SuperFlow Flowbench

110 Instructions
Section
1.0 Flow-testing
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
SuperFlow 110 description
What is a flow test?
Adapting heads for testing
Flow test preliminaries
Performing a flow test
Test data sheet sample
Analyzing the test data
Avoiding test errors
Air Flow Through Engines
HP & RPM & CIO & CFM
Intake Port Area & Shape
Valve Seats
Valve Sizes
Valve Lift & Flow
Combustion Chambers
Dynamic Flow Effects
Inertia - Supercharge Effect
Test Pressure Conversion Chart
Suggested Additional References
Troubleshooting
Page
1
2
2
3
4
6
8
9
10
12
16
18
18
19
22
23
24
26
27
29
1.0 Flow-testing
1.1 Superflow 110 description
The Superflow 110 is designed to measure the air-flow resistance
of engine cylinder heads, intake manifolds, velocity stacks,
and restrictor plates. For intake testing, air is drawn in
through the cylinder head into the machine, through the air
blower, and exits through the orifice plate at the top of the
Superflow 110. For.exhaust testing, the path of the air-flow is
reversed by a switch on the front control panel.
HSl 1
PRESSURE
M[HR
flOW
CONTROL I
KNOB
ORIFICE PLATE
TEST
HEAD
__ BLOWER
The test pressure meter (manometer) measures the pressure or
vacuum at the base of the test cylinder. The test pressure is
adjusted to a standard value, for instance 15.0 inches of water,
by turning the flow control knob on the lower front panel.
Separate knobs c o ~ t r o l either the intake or exhaust flow.
The amount of flow is read from the inclined flow meter (manometer).
The flow meter measures the pressure difference across the 5 flow
orifices at the top of the Superflow 110. By selecting different
combinations of orifices, the flow meter can be used in any of
9 different ranges to obtain high accuracy over a wide range of
flows. The flow meter reads 0 to 100% of any flow range selected
with the rubber stoppers.
A separate test orifice with a .312" diameter and a 1.875" diameter
hole is included for calibration of the flow tester.
The machine requires 110 VAC, or 110 VDC electrical power
and draws 15 amps.
2
1.2 What is a flow test?
In its simplest form, flow testing consists of blowing or sucking
air through a cylinder head at a constant pressure. Then the
flow rate is measured at various valve lifts. A change can be
made and the head re-tested. Greater air flow indicates an im-
provement. If the tests are made under the same conditions, no
corrections for atmospheric conditions or machine variations
are required. The results may be compared directly.
At the other extreme, it is possible to adjust and correct for
all variations so that test results may be compared to those of any
other head, tested under any conditions on any other Superflow
machine. Further calculations can be made to determine valve
efficiency and various recommended port lengths and cam timing.
The calculations are very cumbersome without a small,electronic
calculator, preferably with a square root key. The calculations
are not essential to simple flow testing.
1.3 Adapting heads for testing
Cylinder heads are mounted onto the Superflow by means of cylinder
adaptors. The adaptor consists of a tube 4" long with the same
bore as the engine and a flange welded on each end. The lower flange
is bolted to the flow tester and the upper flange is bolted or
clamped to the test cylinder head. The flanges must be flat or
gasketed to make an airtight seal. The adaptor tube may be 1/16"
larger or smaller than the actual engine cylinder. In some cases
it is convenient to make the upper flange of the adaptor about 20%
wider than the test cylinder head so that the head will be supported
when it i ~ offset for testing the end cylinders.
A device must be attached to the cylinder head to open the valves
to the various test positions. The usual method is to attach a
threaded DQUnt to a rocker arm stud so that the end of a bolt
contacts the end of the valve stem. As the bolt is rotated, it
pushes open the valve. A 0 to 1" x .001 dial indicator may be
mounted to the same fixture with its tip contacting the valve spring
retainer to measure the amount of valve opening. The standard valve
springs should be replaced with light springs for testing. See the
photos in the Superflow brochure for various types of valve openers.
On the intake side of the cylinder head, it is strongly recommended
that a radiused entrance guide be installed to lead the air straight
into the head. The guide should be about one port width in thick-
ness and be generously radiused on the inside all the way down to
the head. The intake manifold can also be used. The exhaust flow
may exit directly from the head.
1.4 Flow test preliminaries
All test data may be recorded on the standard Superflow form
F-120 test data sheet, (see sample). Before beginning a test,
record the head description, and measure the stem and valve
diameters. The net valve area is the valve area minus the stem
area in square inches.
net valve area = .785 (D
2
-
valve
D2 )
stem
Before installing the test adapter, install only the standard test
orifice plate onto the Superflow. Install all the rubber stoppers
in the orifice plate on top of the Superflow and set the direction
knob to intake. Close the intake and exhaust flow control knobs
lightly against their seats.
Zero the vertical test pressure meter and level and zero the inclined
flow meter. With only the small .312" diameter test orifice open,
turn on the machine and slowly open the intake flow control until the
test pressure reaches 10.0" of water. The flow meter should now read
approximately 45% on the 10.0 cfm range (#1 orifice open on top).
This indicates a flow of .45 x 10 cfm = 4.5 cfm. If flow is within
1 cfm of this reading, the machine is working properly.
Now remove all the rubber stoppers from the top orifice plate (185
cfm range) and open both the .312" and the 1.875" diameter holes
in the test orifice. Adjust the intake flow control again until the
test pressure reads 10.0". Allow the machine to warm up for several
minutes until the upper thermometer reads about 25
0
F higher than the
lower thermometer. Multiply the flow meter reading times 185 cfm to
obtain the !llt It will be 153.2 cfm under standard
conditions. If the flow meter does not read 153.2 cfm, the flow
readings will all have to be corrected by a correction factor.
This factor is equal to:
153.2 1f.
Test flow correction factor =
---- ---- test orifice flow
This factor compensates for machine variations and all atmospheric
conditions. Enter this information on the test data sheet. For
best accuracy, this factor should be determined before each day's
testing. It does not need to be re-determined before additional tests
on the same day.
Multiply the flow ranges on line C by the correction factor to
obtain the corrected range, and enter these in line D on the data
sheet. The flow ranges may be used for all tests made on
the same day.
* If Superflow will not draw 10" due to low line voltage, use 8"
test Then:
137.0
Flow correction factor - test orifice flow
3
4
All tests should be performed at the same ratio of valve lift to
valve diameter, or LID ratio. Then the flow efficiencies of any
valves can be compared, regardless of size. Multiply the valve
diameter by each of the six LID ratios to obtain the valve lift
test points. Fill these in on lines A and B of the data sheet.
Choose the proper ~ pressure for the intake valve diameter
from the chart b,elow. It is generally most convenient to test
the exhaust valve at the same test pressure. Fill the test pressure
in on line 3 of the data sheet.
Valve diameter
2.111 to 2.3
11
1. 6
11
to 2.05
11
less than 1.6
Test pressure
5
11
1011
15"
This completes all the preliminary preparations. While they are
very time consuming, they will insure that the test results are
valid and repeatable. Most of the preliminaries will not be re-
quired for subsequent tests of the same head.
1.5 Performing a flow test
Remove ,the test orifice plate from the machine and install the test head,
cylinder adapter, and valve opener onto the flow tester for the actual
flow tests. Set the dial indicator to read 0 with the valve closed.
Install either the intake manifold or an air inlet guide on the intake port.
Zero the vertical test pressure meter and zero and level the
inclined flow meter. Close the intake and exhaust flow control
valves lightly a g a ~ n s t their seats (do not force or they will be
damaged). Place the rubber stoppers into orifices 5, 4, 3 and 2.
Turn the mode selector switch to intake.
Turn on the Superflow and adjust the intake flow control until the
test pressure meter reads the test pressure you intend to use.
Determine the leakage flow from the flowmeter and chart. Because
only the #1 orifice is open, the flow meter reads 10 cfm at 100%.
A reading of 47% would indicate a leakage flow of .47 x 10 cfm c
4.7 efm. Leakage will usually be from 1 to 10 cfm. If there is
no leakage, the test pressure may rise to the top of the meter.
This does not matter as long as the flow meter reads zero. The
leakage will not affect the test provided that you correct for it in
your results. Turn off the Superflow. Repeat this test before the
exhaust tests. Enter the leakage on line 8 of the data sheet to be
subtracted from the chart cfm.
Open the valve in the head to a lift of .20 valve diameter. Remove
all four rubber stoppers from the flow orifices and turn on the
Superflow. Adjust the flow test pressure to 10.0" and allow the
machine to warm up for 5 minutes. This step may be omitted if the
Superflow has been warmed up previously.
The flowmeter is designed with multiple ranges so that the flow
can be measured very accurately. For greatest accuracy, use only
the orifice ranges which give readings above 70% of the scale. If
the reading exceeds 100%, switch to the next higher range shown
on the flow chart by changing the combination of orifices open at
the top of the Superflow. If you have previously determined the
proper flow ranges, fill in line 5 and skip the next step. If not,
open the valve to the first of the six lift points.
To select the proper flow range, begin with the largest stopper
and re-install the stoppers in the flow orifices until the flow
meter reads above 70%. This is the proper number of orifices for
this test pressure, head, and valve lift. Always use the same
combination for future tests at this point. From the chart on the
front of the machine, determine the full scale range value, then
record the corresponding corrected flow range from line D on line
5. Re-adjust the test pressure to the recommended value and record
the readings of the flowmeter and the temperature difference
between the top and bottom thermometers onto the Superflow F-120
data sheet. Turn off the machine. Go to the next valve lift and
repeat the above steps. (Each valve lift may require a different
flowmeter range.) Continue this procedure until you have reached
the maximum lift test point.
To test the exhaust port, turn the mode selector switch to exhaust
and close the intake flow control valve. Move the valve opener
and dial indicator to the exhaust valve and repeat the above pro-
cedures. This completes the test.
For intake manifold tests, remove the radiused :\'1let a1r guide
and replace it with the intake manifold. Repeat the intake tests
and compare the results to determine the effect of the inta"ke
manifold.
5
TEST DATA SHEET
Test Description: CII£//Y 1lEt1P, #-3917281, STOCk #2 PtJRT hi/Til
fZ. 'I R. ItVLET GtJ/PE, €;X1I/ltlS T OPEN FI&JM 11£ 19/J.
Intake valve dia •• area: /9.('d., 'ZB6 IAI.2 Exhaust valve die •• area do, 1,671.;y1.
Tes tOper ator /y. WIL L / ,4/J?.5 Da te .s-.;.... _______ _
Test orifice flow at 10" test preasure: ISO. 7 efm
Test flow correction factor: 153.2/ IS(}, 7 - ..&1. ..... .:;0 .... '1.....:1 ___ _
Valve lift/diameter (LID) .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30
A. Intll}l-e valvE' lift (in) .097 ./94- .291 .38B
.Sl?z.
B. Exhaust valve lift (in ./So .ZZ5" ,306 .375"
.4:;-0
1. Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2. Test port number
2.£
-"'"
215
- ,
3. Test pressure (in.)
/0
......
4. Valve lift (in.)
.097
·/94 ·#85 .58Z
,()7S ,ISo .Z2S ,300 .37S
5. Carr. flow range (c fm)

1a;.9 I-I?S 18.3 -ftJ.7 6tJ.o 85':S 8£5'
6. Flowmeter
.aB .906
.t!8S-
,7.96
.793 .7/& 798 .8Sz.
7. Chart cfm (L6xLS)

6s'1l 97..1 117.3 119./ 1.!o.4
/6:.2 3Z.4-
"17' 68. 'Z. 7l.8
8. Leakage cm
.s /,0
. .-.
9. Test cfm (L7-L8)
96.&,
116.8
1Z9.6 IZ9.9
l5.l 31." -16.'
(0.-1 b72- 71.8
10. Temp. difference
co
.tIt/' SO·
..fo·
..

.
4r&
4£"
4S" 4So
30 35
3S
11. Temp. diff. factor
.917 .961! .966 .970
.973 /.az.. I.tJl7 1.0]'" /.aJ4 I.t7J4 (03';
12. Carr. tes t c ftr.(J.llxL9)
J!,l.
93. / II?€ 12""'7 I£' ".
3z.z 6l. z. 742-
13. Corr. cfm/in.2( L12)
arel!
/1. Z. 2,2.0 3Z.5
79."
".1--'
-14.1.. 1!J.3 Z9.!J 37.4
4 Potential cfml in.
2
1 . (from Fi2.6.D.21)
IS., Z7.3 -17.0 £7.1.
52..) 1j,6
Z7..J
¢/.o
5.,..,
(;i). I
15. % flow rating <ill)
f'z.. tl 79
8'f
1'7
71 70 68 71
71
fX#/'1v,sr /"UW /a? % ':' K /00%':: Sg7 Z
Test Note8: ____ ___________________________________________________ __
Superflow Form F-120
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SAMPLE
Test C!I£V Y HeAP SrDcI(.. #Z R:Rrdate 6:7- 7s-
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8
1.7 Analyzing the test data
For simple analysis of the test results, it is only necessary to
calculate the test cfm, line 9. First calculate the chart cfm,
line 7 by multiplying the flow meter reading, line 6, times
line 5, the corrected flow range. Then subtract the leakage cfm,
line 8, from line 7. The result is the !!!! cfm, line 9. This
can be compared to other tests without further calculations.
To correct for the temperature difference caused by the air passing
through the blower motor, the test cfm must be multiplied by the
temperature difference factor shown below. The temperature
difference is the difference between the upper and lower thermometer
readings.
Temperature Difference Correction Factor
Diff.
50
10
0
15
0
20
0
25
0
30
0
35
0
40
0
45
0
50
0
Intake .996 .992 .988 .984 .981 .977 .973 .970 .966 .962
55
0
.958
Exhaust 1.004 1.008 1.012 1.016 1.019 1.023 1.027 1.030 1.034 1.038 1.042
The result is line 12 the corrected test cfm. To obtain the valve
. --
efficiency, it is necessary to calculate the flow in ~ per sguare
inch of valve area and then compare that to the best yet achieved.
Divide line 12 by the valve area in square inches to obtain line 13.
Then fill in line 14 from the chart in section 7, figure 6. Divide
line 13 by line 14 and multiply by 1 0 0 ~ to obtain line 15, the 1l
~ rating.
The percent flow rating can be used as an indicator of the room left
for futher improvements in flow.
These results can also be plotted on the graph printed on the back of
each test data sheet (see sample). The arrows shown indicate the
scale to which the data is plotted. Circles are used to indicate the
intake test points and triangles for the exhaust test points.
Many additional factors and relationships are discussed in sections
2.0 through 10.0 which follow.
1.8 Avoiding Test Errors
Each test you make involves considerable effort on your part,
but this effort can all be wasted if you allow undetected errors
to creep into your test program. Always check the following
points to reduce the chances of mistakes.
1. Always use the same orifice range at the same test point.
2. Keep the leakage CFM to a minimum by making a good seal on all
surfaces, including the valves in the head.
3. If light valve springs are used, make sure the valves are
not sucked open by the vacuum of the intake tests.
4. Always level and zero the meters before each test.
5. Always use a flow inlet guide on the intake side of the
head and always use the same guide and cylinder adapter.
6. Try to conduct your tests when there are no frequent changes
in line voltage. Voltage changes will not affect the accuracy
of the Superflow, but they will cause it to surge and be unstable.
7. As nearly as possible, conduct all tests with same equipment,
used in the same way and at the same temperature.
8. When in doubt, repeat the tests. If you don't get the same
results, start over.
9
10
2.0 AIR FLOW THROUGH ENGINES
The horsepower of an engine is directly proportional to the amount
of air drawn into the cylinder and retained until ignition occurs.
By reducing the air flow resistance of the intake and exhaust tract,
cylinder filling is improved and engine horsepower is increased
directly.
The average airflow through each engine cylinder can be estimated
as follows:
Average airflow (cfm) - 1.6 x HP per cylinder
The intake airflow rate for a single cylinder will be about 2.5 times
the average airflow for the cylinder because the intake occurs during
only 40% of the total cycle.
For example, if a Chevrolet V-8 engine produces 440 HP, the HP
per cylinder is 55 HP.
Average Airflow
-
1.6 x 55 HP .. 88 cfm
Avg. Intake Rate
=
2.5 x 88 cfm - 220 cfm
Peak Intake Rate
-
2.5 x 220 cfm .. 550 cfm
When an engine is operating, the pressure drop across the cylinder
head ranges from 0 up to about 145 inches of water at the 550 cfm
flow rate. (This is equivalent to the test pressure reading on the
Super flow. )
The average pressure drop is about 23 inches of water (or about 2"
of mercury) at the 220 cfm flow rate. When testing with the Superflow,
it is not important whether a test pressure of 5 or 10, or 15
inches of water is used, provided the same pressure is used for each
subsequent test that will be compared to the original test. A head
that measures 10% better at 5 inches of water test pressure will also
measure 10% better at 10 or 23 or 145 inches of water.
The exception to this rule is at lower valve lifts or through small,
long passages. Then the test pressure must be kept above a certain
minimum to insure that the flow remains turbulent and does not slow
down and become laminar. The minimum recommended pressures are as
follows:
Minimum Valve Lift
.050"
.100"
.200"
.300"
Minimum Test Pressure
15" water
8" water
5" water
3" water
Conveniently, the bigger the opening, the lower the required minimum
test pressure.
Beginners in flow-testing are frequently confused by carburetor
flow ratings. Presently in the U.S., most carburetors are rated
in flow capacity at a test pressure of 20.4 inches of water (1.5
inches of mercury), An 850 cfm carburetor is one that passes 850 cfm
of air at a test pressure of 20.4 inches of water. However, if you
observe a manifold vacuum gauge on a racing engine at full throttle,
you will see that it only reads about 0.5 inches of mercury (7.8 inches
11
of water). At a test pressure of 7.8 inches of water, the same carburetor
would only pass 490 cfm of air. This is why carburetor ratings appear to
be all out of proportion to engine requiraments.
Large carburetors may be tested and compared on the Superflow, but
only at a reduced test pressure. At a test pressure of 1" of water,
the carburetor wi:l flow 22% of its rated capacity at 1.5 inches of
mercury. For example, at 1" test pressure, a 660 cfm carb will flow
.22 x 660 = 145 cfm.
2.0 AIR FLOW THROUGH ENGINES (Cont'd)
The amount of power to be gained by improved air-flow depends on the
engine's volumetric efficiency (the percent the cylinder is full).
An engine with 60% volumetric efficiency can be improved more than an
engine with 90% volumetric efficiency.
--------------------------------r-----
ENGINE YOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY
3000 cooo 5000 6000 7000 RPM
The volumetric efficiency of a gasoline engine can be estimated as follows:
1. Volumetric Efficiency E 5600 x
HP
x 100%
RPM x eIn
where eIn is the displacement of the engine in cubic inches. Be sure
you use accurate HP figures. If the volumetric efficiency on an
un-supercharged engine exceeds 130% the HP or RPM figures are probably
in error.
For an alcohol burning engine, the formula is:
Volumetric Efficiency - 4750 x
HP
x 100% 2.
RPM x ern
12
3 ,0 HP & RPM & CID & CFM
HP, RPM, CID and engine air-flow capacity are all related in
a definite fashion. With the wide spread use of accurate engine
dynamometers and flow-benches, it has become possible to measure the
air-flow potential of a racing engine and then to predict its maximum
potential HP and the RPM at which the HP will peak. The effect of
porting and manifold changes can be anticipated in advance and proper
camming changes made to take full advantage of the differences.
The total air-flow thru a gasoline engine determines its maximum HP.
At peak power, a racing engine will use 1.67 cubic feet of air (cfm) per
minute for each HP it develops. For example, a 100 HP engine will use
167 cfm. This will hold true for any four-cycle gasoline burning racing
e n g ~ n e . Alcohol burning engines will use 1.47 cfm per HP developed.
To increase the engine power output, either the air-flow capacity
of the engine must be increased, or the air-fuel charge must be burned
more effectively. Racers have tended to concentrate primarily on in-
creasing the air-flow.
To put more air thru an engine, the flow resistance of the carburetor,
intake manifold and cylinder head must be reduced. This need has led to
hundreds of after market carburetors, manifolds and ported out cylinder
heads, all designed to get more air thru the engine.
The flow-bench is a measurement device designed to measure the
air-flow capacity of various engine components. Air is blown, or
sucked, thru the intake system at a standard pressure, and then the
air-flow capacity is measured. In this manner, different parts can be
compared and the effect of changes can be quickly evaluated.
These flow tests are conducted at a constant peak air velocity at
the valve, usually between 100 and 400 feet per second. While the flow-benc
air velocity is not varying as it does in an operating engine, experiments
have shown that flow-bench tests actually simulate engine operation closely
enough. This is why flow-benches have become a major development tool for
engine manufacturers and racers alike.
But what'is the" relationship between the capacity on the flow bench
and the horsepower of the engine? Tests have shown that if the complete
intake system air-flow is measured at maximum valve lift and at a test
pressure of 10" of water, a well developed racing engine will produce the
follOWing HP per cylinder:
3.
-
.43 x (cfm at 10" of water) I
~ p :::
Of course to reach this level, the engine must also have the maximum
compression, the right cam, and a tuned exhaust system. In short, it
must be a well-tuned racing engine. With this formula, a head-porter
can see that if he improves the maximum flow thru the intake system by
1 cfm, the engine will gain .43 HP per cylinder. (The formula is only
for gasoline 4-stroke engines without super-chargers).
The intake system flow also determines the RPM at which the racing
engine will develop peak HP:
4.
I RPM
...
2000
CIT>
x (cfm at 10" at water) I
13
where CID is the engine displacement in cubic inches per cylinder. For
super-stock and engines which are not all-ont racing engines, peak power
will occur at 10% higher RPM than formula 4 indicates, so use 2200 instead
ot 2000.
Now, let's tryout these formulas on an example. If you have a
"220 HP" small-block 292 Chevy which runs in super-stock, what will be
the maximum HP at what RPM? Tests show that at a test pressure of 10"
of water, this intake system will flow 105 cfm of air. The CID per
cylinder is one-eighth of 292 or 36.5 CID.
The
2000 for
HP
...
.43 x 105 cfm
..
or for all 8
HP
0;:
8 x 45.1
RPM for maximum powe r will
racing engines):
RPM
...
2200
':r03
cylinders
=
361. 2
be (2200 is
x 105 cfm
45.1
HP
for super-stocks,
...
6330 RPM
So the engine has a maximum potentai1 of 361 HP at 6330 RPM. But remember,
this is the maximum potential HP. The engine will only approach this if
everything else is optimized.
Now, let's try another example to show how changes in the intake
system will effect the engine performance. For this example, we will
use a small block Chevy 302, displacement 37.75 CID per cylinder.

Intake Flow Power
Stock, 2.02" valve 120 cfm 413 HP @ 6360 RPM
Normal ported, 2.02" valve 143 cfm 492 HP @ 7570 RPM
Best ported, 2.02" valve 160 cfm 550 HP @ 8470 RPM
Westlake, 2 x valves 175 cfm 602 HP @ 9270 RPM
14
The "Normal ported" head is about the best that can normally be
achieved, even with careful flow-bench testing. However, it is possible
to improve the head up to the "best ported" level, though welding might
be required.
For the last two heads, the engines must be wound up to 8500 and
9300 RPM to take full advantage of the additional flow. This brings us
to the need for another guideline. If the engine must hold together
for more than a couple runs down the drag strip, the peak power should not
be developed at a piston speed in excess of 3700 feet per minute. If a
few runs down the strip are all you want, this limit may be raised to
4600 fpm, but the engine will need super internal parts to last even one"
run.
These rules can be reduced to a simple formula for the RPM for peak
HP (remember, your shift points may be 1000 RPM or more above peak HP):
5. Safe peak power RPM -
6.
I Maximum peak power RPM
-
22.200
1n. stroke
I
27,600 I
in. stroke
Returning now to the e ~ p l e of the 302 engine, a well ported head
would be adequate for most road-race applications for the 302 because the
peak power is already being developed at slightly more than the 3800 fpm
piston speed. If the power peak was pushed to an even higher RPM, the
engine would frequently fail to finish the race.
To take full advantage of the extra breathing of the Westlake
4-valve head, the power peak would have to be at 9270 RPM (4630 fpm) and
engine life would be short. Without super internal parts, it would
probably not survive even one run down the drag strip. The shift point
would be up around 10,500 RPM. A lot for any Chevy!
Now, if we pull all the formulas together, it is possible to
construct a graph for determining the maximum intake system flow required
for a particular engine and application. From this graph, you can easily
select the required flow for any engine and RPM. Remember that the
CFM, CID and HP figures are for each cylinder, not the entire engine.
To use the graph, determine the CID per cylinder of your engine and
then you can read the RPM required for any particular HP and the CFM of
flow capacity that will be required on the flow-bench at a 10" test
pressure.
16
For an example, suppose you have a 427 CID V-8 engine which will
hold together up to 7500 RPM. From the graph for 53.4 CID (1/8 of 427),
the m a x ~ power per cylinder would be 85 HP if you can tmprove your
intake system to 196 cfm on the flow bench at 10" of water test pressure.
For all eight cylinders, the engine could produce 680 HP at 7500 RPM.
Of course it'. not enough to stmply calculate the flow capacity
required. The engine must achieve it, and so let's talk about how to
improve the engine airflow, and how to judge the flow potential of any
engine.
4.0 Intake Port Area and Shape
For maxtmum flow, the ideal intake system would have a single
carburetor per cylinder with a slide-plate throttle and a venturi equal to
.85 times the intake valve diameter. Below the venturi, the carburetor
bore should gradually open up to the size of intake valve at the intake
manifold entrance and gradually taper down to about .85 times the intake
valve diameter at a point about 1/2" below the valve seat. The optimum
length for the port will be discussed in Section 9.0.
In practice, this ideal is never achieved, but it does provide a
guide-line for what an efficient port would be 1:f.ke. When porting out
a cylinder head for maximum flow, keep the following points in mind.
1. Flow losses arise from changes in direction and decreases
in velocity (port bends and expansions).
2. Port area should be between 651. to 1001. of valve area.
3. Remove material primarily from the outside of port bends, not
the inside. This will improve flow by increasing the radius
of the bend. .
4. Port length and surface finish are not important to flow.
5. The greatest flow loss tn the intake port is due to the
expansion of the air out of the valve. This makes the area
from 1/2" below the valve to 1/2" above the valve the most
critical part of the port.
6. The valve seat shape has a substantial effect on the flow.
If flow losses are caused by port expansions, not contractions, you may
wonder why the port should be necked down below the valve seat. The
reason is that the air must both turn 90
0
and expand as it flows out of
the valve into the engine cylinder. "Humping" the port inward just
below the seat allows the air to make the turn outward toward the valve
edge more gradually, reducing the total flow loss. Unfortunately, many
stock ports are too large in this area already.
The chart below shows approximately ~ h e r e the flow losses occur
in a stock Chevy head with a 1.94" diameter intake valve. Note that
the flow losses are negligible in the straight part of the port where
~ t is easy to grind.
Source of Flow Loss 1 Loss
.1 Wall friction
41 *
.2 Contraction at push-rod 2
.3 Bend at valve guide 11
.4- Expansion behind valve guide 4
.5 Expans ion, 25
0
12
.6 Expans ion, 30
0
19
.7 Bend to exit valve 17
.t:'. Expansion exiting valve 31
1001.
* For sand-cast surface. Would be 31. for polished surface.
17
18
As manufactured, this head flows about of its potential for
a wedge-combustion chamber head. "The best head porters are able to in-
crease the flow to about of its potential with the aid of careful
flow-testing. Further improvements are difficult without major surgery
and welding. Grinding and enlarging the first in the Chevy port
where it is easy to reach has very little effect.
S.O Valve Seats
The valve seat has three purposes: to seal the port, to cool the
valve, and to guide the air thru the valve. Sealing and cooling are
promoted by a fairly wide seat between .060" and .100". Maximum
flow is frequently achieved with a narrower seat, usually around
.030" wide.
Multiple angle to fully radiused seats are essential for good air
flow. A typical comgetition intake valve seat will consist of a 30
0
top
cut .100" wide, a 45 seat .040" wide, and a 70
0
inside cut .1SO" wide.
An exhaust valve will work well with a lSo top cut .060" wide, followed
by a 4S
o
seat .060" wide, and a 7S
o
inside cut .100" wide. The O.D. of
the valve should coincide with the outside of the 4S
o
seat. Flow-bench
experimentation will frequently uncover a superior shape for any parti-
cular head. A three angle seat will out-flow a simple 4S
o
seat by up
to 2S% at lower valve lifts.
6.0 Valve Sizes
The total flow thru the engine is ultimately determined by the
valve diameters. While well-designed smaller valves will out perform
larger valves on occaSion, a geod, big valve will always out-flow a
good, smaller valve.
Valve size is limited by the diameter of the engine bore. For
wedge-shaped combustion chambers, the practical intake valve
diameter is .52 times the bore diameter. Hemi-heads permit intake
valves up to .57 times the bore diameter due to the extra space available
in the combustion chamber. Four-valve heads are best of all, but the
engf.ne must operate at very high-speed to take advantage of the extra
valve area.
The present trend in racing engines is to keep the exhaust system
flow to SO% or 901. of the intake system flow. This may be more than is
necessary. Tests indicate that there is generally no power improvement
as long as the exhaust flow is greater than 60% of the intake flow.
This would dictate an exhaust valve diameter .77 to .80 times as large
as the intake valve.
19
7.0 Val ve Lift and Flow
The air-flow thru the engine is directly controlled by the valve
lift. The farther the valve opens, the greater the flow, at least up to
a point. In order to discuss a wide variety of valve sizes, it is helpful
to speak in terms of the ratio of valve lift to valve diameter or lid
ratio. Stock engines usually have a peak lift of 1/4 of the valve
diameter, or .25 d. Racing engines open the valves to .30 d or even
.35 d.
The graph in figure 4 shows how flow varies with lift for a well-
designed valve and port. Up to .15 d, the flow is controlled mostly by
the valve and seat area, but at higher lifts the flow peaks over and
finally is controlled by .the maximum capacity of the port. Wedge-chamber
intakes have lower flow at full lift due to masking and bends, and are
port-limited' at a 15% lower level.
70
60
so
.40
c
.-
~
.E 30
u
20
10 ,
I ~
.,
IJ
Fig. 4. Valve potential air flow at a test
pressure of 10" of water
IP
...
tl'.
~ ' I '
••
~
~
. ~ . ,
IJ
~
,
~
.10
M-It lim ~ t
'/
/
.... ~
,
v ~
~ ~ .... ~
~
..", ~
~ ' f "
J
~
.
r-
--
.20
Valve lift 1
0
, t
II lame er
.... ~
,M-
..
.30
.. , ....
~ .
r- - -
.40
20
Figure 6 can be used as a guide for judging the performance of any
valve. To get the flow rate cfm for a particular valve, simply multiply
the cfm per square inch from the chart by the valve area minus the valve
stem area. The flow rate you get is not the "expected" flow rate, but
rather the maximum potential flow rate for a particular head at the test
pressure. The maximum potential flow for some of the popular heads are
shown in the comparison chart in figure 5 at 10" of water test pressure.
These figures represent the maximum air-flow which can be expected
under optimum conditions of port and valve seat design. Even well modified
heads will generally only 80i. to 90i. of these figures.
Fig. 5 Maximum Potential Air Flow
Valve Lift/Valve Diameter
Intake Valves .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30d
cfm lU" test pressure
VW 1200, 1.24" D. 15.3 30.8 46.2 53.0 56.6 5B.9
Norton 850, 1. 50" D. 25.4 50.9 76.5 102.4 109.2 112.5
Yamaha TX 650, 1.62" D. 26.9 54.1 81.2 10B.7 115. B 119.0
Chev. Small Block, 1. 72" D. 30.3 60.9 91.5 104.8 112.0 116.7
Chev. Small Block, 2.02" D. 42.3 84.9 127.6 146.3 156.2 162.7
Chev. Westlake, 2x1.5" D. 50.7 101.8 153.0 204.B 21B.4 225.0
Ford 302, 2.25" D. 52.8 106.0 159.2 182.6 195.0 203.1
Chrys ler Hemi, 2.25" D. 52.8 106.0 159.2 213.2 227.2 233.4
If the flow reaches a maximum value at a lift of about .30 d, you
may wonder why some cams are designed to open the valve farther, even as
high as .37 d. The answer is that in order to open the valve more
quickly and longer at lower lifts, it is necessary to "over-shoot" the
maxtmum head-flow point. The extra flow is gained on the flanks of the
lift pattern, not at the peak.
The head-flow figures shown in Fig. 4, 5 and 6 are for the cylinder
head alone with just a radiused inlet guide on the inlet port.
When the intake manifold is installed the total flow will drop off
from to depending on the flow efficiency of the manifold.
By measuring the flow at each valve lift with and without the in-
take manifold, it is possible to accurately measure the flow
efficiency. Frequently, the intake manifold will have even more
room fOf improvement than does the cylinder head. It is the total
flow with the intake manifold installed which must be used in
formulas 3 and 4 described on pages 12 and 13.
Fig. 6 Valve flow potential at various test pressures
For herni-intake and all exhaust valves
Valve Lift/Diameter .05 .10 .15
Test Pressure
cfm per sq.
3" 7.4 15.0 22.5
5" 9.6 19.3 29.0
8" 12.2 24.4 36.7
10" 13.6 27.3 41.0
15" 16.7 33.4 50.2
20" 19.2 38.6 58.0
25" 21. 5 43.2 64.9
28" 22.8 45.6 68.6
36" 25.8 51. 8 77 .8
For wedge intake valves
Valve Lift/Diameter .05 .10
Test Pressure
cfm
3" 7.4 15.0
5" 9.6 19.3
8" 12.2 24.4
10" 13.6 27.3
15" 16.7 33.4
20" 19.2 38.6
25" 21.5 43.2
28" 22.8 45.6
36" 25.8 51.8
2
Valve area = .785 (D\a1ve
.15
per sq.
22.5
29.0
36.7
41.0
50.2
58.0
64.9
68.6
77.8
.20
inch valve
30.0
38.8
49 .• 1
54.9
67.2
77 .6
86.7
91. 8
104
.20
inch valve
25.7
33.2
42.0
47.0
57.5
66.4
74.2
78.5
89.0
.25
area
32.0
41.4
52.3
58.5
71.6
82.7
92.5
98.0
111
.25
area
27.5
35.5
45.0
50.2
61.5
71.1
79.5
84.0
95.3
From a flow stand-point a herni-shaped combustion chamber has a
21
.30
33.0
42.5
53.8
60.1
73.6
85.0
95.1
101
104
.30
28.6
37.0
46.8
52.3
64.0
74.0
82.6
87.4
99.2
clear advantage over the wedge. Until the valve lift reaches .15 valve
diameter, there is little difference, but at higher lifts the hemi-
valve is usually less shrouded. In most designs, the hemi-port is also
straighter -due to the valve angle. These two advantages add up to an
average flow advantage of 16% at higher lifts, even with equal valve
diameters. When you consider that a herni-combustion chamber also generally
permits the intake valve to be 10% greater diameter than a wedge, it is
easy to understand the success of the herni-head racing engine.
22
8.0 Combustion Chambers
In most engines, it appears that the combustion chamber design was
dictated by the choice of valve geometry. Perhaps it should be the
other way around. Most combustion chambers just don't combust as well
as they should. Hemi and pent-roof combustion chambers are generally
the best with wedge chambers being 54 to 1 0 ~ worse.
Most gasoline burning racing engines use a compression ratio of
between 12 and 13.5 to 1. If the cylinder is completely filled, you
would expect that the torque per cubic inch of engine displacement would
be the same, regardless of engine design. It isn't, and the differences
are mostly due to combustion chamber effectiveness.
One way to judge a combustion chamber's performance is to measure
the torque output per cubic inch of engine displacement. At the RPM of
peak torque, a good combustion chamber will develop 1.25 to 1.30 foot-
pounds of torque per CID. It may be possible to raise this as high as
1.5 foot-pounds per CID, though not without an outstanding combustion
chamber design and ram-tuning. Most racing Detroit V-8's only reach
1.15 foot-pounds per CID. There is plenty of room for improvement.
A second guide line for judging efficient burning is the required
spark advance for maximum power. The more efficient combustion chambers
have higher turbulence and require less spark advance. A turbulent com-
bustion chamber substantially reduces the "ignition delay" time between
when the spark fires and the charge begins to burn rapidly.
For example, a smell-block Chevy with a normal combustion chamber
shape might require 42 BTDC maximum spark advance (35°.ignition delay),
while a highly turbulent combustion chamber might only require 33
0
BTDC
advance (27
0
ignition delay). The more turbulent chamber will also burn
more rapidly and ,produce up to 10% greater power from the same initial
charge.
Combustion chamber improvement is more of an art than a science and
so trial and error methods are frequently the only choice. In general,
strive for high turbulence and minimize the distance from the spark plug
to the f ~ t h e ~ part .of the combustion chamber.
At times combustion chamber burning complexities can make it very
confusing when trying to compare cylinder heads on an engine. For in-
stance, it is difficult to compare a cylinder head on a Chevy 302 and
then on a Chevy 330. While the same head will bolt onto both engines,
the compression ratio, and combustion chamber effectiveness, and RPM
range will all change. Even the degree of turbulence will change. These
factors can mask differences due to the flow capacity of the heads and
confound even the experienced engine builder.
23
9.0 Dynamic flow effects
Engine volumetric efficiency and power can be increased considerably
by taking advantage of the natural dynamic effects which occur during the
intake cycle. Both the kinetic energy and the resonant pulses can be
harnessed to fill the engine cylinder at volumetric efficiences up to
130%. Without these dynamic effects, volumetric efficiency is limited to
100% without supercharging.
When the inlet valve closes, a pressure pulse bounces back out the
intake tract, and then in again toward the valve. By making the intake
tract the proper length, the returning pulse can be timed to arrive at top
de.ad center of the next intake cycle, shoving extra air in and keeping
exhaust gases out of the intake port. To visualize what occurs, imagine
that one end of a steel bar is placed against a hard surface. If the
other end is struck with a hammer, a strong pulse (the hammer blow) will
travel down the bar to the other end, and then back to the hammer end.
The pulse will actually cause the bar to jump back towards the hammer!
While the bar (or the air in the port) moves very little, a strong pulse
has been transmitted through it.
To use this pulse, the intake port must be the correct length. The
pulse will help only through a narrow range of RPM. Above or below a
certain range the pulse will actually decrease power so proper synchroni-
zation is essential. There are actually several pulses which can be used,
corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th time the pulse arrives at the valve.
The 2nd pulse is best, the others being weaker and shorter.
Fig. 7 Inlet pulsation chart
Harmonic Length formula Lower RPM Upper RPM Pulse Strength*
2nd l32,000/RPM 89% 108% +
10%
-
3rd 97,000/RPM 91% 104% + no
4
0
th 74,000/RPM 93% 104% + 4%
-
* Pulse strength varies with inlet flow and inlet valve opening
The chart in Figure 7 shows the pulses which can be used. To obtain
the inlet system length, divide the number shown by the RPM for peak HP
as determined by the flow measurements (see Section 3.0). For example, at
8000 RPM for the 2nd harmonic:
length -
132,000
8,000
a: 16.5"
This is the desired length from the intake valve to the air inlet entrance.
For engines with a plenum chamber type intake, the length is from the valve
to the plenum chamber. The pulse in the example will benefit from 89%
up to 108% of 8000 RPM, or from 7120 RPM up to 8640 RPM. The greatest
benefit will occur at about 3% below 8000 RPM. Below 7120 RPM or above
8640 RPM, the "pulse will actually work to decrease engine power.
80
,
0
-..

i 60
c
-
c;.
.,
.......
E
-
u
40

0
-
""
-
c(
20
24
To obtain benefits from the pulsation, it is also necessary that
the intake valve be open to a lift of at least .02 times the valve
diameter by 15
0
btdc. Openings of 20
0
to 40
0
btdc are usually
preferable. The intake flow rating (see Section 10.0) must also
be 0.3 or greater for significant benefits.
10.0 Inertia-supercharge effect
When the intake valve starts to close, the fast moving air
column tries to keep ramming itself into the cylinder. If the
inlet valve is closed at just the right instant, the extra charge
will be trapped in the cylinder (called inertia-supercharging).
Volumetric efficiencies up to 1301 can be obtained. To determine
the proper valve timing for maximum inertia-supercharge, it is
necessary to determine the inertia supercharge index, Z,and then
the valve closing timing can be determined from Figure 9.
Z depends on the average inlet valve area, so this must be
measured. First determine the inlet flow vs. valve lift for the
complete intake system. Next determine the cam lift profile at
the valve versus the degrees of engine rotation. From these two
pieces of data
A
construct a graph, as shown in Figure 8, of engine
flow in versus degrees of engine rotation. This is a plot
of the total engine flow considering both the intake system and the
cam •
I
- -.... .. -- - -- --. -
. r- . :R: 1:-: :--1:-- _,1- -! -. ... -:- - - -'
I .' •.. ,.1. , ... I
I' ,. I .. \' I ;
", -.'. -,. :-+-I t -- "-':' ----:-
I
" .. ,. I .. i' I
. . !. I
------
.;-... ,
--,.----+- - ... . - --I. ----- '--
•• I
. ,. I
- - -- -+ ... - ..
! I . I
I
" . ,
__ --- --------l ----
I
I.
-t-
r
--I -.-- -
,c I
. ,
e . I

-... -.. .,. ... --i --.
I '
: . !
I .
..
j
. ..,
.; I
- - .. - --- - ..... - -
I
I
I .
1 I . J . . I . I I ' t:::c I;:
_: ... : • i ;
.. .. i .' ----r
. , . : . - . I' .. : ... 1
.:. . I'" . . . t

Fig. 8 Crank Angle
Count the number of squares under the flow curve and divide them
by the total number of squares beneath the 87 cfm line. The number ob-
tained is the intake system flow rating Cv.
-
Area under flow curve
Total area under 87 cfm line
The C will generally be between 0.35 and 0.45 for good engines. This
is a ¥otal rating of the intake system flow for any engine. The higher
the Cv, the better the engine.
The average inlet valve area is the Cv ttmes the intake valve area.
7. average inlet area E Cv x Valve area in sq. inches
Now this data can be used to determine the inertia-supercharge
index, Z, from the formula below:
8. RPM
Z IC 126,000
CID x Inlet Length
average inlet area
where CID is the displacement of one cylinder in cubic inches
and the inlet length is in inches.
Z will usually be between 0.9 and 1.2, and is also a measure of
the strength of the inertia-supercnarge which will be obtained.
When Z has been determined, use Figure 9 to obtain the correct
intake valve closing angle where the valve should be closed down
to a lift of .10 x valve diameter.
25

l
' ! , ,. I - f -
.--::--!--- i -_: - __ 1- I'; - t ., r
l
t j-
- .- ---- ---'1'-'- -+- ---'1---;---- t---:----'--:--· .... .. -- --
. I • , - ,- - -
I - I ' : . -'-
TI
'- I ------; I" '. I
.- : ; --: -J .. i '-J . -I",: I " -: I
- i , j . - .. I,! - - I
1.1 --:. i
N; : - - -. j' . -. j: . - I :..
1 I iIi - ! I
j
j, '''-1
-. . .,' -., -, ' t ., . I ..
, I • I •
. 'TT i -, , '. .. 1 •
... -; ...:..-..... :_._. .....
.9
1.3
1.2
1.0
• - -4- ___ , .. ,
.--,-. ' •• -+- ....
- j., ... : 1 : :
. L ____ . . i - ... j

o 10
0
20
0
30
0
40
0
50 60 abc
-+ .•
'" •.. ..j-
- .. -..
Fig. 9
Intake Valve Closing Angle at
LID • .10
...
«
~
0
-
u.
CII
>
10
:I:
3"
5"
7"
10"
12"
15"
20"
25"
28"
30"
35"
40"
45
11
11.0 FLOW-8ENCH TEST PRESSURE CONVERSION CHART
Want Flow At:
3" 5" 7" 10" 12" 15" 20" 25" 28" 30" 3S" 40" 45"
1.00 1.29 1.53 1.82 2.00 2.24 2.58 2.89 3.05 3.16 3.42 3.65 3.87
.774 1.00 1.18 1.41 1.55 1.73 2.00 2.24 2.37 2.45 2.65 2.83 3.00
.655 .845 1.00 1.12 1.31 1.46 1.69 1.89 2.00 2.07 2.24 2.39 2.54
.548 .707 .837 1.00 1.09 1.22 1.41 1.58 1.67 1.73 1.87 2.00 2.12
.SOO .64S .764 .913 1.00 1.12 1.29 1.44 1.53 1.58 1.71 1.83 1.94
.447 .577 .683 .816 .894 1.00 1.151.29 1.37 1.411.531.631.73
.387 .SOO .592 .707 .774 .866 1.00 1.12 1.18 1.22 1.32 1.41 1.50
.346 .447 .S29 .632 .693 .775 .894 1.00 1.06 1.10 1.18 1.26 1.34
.327 .422 • SOD .598 .654 .732 .845 .945 1.00 1.04 1 .12 1.20 1.27
.316 .408 .483 .577 .632 .707 .816 .913 .966 1.00 1.08 1.15 1.22
.293 .378 .447 .535 .586 .655 .756 .845 .894 .926 1.00 1.07 1.13
.274 .354 .418 .SOO .548 .612 .707 .791 .837 .866 .935 1.00 1.06
.258 .333 .394 .471 .516 .577 .667 .745 .789 .816 .882 .943 1.00
Example: If flow is 65 cfm at a test pressure of 5", what would
flow be at 15"?
cfm = 65 cfm x 1.73 = 112.5 cfm
Test Pressure
1" H
2
0
3"
5"
8"
10"
12"
15"
20"
28"
30"
35"
40"
45"
65"
FLOW RATE VS TEST PRESSURE
Peak Velocity
66.2 fps
114.7
148.0
187.2
209.3
229.3
256.4
296.0
350.3
362.6
391.6
418.7
444.1
533.7
JfCFM/In 2
27.6 cfm
47.8
61.7
78.0
87.1
95.6
106.9
123.4
146.0
151 .1
163.3
174.6
185.1
222.5
*Flow thru a perfectly streamlined orifice with an area
of I square inch.
26
12.0 Suggested Additional References
Gas Flow in the Internal Combustion Engine
Annand and Roe, 1974 (out of print.)
Haessner Publishing Co. (Search Engineering Library)
27
The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice,
Charles Fayette Taylor, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons,
N.Y., NY. (Search Engineering Library)
Internal Combustion Engines, Edward F. Obert, 2nd Edition,
International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA. (Search
Engineering Library)
The Sports Car Engine, Colin Campbell
Robert Bentley, Inc., (out of print, Public Library)
The Theory and Practice of Cylinder Head Modification
David Vizard, 1973, Classic Motorbooks, Osceola, WI,
call (800) 826-6600 to order.
Tuning BL's A-Series Engine
David Vizard, 1985. Haynes Publishing Co.,
861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, CA 91320
(805)
S.A.E. Technical Papers
S.A.E. Technical Papers may be obtained by contacting
Society of Automotive Engineers, INC.
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, Pennsylvania 15096
(412)
Request a Current Year Catalog or state by number
and author and paper title listed below. Send
along a fee of $3.50 for each paper requested.
700122* Research and Development of High-Speed, High-
Performance, Small Displacement Honda Engines
1970 by S. Yagi
720214* Design Refinement of Induction and Exhaust Systems
using Steady-State Flowbench Techniques
1972 by G.F. Leydorf, Jr.
790484* An Analysis of the Volumetric Efficiency
Characteristics of 4 stroke Cycle Engines
Using the Mean Inlet Mach Number.
Feb. - March 1979 by Itaru Fukutani &
Eiichi Watanabe
820154* AirFlow through Poppet Inlet Valves -
Analysis of Static , Dynamic Flow Coefficients
Feb. 1982 by Itauru Fukutani &
Eiichi Watanabe
820410* A Study of Gas Exchange Process Simulation
of an Automotive Multi-Cylinder Internal
Combustion Engine
Feb. 1982 by Masaaki Takizawa
Tatsuo Uno ,
Toshiaki Oue
Tadayoshi Yura
Bosch Automotive Handbook from SAE Publications, $12.95.
*All papers belonging to S.A.E. are covered by
u.s. Copyright laws and cannot be reproduced without
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28
4
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,
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,
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1
TROUBLE SHOOTING YOUR FLOWBENCH
When there seems to be a problem with the flowbench
measuring system, do the following:
1) Unplug the brass/plastic tubing from manometer
elbows, (4 places).
2) Unscrew elbows from the 3/4" nylon hex until they
are flush with the top of the hex. Then, unscrew
the 3/4" hex assembly until the elbows point
toward the tubing.
3) Using spare plastic tubing puff or suck into each
manometer elbow, making sure fluid responds and
settles back to zero smoothly. Reconnect the
tubing to the elbows. Turn flowbench back on.
If problem still exists, please run the next three tests.
The data you collect will be helpful in evaluating your problem.
1) NO FLOW TEST
With SuperFlow's test orifice plate bolted on and all
rubber stoppers tightly in holes, switch to intake
mode. Turn machine on and place finger over small hole
in test plate. Slowly, with both holes in test orifice
plate plugged, adjust intake control valve until you
reach 10" of test pressure on vertical manometer.
Horizontal flow scale should rise slightly, then settle
back to zero with machine running. If not, record
reading. Repeat this test on exhaust.
2) LOW FLOW TEST
Same test as above except remove finger from small hole
and slowly open intake control valve until you reach
10" test pressure on vertical manometer. Record
reading of horizontal manometer. Shut Intake Control
Valve. Repeat test in exhaust mode:--
3) HIGH FLOW TEST
You should still be in the exhaust mode from the last
test. Start by removing all rubber stoppers, top and
bottom. Turn the machine-on and open the exhaust valve
until you get 10" of test pressure on the vertical
manometer. Record flow meter reading. NOTE: Sometimes
the flowbench won't go to 10" of test pressure. In
that case, adjust to 8" of test pressure and record the
flow reading. Shut exhaust valve. Repeat test in
Intake mode. ----
After recording the collected data, call SuperFlow, (303)
471-1746 and ask for flowbench customer service.
Superflow 110 ~
CHECK-OUT
INSTRUCTIONS
1. MACHINE PLACEMENT
Remove the Superflow 110 from its shipping car-
ton. Do not lift it by the plastic geges on the front
panel. Place the Superflow 110 on e level table top.
Turn the on - off switch to OFF and plug the
Superflow in.
2. INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS AND SET-
UP
A. To keep the fluid insids the manometers during
shipping. the clear plastic tubes have been discon-
nected and the velves have been closed. Reed the
instructions on the small red end white teg ettech-
ed to the flow meter. Open the plestic fluid velves
on both metere [4 valvee.}
B. Check the valves to make sure they are open by
blowing gently Into each valve. using the extrs
length of plastic tubing provided. If the fluid column
moves end returns freely. the valve is open. Con-
nect the four flexible plastic tubes onto the four
meter Inlet tubes.
C. A bubble level Is built Into the flow manometer. Level
the n1I!lnometer by turning the screw near the left
end of this manomater clockwise to loosen it. Reise
or lower the left side of the manometer until the
level bubble Is centered between the two merks.
then re-tighten the screw.
D. To zero the flow-percent scele. loosen the thumb-
screw et the bottom of the flow menometsr end
slide the scele to align the zero merk with the left
end of the red fluid column.
E. Zero the scele on the verticel test pressure
manometer by rotating the knurled nut et the bot-
tom of the scale.
3. OPERATION CHECK
A. If you purchased a cylinder heed adapter, it is
mounted to the flow bench baee plate on top of e
flat test orifice plata. Remove the plastic adepter.
B. Mount only the aix-inch aquare test orifice plate to
the flow bench. Leave both the 1 7/8" and 5/16"
holes in the test orifice open. but install the bolts
and flat washers in ell four corners.
C. Remove all rubber stoppers from orifice plete at
the top of the flow bench. By referring to the flow
chart. note thet this is the 185 cfm flow range.
D. Set the mode selector switch to exhsust snd turn
~
ON the off-on switch. Close the inteke flow control
valve gently ageinst its seat end opan ths exhaust
flow control valve until the test pressure reeds
10.0" on the vertical meter. Observe the reading
on the upper diegonal flow meter. The flow should
be approximately 83% to 87% on the scale. If a
test pressure of 8.0" i ~ used. the flow reading
ehould be 74% to 78%. *
Turn off the machine.
E. Switch the mode control ewitch to intake and
repaat the above etepa with the inteke flow control
valve. The flow should be 78% to 82% on the scale.
If a test pressure of 8.0" is used the flow should be
70% to 74%.*
Turn off the machine.
*Notice: The output of the SuperFlow 110 is proportional to
the ~ i n e voltage at your location. At voltages below 120
VAC, or 240 VAC for foreign units, the SuperFlow maximum
capacity will be less than normal. If the SuperFlow 110
will not reach 10
M
of test pressure through the test ori-
fice plate, perform the check-out tests (starting at
OPERATION CHECK D-E) at 8
n
of water test pressure. This
does not have any effect on the accuracy.
Power Requirements:
SF-110 is 110 VAC or 110 VDC electrical power and
draws 15 AMPS
SF-II0E is 250 VAC or 250 VDC electrical power and
draws 8 AMPS
This completes the check-out test. If the SuperFlow 110 meets
the above figures, it is ready for flow tests. Remove the test
orfice plate and install the cylinder head adapter. If the
SuperFlow 110 fails to meet the above standards, the unit may
have been damaged in shippment. Please call the SuperFlow
headquarters for further instructions.
SuperFlow Corporation
3512 North Tejon
Colorado Springs, Colorado, U.S.A. 80907
(303) 471-1746 eX.Customer Service

1.0 Flow-testing
1.1 Superflow 110 description The Superflow 110 is designed to measure the air-flow resistance of engine cylinder heads, intake manifolds, velocity stacks, and restrictor plates. For intake testing, air is drawn in through the cylinder head into the machine, through the air blower, and exits through the orifice plate at the top of the Superflow 110. For.exhaust testing, the path of the air-flow is reversed by a switch on the front control panel.
ORIFICE PLATE

PRESSURE HSl M[HR

1
flOW CONTROL KNOB

TEST

HEAD

_ _ BLOWER

I

The test pressure meter (manometer) measures the pressure or vacuum at the base of the test cylinder. The test pressure is adjusted to a standard value, for instance 15.0 inches of water, by turning the flow control knob on the lower front panel. Separate knobs co~trol either the intake or exhaust flow. The amount of flow is read from the inclined flow meter (manometer). The flow meter measures the pressure difference across the 5 flow orifices at the top of the Superflow 110. By selecting different combinations of orifices, the flow meter can be used in any of 9 different ranges to obtain high accuracy over a wide range of flows. The flow meter reads 0 to 100% of any flow range selected with the rubber stoppers. A separate test orifice with a .312" diameter and a 1.875" diameter hole is included for calibration of the flow tester. The machine requires 110 VAC, or 110 VDC electrical power and draws 15 amps.

2

1.2

What is a flow test? In its simplest form, flow testing consists of blowing or sucking air through a cylinder head at a constant pressure. Then the flow rate is measured at various valve lifts. A change can be made and the head re-tested. Greater air flow indicates an improvement. If the tests are made under the same conditions, no corrections for atmospheric conditions or machine variations are required. The results may be compared directly. At the other extreme, it is possible to adjust and correct for all variations so that test results may be compared to those of any other head, tested under any conditions on any other Superflow machine. Further calculations can be made to determine valve efficiency and various recommended port lengths and cam timing. The calculations are very cumbersome without a small,electronic calculator, preferably with a square root key. The calculations are not essential to simple flow testing.

1.3

Adapting heads for testing Cylinder heads are mounted onto the Superflow by means of cylinder adaptors. The adaptor consists of a tube 4" long with the same bore as the engine and a flange welded on each end. The lower flange is bolted to the flow tester and the upper flange is bolted or clamped to the test cylinder head. The flanges must be flat or gasketed to make an airtight seal. The adaptor tube may be 1/16" larger or smaller than the actual engine cylinder. In some cases it is convenient to make the upper flange of the adaptor about 20% wider than the test cylinder head so that the head will be supported when it i~ offset for testing the end cylinders. A device must be attached to the cylinder head to open the valves to the various test positions. The usual method is to attach a threaded DQUnt to a rocker arm stud so that the end of a bolt contacts the end of the valve stem. As the bolt is rotated, it pushes open the valve. A 0 to 1" x .001 dial indicator may be mounted to the same fixture with its tip contacting the valve spring retainer to measure the amount of valve opening. The standard valve springs should be replaced with light springs for testing. See the photos in the Superflow brochure for various types of valve openers.

On the intake side of the cylinder head, it is strongly recommended that a radiused entrance guide be installed to lead the air straight into the head. The guide should be about one port width in thickness and be generously radiused on the inside all the way down to the head. The intake manifold can also be used. The exhaust flow may exit directly from the head.

785 (D 2 valve D2 stem ) Before installing the test adapter. Close the intake and exhaust flow control knobs lightly against their seats. This factor is equal to: Test flow correction factor ---.---- = 153.2 cfm under standard conditions. Multiply the flow ranges on line C by the correction factor to obtain the corrected range. It does not need to be re-determined before additional tests on the same day. Enter this information on the test data sheet. Adjust the intake flow control again until the test pressure reads 10. Multiply the flow meter reading times 185 cfm to obtain the ! l l t orifice~. install only the standard test orifice plate onto the Superflow. net valve area = . The co~rected flow ranges may be used for all tests made on the same day. Zero the vertical test pressure meter and level and zero the inclined flow meter. The flow meter should now read approximately 45% on the 10.0 cfm range (#1 orifice open on top).test orifice flow . If flow is within 1 cfm of this reading. use 8" test pressur~. Before beginning a test. Now remove all the rubber stoppers from the top orifice plate (185 cfm range) and open both the .2 1f. Install all the rubber stoppers in the orifice plate on top of the Superflow and set the direction knob to intake.0". and measure the stem and valve diameters. The net valve area is the valve area minus the stem area in square inches. Then: 137. If the flow meter does not read 153. the flow readings will all have to be corrected by a correction factor. This indicates a flow of . this factor should be determined before each day's testing. the machine is working properly.2 cfm.3 1.5 cfm. It will be 153.4 Flow test preliminaries All test data may be recorded on the standard Superflow form F-120 test data sheet.312" diameter test orifice open. and enter these in line D on the data sheet. turn on the machine and slowly open the intake flow control until the test pressure reaches 10. (see sample). test orifice flow This factor compensates for machine variations and all atmospheric conditions.0 Flow correction factor .312" and the 1.0" of water. With only the small . Allow the machine to warm up for several minutes until the upper thermometer reads about 25 0 F higher than the lower thermometer.875" diameter holes in the test orifice. * If Superflow will not draw 10" due to low line voltage. record the head description.45 x 10 cfm = 4. For best accuracy.

they will insure that the test results are valid and repeatable.05 11 less than 1. A reading of 47% would indicate a leakage flow of . Remove all four rubber stoppers from the flow orifices and turn on the Superflow. Leakage will usually be from 1 to 10 cfm.7 efm. While they are very time consuming.5 Performing a flow test Remove . and valve opener onto the flow tester for the actual flow tests. Set the dial indicator to read 0 with the valve closed. the test pressure may rise to the top of the meter.elow. Adjust the flow test pressure to 10. This step may be omitted if the Superflow has been warmed up previously. Place the rubber stoppers into orifices 5.6 Test pressure 511 1011 15" This completes all the preliminary preparations. Enter the leakage on line 8 of the data sheet to be subtracted from the chart cfm. the flow meter reads 10 cfm at 100%. Close the intake and exhaust flow control valves lightly aga~nst their seats (do not force or they will be damaged). Fill these in on lines A and B of the data sheet. cylinder adapter. Zero the vertical test pressure meter and zero and level the inclined flow meter. Most of the preliminaries will not be required for subsequent tests of the same head. Open the valve in the head to a lift of . Multiply the valve diameter by each of the six LID ratios to obtain the valve lift test points. Turn off the Superflow.47 x 10 cfm c 4. Determine the leakage flow from the flowmeter and chart.20 valve diameter. It is generally most convenient to test the exhaust valve at the same test pressure. Install either the intake manifold or an air inlet guide on the intake port. Because only the #1 orifice is open. Repeat this test before the exhaust tests. The leakage will not affect the test provided that you correct for it in your results. 3 and 2. Choose the proper ~ pressure for the intake valve diameter from the chart b. Then the flow efficiencies of any valves can be compared. Turn on the Superflow and adjust the intake flow control until the test pressure meter reads the test pressure you intend to use. 1.3 11 1. Fill the test pressure in on line 3 of the data sheet. Turn the mode selector switch to intake. regardless of size.111 to 2. 4. Valve diameter 2. 6 11 to 2.0" and allow the machine to warm up for 5 minutes. This does not matter as long as the flow meter reads zero. If there is no leakage.4 All tests should be performed at the same ratio of valve lift to valve diameter.the test orifice plate from the machine and install the test head. . or LID ratio.

switch to the next higher range shown on the flow chart by changing the combination of orifices open at the top of the Superflow. This is the proper number of orifices for this test pressure.) Continue this procedure until you have reached the maximum lift test point.5 The flowmeter is designed with multiple ranges so that the flow can be measured very accurately. begin with the largest stopper and re-install the stoppers in the flow orifices until the flow meter reads above 70%. head. open the valve to the first of the six lift points. Repeat the intake tests and compare the results to determine the effect of the inta"ke manifold. fill in line 5 and skip the next step. Re-adjust the test pressure to the recommended value and record the readings of the flowmeter and the temperature difference between the top and bottom thermometers onto the Superflow F-120 data sheet. (Each valve lift may require a different flowmeter range. Go to the next valve lift and repeat the above steps. and valve lift. If not. If the reading exceeds 100%. determine the full scale range value. Move the valve opener and dial indicator to the exhaust valve and repeat the above procedures. This completes the test. If you have previously determined the proper flow ranges. use only the orifice ranges which give readings above 70% of the scale. Always use the same combination for future tests at this point. then record the corresponding corrected flow range from line D on line 5. . For greatest accuracy. Turn off the machine. turn the mode selector switch to exhaust and close the intake flow control valve. To select the proper flow range. To test the exhaust port. From the chart on the front of the machine. remove the radiused :\'1let a1r guide and replace it with the intake manifold. For intake manifold tests.

.1.0 ".s-..5 79. Temp...671.966 .1--' 1'7 -14. tes t c ftr..38B .0'1.5 ·#85 ./94. .~I.~Z3 ..aB .8 .9 6..906 .~. #-3917281. Temp.375" 1..306 ..S .('d. % flow rating Z.:.6. 3z. flow range (c fm) -I~7 8~s 1a.3 119..37S 5.58Z ..5'o'~ do. .973 12.10 .291 . 7l.TEST DATA SHEET Test Description: CII£//Y 1lEt1P.917 /1.()7S .8 ~5G 30 co .. 4r& 4£" 4S" 4So 1.t!8S.z..2 3Z.l.~ 1~Z..25 ~£' .. Carr. Test cfm (L7-L8) 10. 'ZB6 IAI.o 85':S 8£5' 8S.4.. difference 33.2.05 A.. Test port number 3. cfm/in.961! . .-1 b72.0]'" /. Z7.t7J4 (03'.:../So .6 IZ9.!J <ill) IS. _ Valve lift/diameter (LID) .300 .4:.-0 ... 7 Test orifice flow at 10" test preasure: efm Test flow correction factor: 153. 68 5~S" (.Z2S .ISo .(.o 5.~ K /00%':: Sg7 Z 71 Superflow Form F-120 .3 -ftJ.. 116. factor .4 /6:. Intll}l-e valvE' lift (in) .!o.sr /"UW /a? % ':' :.&. Valve lift (in...D.. Carr..y1.6.. 'Z. 52..z ~l..8 1Z9.JC..az. z. 3S .8Sz.3 -17.. ItVLET GtJ/PE.097 ·/94 . ~8.) 4. I.76~ ..15 . Test Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 -"'" .. tl 79 8'f S~ ~8 71 70 71 Test Note8: ____~/N~~~~~~~n~ZD~~~_____________________________________________________ fX#/'1v.3~-_7. 11.96 .J ¢/. Flowmeter I-I?S I.1 117.1.7 6tJ.9 l5.&1. . WIL L / .2 1 . 1!J.tJl7 I£' ".. .. 7 . Chart cfm (L6xLS) 8.21) 15..~70 . 37.£ /0 .aJ4 I.7/& '/~ 798 .. .) 2. 742#. 1.pO~T OPEN FI&JM 11£19/J... 'I R.llxL9) J!. .6 Z7...Sl?z.0 68." -16.(/'~ 18.:1 _ __ .970 .0 £7.."17' /.~..~ ~. /~. (from Fi2. Exhaust valve die •• area l.(J. I f'z.. €.tIt/' SO· . 7.. Leakage cm 9.30 . Da te .' (0.~ 2.O .fo· 35 . diff.4 6')..~/O .s J~O 6~tj 96. .-. Exhaust valve lift (in 07~ ." ~/.2( L12) arel! 4 Potential cfml in.5 ISO..793 ..i).-1 /. 6l../ 1.3 Z9.20 .ZZ5" .) 1j.O 1~..X1I/ltlS T STOCk #2 PtJRT hi/Til fZ.l 31..-. Corr.. Test pressure (in.2/ IS(}.. 93. / II?€ 12""'7 3Z.2 Tes tOper ator /y.4/J?._ _ _ _ _ _ __ Intake valve dia •• area: /9.~ .~ 6s'1l 97.~I 215 .71. 7 8 9 10 11 12 2.7. .097 B. 13.

c G) . SO =~I Co ..~.. tel ~ Q) 100 tel .. - -- ..." : : c .» I..j .. ~. 67/N. 'E ~ ~ . ----: .:. i.~ ~... .~ c u • • .~~-i. ......'·H- 'T-' ./ . . -.. -- ~ L~.. l_ _. « 6:7. ..SAMPLE Test C!I£V Y HeAP #~/7Z... ~ ". & • . ~ -1 1 '.. . .B~ SrDcI(. so J..• .... . #Z R:Rrdate e Intake valve /. _ ~_~ _ - !. tel > > G) o -a c . . o ~ < .: :. _1 __ . 9~ d.-...---t ... /.~ -t. ~- . 1BO . ~ ·~'V (..-... db 'No -:-~n:xJ(.- 1- ~. ..~----~---+----~----~--~----+_--~----_r----+_--~70 :. .--: .!2 ct ca 140 +----4--~..~-!- ~ ~ - j . ~ -STaJ( • ~I Q... .. __ .7sI A Exhaust valve /. _.. 120 +----4----~----~--_+----~----~--~----+_--~'---~----+_--~ . .... . . l... .

027 1. line 7 by multiplying the flow meter reading.0 which follow. Then fill in line 14 from the chart in section 7. Temperature Difference Correction Factor Diff. Circles are used to indicate the intake test points and triangles for the exhaust test points. it is only necessary to calculate the test cfm.988 .034 1.996 10 0 . To correct for the temperature difference caused by the air passing through the blower motor.004 1. line 8.958 . Many additional factors and relationships are discussed in sections 2. Intake 50 .008 1. line 9.016 1.. figure 6. The temperature difference is the difference between the upper and lower thermometer readings.8 1. efficiency. . Divide line 13 by line 14 and multiply by 100~ to obtain line 15. the corrected flow range. First calculate the chart cfm.030 1. line 9. the test cfm must be multiplied by the temperature difference factor shown below.977 .023 1. These results can also be plotted on the graph printed on the back of each test data sheet (see sample).962 550 .038 1. .984 25 0 .012 1.042 The result is line 12 the corrected . the 1l ~ rating. line 6.019 1.7 Analyzing the test data For simple analysis of the test results. it is necessary to calculate the flow in ~ per sguare inch of valve area and then compare that to the best yet achieved. The result is the !!!! cfm.0 through 10.966 50 0 . This can be compared to other tests without further calculations.992 15 0 20 0 .To obtain the valve test cfm. from line 7. Divide line 12 by the valve area in square inches to obtain line 13. The arrows shown indicate the scale to which the data is plotted.981 30 0 350 . times line 5. Then subtract the leakage cfm. The percent flow rating can be used as an indicator of the room left for futher improvements in flow.973 40 0 45 0 .970 Exhaust 1.

including the valves in the head. used in the same way and at the same temperature. 2. 3. Always use the same orifice range at the same test point. but they will cause it to surge and be unstable. If you don't get the same results. Keep the leakage CFM to a minimum by making a good seal on all surfaces. conduct all tests with same equipment. Voltage changes will not affect the accuracy of the Superflow. start over. 5. As nearly as possible. 6. repeat the tests. If light valve springs are used. Always check the following points to reduce the chances of mistakes. Always level and zero the meters before each test. When in doubt. .9 1.8 Avoiding Test Errors Each test you make involves considerable effort on your part. 4. 1. but this effort can all be wasted if you allow undetected errors to creep into your test program. 7. make sure the valves are not sucked open by the vacuum of the intake tests. 8. Always use a flow inlet guide on the intake side of the head and always use the same guide and cylinder adapter. Try to conduct your tests when there are no frequent changes in line voltage.

220 cfm 2.300" Minimum Test Pressure 15" 8" 5" 3" water water water water Conveniently. By reducing the air flow resistance of the intake and exhaust tract.6 x 55 HP . The average airflow through each engine cylinder can be estimated as follows: Average airflow (cfm) .. When testing with the Superflow. Then the test pressure must be kept above a certain minimum to insure that the flow remains turbulent and does not slow down and become laminar. it is not important whether a test pressure of 5 or 10.050" . The minimum recommended pressures are as follows: Minimum Valve Lift . the HP per cylinder is 55 HP. or 15 inches of water is used. the bigger the opening. 88 cfm 2. long passages. provided the same pressure is used for each subsequent test that will be compared to the original test. For example.200" . (This is equivalent to the test pressure reading on the Super flow. the lower the required minimum test pressure. Average Airflow Avg.1. ) The average pressure drop is about 23 inches of water (or about 2" of mercury) at the 220 cfm flow rate. .100" .5 x 88 cfm . Intake Rate Peak Intake Rate = 1.5 x 220 cfm .10 2. the pressure drop across the cylinder head ranges from 0 up to about 145 inches of water at the 550 cfm flow rate.0 AIR FLOW THROUGH ENGINES The horsepower of an engine is directly proportional to the amount of air drawn into the cylinder and retained until ignition occurs.6 x HP per cylinder The intake airflow rate for a single cylinder will be about 2. The exception to this rule is at lower valve lifts or through small.5 times the average airflow for the cylinder because the intake occurs during only 40% of the total cycle. i f a Chevrolet V-8 engine produces 440 HP.. cylinder filling is improved and engine horsepower is increased directly. A head that measures 10% better at 5 inches of water test pressure will also measure 10% better at 10 or 23 or 145 inches of water. 550 cfm When an engine is operating.

4 inches of water (1. However. 1.8 inches of water. you will see that it only reads about 0.5 inches of mercury). the carburetor wi:l flow 22% of its rated capacity at 1. Presently in the U. at 1" test pressure. Large carburetors may be tested and compared on the Superflow. At a test pressure of 1" of water. if you observe a manifold vacuum gauge on a racing engine at full throttle. Volumetric Efficiency E 5600 x HP For an alcohol burning engine. but only at a reduced test pressure.8 inches of water).. Volumetric Efficiency .11 Beginners in flow-testing are frequently confused by carburetor flow ratings.5 inches of mercury. If the volumetric efficiency on an un-supercharged engine exceeds 130% the HP or RPM figures are probably in error. Be sure you use accurate HP figures.4 inches of water. This is why carburetor ratings appear to be all out of proportion to engine requiraments. --------------------------------r----- ENGINE YOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY 3000 cooo 5000 6000 7000 RPM The volumetric efficiency of a gasoline engine can be estimated as follows: x 100% RPM x eIn where eIn is the displacement of the engine in cubic inches. a 660 cfm carb will flow . An 850 cfm carburetor is one that passes 850 cfm of air at a test pressure of 20.5 inches of mercury (7.0 AIR FLOW THROUGH ENGINES (Cont'd) The amount of power to be gained by improved air-flow depends on the engine's volumetric efficiency (the percent the cylinder is full). At a test pressure of 7.22 x 660 = 145 cfm.4750 x HP RPM x ern x 100% . the formula is: 2.S. the same carburetor would only pass 490 cfm of air. For example. most carburetors are rated in flow capacity at a test pressure of 20. 2. An engine with 60% volumetric efficiency can be improved more than an engine with 90% volumetric efficiency.

a 100 HP engine will use 167 cfm. At peak power. either the air-flow capacity of the engine must be increased. experiments have shown that flow-bench tests actually simulate engine operation closely enough. For example. all designed to get more air thru the engine. a well developed racing engine will produce the follOWing HP per cylinder: 3.43 x (cfm at 10" of water) I . Racers have tended to concentrate primarily on increasing the air-flow. and then the air-flow capacity is measured.0 HP & RPM & CID & CFM HP. a racing engine will use 1. it has become possible to measure the air-flow potential of a racing engine and then to predict its maximum potential HP and the RPM at which the HP will peak. or sucked. To increase the engine power output. This is why flow-benches have become a major development tool for engine manufacturers and racers alike. intake manifold and cylinder head must be reduced. Air is blown. To put more air thru an engine. different parts can be compared and the effect of changes can be quickly evaluated. the flow resistance of the carburetor. This need has led to hundreds of after market carburetors. With the wide spread use of accurate engine dynamometers and flow-benches. RPM.12 3 . manifolds and ported out cylinder heads.67 cubic feet of air (cfm) per minute for each HP it develops. These flow tests are conducted at a constant peak air velocity at the valve.47 cfm per HP developed. CID and engine air-flow capacity are all related in a definite fashion. Alcohol burning engines will use 1. The flow-bench is a measurement device designed to measure the air-flow capacity of various engine components. This will hold true for any four-cycle gasoline burning racing eng~ne. The total air-flow thru a gasoline engine determines its maximum HP. or the air-fuel charge must be burned more effectively. But what'is the" relationship between the capacity on the flow bench and the horsepower of the engine? Tests have shown that if the complete intake system air-flow is measured at maximum valve lift and at a test pressure of 10" of water. thru the intake system at a standard pressure. The effect of porting and manifold changes can be anticipated in advance and proper camming changes made to take full advantage of the differences. In this manner. ~p ::: . usually between 100 and 400 feet per second. While the flow-benc air velocity is not varying as it does in an operating engine.

':r03 2200 x 105 cfm . and a tuned exhaust system.: . HP . this is the maximum potential HP. In short. 6330 RPM So the engine has a maximum potentai1 of 361 HP at 6330 RPM. Now..5 CID. 2000 for racing engines): RPM . CIT> 2000 x (cfm at 10" at water) I where CID is the engine displacement in cubic inches per cylinder. The intake system flow also determines the RPM at which the racing engine will develop peak HP: 4. 2. Now. peak power will occur at 10% higher RPM than formula 4 indicates. the engine must also have the maximum compression..02" valve Normal ported. 2 HP The RPM for maximum powe r will be (2200 is for super-stocks. this intake system will flow 105 cfm of air..1 = 361. 0.75 CID per cylinder.43 HP per cylinder. 2 x 1. (The formula is only for gasoline 4-stroke engines without super-chargers). it must be a well-tuned racing engine. 45. With this formula. 2.02" valve Best ported.. For super-stock and engines which are not all-ont racing engines.. the engine will gain ... But remember.43 x 105 cfm . we will use a small block Chevy 302. a head-porter can see that if he improves the maximum flow thru the intake system by 1 cfm. If you have a "220 HP" small-block 292 Chevy which runs in super-stock. the right cam. The CID per cylinder is one-eighth of 292 or 36.1 or for all 8 cylinders HP 8 x 45. let's tryout these formulas on an example.13 Of course to reach this level. displacement 37. ~ Intake 120 143 160 175 S~stem Flow 413 492 550 602 Power HP HP HP HP @ @ @ @ Stock.02" valve Westlake.~' valves cfm cfm cfm cfm 6360 7570 8470 9270 RPM RPM RPM RPM . 2. what will be the maximum HP at what RPM? Tests show that at a test pressure of 10" of water. I RPM . For this example. The engine will only approach this if everything else is optimized. so use 2200 instead ot 2000.. let's try another example to show how changes in the intake system will effect the engine performance.

though welding might be required. However. CID and HP figures are for each cylinder. the engine would frequently fail to finish the race. stroke Returning now to the e~ple of the 302 engine. not the entire engine. but the engine will need super internal parts to last even one" run. This brings us to the need for another guideline. it is possible to improve the head up to the "best ported" level.200 1n. the peak power should not be developed at a piston speed in excess of 3700 feet per minute. From this graph. the engines must be wound up to 8500 and 9300 RPM to take full advantage of the additional flow. These rules can be reduced to a simple formula for the RPM for peak HP (remember. . Without super internal parts.600 in. If the power peak was pushed to an even higher RPM.500 RPM. Remember that the CFM. To use the graph. If the engine must hold together for more than a couple runs down the drag strip. even with careful flow-bench testing. a well ported head would be adequate for most road-race applications for the 302 because the peak power is already being developed at slightly more than the 3800 fpm piston speed. To take full advantage of the extra breathing of the Westlake 4-valve head. it would probably not survive even one run down the drag strip. If a few runs down the strip are all you want. stroke I I 6. I Maximum peak power RPM - 27. determine the CID per cylinder of your engine and then you can read the RPM required for any particular HP and the CFM of flow capacity that will be required on the flow-bench at a 10" test pressure. For the last two heads. the power peak would have to be at 9270 RPM (4630 fpm) and engine life would be short. if we pull all the formulas together. you can easily select the required flow for any engine and RPM. your shift points may be 1000 RPM or more above peak HP): 5. A lot for any Chevy! Now. Safe peak power RPM 22. it is possible to construct a graph for determining the maximum intake system flow required for a particular engine and application. this limit may be raised to 4600 fpm. The shift point would be up around 10.14 The "Normal ported" head is about the best that can normally be achieved.

.

4 CID (1/8 of 427). suppose you have a 427 CID V-8 engine which will hold together up to 7500 RPM. the carburetor bore should gradually open up to the size of intake valve at the intake manifold entrance and gradually taper down to about . and how to judge the flow potential of any engine. Of course it'.16 For an example. and so let's talk about how to improve the engine airflow. From the graph for 53. the max~ power per cylinder would be 85 HP if you can tmprove your intake system to 196 cfm on the flow bench at 10" of water test pressure.0 Intake Port Area and Shape For maxtmum flow. not enough to stmply calculate the flow capacity required. The optimum length for the port will be discussed in Section 9.0. For all eight cylinders.85 times the intake valve diameter. the ideal intake system would have a single carburetor per cylinder with a slide-plate throttle and a venturi equal to . Below the venturi. the engine could produce 680 HP at 7500 RPM. The engine must achieve it.85 times the intake valve diameter at a point about 1/2" below the valve seat. 4. .

3 1 Loss 41 2 11 4 * Bend at valve guide Expansion behind valve guide . The valve seat shape has a substantial effect on the flow. This will improve flow by increasing the radius of the bend. 1. many stock ports are too large in this area already. Would be 31.2 Contraction at push-rod . Remove material primarily from the outside of port bends. 30 .17 In practice. 6. . 3. Port area should be between 651. not contractions. 5. .t:'. this ideal is never achieved. The reason is that the air must both turn 90 0 and expand as it flows out of the valve into the engine cylinder. 4. Port length and surface finish are not important to flow. Expansion exiting valve .94" diameter intake valve. When porting out a cylinder head for maximum flow.5 Expans ion. you may wonder why the port should be necked down below the valve seat.4- 12 19 17 31 1001.6 Expans ion. Flow losses arise from changes in direction and decreases in velocity (port bends and expansions). The greatest flow loss tn the intake port is due to the expansion of the air out of the valve. 250 0 . for polished surface.1 Wall friction . to 1001. If flow losses are caused by port expansions. Note that the flow losses are negligible in the straight part of the port where ~t is easy to grind. keep the following points in mind. * For sand-cast surface. reducing the total flow loss. Source of Flow Loss . but it does provide a guide-line for what an efficient port would be 1:f. of valve area. "Humping" the port inward just below the seat allows the air to make the turn outward toward the valve edge more gradually. not the inside. Unfortunately.7 Bend to exit valve . The chart below shows approximately ~here the flow losses occur in a stock Chevy head with a 1. This makes the area from 1/2" below the valve to 1/2" above the valve the most critical part of the port.ke. 2.

"The best head porters are able to increase the flow to about 9S~ of its potential with the aid of careful flow-testing.060" and . The present trend in racing engines is to keep the exhaust system flow to SO% or 901. . usually around . For wedge-shaped combustion chambers. This would dictate an exhaust valve diameter .D. of the intake system flow. An exhaust valve will work well with a lSo top cut . of the valve should coincide with the outside of the 4So seat.060" wide. The O.100".80 times as large as the intake valve. A typical comgetition intake valve seat will consist of a 30 0 top cut . A three angle seat will out-flow a simple 4S seat by up to 2S% at lower valve lifts.O Valve Seats The valve seat has three purposes: to seal the port. and a 70 0 inside cut . to cool the valve.1SO" wide. Maximum flow is frequently achieved with a narrower seat. Grinding and enlarging the first 2~' in the Chevy port where it is easy to reach has very little effect. S.ne must operate at very high-speed to take advantage of the extra valve area.77 to . Further improvements are difficult without major surgery and welding. the practical max~um intake valve diameter is .100" wide.040" wide. Four-valve heads are best of all. Flow-bench experimentation will frequently uncover a superior shape for any partio cular head.57 times the bore diameter due to the extra space available in the combustion chamber. 6. a geod. While well-designed smaller valves will out perform larger valves on occaSion. Tests indicate that there is generally no power improvement as long as the exhaust flow is greater than 60% of the intake flow.100" wide.0 Valve Sizes The total flow thru the engine is ultimately determined by the valve diameters. this head flows about 83~ of its potential for a wedge-combustion chamber head. Hemi-heads permit intake valves up to . and a 7S o inside cut . This may be more than is necessary. a 45 seat . followed by a 4S o seat . Valve size is limited by the diameter of the engine bore.18 As manufactured. Sealing and cooling are promoted by a fairly wide seat between . but the engf.060" wide.52 times the bore diameter. and to guide the air thru the valve. smaller valve. big valve will always out-flow a good. Multiple angle to fully radiused seats are essential for good air flow.030" wide.

The graph in figure 4 shows how flow varies with lift for a welldesigned valve and port. 4. but at higher lifts the flow peaks over and finally is controlled by .. In order to discuss a wide variety of valve sizes. . Racing engines open the valves to . or . the flow is controlled mostly by the valve and seat area.0 Val ve Lift and Flow The air-flow thru the engine is directly controlled by the valve lift...15 d. . 10 .- c.35 d..- .. . Fig. and are port-limited' at a 15% lower level... .M- .. tl'.30 ... ~.. •• ~'I' ~ IJ 20 ~ .. . Valve potential air flow at a test pressure of 10" of water 70 IP M. ... it is helpful to speak in terms of the ratio of valve lift to valve diameter or lid ratio. Wedge-chamber intakes have lower flow at full lift due to masking and bends. ~ . ~ ~ . ~ .the maximum capacity of the port. Up to . The farther the valve opens.E u 30 ~ . ~ J .It lim ~t / 60 '/ so ~'f" ~~ ~ v .~.40 .20 Valve lift II0 lamet er 1 ....25 d.10 . r. Stock engines usually have a peak lift of 1/4 of the valve diameter. ~ ~ ..". ~ . at least up to a point. IJ I~ r- -- ..19 7. the greater the flow.30 d or even . .40 .

the intake manifold will have even more room fOf improvement than does the cylinder head. it is necessary to "over-shoot" the maxtmum head-flow point.0 204.05 15. depending on the flow efficiency of the manifold.B 21B.30 d. 5 and 6 are for the cylinder head alone with just a radiused inlet guide on the inlet port. Chev. The extra flow is gained on the flanks of the lift pattern.0 159. Norton 850. The flow rate you get is not the "expected" flow rate.3 42.15 .7 115. .0 127.8 112.0 203.0 30. simply multiply the cfm per square inch from the chart by the valve area minus the valve stem area.20 Figure 6 can be used as a guide for judging the performance of any valve. The answer is that in order to open the valve more quickly and longer at lower lifts.30d Intake Valves VW 1200. to 90i.6 46. B 60. of these figures. Ford 302. The maximum potential flow for some of the popular heads are shown in the comparison chart in figure 5 at 10" of water test pressure.4 106.5 102. 2.20 . By measuring the flow at each valve lift with and without the intake manifold.24" D. you may wonder why some cams are designed to open the valve farther.4 If the flow reaches a maximum value at a lift of about .5 104.25 . 2. Even well modified heads will generally only ~btain 80i.6 195. 2.7 52. 1. Frequently.3 50.2 182. Chev.4 109.2 213.1 81. 1. Small Block.10 cfm ~ lU" test pressure 56.02" D.9 101.8 153.0 106.9 91. These figures represent the maximum air-flow which can be expected under optimum conditions of port and valve seat design. The head-flow figures shown in Fig.5" D.2 10B. 1. 72" D.0 116. 4. Chrys ler Hemi.3 156. Small Block.25" D. not at the peak. 50" D. Fig.7 225.2 84. 2x1.0 159.25" D. Westlake.9 54. To get the flow rate cfm for a particular valve.8 76.37 d. Yamaha TX 650.4 26.9 112. It is the total flow with the intake manifold installed which must be used in formulas 3 and 4 described on pages 12 and 13.8 52.5 119.3 25.2 227.6 146. . it is possible to accurately measure the flow efficiency.2 .62" D.7 162.9 30.2 50. 5 Maximum Potential Air Flow Valve Lift/Valve Diameter .1 233.2 53.8 5B. When the intake manifold is installed the total flow will drop off from 5~ to 30~. even as high as . Chev. but rather the maximum potential flow rate for a particular head at the test pressure. 1.

0 82.0 19.9 68.7 41.0 41.3 64.0 64.2 58.6 37.2 13.0 36.6 12.6 82. 8 22.8 60.2 61.8 .2 13. even with equal valve diameters.3 33.5 29.0 19.0 95.5 35.8 52.8 25.5 98.2 45.05 7.7 41.6 77 .15 .4 99.8 25.15 valve diameter.3 58. it is easy to understand the success of the herni-head racing engine.2 45.4 52.6 87. but at higher lifts the hemivalve is usually less shrouded. Until the valve lift reaches .3 24.20 . . 6 Valve flow potential at various test pressures For herni-intake and all exhaust valves Valve Lift/Diameter Test Pressure 3" 5" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 28" 36" .0 50.0 50.3 33.6 86.4 38.5 22.0 38.6 43. the hemi-port is also straighter -due to the valve angle. inch valve area 15. 8 104 32.5 71.2 58.0 47.5 89.5 53.30 33.785 (D\a1ve 2 From a flow stand-point a herni-shaped combustion chamber has a clear advantage over the wedge.6 16.7 33.7 92.• 1 54.2 Valve area = .5 45.3 24.9 67.8 30.6 12.0 46.8 22.7 19.0 36.0 57.25 cfm per sq.2 42.8 .0 95.0 74. In most designs. there is little difference.10 .4 38.8 25.8 49 .6 51.0 42.9 68.30 28.6 43.5 29.7 19.0 27.21 Fig. These two advantages add up to an average flow advantage of 16% at higher lifts. 5 22.5 84.3 .15 .7 91.6 77.20 .10 .2 21.6 85.5 66.5 71. When you consider that a herni-combustion chamber also generally permits the intake valve to be 10% greater diameter than a wedge.6 51.4 9.2 78.1 73.4 27.0 64.0 111 .4 27.2 77 . inch valve area 15.1 101 104 For wedge intake valves Valve Lift/Diameter Test Pressure 3" 5" 8" 10" 15" 20" 25" 28" 36" .0 50.6 16.25 cfm per sq.4 9.2 21.05 7.1 79.4 74.

and combustion chamber effectiveness. it appears that the combustion chamber design was dictated by the choice of valve geometry. Most combustion chambers just don't combust as well as they should. If the cylinder is completely filled. The more efficient combustion chambers have higher turbulence and require less spark advance. though not without an outstanding combustion chamber design and ram-tuning.produce up to 10% greater power from the same initial charge.ignition delay). The more turbulent chamber will also burn more rapidly and . While the same head will bolt onto both engines. Perhaps it should be the other way around. These factors can mask differences due to the flow capacity of the heads and confound even the experienced engine builder. For instance. Most gasoline burning racing engines use a compression ratio of between 12 and 13. It may be possible to raise this as high as 1. One way to judge a combustion chamber's performance is to measure the torque output per cubic inch of engine displacement.0 Combustion Chambers In most engines.15 foot-pounds per CID. you would expect that the torque per cubic inch of engine displacement would be the same.5 foot-pounds per CID. For example.25 to 1. it is difficult to compare a cylinder head on a Chevy 302 and then on a Chevy 330. and RPM range will all change.22 8. There is plenty of room for improvement. a smell-block Chevy with a normal combustion chamber shape might require 42 BTDC maximum spark advance (35°. It isn't. A turbulent combustion chamber substantially reduces the "ignition delay" time between when the spark fires and the charge begins to burn rapidly. Hemi and pent-roof combustion chambers are generally the best with wedge chambers being 54 to 10~ worse. . a good combustion chamber will develop 1. the compression ratio. Even the degree of turbulence will change. and the differences are mostly due to combustion chamber effectiveness. At the RPM of peak torque. Most racing Detroit V-8's only reach 1. In general.30 footpounds of torque per CID. A second guide line for judging efficient burning is the required spark advance for maximum power.of the combustion chamber. while a highly turbulent combustion chamber might only require 33 0 BTDC advance (27 0 ignition delay). regardless of engine design. Combustion chamber improvement is more of an art than a science and so trial and error methods are frequently the only choice. At times combustion chamber burning complexities can make it very confusing when trying to compare cylinder heads on an engine. strive for high turbulence and minimize the distance from the spark plug to the f~the~ part .5 to 1.

The pulse will help only through a narrow range of RPM.23 9. To visualize what occurs. The pulse will actually cause the bar to jump back towards the hammer! While the bar (or the air in the port) moves very little. the returning pulse can be timed to arrive at top de.000/RPM 74. For engines with a plenum chamber type intake. imagine that one end of a steel bar is placed against a hard surface. at 8000 RPM for the 2nd harmonic: length 132. The pulse in the example will benefit from 89% up to 108% of 8000 RPM. and then back to the hammer end.ad center of the next intake cycle.000/RPM 97. Above or below a certain range the pulse will actually decrease power so proper synchronization is essential. Without these dynamic effects. 7 Harmonic 2nd 3rd 4 th 0 Inlet pulsation chart Length formula l32. There are actually several pulses which can be used. . Below 7120 RPM or above 8640 RPM. corresponding to the 2nd.000 8.5" This is the desired length from the intake valve to the air inlet entrance.0). 3rd and 4th time the pulse arrives at the valve. When the inlet valve closes. If the other end is struck with a hammer. a strong pulse has been transmitted through it. Both the kinetic energy and the resonant pulses can be harnessed to fill the engine cylinder at volumetric efficiences up to 130%. volumetric efficiency is limited to 100% without supercharging. By making the intake tract the proper length. divide the number shown by the RPM for peak HP as determined by the flow measurements (see Section 3.0 Dynamic flow effects Engine volumetric efficiency and power can be increased considerably by taking advantage of the natural dynamic effects which occur during the intake cycle. For example.000/RPM Lower RPM 89% 91% 93% Upper RPM 108% 104% 104% Pulse Strength* + + + - 10% no 4% * Pulse strength varies with inlet flow and inlet valve opening The chart in Figure 7 shows the pulses which can be used. the length is from the valve to the plenum chamber. The 2nd pulse is best. the "pulse will actually work to decrease engine power. the others being weaker and shorter. shoving extra air in and keeping exhaust gases out of the intake port.000 a: 16. Fig. a pressure pulse bounces back out the intake tract. the intake port must be the correct length. a strong pulse (the hammer blow) will travel down the bar to the other end. and then in again toward the valve. or from 7120 RPM up to 8640 RPM. To obtain the inlet system length. To use this pulse. The greatest benefit will occur at about 3% below 8000 RPM.

.•..--+-.. 80 ..... .. If the inlet valve is closed at just the right instant. I' .:--~~---f--""'..' . I ... - I --I. . I ~. . .- "" 0 ~ r ... This is a plot of the total engine flow considering both the intake system and the cam • .. -:. 8 Crank Angle . c( ~1--_+___1r_~--+_-~--+----__~-_1-1. I ' t:::c I.. 1 I .. ic 60 ..-' . -----. . 40 -t- .. To determine the proper valve timing for maximum inertia-supercharge.'. I . ----...'-- c. The intake flow rating (see Section 10..I . :•i. valve lift for the complete intake system. .dU~.. the fast moving air column tries to keep ramming itself into the cylinder. J .. . it is also necessary that the intake valve be open to a lift of at least . I ! +----~>---~-~+-I-- . I . . the extra charge will be trapped in the cylinder (called inertia-supercharging). ---~---.. --i --. : . .q.... ~ .1...t -.tion ~:---'----------~ ..0) must also be 0.. i .. .. I .... Volumetric efficiencies up to 1301 can be obtained.."'. 1 .. I ' I " ---~-T-" :-+-I ~'-T'''-.....-+ . Next determine the cam lift profile at the valve versus the degrees of engine rotation. . I I . ..0 Inertia-supercharge effect When the intake valve starts to close. .-+-_-+--_~--+"-'_-_-_·+I_~_:-:+j-.- 20 +--I~~-~.-.. --. t ----r °6·0~0~~~--~T-D~C--~--~---------9~00~--------------B~D~C----------~6~00~~ Fig.. ~.: I . -.... so this must be measured... -.c e.. .-·-+-----~r-. .3 or greater for significant benefits. .~~:-t-~:··-~ ..... I. Z.--.--I . .----. : . . I i~ak...•.-! -. Openings of 20 0 to 40 0 btdc are usually preferable..rI . From these two pieces of data A construct a graph. I'" .-..----+.. ~ . . 10..'---+--TD•• I . of engine flow in cfm/in~ versus degrees of engine rotation. I I -.--. :R:1:-: :--1:-."-':' ----:.. Z depends on the average inlet valve area.. -._.' . .~ .. ~ . as shown in Figure 8.-. - ! I ' I .I .. -. ~-: . First determine the inlet flow vs.:. .- . . ~w :.......02 times the valve diameter by 150 btdc. . i' I . . - ! ..24 To obtain benefits from the pulsation. it is necessary to determine the inertia supercharge index. \' I I . E u ~ ...1..I -.~--- I " I j --------l ... 0 ".. .and then the valve closing timing can be determined from Figure 9.·:·-··+-:-Ir... .'..

t~:. : -- '.. L ____ . : 1: : -+ ... I ' . - I t ..~- ..---. average inlet area E Cv x Valve area in sq. 1':-~~ L.~ . '.45 for good engines.9 ' ' -.j.. ' t '..8~0~~----~~~----~~--~--~~~~--"~--~--~~0~~----~0 .- ..... ~ o Fig.2 N..10 60 abc LID • . .-J. When Z has been determined.+-1-'--·~. '. 'TT i -._. This is a ¥otal rating of the intake system flow for any engine.. inches Now this data can be used to determine the inertia-supercharge index.2. I r f - l j. 9 0 100 20 300 Intake Valve Closing Angle at 400 50 .. 7.---- l I ' ! . . 1. the better the engine. i j i -I - -'- - '-J . from the formula below: 8.. I I -I"..-- ~ -~ ---'--~+~~-:-'1-~-~~~"~.1~~~~: -"~-~~:-~~---.' -. --~.. . -.-TI : . j '" •..! -. - Area under flow curve Total area under 87 cfm line The C will generally be between 0.. .--.1I . I I .__ 1.--: 1.. ----~l----- -~ -. .. .:_. I" • ... .--::--!------'1'-'... .: .~ i -_:- ---'1---. use Figure 9 to obtain the correct intake valve closing angle where the valve should be closed down to a lift of . 1 1. I.1 --:. . .. The number obtained is the intake system flow rating Cv. i . .:.3 1.. Z will usually be between 0.4P-------~--------~1----~--~--~----~--~----~1--~~--~ 1.10 x valve diameter.. ~. The average inlet valve area is the Cv ttmes the intake valve area. -. . and is also a measure of the strength of the inertia-supercnarge which will be obtained.j. ~ . . -. I ------..• ' • • -+..35 and 0. -~ . The higher the Cv. Z..... t---:----'--:--· ' :. f~"'i -.. .000 CID x Inlet Length average inlet area where CID is the displacement of one cylinder in cubic inches and the inlet length is in inches.-.. . . I I ~~j--- • - ~ -4- ___ . Z IC RPM 126.0 I • -.. .. j.I :. i -! I " -: I .9 and 1. j: . ~i j • j' .. .---~+ ..i .. . -+- ..25 Count the number of squares under the flow curve and divide them by the total number of squares beneath the 87 cfm line.~~-. 1 • .

866 .655 .316 .791 .516 15" 2.0 FLOW-8ENCH TEST PRESSURE CONVERSION CHART Want Flow At: 3" 3" 5" 7" 10" 12" 15" 20" 25" 28" 30" 35" 40" 45 11 1.13 .683 .3 229.548 .707 .667 .471 12" 2.64S .00 1.354 .7 JfCFM/In 2 27.693 .577 .00 .58 1.535 .655 .65 2.707 .07 2.894 .408 .26 1.00 Example: If flow is 65 cfm at a test pressure of 5".866 .06 1.06 .73 1.83 1.SOO .58 2.745 3.631.6 cfm 47.3 256.18 1. .598 .845 .2 fps 114.943 1.04 1 .53 1.531.586 .87 2.258 5" 1.894 .7 148.945 .07 1.0 187. « -0 u.577 ..394 10" 1.15 1.32 1.837 .27 1.12 .1 533.S29 • SOD .882 .913 .00 2.422 .00 1.71 1.632 .67 1.387 .0 151 .16 3.41 1.0 87.333 7" 1.09 1.00 ..24 1.3 174.707 .00 1.00 .12 1.816 .65 3.6 391.55 1.31 1.926 1.45 2.00 1.774 .5 3" 5" 8" 10" 12" 15" 20" 28" 30" 35" 40" 45" 65" *Flow thru a perfectly streamlined orifice with an area of I square inch.73 1.789 30" 3S" 40" 45" .37 2.1 222.12 1.69 1.00 .SOO .00 .612 .50 1.845 .18 1.87 2.41 1.6 418.22 1. what would flow be at 15"? cfm = 65 cfm x 1.00 .24 1.7 444.00 1.58 1.274 .447 .418 .5 cfm FLOW RATE VS TEST PRESSURE Test Pressure 1" H20 Peak Velocity 66.39 2.0 350.44 1.577 20" 25" 28" 3.00 .22 .816 .837 .83 3.29 1.707 .4 296.82 1.632 .1 95.327 .774 .46 1.54 1.592 .22 1.1 163.34 1.378 .29 1.654 .816 .935 1.966 .3 362.775 .411.4 146.483 .89 2.42 3.151.764 .10 1.94 1.05 2.73 1.9 123.346 .293 .SOO .756 .89 1.12 1.73 = 112.7 78.00 .00 2.53 1.18 1.00 1.12 1.00 2.29 1.6 106.37 1.8 61.20 1.845 .894 1.41 1. ~ 10 > CII :I: 2.6 185.447 .732 .548 .26 11.24 2.447 .2 209.08 1.913 .

Tuning BL's A-Series Engine David Vizard. 700122* Research and Development of High-Speed. NY.0 Suggested Additional References Gas Flow in the Internal Combustion Engine Annand and Roe. John Wiley & Sons.A. Technical Papers S. 1985. 2nd Edition. HighPerformance. Small Displacement Honda Engines 1970 720214* by S. INC. (Search Engineering Library) Internal Combustion Engines. . (Search Engineering Library) The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. F~14-$19. 861 Lawrence Drive. Scranton. Send along a fee of $3.95. Public Library) The Theory and Practice of Cylinder Head Modification David Vizard. 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale. Colin Campbell Robert Bentley. Classic Motorbooks. (Search Engineering Library) The Sports Car Engine.Y.27 12. call (800) 826-6600 to order. Leydorf. N.. 790484* An Analysis of the Volumetric Efficiency Characteristics of 4 stroke Cycle Engines Using the Mean Inlet Mach Number. International Textbook Co. Pennsylvania 15096 (412) 776-~841 Request a Current Year Catalog or state by number and author and paper title listed below.E. WI. Obert.E. Technical Papers may be obtained by contacting Society of Automotive Engineers. 1973. Jr..F. Feb. CA 91320 (805) ~98-6703. Yagi Design Refinement of Induction and Exhaust Systems using Steady-State Flowbench Techniques 1972 by G. S. Inc.. (out of print.March 1979 by Itaru Fukutani & Eiichi Watanabe . Newbury Park.50 for each paper requested..) Haessner Publishing Co. Haynes Publishing Co. Edward F. 2nd edition. PA. Charles Fayette Taylor. Osceola.A. 1974 (out of print.

SuperFlow reserves all rights for these instructions worldwide. are covered by u. Request for permission or further information should be addressed to SuperFlow Corporation.E. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the 1976 o.A.s.28 820154* AirFlow through Poppet Inlet Valves Analysis of Static .s. *All papers belonging to S. Copyright Act without permission of copyright owner is unlawful. Copyright laws and cannot be reproduced without paying a fee or obtaining permission to reproduce from S. Toshiaki Oue Tadayoshi Yura Bosch Automotive Handbook from SAE Publications. . 1982 by Masaaki Takizawa Tatsuo Uno . Publishing Division.A.E. 1982 by Itauru Fukutani & Eiichi Watanabe 820410* A Study of Gas Exchange Process Simulation of an Automotive Multi-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engine Feb. $12. Dynamic Flow Coefficients Feb.95.

I I . I - - I I -1 t-. I I I . ALL JOIN r" SCAAPE' ANP !¥1IVi"B .L . . EN r <SLVIt. E~5 a. I . I I -1 ... TOTAl UGt:ND "[LUS[ FOIl PROO OAT[ 3 . ..''I . I I I I I I . I I ..J 11 .A~OO SCALE 1/:11. 4 3 2 1 . ..4 I I - it- .. I 1I II'. J J I : 01 . r. I I ··S' . : . J -rNiltu 1 • I ' l. I ' : I I I '" I 1-•.. I l. 1'1 00 -1 J I I ! 1 ANGU X:I:' B Sac.Au. .7~ V-8 ADAPTEA.. -1r-/i-- 1 '" f . Y SF .. ~ C I I I~ r. IDENTlneAT N MilE" MANUrACTIIII£ 'AIIT NO I DOC MANUFACTUR[" NUT ASS[1IIt1tt...D .. CHECKE" A MATUIAl eLlA" Ae:IJYLlC.

unscrew the 3/4" hex assembly until the elbows point toward the tubing. Start by removing all rubber stoppers. top and bottom. . Turn flowbench back on. Shut exhaust valve. If not. Using spare plastic tubing puff or suck into each manometer elbow. adjust to 8" of test pressure and record the flow reading. 2) LOW FLOW TEST Same test as above except remove finger from small hole and slowly open intake control valve until you reach 10" test pressure on vertical manometer. record reading. In that case. Record reading of horizontal manometer. Slowly. Horizontal flow scale should rise slightly. The data you collect will be helpful in evaluating your problem. Unscrew elbows from the 3/4" nylon hex until they are flush with the top of the hex. with both holes in test orifice plate plugged. Turn the machine-on and open the exhaust valve until you get 10" of test pressure on the vertical manometer. then settle back to zero with machine running. (303) 471-1746 and ask for flowbench customer service. NOTE: Sometimes the flowbench won't go to 10" of test pressure. Record flow meter reading. do the following: 1) Unplug the brass/plastic tubing from manometer elbows. Shut Intake Control Valve. 2) 3) If problem still exists. Reconnect the tubing to the elbows. Repeat test in Intake mode. Repeat test in exhaust mode:-- 3) HIGH FLOW TEST You should still be in the exhaust mode from the last test. Turn machine on and place finger over small hole in test plate. ---- After recording the collected data. adjust intake control valve until you reach 10" of test pressure on vertical manometer. Then.TROUBLE SHOOTING YOUR FLOWBENCH When there seems to be a problem with the flowbench measuring system. making sure fluid responds and settles back to zero smoothly. call SuperFlow. please run the next three tests. 1) NO FLOW TEST With SuperFlow's test orifice plate bolted on and all rubber stoppers tightly in holes. switch to intake mode. Repeat this test on exhaust. (4 places).

then re-tighten the screw. 2. Open the plestic fluid velves on both metere [4 valvee. C. MACHINE PLACEMENT Remove the Superflow 110 from its shipping carton. Place the Superflow 110 on e level table top. INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS AND SETUP A.Superflow 110 CHECK-OUT INSTRUCTIONS ~ 1. Do not lift it by the plastic geges on the front panel. To keep the fluid insids the manometers during shipping. If the fluid column moves end returns freely. the clear plastic tubes have been disconnected and the velves have been closed. Reise or lower the left side of the manometer until the level bubble Is centered between the two merks. Connect the four flexible plastic tubes onto the four meter Inlet tubes. using the extrs length of plastic tubing provided. Level the n1I!lnometer by turning the screw near the left end of this manomater clockwise to loosen it. Check the valves to make sure they are open by blowing gently Into each valve. . Reed the instructions on the small red end white teg etteched to the flow meter. A bubble level Is built Into the flow manometer.off switch to OFF and plug the Superflow in. Turn the on . the valve is open.} B.

Mount only the aix-inch aquare test orifice plate to the flow bench. E. Remove the plastic adepter. If you purchased a cylinder heed adapter. Leave both the 1 7/8" and 5/16" holes in the test orifice open. 3. Zero the scele on the verticel test pressure manometer by rotating the knurled nut et the bottom of the scale. To zero the flow-percent scele. note thet this is the 185 cfm flow range. OPERATION CHECK A. C. By referring to the flow chart. . loosen the thumbscrew et the bottom of the flow menometsr end slide the scele to align the zero merk with the left end of the red fluid column. it is mounted to the flow bench baee plate on top of e flat test orifice plata. but install the bolts and flat washers in ell four corners. B.D. Remove all rubber stoppers from orifice plete at the top of the flow bench.

If a test pressure of 8.D. Set the mode selector switch to exhsust snd turn ON the off-on switch.0" is used the flow should be 70% to 74%. Close the inteke flow control valve gently ageinst its seat end opan ths exhaust flow control valve until the test pressure reeds 10.* Turn off the machine. If a test pressure of 8.A.S. Colorado. Turn off the machine. *Notice: The output of the SuperFlow 110 is proportional to the ~ine voltage at your location. Observe the reading on the upper diegonal flow meter.0" on the vertical meter. Remove the test orfice plate and install the cylinder head adapter. The flow should be 78% to 82% on the scale.0" i~ used. or 240 VAC for foreign units. Please call the SuperFlow headquarters for further instructions. U. the flow reading ~ ehould be 74% to 78%.Customer Service . If the SuperFlow 110 meets the above figures. the SuperFlow maximum capacity will be less than normal. SuperFlow Corporation 3512 North Tejon Colorado Springs. Switch the mode control ewitch to intake and repaat the above etepa with the inteke flow control valve. This does not have any effect on the accuracy. The flow should be approximately 83% to 87% on the scale. 80907 (303) 471-1746 eX. it is ready for flow tests. perform the check-out tests (starting at OPERATION CHECK D-E) at 8 n of water test pressure. At voltages below 120 VAC. the unit may have been damaged in shippment. * E. If the SuperFlow 110 will not reach 10 M of test pressure through the test orifice plate. If the SuperFlow 110 fails to meet the above standards. Power Requirements: SF-110 is 110 VAC or 110 VDC electrical power and draws 15 AMPS SF-II0E is 250 VAC or 250 VDC electrical power and draws 8 AMPS This completes the check-out test.

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