AP Gov & Politics Mid-Term Review– concepts Chapter I A. two ques. on which your text focuses a.
who governs? And to what ends? B. aver. income tax rate a. 21% C. political power a. Power-the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions D. Aristotle a. Definition of democracy is the “rule of many” E. Majoritarian politics a. Marxist view-view that the government is dominated by capitalists b. Power Elite view-view that the government is dominated by a few top leaders, most of whom are outside of government c. Bureaucratic view-view that the government is dominated by appointed officials d. Pluralist view-the belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy F. Pluralism a. Pluralist view-the belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy G. Foreign affairs approach a. During certain periods in our history we have taken an active interest in the
outside world as well as looking inward Chapter 2 A. Constitutional convention a. Delegates assembled at Philadelphia to revise the Articles; adjourned four months later having written a wholly new constitution A. Amer. Revolution goal a. Sought to protect the traditional liberties and do be an independent nation B. Articles of confederation & state governments a. AOC- a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War C. John Hancock as pres. 1785 a. Never showed up to take the job as he was elected to the meaningless office of “president” under the AOC D. Assembly of PA gov’t pro/con a. Pennsylvania: radically democratic, but trampled minority rights-government was too strong E. Shay’s Rebellion a. 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates F. Great Compromise a. Plan to have a popularity elected House based on state population and a
even though this power is not explicitly in the Constitution because of the “necessary and proper” (elastic) clause
state-selected Senate. Government authority shared by national and state governments Slavery v.
H. Hamilton’s view: national supremacy since the Constitution was the supreme law of the land 3. A. Enumerated powersPowers given to the national government alone c. social and political catastrophe
Chapter 3 A. Necessity of compromise: the Constitution would not have been ratified and slavery would have continued under the Articles of Confederation―with no prospective challenge possible
20. Civil War issues D. Precise definitions of powers are politically impossible due to competing interests. Concurrent powerspowers shared by the national and state governments b. e.
J. Jefferson’s view: states’ rights with the people as ultimate sovereign.Powers given to the state government alone Federalism a. Maryland
a. commerce 2.. Madison v. Constitution
1. McCulloch v. McCulloch v. with two members for each state A Republic a. Confederation a. Elastic language in Article I: necessary and proper clause0 10.
I. the national government was likely to be the principal threat to individuals’ liberties
B.g. Slavery was addressed in three provisions of the Constitution0 a0) House of Representatives apportionment—the “three-fifths compromise” b) Congress could not prohibit slave trade before 1808 c) Fugitive slave cause 10. Maryland (1819) settled two questions0 a0) Could Congress charter a national bank? Yes. Legacy: civil war. Wording of Constitution
a. Reserved powers. A government in which elected representatives make the decisions Concurrent powers/ enumerated powers a. Hamilton views of gov’t a. Hamilton’s view: national supremacy since the Constitution was the supreme law of the land b.G. Madison’s view: C.
D. Religious leaders central to antislavery movement 90. 50. Both liberals and conservatives have and do use the pulpit to promote political change (civil rights leaders. The effort to transfer responsibility for many pubic programs and services from the federal government to the states Chapter 4
.a coherent way of thinking about how politics and government ought to be carried out A. Freedom in the marketplace a. B. Religious beliefs have played an important role in American politics a. AFDC and Medicaid
a. AFDC did actually become a block grant d. 40. AFDC and Medicaid had operated as entitlements— b. Break with England-language of Declaration of Independence c. 20. Political conflict a. religiosity: US v. Federal gov’t income 19th cent and early 20th a. Devolution became part of the national political agenda e. Americans favor economic freedom over equality 70. Eur. localities to non-profit and private organizations
A. Christian Coalition of the 90’s) 100. Devolution a. Moral Majority of the 80’s. Americans are less likely to think that government should guarantee citizens a basic standard of living
C. Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants G. Republicans in 104th Congress proposed making these and other programs block grants c. Some evidence that devolution in welfare programs continued from states to localities.
1. Candidates for national office in most other contemporary democracies
H.b) Could states tax such a federal bank? No. Americans are less likely to think that hard work goes unrewarded 80. Swedes v. Swedes tend to favor equal pay and top limit on incomes 60. because national powers were supreme and therefore immune to state challenge. Institutions a. 30. US
1. political culture. F. Mandates a.
E. 1. confidence in pol. The First Great Awakening (1730’s40’s) transformed political life of colonies b.
Fergusian was dead. Ferguson.” Landmark decision. H. B. Writing that falsely injures another person C. Espionage and Sedition Acts.19th Amendment. Early church influence son gov’t F.States that A.
E. Libel a.S.Plessey was one-eighth black and refused to sit in the “black” railroad cars and was convicted. Political efficacy a. directed against German Americans in World War I A. Insulation of courts form public opinion Chapter 5 A.unanimous Supreme Court ruling that Plessy v. Reagan era/trust in gov. the Constitution cannot put them on the same plane. Chapter 7
G. drastically different in the U. Bill of Rights a. First 10 amendments of the Constitution B. A belief that you can take part in politics (internal efficacy) or that the government will respond to the citizenry (external efficacy) I. Board of Ed. Espionage and Sedition Acts a. C. Family influence on gov’t
a. Brown v. Flag burning a. and by shifting the struggle to a policy-making deal. Civil rights Move-ment of the 60s. Wall of separation
. “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ had no place” because “separate but equal facilities are inherently inequal. There may be no law that bans flag-burning D. Plessey v. the blacks wanted to make everything equal for themselves and all. Blacks and Whites attendeed the same schools now. Sedition Act of 1798. Court ruling that government cannot be involved with religion Chapter 6 A. They did this by allying white political elites. Family instills the ways we think about world and politics0 a0) Greater freedom of children and equality among family members… b) …leads to belief in rights and acceptance of diverse views in decisionmaking
a. following the French Revolution b. He appealed it to the Supreme Court which than claimed that “Separate-butEqual” was constitutional because if “one race be inferior to the other socially.rarely mention religion.Blacks were being segregated up until the 1960s and then they realized that they needed to start the civil rights movement to gain them more political and life freedoms from the segregation they faced. Once they finally got what they wanted.
Most likely young. to regulate personal conduct. Chapter 8 A. Most likely young.A. and permit school prayer. allow abortions.want government to reduce economic inequality. little education. high income and well educated. allow the market to allocate goods and services. d. mostly African American. but liberal on social ones. protect the rights of the accused. low income. low-income. Sources of cleavage in public opinion. Education. Most likely young.a. Most likely middle-aged. Sex. and help certain groups (such as organized labor) acquire greater bargaining power. Religion. c. religious. Liberal defined in FDR’s timereferred to his political programone that called for an active national government that would intervene in the economy. lock up criminals. and live in the Midwest. college educated. and curb forms of conduct they regard as antisocial.Race. Pure Conservatives. C. and guarantee the broadest possible freedoms of speech and press. populist. weak government that has little control over the economy or personal lives of citizens. keep taxes low. regulate business. white. poor educated. Activists. Pure Liberals. 60 percent of adults still associate with the parties their parent’s did.want the government to cut back on the welfare state. cure the economic cause of crime. voter participation groupsa. Inactivists-(22%) rarely vote to never vote and do not talk of politics. Region. and conservative on social ones.(11%) participate in all forms of politics. and live in the West. Want a government that will reduce economic inequality and control business. Most likely older. but they also want the gov. previously Disenfranchised groupsB. Occupation. no religion. high
income. tax the rich heavily. Want a small. live in the South or Midwest. etc. b. b. higher incomes. white. Most likely an older person. Income. Populists. Political classifications/ conservative. create social welfare programs. LibertariansConservative on economic matter. B. lock up criminals.liberal on economic matters. college-educated. female. nonreligious. A.
. Family influence on party choicethe majority of young people identify themselves with the party their parents associate with.
205. the national committees and national congressional campaign committees. 275. 198. Communalists. 274. the turnout has never reached 70% even 50% some years. is that the competition between the 2 major parties declined since the 19th century and the parties settled down in their respective regions and didn’t fight for politics like before. Who chooses candidates?. C. Parties. but not much more. d.At the (Republican and Democratic) national conventions. 201. 232. 250. E. 260 III. 255. and an organization. e. except that they tend to be more temperate. 258. 244.Vote and love to participate. And this is why the numbers are higher before then. They got rid of caucuses and this was a huge step from switching systems from the Founding Father’s
. 278. 231. 267.people who vote. increased over the years as opposed to straight tickets. Decline in Voter Turnout. personal problems. and do not participate in anything political. D.ran from the bottom up.They are just like the Campaigners. Decentralization of parties. 268. 259. 271. One view reason as to why. and older.
I. 254. because fraud voting was easily accomplished up until the later 20th century. f. Parochial ParticipantsDo not vote at all. 270. 272. They have a passion for sticking to their party and campaigning around. voting for candidates who are all of the same party.before the 1900s the voter turnout was around 70 and even 80 percent! And since the 1900s. Most likely had little education and income. they are willing to contact local officials about specific. a label. However. 234. p. p. 200. 235. Founders view of political parties. C. often.Voting Specialist. 237. Organization of pol. 202. G. Jacksonian era party system.disliked them. Weakness of Parties TodayWeaker in the categories or a set of leaders. Another theory is that the voting ratios are more apparent than real. 209 II. p. They like to take their problems to the local government and work out their problems in the community. 256.
c. 207.First political party was made in 1790s after the following of Jefferson. Campaigners. 245. 269. 282 Chapter 9 B. They were called the Republicans. Chapter 10 A. voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.split tickets. 203. 265. F. National party conventions H. Chapter 9 A. Chapter 11 A.
Funding for congressional v. institutional interest groups/examples F. spending. Social movements. % of House incumbents who win reelection D. and regulatory practices
Chapter 11 A.party chose pres. campaigns G. how?B. pres. Candidate tactics: general election v. National conventions Chapter 10 A. institutional interest groups/lobbying G. Materials benefits J. Candidates. periods in which interest groups expanded most rapidly D. Campaign finance reform so f 1973
.s v. 1896 to 1932/ Republican domination L. Campaign reform act of 2002 H. that of Eur. Democrat strong hold on Catholics. size of N. Party identification: factor in determining how people vote I. primary F. Peak year of unions in US O. Ralph Nader/ auto safety testimony L. Corporations make up what percent of interest groups in DC P. Modern Republican party J. 1964 election impact on social assistance programs M. US participation in religious assoc. Purposive membership organizations K. Invention of the party conventions were made in this Jacksonian era.original party system. growth of public interest groups in 60s E. causes of factions according to Madison B.Early 19th century. Retrospective voting J. Hostile administration allows increased effectiveness of public interest lobbies M. H. 1911 – House size fixed at 435 E. I. Three clearest critical alignment periods K. southerners and union members lost K. interest access to gov’t in US C. Elections w/largest voter turnout C. Solidary reasons for joining PTA I. 1980 election impact on taxes.