 22 b (230) hint tri pimp MP 22b (230) trimul:ein' name rarcl. 'heavy' (trwm) MW trwm.2) inungueid gualed trintaut Juv 9 (8. Lloyd-Jones in BHCS 14 (1952). LElA: T-154. 08 trete. OB (s)trom. MW trwy. 1102. tlnd Ctop. Pokorny's ·tre. eheu Ovid 393 troc8r8U€ adj. l~R) derives this adjective from *(rllkfi-f1l0-. trinitalem MW tru. p. J. a nxia 1 63 trit. Lanlhcrt: 19R4. OB tru[ed] gl. Schrijver: trui ir unolion gl. 'sad' (trisl] MWBC trist. card. postridie Me 7 a. 232. has shown that apparently this form denotes '60'. :~ < IE *u. DGVB: 232. VVB: 224 tnst gl.UCenMQu. trimuceint ist teils nach '70' teils nach '20' umgebildet" and lEW: 1075. aegrurn J 88 trybann n (?) 'limit' ? MW tryfan According to I. troi. rani. M. ·(rrs < IE ·'rins. VVB: 224 is trimuceint hestaur mel MP 221» (231) mntlJul n f ~nilJ' [trindod] MW trindod. trege. Hirunuma: 41. Studies in the Indo-European System of Numerals.. 'through" [trwy ) OW (LL) trui. Schrijver: 285 and 288 -. Olr tr6caire A *-cor. 'sixty' OW triucennau (DGVE) possibly for ·trimuceintau In irtritid urd Camp 1 Intrited retce Comp 2 triuceinl num. p .--------151 150 LElA: T-135. *trei-.-Y. lEW: 1090-1.3) trumm adj. see VVB: 224. Olr trist < Lat.393. DGVB: 324. tri< Celt. trite. Iris' 8dj. VGK: 1. See also Ir. GOI: 40. Williams. (lS Cl vcrh. Loth in RC 37 (1917-9). *trlldslno. lri num. cf. < Celt.r----------------------------------------~-. the heginning of the rrcvioll~ linc elf the ('n~1~'n. 129-30. abrupta J 81 trumrn gl. VVB: 223-4 trennid gl. Hirunuma: 41. 11 and LElA. p. LElA: T-126. 362. where trim < ·trem 'durch'. G tritos . ord. treded C trysse. GMW: 46. tristis LElA: T-l46~ ML: 213. tri. DGVB: 320. 'sad' (tro J Since Zeuss's edition was considered as a numeral denoting '30'.(?) derivative from tru. 3~-]6 isem hichet triuceint torth C'hnd 4 froi prep. to IE *ter.3) rit pucsaun mi ditrintaut Juv 9 (7. LElA: T-151~ VGK: I. trindaut~ OIr trind6it < Lat.weg'. 31. prep. Greene: 542. MW trugarog.23. in Inti urd. then see ugeinl. 101. Haycock Cliso ~ugl!('sts to consider the form o"11'\'''n". cf. J. LElA: T-29. ----.is explained as a consonantal glide. Williams: 1930. KGP: VGK: I. 202. Lambert: 1984.36. Le. per monades Me 7 b. LElA: T-139f. humanit~tis. this is Cl comhinatinl1 of fry· (intensive). see also O. B trugarek. see tri and cf. Old. where "ae.. troi enmeituou gl. per nutus Ovid 3S b tro adj. lEW: 1073. Heidelberg 1960. 37-43. num. trum. triti. 37-43. An alternative explanation forwarded by E. Lambert. VVB: 226 irt r urn gl. Olr tre < Celt. G. Schrijver: 448.. 3 x 20. 08 tri. however. 'sixty' See tri. Elsie: 104~ lEW: 1095.< IE *trelld-. -_. Stokes: 1873. VVB: 224~ WG: 404 ni guor gnim molirn trintaut JuW' 9 (5. mitia J 42 lro. VVB: 224 ir ir tri ui. DGVB: Sec Schrijver for the details and 246-7~ ML: 213 319~ lEW: 1076. The recent study of the Latin text(s) by P. C tru~ Olr truag For an etymological summary see LElA. OIr tn.'hindurcfl.tiio-. See also citltremmet. CA: 165.nllce. 1984. Le. Hamp (EC 21. drwy. the presence of -m.nt. Camp 5 S~e "0"" trifid num. p. 'third' trifid. aUf. trimuceint 'Dekade tiber 20 hinaus'. tip'?). Greene: 539 and 507. Olr trom Traditionally. for the etymology see then VGK: 11. 'third' [tryd)'ddl MW trydydd. see trLt. m 'three' (tril MW tri. Thurneysen: 1936.

'much loved' 153 u uenou? Discussing this word. far from clear.2) uir n (name of a letter) This name of a letter in "Alphabet of Nemnius" was connected hy Zeuss with W wyr 'grand -child'. Stokes: 1860-1.21 tuo«hennou n pi (from sgl. guedyf. oev: 224. DGVB: 185--6. VGK: I. Williams: 1980~ 188 Arntrybann teirbann treisguenn Pad: 2 Ilylenn n 'protedfon. J. p"gnlts. gwdyf. curbanam CH 16.V. acerram Me 14 a. Haycock: 243. MB uy lEW: 763 derives the word from IE *6(LJJi~oln 'Ei'. 3H9. 219. . and lestr. Haycock: 14. Parry-Williams to show non-Welsh character. or nyddu 'to spin'. ran Juv 9 (6. See also oi. GMWL: 289. or with a cognate of Ir.a. ML: 213) suggests rendering 'etruscans'. quocumque Me 14 a.The stem could be a cognate of gnid 'work'. thus. hedginK-bill' I~wddyf. a. I.1. LElA: 0-13. p.a. Lewis..300. Williams refers to MW ygnn (T).434. WiJliams: 1980. Lewis: 1926. OR cith: Ir ncht < *OXto. H. VVB: 226 tuorchennou gl. 'eight' [wyth) MW vyth. VGK: r. guodoh. very dear' (with a query). see S. Lewis in snes I (1923). Williams. Haycock: 14. WG: 107 nouircrunnui gl.~ ugaint see douceint ui n m 'egg' [wYJ MW wy. fI. gudif. See also PECA. Williams: 1980. 113 ueatiutaut beantrident Juv 9 (6. tu. 186-7 Amdinnit trynit try]enn Pad: 1 tu n m&I'side' [ta) MWtu See popptu. n f 'gannent' Itwyg) MW twyg < Lat. acerra Me 10 b. 113 ceinmicum ucnou. 'Etrusaan' VVB: 226 (cf. lennan 'love. acena Me 12 a. gwydyu. CA: 186. tusletr gl.152 Haycock: 244. this could be a contraction for Lat. PECA: 104. GMWL: 291. vlIcth. 187-8 Amdinnit trynit trylenn Pad: I Ilynit? Several interpretations have been offered for this word by I. OB guedom. tubicine 1usco Ovid 3Sb uiidimm n m 'bill-hook. p. *yidLlbio~ < IE Vyidhll.i. The possibility for a different analysis of this instance is considered by M. GPC: 1607. VVB: 90. Quiggin in RC 38 (1920-1921). Stevenson: 113 suggests curbana (which occurs on the next page of the MS as well. 226 t~slestr .3) ug: Latin Contraction? According to H. tywarchen(n). Williams: 1980. CA: 187.. turibulum gl. Haycock who notes that nOli could stand for W Ilt1H'. tuslestr g1. In general.2) ueatiutaut beantrident This line is not clear. See aWAY.a. ovum. C. Schrijver: 2R3. uyth. see lestir Stokes: I873~ 396. Parry-Williams: 122. acerra Me 8 b. Elsie: 92.a. LHEB: 3R7. tus(s)lestr ? This compound is analysed as containing tuss < Lat.15 tuic gl. from Lat. vidubium < Celt. Loth in RC 37 (1917-19). Williams: 1980. 16) = 'wallet'. gwddiJ MW hudhyf.< IE *01< 1ij~ 'acht'. tuscensis. tuslcstr g1. VVB: 227 uiidimm gl. FEW: 14. VVB. palma MP 23 ft (245) MW trylenn Perhaps a combination of the intensive prefix with lenn.'Baum' (lEW: 1177) + V"I11 'schlagen· (lEW: 117). glebis J 56 tusrois adj. 301. I. his edition 17. '. OC uy gl. or alternatively is taken as an intensive prefix. VVB: 227. 66. 113 piipaur tuscois gl. G~ Lat. ligni[ci]smus Ox2 42 h (4. patupinnacc gl. Zeuss: 1059 uir Nemn uith num. B taouarc'hennou The form was considered by T. .b. Schrijver: 299-. 165. theca. 4 bos ug gl. Try could stand for 'three' Ctriple'). E. oui Me 10 b. Oir fidha. card. 14. sickle. Haycock: 244. see also Williams: 1933. reluge' 8dJ. Williams compared this entry with Ir Ira chu 'much loved. sweetheart'.) 'sods' MW teguarchen. r. and suggests uch + gnou 'famous'.

Hamp in BBCS 16 (1954--{). See the previous entry.75. adj.3) inungueid guoled trintaut Juv 9 (8. lEW: 286. 126. LElA: 0-11. cf. and pimmunt. uncenettieion gl.5 155 un l num. DGVB: 326.". uld n f'row' [urdd] MW urd. Elsie: 117. l' 'one'. mOD. gI. VVB: 228. congeus MP 23& (228) uncenettkion (') According to Loth (VVB: 227).b. 4 .154 DGVB: 237 and 156.2) r . or otherwise a Latin word. solicanae Me 9 b. Lambert "sont de deux scribes different5'''. uas To IE *upo 'unten an etwas heran'. uncia. Watkins: 1982.1) un z nom. see s. ordo OOVB: ~28~ LElA: 0-29~ ML: 214 .121 uuc nem isnem intcouer Juv 9 (9. pp. guar. 08 un. 254--0. Greene: 538. OIr ord < Lat. 397 untaut gl. Stokes: 1813. 'only' The sequence guar. unn see urfl uno/ion n pi ·uoits.cIs' [uDol) W unawl.-Y.1. I unc n 'inch' < Lat. unus.. LHEB: 572. un . un 2 • DGVB: 327. unl.8. E. orbem Me 9 b.57 and II. biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi iT hune MP 23 8 (241) . Williams: 1980. OIr 6s.93.u' n m 'unity' lundod) MW undawt. 194 pimmunt. OB urdhaom (vo in -haom). See also hirunn and. MB urz. 6en < IE *Hoinos. according to P. LElA: 0-7. unitatem ML: 214. . He translates the gloss as 'on exprime einquante avec un seull'.3) un harned hapuil haper Juv 9 (9.Len unc gl. lEW: IIO?. Lambert: 1982. Comp . septies octoni Ang 59 a In irtritid urd Comp 1 in triti urd. he translates this gloss as lchantant seules'. Haycock: 16. un . cf. unoloion. OB uh. Williams: 1980~ 99-100 hfru~n gl. unde quinquaginta Prise'4 a uue prep. vndawt < Lat.33. LHEB: 405 iseith uith (·is seith uith) gl. per monades Me 7 b.a. 'one' [un] MW un. is . lEW: 775. VVB: 228 trui ir unolion gl. 'over' Dch ) MW uch. VGK: 1. ef. LElA: 0-31.I. Olr ofn. quem J 51 dou nam riceus unguetid Juv 3 (3. VGK: 1. c~nettic ia an -etic derivative of canim. aard. unol An ·01 derivative from un. Lat. GMWL: 291.i. :i . ~.

did. int dOll pimp MP 22 h (230) is hepdud gl. quem J 54 is brut mi [= rnihiJ gl.. White. quem J 3 fshtH gl.inc.(lEW: 340f. Romanaque pectora Ovid 39b (1~1. VB: 320-2. Zeuss (p.na regular. Old British.: A very difficult and uninterpreted gloss. Comp 14 Pres. in pag. The Indo-European Origins of Old Irish Nasal Presents.inc*glinau Appendix II: 'To be'. Lambert: 1987.b.) hinl hold hois hoys int is "\"''' hint e punt gl. P.. ad sextarium MP 23 lt (22q) tri pimp MP 22 b (230) Imperf.glinau irleill gI. Stokes p. Williams 1929: 3 . ir loe glial' hinnith. 3 sg.Appendix I: . Erytria quaeque ('urnca e~t vel Pres. haci Comp J is gur tum zarnetor ir Inc gual' haihid posr. hanaud Comp I is did ciman.8. o.419-41. see also K. indie. passim. indie. quos J 19 ismf Christus gl. To IE *es.0. Schrijver.na regular. pp. iseith uith (*is seith uith) gl. hoid hoitou hou hein atar ha heinn cihunn MP 22 h (2~4) Oratur. indie. indic. par est Me 4 h. 3 sg. Main references: GMW: 136-45.235) as hinc:glinau.h.7. Comp 6 Pres. Innsbruck: 1991. Wiesbaden (forthcoming). Hernon. Phrigia Me 11 b. Williams is . is xxx ha ~unrenoieu guotig MP 22 f1 (230) Pres. VGK: 11. Cinnit hoys irloc gual' hinnuith In pag. indie. A Historical Morphology and Syntax of Breton. WG: 346-50. indie. § 4. septies octoni Ang 59 a is douhoueeint gl. ni hois. 3 pI.. 3 sg. Dublin: The Duhlin Institute for Advanced Studies 1975. ir sereno hai hid in eir cimeir . Subjunctives and Futures. enucin di Sihcllae int hinn gl. The reading of I. personal forms :·r.g/inau. passim. cephitor. I .2) isahruid icinimer Juv Q (~. est animus J 66 isamraud gl. 1057) read this as hin cet/inau. 203-12. mens est J 78 isdisl'irr rnieoueidid Juv 3 (3. Comp 10 Is aries isid in arl'imeir Comp 12 isem hiehet triuceint torth Chad 4 ismi gl. XL Ang 5q h ismod.inc. Isaac: 371-83. McCone. II Compendium Linguarum Celticarum. 3 pI.2) iscimadas gl. Watkins and MacC'ana. R. 3 sg. Comp 7 Hacet isgurth. sine quihus Ang 15 h Pres.

imferiora Ang 81 b ~r ree issid pellaham gl. 3 sg. 3 sg. i.e. o. 3 sg. quid J 31 if Joe guac haibid post.b. I Pres. Pres. hai bu in arcimeir. issi. did di aries Comp 18 nit abruid Comp 6 nit gurmaur Juv 3 (1. issft padhi ita" gtil~t gl. 3 ~g.. b.b issmi gl. extinea J 78 fnft6fd gl. guae.9) biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune MP 23a (241) ti r telih haioid eleu Chad 2 nataid guoceleseticc gl. (relative) Pres. pressus J 92 bit 159 Imper. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 isscimadas gl. indie. 3 pI. (relative) Pres.a. 3 ~g. intemerata MC 11 a. mortalis MC 10 B. (relative) issft ia nit Pres. excu~iendu~ (leg. Imperf. 3 sg. ipsa MC 15 b. subj. (negative) Pres. iodie. nostri qui earn Ang 60 b Is aries isid in arcimeir Comp 12 biheit heitham ir eguin hittoi ir hune isit petguared pard guoifrit nun MP 23 1 (241) issem ir .i. Comp 8 irloc quae habid post . celsi thoronus est cui regia eoeli J 19 bichet paniu pet guarid. 3 sg. Comp 5 issimi g1. issid nes gl.. subj. 3sg. Imperf. boit bu Pres. habit. To IE *std.i. Genius MC 11 a. par MC 4 s. indie. 3 sg.e. Pres. 3sg. Comp 7 hoi isid Isit Pres. adsit]. initoid gl. issi g1.0. in triti urd. Assit [leg. Christus quem J 81 irhinn issid ille gl. Preterite 3 sg. iodie. iodie. Pres. verum MC 13 a. Pres. ad ir loc. celsi thronu~ est cui coeli J 19 Pres. Pres. 01 oid To IE *bheu· (lEW: 146f.ISS is trimueeint hestaur mel MP 22b (231) . subj. 3 pI.a. 3 sg.a. eongeus MP 23 1 (228) amser is eihun argant agit eterin illud MP 22 b (234) is moi hinnoid MP 23 1 (246) isid ni gl. titillata MC 12 a. fssft padfu it~u gulat gl. indie.) itl. ut si dicas Anton Hie MC 43 b. nam ir ni be cas igridu Chad 2 hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) hoid hoitou hou bein atar ha beinn cihunn MP 22b (234) paped bi gl. Imperf. b.2) nitguorgnim molim map meir Juv 9 (9.b. Comp 11 ir loe guac hai bid in irgueleri Comp 11 hou nit bloidin salt hai bid im guar phenn circhl naunecant Comp 22 . 3 5g.exx une gl. iodie. Compo 9 ir serenn hai bid in eir cimeir .) be bein beinn bi bid \"" Imperf. subj. issemi anu gl. 3 sg. hit J 32 cenit hoi loc guac Comp 12 piouboi. iodie. nulla . 3 sg. Future I Pres. pan aed bid. issguir gl. maculata J 78 initoid gl.0. Pres. excutiendus) erit Ovid 39a hou boit cihitun ceng ir esceir MP 23 lt (246) ir serenn. hinnuith issid diguedham 011 in pagina regulari Comp 15 irhinn issid crist g1. subj. a superioribus continentur Ang 81 b issem ir . o. indie. 3 sg.2) hacboi gl. 35g. iodie. is .(lEW: 1004 f. 3 sg. int groi~auc luv 9 (R.