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Operating System:-

Operating System is a set of program or some automatic procedures which helps a computer
application to run effectively.
It creates an environment which enables us to use computer installation efficiently.
Windows is system software and the others are the application software.


System Application
(Dependency) (Little bid of Dependency)

Operating System’s point of view:-

Usage Functions
1) Single user – Windows XP 1) Processor or Process
2) Multi user – Linux, Windows Management
2000 Server. 2) Memory Management
3) Multitasking 3) File Management
4) Batch Processing 4) I/O Management
5) Real Time. 5) User Management.

What is an Operating System? Describe and define it?

An O.S is a set of automatic or manual procedures or programs which helps user to use or
share a computer sufficiently.
We can view O.S as a resource manager. A system has many resources (Hardware &
Software) that may be required to solve a problem, CPU time, Memory space, File storage space, I/O
devices and so on. The O.S acts as a manager of those resources and allocates them to specific
programs and users as necessary for tasks. Since there may be many possible conflicting request for
resources. The O.S must decide which requests are allocated resources to operate the computer
system efficiently and fairly. It is a control program and the common functions of controlling and
allocating resources are then brought together into a piece of software.
Why Operating System is called Resource Manager?

Application Programs, Text Editor, Database, Spencer’s, Science City Mall, Local
Application Software. Markets etc.

O.S Government.

Hardware Garments, Foods etc.

Goals of an Operating System:-

1) The primary goal of an O.S is convenience for the user. O.S exists because are suppose to
make it easier to computer with them than without them.
2) The secondary goal is efficient operation of the computer systems. This goal is particularly
important for large shared multi-user system.

Classification of Operating System:-

Simple batch processing system:-
A batch O.S normally reads a stream of separate jobs
each with its own control that predefine what the job does. When the job is complete its output is
usually printed on a printer. The definitive feature of a batch system is the lack of interaction
between the user and the job while job is prepared and submitted and at some later time the output
appears. The delay between job submission and completion is called Turn Around Time may result
from the amount of computing needed or from delays before the O.S start to process the job.
[N: B: Batch files extension - .bat]

Functions Of An Operating System:

An O.S provides the environments within these programs are executed. Internally O.S varies greatly
in their make up being organized along many different lines.
We can create system as large and complex as an O.S only by partitioning it into smaller
pieces. Each of these pieces should be well defined portion of the system.
1) Process Management:-
A program does nothing unless its instructions are executed
by a CPU. A process can be thought of as a program in execution. Typically a batch job is a process,
a time shared user program is a process. A system task such as schooling output to a printer is a
A process needs sudden resources, including CPU time, memory, files, I/O devices accomplish its
task. These resources are either given to this process when it is created or allocated to it why it is
running. In addition to the various physical and logical resources that a process obtains when it is
created some initializing data may be passed along. The process will be given as an improved the
name of the file and will execute the appropriate instruction and the system to obtain the desired
information and display it on the terminal. A program is a passive entity search as the contents of the
file stored on the disc whereas process is an active entity with a pointer called program counter that
indicates next instructions to execute. The CPU executes one instruction of the process after another
until the process completes it is in a sequential fashion. The O.S is responsible for the following
activities in connection the management of the process.

1) The creation and the deletion of both user and system process.
2) The suspension and the resumption of the process.
3) The provision of mechanism for process synchronization.
4) The provision of mechanism for process communication.
5) The provision of mechanism for deadlock handling.

2) Memory Management:-
Main memory is the central to the operation of a modern
Computer system. Main memory is a large array of words of bytes. Each word of bytes has its own
address. Memory is a repository of quickly accessible data share by the CPU and I/O devices. There
are two kinds of memory management performed by the O.S.

a) Primary or Main Memory Management

b) Secondary Storage Management

a) Primary or Main Memory Management:-

Main memory is also a repository of quickly accessible data

shared by CPU and I/O devices. The CPU reads instructions from main memory during instruction
fetch cycle and both read and write data in main memory during data fetch cycle. For the CPU to
process data from disc data must first be transferred from main memory by CPU generated I/O calls
and instruction must be in memory For the CPU to execute them.
For a program to be executed it must be mapped to absolute address and loaded into
memory. As the program executes it access program instructions and data from memory by
generating this absolute address. Eventually the program terminates its memory space is declared
available and the next program can be loaded and executed. The O.S is responsible for following
activities with memory management.

1) Keep track of which part of memory are currently being used and by whom.
2) Decide which process is to be loaded into memory when memory space becomes available.
3) Allocate and reallocate memory space when needed.
b) Secondary Memory Management:-

The main purpose of the computer is to execute program. These programs with the data they access
must be in main memory during execution. Because main memory is too small to accommodate all
data and programs and its data are loosed when power is loosed. A computer system must provide
secondary storage to back up main memory. Most programs including compilers, assemblers, and
editors are stored and edit and user used this disc as the source and destination of data. The O.S is
responsible for the following activities in connection with disc management.

1) Free space management

2) Storage allocation
3) Disc scheduling.

Categories Of An Operating System:

Operating System can be classified with the following categories based on resource management

1) Multiprogramming O.S:-
A single user can not in general keep either CPU or the I/O
devices busy at all time. It increases CPU utilizing by organizing jobs. So that CPU has always one
job to execute. The idea is as follows.
The O.S keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously there. These set of jobs is a
subset of the job kept in the job pool (Queue). Since the number of jobs that can be kept in the job
pool. The O.S keeps up a job and execute the job may have to wait for tasks, such as I/O operation
etc. In a non multiprogramming environment CPU seats idle. In a multiprogramming environment it
is always busy with jobs.

2) Multiprocessor O.S:-
The multiprocessor O.S supports more than one processor
communication sharing the same computer Bus, the Clock, Memory, I/O devices and in same time.
Multiprocessor system has three outputs -

a) Increase through book

b) Economy of scale
c) Increase reliability
a) Increase through book:-
By increasing the number of processors more work can be done in less
time. The speed of ratio may vary but in a multiprocessor environment multiple processors corporate
on a task and share certain amount of overhead incurred in keeping all the resources working

b) Economy of scale:-
Multiple processor system can save more money than multiple single
processor system. Because they share save same peripherals, power supply and memory also.

c) Increase reliability:-
If certain function can be distributed properly among several processors
then failing of one processor will not held the system, only show it down which increased
tremendous work flow and reliability among the system.

3) Time sharing O.S:-

It is a logical extension of multiprogramming operating system. The CPU executes multiple jobs by
switching among them but the switching so frequently that the user can interact with
each program while it is running.
It allows many users to share the computers each action or command in a time
sharing O.S to be short because only a little CPU time is given to a user. It uses CPU
scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of computer.

4) Real time O.S:-

It is used when the time constrains have been placed on the operation of the
processor of flow of data. Thus it is often used as a control device in a dedicated application. It can
be of two types-

Hard Real time O.S - Which guarantees the critical task, be completed on time.
Soft Real time O.S – Where a critical real time task gets priority over other task and retains that
priority until it completes.

What Is Process?
Informally a process is more than a program code. It is a program in execution. It also includes the
current activity as represented by the program counter and the content of the processors registers. A
process generally also includes process stack – containing temporary data and data section
containing global variable.
A program is a passive entity such as contents of the file stored on a disc
whereas process is an active entity. If the program counter specifying next instruction to be executed
and a set of additional resources.
Stages of the process:-
State as a process executes it changes state. The state of a process is defined in part by the current
activity of the process. Each process may be in one of the following states-

New – The process is being created.

Running – Instructions are being created.
Waiting – The process is waiting for some event to occur.
Ready – The process is waiting to reassign to a processor.
Terminated – The process has finished its execution.

New Ready Running Terminated


Process Control Block (PCB): -

Each Process in O.S is represented by a process control block or sometimes calls task control block
(TCB). It includes many pieces of instructions into it including –

1) Process State – The state may be new, ready, running, waiting and so on.

2) Program Counter – The counter indicates the address of the next instruction to be executed for
this process.

3) CPU Register – The registers vary in number and type. It includes accumulator, index register,
stack pointer, general purpose registers etc. Along with the PC it allows the process to be continued
currently afterward.

4) CPU Scheduling Information – This information includes a process priority, pointer to

scheduling ques d other scheduling parameters.

5) Memory Management Information – This information may include value of the page register,
segment tables depending on the memory system used by the O.S.

6) Accounting Information – It includes the amount of CPU and real time used.

7) I/O Status Information – It includes list of I/O devices allocated to the process a list of open file
Pointer Process States
Process Number
Program Counter
Memory Limits
List Of Open Files
Diagram of PCB

Process Scheduling:
The process of multiprogramming is to have some process running at all times to maximize CPU
utilization. The objective of timesharing is to switch among the processes so frequently that user can
interact with each program why it is running.

How scheduling que is form?

Step 1 – As process enter the system they are put into a job Que. This que consists of all processes in
the system.
Step 2 – The process that are residing in main memory and a ready waiting to execute are kept on a
list are called Ready Que. This que is generally store as Link List because the header of the ready
que will contain pointers to the first and the last PCB in the list. Each PCB has a pointer field that
points to the next process in the ready Que.

How processes are being executed?

A new process is initially put into the job Que from where it is shifted to ready Que when the process
is ready. It waits in the ready Que until it is selected or the execution and is given the CPU. Once the
process is allocated CPU it executes and produces results.

A process migrates between the various scheduling Ques throughout its lifetime. The O.S must select
for scheduling purposes, processes from this Ques in some fashion. The selection process is carried
out by the appropriate scheduler.

Classification of schedulers:
In general schedulers are of two types –

1) Long term scheduler – Which select processes from the job pool and loads them into
memory for execution.
2) Short term scheduler – Which selects from among the processes that are ready Que execute
and allocates the CPU to one of them.

Operations of processes:-
1) Process creation: - A process may create several new processes via ‘create process’
system call. The creating process is called parent process whereas the new processes are called child
In general a process will need certain resources (CPU, Memory, Files and I/O
devices) to accomplish its task. When a process is creates a sub-process the sub process may be able
to obtain its resources from the O.S or it may be certain to a subset of the parent process.

2) Process termination: - A process terminates when it finishes executing its task

statement and asked the O.S to delete it by using ‘Exit’ system call. At that point the process may
return data to its parent’s process. All of the resources of the process including physical and virtual
memory are deallocated by the O.S.

Co-operating process:-
The Concurrent process executing in the O.S may be either independent or as co-operating process.
A process is independent if it can’t affect or be affected by other process executing in
the system.
On the other hand a process is co-operative if it can affect or be affected by other
process executing in the process. There are several reasons for co-operation of process.

1) Information sharing
2) Computation speed-up
3) Modularity
4) Convenience.