Chapter 2

The Concept of Culture

Multiple-Choice
1. The anthropological concept of culture includes a. b. c. d. ANS: PG: 2. the ideas people learn. the material things people share. the ways people behave. all of the above D 28

Which statement about the concept of culture is true? a. b. c. d. ANS: PG: Culture is symbolic. Culture is learned. Culture is always changing. all of the above D 27, 31-33; 36-37

3.

The central concept in anthropology is the concept of a. b. c. d. ANS: PG: distribution. power. culture. artifact. C 27

4.

People from the same culture can predict one another's behavior because a. b. c. d. ANS: PG: culture determines behavior. culture conditions behavior. all people in any given society accept exactly the same rules for behavior. all people in any given society have exactly the same ideas. B 29

141

ANS: PG: marriage systems a system of distribution a system of communication all of the above D 37-39 7. genetically based. likely to learn the ways of thinking and acting determined by their own cultures. born knowing the best solution for situations in daily life. C 31 8. The process by which people acquire their culture is a. ANS: PG: simple expressions of an individual¶s original thoughts. acquired at birth. b. c. d. the result of complex learning processes. Children in the United States and Uganda are a. A 31 142 . instinctive. c. often leads to the experience of culture shock. D 31 9. c. ANS: PG: 6. b. b. d. more rapid in industrialized societies than in less technologically developed ones. ANS: PG: enculturation.TEST BANK / CHAPTER 2 5. d. c. b. is never difficult for an educated person. slowest in industrialized societies and most rapid in less technologically developed ones. d. may lead to physical distress but not psychological distress. if they are healthy at birth. A majority of our behavioral responses are a. likely to have the same set of values. Trying to operate in an unfamiliar culture a. A 30 Despite many differences in details. d. b. ANS: PG: likely to marry one spouse at a time. all cultures share a number of common cultural features including a. c. is never hard if you have read a book about that culture.

D 35 13.CHAPTER 2 / TEST BANK 10. Civilizations are characterized by monumental architecture. but all civilizations are not cultures. things. non-western societies. and blood types. and dance. b. they have a distorted concept of beauty. Ferraro's wife was considered unattractive by the Kikuyu because a. music. B 35 14. use scarification or wear bones in their noses because a. All cultures are civilizations. d. B 28 Which statement about the term civilization is true? a. c. ANS: PG: of the color of her skin. painting. they wore lipstick. ANS: PG: Civilization is synonymous with culture. she was too thin. religions. ANS: PG: they don¶t understand the harm they do to their bodies. their culture tells them that it looks good.. and behavior patterns. d. highly Catholic societies. c. b. values. D 36 143 . they do it as part of their religious practice. ANS: PG: 11. d. Asian societies. c. Some people in the world have tattoos. b. ideas. b. d. she had pierced ears. d. The three basic components of culture are a. b. all of the above C 29 12. c. and attitudes. things. writing and centralized government. Internal cultural changes occur most often in a. c. artifacts. ANS: PG: small-scale. technologically complex societies.

Which statement about the Amish culture is false? a. What types of cultures remain completely static year after year? a. b. b. cultural diffusion. d. D 36 19. tabula rasa.TEST BANK / CHAPTER 2 15. ANS: PG: They live in Pennsylvania. d. D 36 17. Cultural universals include a. c. all important elements of culture came from Asian and African societies. They are hard-working farmers. B 30 18. d. They are at the forefront of change in the United States. c. all important elements of culture came from European societies. b. d. ANS: PG: 16. ANS: PG: people are essentially uninventive and unimaginative. d. c. Cultural diffusion is very important in cultural change because a. small-scale cultures non-western cultures no culture remains completely static western cultures C 36 The spread of a cultural element from one society to another is called a. it is easier to borrow a thing or idea than it is to invent it. b. c. ANS: PG: division of labor marriage monogamy a and b D 37-39 144 . c. They infrequently send their children to public schools. b. ANS: PG: innovation. ethnocentrism.

cultural diffusion. believe in the saying ³time is money. c. ethnocentrism. d. c. The process by which culture traits are spread from one culture to another is called a. The integration of a culture means a. ANS: PG: 21. show how parts of a culture are independent from one another.´ A 34 22. d. Culture influences biological processes. d. A 41 24. Culture is learned. b. 36-37 When we describe a culture as being polychronic. c. determine if one culture is more moral than another. Cultures change over time. c. tend to be extremely punctual. none of the above D 31. B 41-42 23. that its parts are somewhat interconnected with one another. c. b. The task of the cultural anthropologist is to a. a culture is exactly like the body of a living organism. Which statement about the concept of culture is false? a. ANS: PG: parallel evolution. study aspects of a culture in isolation from the rest of the cultural system. prefer to engage in only one activity at a time. racism. ANS: PG: feel comfortable engaging in a number of activities simultaneously. B 36 145 . d. that Blacks and Whites attend school together. d. 34.CHAPTER 2 / TEST BANK 20. ANS: PG: that all its parts are tightly connected to all other parts. b. b. we mean that people a. b. ANS: PG: describe the various parts of the culture he or she studies.

b. c.TEST BANK / CHAPTER 2 25. ANS: PG: 26. B 42 Civilizations are generally characterized by a. enjoy all the benefits of the mainstream culture. c. b. Subcultures a. d. The anthropological attitude that a society¶s customs and ideas should be viewed in the context of that society¶s culture is called a. ANS: PG: cities. culture helps people adapt to their environments. retain a level of cultural uniqueness that sets them apart. b. c. cultural diffusion. cultural constraint. humans evolved directly from non-human primates. A 41-42 146 . ANS: PG: It is a culture-specific psychological disorder found in China It affects teenage girls and young women. It is an eating disorder found among Japanese teenage girls C 44 28. It results from the enormous pressure Japanese culture places on young males to succeed in school and later in the corporate world. only the fittest members of a species will survive. Which statement about Hikikomori is true? a. The ³organic analogy´ refers to the idea that a. all of the above D 29 27. b. c. ANS: PG: are subsets of the wider culture. ANS: PG: the parts of a culture are interconnected much as are the organs of a living animal. d. d. ethnocentrism. b. d. a and c D 30 29. monumental architecture. d. c. state systems of government. cultural relativism.

b. Cultural anthropologists no longer use the term ³primitive´ because a. d. learn cultural content with similar efficiency. changes in the physical and social environment.´ he is referring to societies with relatively a. b. b. c. all of the above D 42 33. ideas and values. c. d. Saying that every society has an economic system means a. learn essentially the same content in similar ways. d. learn different cultural content. a and c D 32 Culture is changed by a. all of the above D 42 147 .CHAPTER 2 / TEST BANK 30. ANS: PG: technology. c. little labor specialization. c. D 38 34. that every society has worked out a patterned way of ensuring that people get what they need for survival. that every society has markets. it erroneously implies that a culture is inferior. b. c. d. ANS: PG: that every society has a system of standardized currency. ANS: PG: 31. all of the above D 36-37 32. d. simple technologies. b. When Ferraro used ³small-scale society. The study of comparative cultures has taught us that people in different cultures a. ANS: PG: it erroneously implies that a culture is earlier in time. it is politically incorrect. that each receives goods and services based on his or her capacity to pay. ANS: PG: small populations.

b. A Hindu who vomits after inadvertently eating beef illustrates which cultural principle? a. C 36-37 38. d. we know that a. d. b. Cubans tend to get closer to one another than do people from New York City c. c. ANS: PG: Cultures are always changing. middle class North Americans get closer than Cubans b. c. In terms of how close people get to one another in different cultures.TEST BANK / CHAPTER 2 35. People from New York City get closer to one another than people from all other cultures ANS: B PG: 43 Cross cultural coaching is appropriate in which setting? a. d. c. The parts of a culture are interrelated. There are no dumb cultures. b. ANS: PG: Humans are born with very few predetermined behaviors. ANS: PG: Culture is learned. Anthropologists do not agree on the single most important cause of culture change. Which statement about the learned nature of culture is true? a. b. Cultures are always changing. Which statement about culture change is false? a. factory public high school the United States Army all of the above D 32-33 36. C 35 39. Cultures change through the processes of diffusion and innovation. d. People learn what they need to know in order to adapt to their environment. all of the above D 31-33 148 . Culture influences biological processes. ANS: PG: 37. Cubans and New Yorkers tend to keep the same distance during normal conversations d. c. Cultures change more through invention than through diffusion.

ANS: T PG: 35 Few cultural universals have to do with meeting the basic physiological needs of humans. ANS: T PG: 31 A subculture refers to an inferior cultural group ANS: F PG: 30 It is ethnocentric for a member of an African tribe to think an anthologist's wife is too thin in comparison to his own wives. ANS: F PG: 37 2. ANS: F PG: 28 Culture is acquired through learning rather than encoded in genes or DNA. 3.CHAPTER 2 / TEST BANK 40. 6. Culture refers to the people living in a society. is found in the United States and the United Kingdom. b. A pluralistic society a. all of the above D 30 True-False 1. 5. ANS: F PG: 35-36 Taiwanese men are prevented from wearing green hats because it violates their religious beliefs. ANS: F PG: 32 In the last decade there has been a reduction in the extent to which Americans alter their appearance through plastic surgery. 149 . ANS: F PG: 39-40 The American Anthropological Association has taken the official position that humans are born with a built-in culture. d. 4. 8. has a great potential for misunderstandings or hostilities. c. 9. ANS: PG: is composed of a number of subcultural groups. 7. ANS: F PG: 37-39 Cultural adaptations have little importance in humans' adaptation to the sub-Arctic.

and do as members of a society PG: 28 What is culture shock? ANS: a form of psychological distress that can result in depression. ANS: T PG: 32-33 Short Answer 1. 3. scarification. 5. or irritability brought on when trying to operate in an unfamiliar culture PG: 30 Define the organic analogy made popular by some of the early functionalist anthropologists. ear piercing PG: 35 2. 150 . 4. 9. ANS: Burmese women elongating their necks with brass rings. think. Chinese foot binding. ANS: A comparison between a culture and a living organism such as the human body that has systems that work together to maintain the overall health of the organism PG: 41-42 What are pluralistic societies? ANS: societies composed of a number of subcultural groups PG: 30 What is hikikomori? ANS: It refers to young male Japanese shut-ins resulting from enormous pressure their culture places on young men to succeed in school and in the workplace. What are the two basic processes of cultural change within a society? ANS: innovations and cultural diffusion PG: 36 What is a social control system? ANS: a set of mechanisms that coerce people to obey the social norms of a society PG: 38 Why is the word "primitive" ethnocentric? ANS: It implies that something primitive is both inferior and earlier in a chronological sense. tattooing. People in French-speaking Africa tend to view their language as an art form. 8. overeating. PG: 44 Give examples of variations in cultural attitudes concerning male and female attractiveness.TEST BANK / CHAPTER 2 10. PG: 42 How does the author define the concept of culture? ANS: everything that people have. 7. 6.

such as politics. communication systems. and family life? Write an essay illustrating how the concept of ³culture influencing biological processes´ has affected American culture. 2. how would you define the concept of culture? What general statements hold true for all cultures of the world? Write an essay illustrating the concept of the interrelatedness of the parts of culture. girls/women) and Hikikomori (young Japanese males who sequester themselves in their bedrooms for months and years at a time.S. How has the introduction of that one new gadget influenced or changed other parts of American culture. and supernatural belief systems. education. 4. List five cultural universals ANS: Economic systems. PG: 37-39 Essay 1. 5. religion. 151 . 8. In your own words. social control systems. 6. 7. 3. marriage and family systems.CHAPTER 2 / TEST BANK 10. One of the most important technological changes that took place in the United States was the mass use of television during the 1950s. What is ethnocentrism and how would you illustrate it from a number of different cultures? How many things that you do during your waking hours are purely biologically based? What types of problems of cultural adjustment would a Japanese teenager face when enrolling in a public high school in the suburbs of Chicago? What advice could you offer this student if you were his/her cross-cultural coach? Write an essay comparing the culture specific diseases of Anorexia (an eating disorder among U.