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Project Management Functions

Planning
(what are we aiming for and why?)
Organizing
(what’s involved and why?)
Motivation
(what motivates people to do their best work?)
Directing
(who decides what and when?)
Control
(who judges results and by what standards?)
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Leading (Directing)

Motivation and leadership
Teamworking and Creativity

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Motivation

Motivation tries to determine what gets
people to work and what gets them to work
better
Motivation affects the production and quality
of work

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Motivation (Continue)
Lack of motivation creates several problems such
as:
people do not feel like doing the job or
it gets done but not very well,
people get to work late,
miss deadlines, ..., etc.
Many factors affect why people take jobs and the
weightings applied to each factor vary with each
individual
Psychology has much to offer in the way of
motivational theories.
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chance to advance Recognition. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Maslow and Herzberg Self. Engineering Administration 55 King Saud Dr. Relations with superiors (Physical) Physiological needs. the work itself Higher Needs (type of work) (Psychological) Self-expression 4. working condition 4. Salary Basic Needs 3. warmth. respect (promotion) Safety. recognition 3. 1. Achievement Hygiene factor fulfillment 2. Company policy Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Herzberg Spring 2008. etc 1. clothing etc. Working conditions Motivators 2. shelter. food. taking responsibility (level of responsibility) 5.

Hunt Hunt proposed that: predicting people’s behavior is achieved by considering their personal goals. relationships. John W. People can be motivated by creating an environment in which their goals can be satisfied while the goals of the organization are also satisfied. power. Khalid Al-Gahtani . and growth. structure. Individual’s goals are: comfort. creativity. recognition and status. Engineering Administration 66 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. autonomy.

Engineering Administration 77 King Saud Dr. Later this goal will be better salary. then the goal is to find flexible job…etc. Spring 2008. John W. Hunt (Continue) Hunt assumes people’s needs are not constant in contrast of Herzberg and Maslow theories. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Example: A graduate engineer will have a goal of finding a job that offer good training.

Managers have to try to build up what their subordinates are likely to like and then establish what it is that drive them. motivation is a complex process- what motive one person might not motivate another. Questioning subordinates is unlikely to provide reliable answers in short period of time. Motivation in Practice Practically. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 88 King Saud Dr.

Spring 2008. Authority should be achieved through respect so that people do what is needed because they themselves appreciate the need. Leadership Leadership is the way in which managers influence people to meet the objectives of the organization. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Engineering Administration 99 King Saud Dr.

People have to be motivated through sound leadership in order to meet the company’s objectives.) Establishing leadership is difficult. There is no correct way to lead. Spring 2008. It is a management skill that can be developed with time. Engineering Administration 1010 King Saud Dr. Leadership (Cont. but there are different styles depending on the circumstances. Khalid Al-Gahtani .

Khalid Al-Gahtani . Task-centered leader: The leader is concerned with the task to be accomplished and sees subordinates as tools that are used to get the job done. Authoritarian: Allowing the subordinate no role in the decision-making 2. Spring 2008. Leading Styles 1. Engineering Administration 1111 King Saud Dr. Democratic: Where the decision making is delegated to the subordinates 3.

Engineering Administration 1212 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. with the view that if the subordinates are cared for them the task will be achieved through their commitment. Theory X: “old-fashioned” managers believe that people dislike work and must be forced to work and that people prefer to be told what to do. Khalid Al-Gahtani . The employs-centered leader: Leader is mainly concerned with the welfare and well- being of subordinates. 5. Leading Styles 4.

People will actively look for responsibility and use their imagination and creativity to solve problems. Engineering Administration 1313 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . people exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. Spring 2008. Leading Styles 5. Theory Y: (opposite of X).

Spring 2008. their feeling of independence or to be guided. experience. For subordinate: knowledge. confidentiality. The situation: company’s expectation. Engineering Administration 1414 King Saud Dr. culture. Factors of Leadership styles 1. 3. working as groups. 2. experience. background knowledge. confidence in employees. Khalid Al-Gahtani . constraints (time. value system. For Managers: personalities. …etc).

Engineering Administration 1515 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Teamworking and Creativity Teamworking Optimization Team Composition-Theory Managing the Creative Process Problems Solving Methods to Improve Solution Generation Decision Making (Proposal Evaluation) Spring 2008.

Teams are often formed to solve problems and so needed to be creative. Khalid Al-Gahtani . at school. Engineering Administration 1616 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. Teamworking Teamworking is a life long habit for mankind: In family. and at work we work in teams.

) Teamworking brings true holisom. This means that the group acquires new abilities that the individuals could not have provided along (i. Holistic team is an entity whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts. colonies of ants). Teamworking (Cont. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Engineering Administration 1717 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008.e. Mangers need to know: how to bring about the benefits of holistic teams and has to avoid forming ineffective teams (team composition).

A good theory must describe not only how to select individuals. but has to select groups that will work effectively together “team balancing”. Engineering Administration 1818 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008.Optimization Team Composition- Theory Team theories describe how to form the best possible team.

Simple Theories In most models. Engineering Administration 1919 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008. separate team roles are identified: could be functions that the team requires for success such as leading. or they may be attributes of people that are helpful in teamworking such as respect for colleagues. 1. Each theory describes a way of identifying the attributes a given individual can bring to the team (through questionnaire).

Khalid Al-Gahtani . Simple Theories (Cont. 1.) These theories do not provide: experimental evidence to support their prediction nor do they provide a way of measuring the role each individual take in team with accuracy. Spring 2008. They are only concerned about: having the required expertise in the team and not concerned about team homogeneity. Engineering Administration 2020 King Saud Dr.

Engineering Administration 2121 King Saud Dr. Advanced Team Theory (Belbin Theory) Belbin’s research was centered on the performance of teams at a management game called “Teamopoly”. Khalid Al-Gahtani . 2. Spring 2008. Belbin uses proven psychological classifications to generate his team roles.

Team-role developed by Belbin 1. control the way in which a team moves toward the group objectives. Chairman (CH). carries out agreed plans systematically and efficiently. 2. Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 2222 King Saud Dr. Company worker (CW). Khalid Al-Gahtani .

shapes the way team effort is applied (discussion. Team-role developed by Belbin 3. advances new ideas and strategies to major issues. Engineering Administration 2323 King Saud Dr. outcome of group activities). 4. Spring 2008. Plant (PL). Sharper (SH). Khalid Al-Gahtani .

Monitor Evaluation (ME). Khalid Al-Gahtani . analysis problems. Spring 2008. Team-role developed by Belbin 5. Engineering Administration 2424 King Saud Dr. development and resources outside the group. 6. explores and reports on ideas. evaluates ideas and suggestions. Resources Investigator (RI).

ensures that the team is protected against mistakes in aspects which need high attention. 8. Engineering Administration 2525 King Saud Dr. Completer Finisher (CF). Team Worker (TW). Khalid Al-Gahtani . supports members in their strengths and underpinning members in their shortcomings. Team-role developed by Belbin 7. Spring 2008.

Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 2626 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani .) A questionnaire-based analysis of team roles are used to produce a numerical rating for each individual. A successful team is a balanced team. Belbin Theory (Cont. 2. one in which all roles are present and unbalanced team will be a losing team.

therefore. Belbin Theory (Cont.) This theory was experimentally verified.e. Khalid Al-Gahtani . 2. it has found its way into the practice of many organizations that use it for forming teams (i. Spring 2008. Board of Directors). Engineering Administration 2727 King Saud Dr.

Belbin theory takes into account availability of expertise and team homogeneity. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008. Belbin Theory (Cont.) Belbin also produced a list of dangerous group combinations: as a contradiction to the proposal that the best way to form a team is to pick one expert or more in each field required. 2. Engineering Administration 2828 King Saud Dr.

Modern problem solving is an organized. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Managing the Creative Process Contemporary creativity comes from group- work. Engineering Administration 2929 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. rational approach aimed at producing the required breakthroughs at the times they are needed.

STEP1: Examination STEP2: Proposal STEP3: Implications STEP4: Implementation Spring 2008. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Problems Solving Problem solving is the gateway to progress Several techniques exist. Any good technique should include the following steps in some form or another. Engineering Administration 3030 King Saud Dr.

Spring 2008. Clarity of thought and the application of rationality are the keys to being accurate in identifying the real problem. STEP1: Examination In order to solve a problem one should be clear on what the problem actually is. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Engineering Administration 3131 King Saud Dr.

Spring 2008. STEP2: Proposal A good problem solving depends on being able to identify the best solution to the problems. It is usually difficult to arrive at the best solution straight way. The ideal approach is to produce lots of different ideas and then weigh one against another to find the best one. Engineering Administration 3232 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani .

STEP3: Implications Usually a proposal designed to solve a problem will have implications. Engineering Administration 3333 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. Some implications are significant enough to render a proposal unworkable. Khalid Al-Gahtani .

Spring 2008. Khalid Al-Gahtani . A plan must be produced for implementing the solution. STEP4: Implementation No solution to a problem is complete without due considerations being given to implementation of the solution. Implementing a solution to a problem is a management issue. Engineering Administration 3434 King Saud Dr.

(2) lateral thinking. Engineering Administration 3535 King Saud Dr. Spring 2008. Khalid Al-Gahtani . two techniques are presented: (1) Brainstorming. Methods to Improve Solution Generation To generate ideas needed for the proposal phase of the problem-solving process.

Engineering Administration 3636 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . In most cases only a few of the generated ideas will be used to solve the problem. Spring 2008. (1) Brainstorming The technique aims at generating a big number of solutions to a given problem.

) The technique relies on having a group seeing the problem with fresh eyes and using their imagination to produce solutions. Spring 2008. ideas should be generated free from rational constraints. After the session a rational approach is used for the selection of a good solution. (1) Brainstorming (Cont. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Engineering Administration 3737 King Saud Dr. During a brainstorming session.

In lateral thinking one has an inspiration and sees a new angle of the problem and the solution is accordingly. Spring 2008. It is a brainstorming on your own. (2) Lateral Thinking: In vertical thinking one starts with known conditions and then applies steps of reasoning to reach a goal (engineers use this). Khalid Al-Gahtani . Engineering Administration 3838 King Saud Dr.

I Decision-making Techniques II Collecting III Start with Objectives Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 3939 King Saud Dr. Decision Making (Proposal Evaluation) Good decision making is a key to success Decision making as a process can be divided into independent. Khalid Al-Gahtani . elemental sections and optimizing each one.

Spring 2008. • Rational decision making is impossible with conflicting objectives. (I) Decision-making Techniques • Objectives facilitate clear and corporately beneficial decision-making at all levels. Engineering Administration 4040 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani .

Spring 2008. Quantity and accuracy of data collected has to be consistent with the measurable effects of the decision. Khalid Al-Gahtani . (II) Collecting Whenever a decision is to be made there are always options. Data collecting aims at: (1) collecting sufficient amount of facts about each option (2) ensuring that all options are known. Engineering Administration 4141 King Saud Dr.

People should learn from mistakes. (III) Start with Objectives Occasional wrong decision is an inevitable consequence of making decisions. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Some of the evaluative techniques that may be used to assist the process are: (1) Search for Extrema (2) Penalty Costs (3) Matrix Assessment (4) Overriding Constraints (5) Use of Math (6) Consequence Analysis Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 4242 King Saud Dr.

(e.) of some variables. Engineering Administration 4343 King Saud Dr. possible time ≥ C.P. (1) Search for Extrema Sometimes objectives may require the decision maker to aim at extremum (max. plans) Extrema are poor ways to specify objectives and lead to unclear choice (What project duration is acceptable should be the question) Sometimes they are appropriate and they are used in common practice. min. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008.g. or min.

Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008. Engineering Administration 4444 King Saud Dr. (2) Penalty Costs All decision come not only with potential benefits but also with costs associated with the decision being wrong (Penalty costs) The Risk associated with the decision usually decided taking it or not.

(3) Matrix Assessment A very simple and effective way of choosing among alternatives when many different attributes have to be weighted against each other (see Fig. Engineering Administration 4545 King Saud Dr.) Spring 2008. Khalid Al-Gahtani .

Khalid Al-Gahtani . P la st ic . Engineering Administration 4646 King Saud Dr. (3) Matrix Assessment M ax. P la st ic - A ttrib u te G la ss S ilic a sc o re N3 N2 C la r it y 20 19 17 15 17 L o w co st 20 5 15 10 18 W e ig h t 20 2 19 13 16 R e fra c t iv e in d e x 1 5 14 8 9 12 u n ifo r m it y 10 10 6 8 6 S ta b ilit y 15 15 11 13 11 T o ta l 100 65 76 68 80 Spring 2008.

(4) Overriding Constraints • In some cases overriding constraints significantly reduce the number of options available. Such constraints should first be identified before the beginning of the process: – (i. Engineering Administration 4747 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani .e. upgrading an existing camera model without changing the original body shell-space constraint). Spring 2008.

Spring 2008. (5) Use of Math A good technique to use to arrive at a decision (unbiased and dependable). Engineering Administration 4848 King Saud Dr. Khalid Al-Gahtani . Some times it allows for probability evaluation in the process of decisions making.

(6) Consequence Analysis In some cases the consequence of a decision interacts with the issue upon which the decision is made. Engineering Administration 4949 King Saud Dr. For the use when the consequence of a decision is so essential in the selection process (price reduction decision). Khalid Al-Gahtani . Spring 2008. Anticipating all consequences possible of a given action is not usually possible so efforts should be directed in the most important directions.