50 AQUILLA M.D., II.-O Irish of the By SMITH, the Coins Seventh. Henry M.R.I.A. 14th Read 1841. June, INTRODUCTION.

to the it about belong of AS coins Iam to the which describe,some Henrys, can in first to to thatbest whichadopted, me appearsthe course be is, the place of be them the whether canassigned of the any inquire, the name to predecessors in manner, who same;forproceeding the bore this Henry Seventh, be by be to smallest will reduced period, to the canappropriated, the possible coins which follow and inquiries the will be limit,the whichin subsequentgreatly pages facilitated. the committed who has Simon out mistake by Nicholson, that pointed the noble the in 1404,Bishop his Fourth, says"Henry inthefor ordered of five immediate pass yearshillings that from to Ireland ten predecessors than ;and, time, all of went value in sorts athigher coin a here The referredlearnedEngland."John words to " Sir the who from quoted les Davis's are by le Prelate, Mes difference enter Reports, et primer et 5 4. Car standardsthese, Irish est enEdw. del moneysmoneys inequalitie trove English fuit declare 3. R. le noble en donques en que fait Edw.2. 4. et parliamenten tempsrealm Hen. 6. de cest Hen. 5. Hen. icy,temps currant cest avant en serroit 10s. demy et auterssolonque issint noble, comes mesme touts le pur et le 5Edw. 40. 11 4. 6. 15 rate. VideParliament, et Edw. et Edw. Rot. 4. 4. cap. 5. le del incap. in office Castro cap.error Rolles Dublin."t of The of Nicholson IV., Edward in Henry instead IV., Bishop is palpable towriting not any so from his reference itwould that notice Davis, require Irish Library, tDavis's1674, Historical p. 8vo. 162. Reports, 22. fol. p. 1724,

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh.51 the Henry " had remarked, Act Edw.seems not this here, Simon that last (15 IV. to someof coinedthis (Henry hint, that kind was here reign, IV.,well in as as in of V."He conjecturesscarcityin that money the Henry also forthatgreat of money seems been coining money to haveareason the more in England that and believesgroats, 57, 59, in 3rd therefore the figs. 58, 60 hisIreland, 56, Plate, to Fifth. belong the which Henry " The of from Simon inference, the Act1475, that drew ordains his called coin the madereigns the &c. clipped, in the of Edward not Third, shallthe of deniers. made in time be value of gross, six The in the of the king, shall gross and moneys not all five England the struck presentclipped,for deniers, pass in to of sameas now Irelandthe value are."-f be The part extract passage which latter this isthey in Act could of the the to opinion only have only his to itappears givesupport ;but to to reference any coins " me the numerous types, in in first of variousstruck the fifteen Ireland" Edward's which Irish was of reign, period considerably years than during his money his in value less a held at ninth In the English.tFifth, of the in Dublin, 1421, the send before ofyear Lords parliament Earl Henry Commons to James Ormond,and agreedapeti the several The tion king, for redress grievances. to the praying of " petition the which that money containsarticles, of prays,certainbe nineteen third that in in Dublin and the officers, struck as England, necessary &c. moneyers, be appointed." that Ireland was in coined From itis this evidence no it the and grounds the of petition, no date legalleaves for time to probable, money what some for appropriationto Simon's of Irish Henry died ever previousany coins the who Fifth, on to learned Richard for atten Irish 19. the Simon, XIV. Coins, Rev. of Appendix, Essay my friend, tButler,No.my p. Iam records Trim, to to on of andHenrythe directing several Irish tionindebted the of beFifth whichet found Rotulorum been importantwhich in " have unknown coins, may and Patentium writers reignsthe Sixth, hitherto Cancellaria3vol. I. sicut Hibernia i. Clausorum Calendarium," cum pars 3. quod cudantur in in Petunt certe Pat. V. 111. "Art. &c. monete Dublinia omnibus Hen. Anglia, necessariis."--Rot. the officiariis,Calendar, been 9, In monetariis,words cap. from thebe the which useless the in have forcontractions, itextracts to full substituted wouldand retain. inconvenient g2

52 Dr. on Trishof the SMITH Coins Seventh. the Henry in ;but subjectmore discussed 1422 this may conveniently when be hereafter, the in Ishall to Mr. appropriation endeavour Lindsay's of coins question, to the support Seventh. Henry to Sheriff inthe A directed of the writ, the Dublin,first of reign year of the recites, kinglearned merchants the Sixth, "that had that Henry manyand into Ireland of sums and gold, counterfeit,clipped brought largesilver washed, same that carriedking's the aroll year, the they "awaythe had And of were money."that coun after that Fifth informed, there reciting, and been terfeiters Henry clippers, of same of and washers, weighers in and the silver, gold and had that be Ireland,he caused to made such under of of and andno against to the loss proclamation presume life limbs, person practices, that should penalty as or refuse such counterfeit Janie was weigh gold Richard or ;appoints (except washed Nicholas and and to Dartas, Daly, Talloun, separately, jointly those inquire afterwho to the gold,also who those and dared presumed king's into for weigh from of to clipped, counterfeit the or carry washed,silver and Ireland, gold England aforesaid of further the purpose such money, givescommit accumulating with the king's to officersarrest power offenders, their and together money, them to prison."f " vicecomiti in recitatur querela ex Breve Dubliniead venientesligeorum directum, regem, quo gravi Hibernie, summas loti,hue secum, accepisse auricontrofecti, populum et quod mercatorestonsi,die non dictum de vendendiquampluressubdole deincausa maximas Hiberniam emendi, hinc,suum, ad die Regis et portant et Claus. pecunias opus extorquendum cipiendum, VI.40. Regis 1 argenteas clamosa desistunt."-Rot.ad et insinuacione Hen. ex cap.gravi H. cum, dominorum V., t'C(recitatur Hibernie quahter spiritu comuaunium alium extiterint monete existentium, et temporalium in et ac tonsores, parliamentoet accepisset eunenull controfectores lotores,quod nonnulleac argenti, ne pon persone Hiberniatn, proclamari deratores infra brevia fecerit quodsub ejusdem lotor,sun foretet vite monete controfecto monete, et ne controfector, quod quis pena &c.loto pervel dicteetquis, inmembrorutn, excepto)ponderare aurum (auro tonsor, seu presumeret, recepcionibus, etponderatordivisim, Janico belanciisRicardum et DartasNicholaum denegare conjunctim armigerum,vendicionibus Daly, &c. presumpse assignavitcum aurum Talloun, eis ad de dequitonsum,incontrofectum, ponderare inquirendum [ant seu extra fiber aurum Regis ac qui ad riot,illis RegisRegis hujusmodiaccumu Angliam velmodo niampresumpserint,sic auro, in cariare cum lotum, in alio manibus monetam pro mone argenti quorumcumque landum una committendum.Hen. ;et et prisoneargenti Pat. VI. culpabiles,Regis accumulata, [ta Dub, 10 1 Dorso, Julii."-Rot. existat, capiendum, 109,b. cdp. ipsos

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh.53 the Henry All the year king, council, a the of In secondthis ingreat held morrow of on before Bishop of was of of Earl it Souls,EdwardMeath, Edmund should March, thatnoble, quarter the and noble ordained, half, deputycounterfeit gold (exceptshould received and that weight depo. be universally that astandard be weight, in Exchequer, the sited Irishby and all sheriffs, throughout the mayors, &c. that should agreeingsaid and every have the the land, weights with standard, have the weight as as he subject access to aforesaid liege should to standardoften pleased, under andno should contrary ordinance, that refuse person begold the be apenalty to paid king, any might of shillings,to and offender ten the that to and until made and fine." committed therehe redemption gaol, the forestablishment kept It not thatpetition does the ofmint a in Dublin, appear in ninth Henry was before year the year the granted third Henry of the of Fifth, the for the of on in year, of that the of Sixth, 6thFebruary agrant office master in Castle was to Cobbham, of the the of made Dublin, John thecoinage thatmoney the weight, made king's during pleasure, the be of same which London, that and theprovided in andthe allay, asthe money made madeaforesaid assay,silveroneis to in said for making be Johnreceive of lb.money, the maymuch, he of as as master as that pay king the to Castle, and shall the much, of in the only receivesfor lb.the sort, shall London pays of same he and one and coinage " magno In in A coram consilio, episcopo locum breviaEdward ad Edmundi Crastino ordinatum comitis nimarum deputato Marchie ad dic tenentis, tent, Midie, communiurn tum per Regis quodest,ad auricontrofecto consiliumelectorum, supplicacionem nobilis,Hiberniam (atm secundum unumgentes auri recipi valorem obolus, confluentes ac et dicti alias quadrans excepto etet perstandardum Anglie pondus ligeos ponderis anturetthesauro et pondus: quod per universaliter thesaurarii etstandardo concordans custodiacamerariorum de sit, vicecornes, Hibernie, rernaneret:habeantstandard :etcetero et in in major, superior,totam ballivus, saccarii senescallus, quod quilibetpondera recte per ad prosecucionem in prepositus, eorum habeatdicta concordancia dicto terram, insuper, ad standarda assistunt, quod terre placueriteciam, locoet quilibet quolibet ad adligeus sibi cursum seu et ubiali standardi faciendum ponderapredicte licet quodindigene, ligei, quociens :et lotum,secundum Hiberniam tonsum pondus, enigene hujusmodi contra valoremconfluentes solvendum ordina futuro et ejusdem aurum,:et per delin ponduspenaopus percipiant cionem sublOs :et nullusaurum refutetin quod et corpus predictam ad Regishujusmodi ejusdem committatur in moraturum quodfacial inde quentisVI. ea 27. redempcionem gaole prima quousquefinem &c. Rot.2Hen. pars. Claus. cap.

54 Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. the Henry be by to the in same and as bound perform the manner indenture premises, form the in is master bound." London In third years agrant hundred the and fourth Henry,of of one shillings a William the striker king's was to year, the Castle made Goldesmyth, of during pleasure, the in the of money atDublin.t was a At held in an 1447, Trim, Act against no and parliament and ordainedmoney the coin,itwas passedclipping king's from that so counterfeiting land,the " of next be received of day clipped in place any said or first Mayto nor called the the other money, come, money the money, unlawful any make thatcoyner saidto the so one be atO'Reyly's coyn."t ready day it In aparliament and enacted, of held the Naas,was at request 1456, " was at whereas found king's the that no could" to the coin Commons, meanbe keep within of the Ireland,"merchants every land all shall for pound foreign pay the of that shalloutIreland, of to king's silver carry of custom they to use king if forty-pence in the of the con customer, the ;and man do contrary any shall of said he for penny,shillings the shall the cealingtocustom,payevery twenty to said the from the customers,use," the chapter Act king'sand twelfthof same that greatly " by daily silver, Ireland the exportation itappears was impoverished of the the that the clipping and Irish called andgreat of coin, the money, O'Rey increased therefore any carrying daily ;it custom that for ounce ley's," shall was toenacted,person silver outIreland for the twelve-pence; of every pay to kingbusiness who " lords and exceptwith going upon of public, England the messengers their may platethem, to degrees."11 carry according " concessit officium in Dublinie Rex Johanni sit cunagii sicut castrofaciendi, Cobbham durante quodoperata tantumlibre moneta assaie, beneplacito, quod ponderis, monete provisoet magistri et netaque operata ejusdemfactura in Londonio dictus allaie, mo argenti percipiat, Johannes 1 terra est, reddat, pro in pre in predict etRegi idem niagister in castrolibra et tantum ad monete operate et Johannes per quantum dicta eisdem quod in facienda reddit, hujusmodi pro percipit magister predicta denturammodo quibus terrapro obligetur,forma 21. premissa existit. etPat. VI.cunagii in tempore 6 obligatusFeb."-Rot.cap. monete Trym,Willelmo percussori Dub " eisdem castro Rex ei quod 3Hen. t100s mandat Goldesmy[th?], durante solvant. linie,annum Hen. 35. annuatimJulii, per per4concessos Regem 3a anni Claus. VI. beneplacito 341. predicti."-Rot. cap. Ruding,ii. No. vol. 2nd p. edit. Simon, III. 1: Appendix, No. Simon, IV. B Appendix,

55 SMITH Coins Seventh. Dr. on Irish of the the Henry the The andActthis relating contains nextlast of reign to coinagemuch is that important. the that the 1460, at Atparliament in year it enacted, a held Drogheda,in was the and raised Ireland, gross value goldshouldone-fourth that of coins be should the and clipped extreme " of English not within circle, pass London,Calais, York,andsmallerthe And in for in Ireland, five-pence the piecessame as onlyDutchy but the proportion. not the of alsoDutchy when Guienne, Normandy, of were were the under obedience England, less of realm the theyfromlaws Statutesof andyet no the and coynes England,also under separate from ofof so had itbe for themselves the England though different coyne ; Ireland, from from the of same isnevertheless and all obediencerealm, separate the it, tem the and of onlyas there lords and laws are the Statutes such by spiritual it, council, poraladmitted of of or with convenience freely and in great which accepted was by a the parliament coyneIreland England, of a proper in from two the of morehalf separatecoyne onethe to had under be weight agreed a an of ounce on forms; on side which imprinted be quarter troycalledshall to onevalue and othercrown,Irelandes pass lyon, on sideweight, d'argent,the of the a an for one sterling of ob.troy having on the VII. weight, other of one ; pennyand other called imprinted of crown, it the part which of parta one onThat across,aPatrick,eight for denier. gross of weight deniers shall made of three pass for a be thehave on and four sterling, to shall it sterling, and denierswhich imprinted pass the side like of on side'a on othercross coyne bear one crown, a the Calais, the writing, the where made about in the of placethe is ;and cross name coin ing that person, bullion ought and for to the receive every who ninemint,to the have ounce brings the of of three silver, every of troythe of said no value That called be of value and the weight, hereafterand deniers.coyne Jack, grosses void, be in Castles and ;" at the copes the Dublin and thatabove made of an Trymme of the the enacted, sitting parliament " of denier adjournedsame itwas in thata with the called be void,thatlieuit penny cross Irelandes and be utterly some of found Having copper Second coins lately " "Jacobus theseJames, inwas seen the of theAct,bewhich occurredpieces to the mentioned were Jacks Ireland, thatSixth. in Scotland, whoitnotemefind samethemight of with that was contemporary term to brassof Henry Since 44 Jacks this The to written the applied James thefor was 1841. See I their p. in the shillings Second. put the of 123,Historical Ireland, the Percy printed Society, trumps," Songs

56 Dr. on Irish of the the SMITH Coins Seventh. Henry in struck having of fourththe gross of silver,the the part new of Ireland, weight be and the gross." to imprinted as new inscribed From to the Cobbham, which that in 1425, the the grant be theyear provides be in to made shall same allay, as money Dublinof silver and the in made and weight, assay, the in the a of money London, with salary appointment that an annualone shillings, probable of hundred isfollowing some than moneyer, it moreyear was Dublin time. coined about money in coin that Iknow one which to to the of Ican venture Henry Sixth, theonlyhis Ithastheassign head of the during part reign. on obverse, with early a an crownwithin of astar rays left of king's open fleury, circle DNS antheat pellets, six at side of neck,mark legend HIBNIE, the the mint across,HENRICVS annulet of end legend a cross pelletsquarter, the ;reverse, with in three each legend an a CIVITAS isplain cm.weighsgrains DVBLINIE afterIt twelveand ;thereannulet quarter. and preservation, in which of This coin, is the rarity,fine the W. of the of Rev. highest whom cabinet J. isin interesting Martin, to Iam Keston, indebted Irish great it the of several of for loanand othercoins rarity. the the account tressure the this That which of absence on ob coin, on struck ofof be Ibelieve verse, to a was in early the of penny, thethe reign part Henry the is probableis for first adduced, time, which Sixth, Irish wasnow,made same very ;evidencebe of ordered the standard 1425 money to that in proves and of the money,weight as English the this whichto of equal piece,is the the more many fourth Henry and Ibelieve pennies Sixth, which than Englishof thethe considerably part the groats of of Irish of so Seventh,that exceed any and Henry shows neverthirty it two rarely much,clearlymustbeen grains, weighSixth.mintis have similar that coinedthe of the The mark to reign during Henry some occurs the coins whichon of English assigned annulets Henry, usuallyto the The and star,marksconnectthe reign. the are which itwithsame also, No. Simon, V. Appendix,

the 57 SMITH Coins Seventh. DR. on Irish of the Henry the of this is occurrence N threein legendscoin, of Roman places the in very time Ihave othercoin the of not seen Irishfrom Edward remarkable,any which Roman the fl legend, the N its to Henry that Third, of of the of has Fourth. ex third Edward aDublin theEighth, the cept groat year was under of Itisvery whether coinedthe doubtful, money authority any fornew a the which the of in the Act]447, provisioncoinage on certain great depended coiner againstday the scarcity ;and silver, together ready" being ofa Irish called of mentioned the with increase money, O'Reyley's," the daily the in Act1457, scarcely hadlegal been the of could have any in meantime. happened, money the coined The of appears the that money Act1460 to warrant if inference, was in Irelandto time, have similar that coined previous itmustbeenany and in the standard already;forthe Act,proper to penny describedsame"a type by coyne with coin wasmore agreed be the to had separate of from England, convenience in Ireland." the The and of coins to made arefully be in typeweight ordered little sode in Act, itwouldthere 1460,in describedthat appear be difficulty, the could which " assigned coins be this terminingshould to date. hitherto The calledIrelandeshas dis not pennythe d'argent," been The ordered came Act be the covered. which itto made, operation into on of on the after 17th and Monday Sunday the March,declareTrinity(8th penny June), "Irelandes" " utterly called was dto be void." few coins,type in Act half-farthings of called the the " A copperthe ascribedtoby grains, the havefound, them several been most Patricks," but of exceed, fixed Act. onef inclined to There to weight the it is six Iam the appropriate bybecause which form cross the of the Sixth, weighs grains, Henry is only and on reverse from the coins,Ibelieve the different heavier that on which were mintedthe of the in Edward Fourth. earlyreign in far some The of groat the as this Act, so them of type the described agreeswithbe the of coins of Edward thatstill which are itis Fourth, doubtful to consideredto as belonging for Henry. the Simon Taking thatgroat by (P1.fig. is granted published III 61 xix. SeeCoins Pl. 18, R.Academy, Irish Edw.I. Trans. vol. of IV. fig. I. P1.1. tIbid. 15. fig. Vol,. XIX.

SMITH Coins Seventh. 58 DR. on Irish of the the Henry atressure accuratelyas trefoil of ofarches crown, having twelve Ithe represented,each the roundit whichshallow, at point tressure, to is and very is a be thatcoin now assign the It much Sixth. this be Henry and to regretted cannotfound in numerous collections had ;but the which access extensiveto Ihave that such was possession doubted, sub a in piece Simon'scan be I. as penny hardly the with in supplement agrees his it sequently Snelling in (P1. in numberin tressure,form16 and a thepublished and of crown, of by the arches the fig. such the coincidenceattributedof artistpenny a can be tomistake ;this Ialso the the tohardly Sixth. appropriate collector does in that a Iam Henry aware not that believe England the a the ever with distinguished existence, twelvein tressure was on groat arches but in that piece knownshort thegrounds such at no is present a time same ; since, argu a James been tocoin ment haveappliedof the as specimen no Second, of was known havelately ;one it might two then however discovered been in which in; in is the of late pewter, was asewer in cabinet Dean found Dublin, the of St. and brass, state another a is the in possession Patrick's,in ingoodof preservation, of author. the Ishallproceed now to investigation Iconceive the of coins, the which be which with diffidence, it to Seventh, long thealmost ofenter much as Henry atask I on difficulties step inquiry. presentsat every the THEREcoins may, any be to are without doubt, manywhichdocuments appropriated his the although few relating coins Henry nor very have to Irishhave which it been Seventh, thatothers preserved, is likely discovered, any been from direct can be obtained. evidence the this The total of connected of reign, almost records with absence the coinage is more as greater numerous to the Acts, the remarkable, of relating the immediateEdward coinedthe of part predecessors, money the are during still and reigns Richard Henry's the Papers Fourth, Third, preservedState in among Ireland. on authority that firstof the Henry Snelling, in Ruding, of " states,the year Maister the "Robert was of Cunage within Seventh Bowley" the and Mynt and the of (Dublin Cities Waterford.1 Dyvelin i. 90. vol. Pl. fig. VIII. p. Simon, 177. tAnnals,

the Du. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. 59 Henry was Nicholas the appointment On 9thMarch, Flintby king's the of 1491, tt overseer of and ;" on 15th andthe Waterford of the Dublin made of mints was the Greenwich, issued a April ofproclamationking for authorizing following,cause by at to laws prevention Earl " GeraldKildare and certainthe prescribe of or silver within Lordship false mixt in coin that his of " Ireland.1 of The Acthis year, states The es 1504, coins, English nineteenth asthat the of so as clipping well same, silver, impaired peciallywere the by that rumour counterfeiting Va andbringing intorealm of the Ireland, by increased coin and the and great and riance among for refusing " same dailyitwashis no taking into ;"of subjects, in same enacted, should England the year that bring the of above of person four on of coin the three and Ireland, sum shillingspence, the forfeiture andand at king's pain and fineransom, imprisonment, alias p1easure.1 In the granted Galmole, of Thomas Archibold, 1506, Dublin, king to the of office the and within Master Goldsmith, of Coinage made the Monies, Castle and the office or his during of to said himself,deputy, hold the Dublin, by king's recordscoins are sources pleasure. the the These and themselves, from only scanty numerous of be evidence which canderived the coins which them the it will beforeon have preserved Ienter description be been ;andrespecting of Henry determine which standard be to whether to convenient it possible the by inquire, want direct on the was coinage to The of collected thisthe regulated. be evidenceof any from subject the merevert facts to may history compels suchas reigns. preceding several the Thisheldofficeswith mint, partreign person Monete EnglishAssaiator early et " " Turrim Contr.Cunagii infra of on et MonetetheLondon"--and he de connected inTur. this was, 1485-1487, ferris,"infraLond." Monete et et pro Campsor Sculptor "Keeper Exchange.-Ruding, Cunagii"-"appointed Cunagii vol.98, he of King's the 17th 1486, i. theof and was pp. iv. 161,of 106,May, p.A.D. 119, vol.194. ii. vol. Annals Galmole 1 alias 397 1491. Ruding, 399. Ireland,Dublinia,Thomae pp. tWare'sThomae goldsmyth,and 18.et Rex concessit de officium numismatumPat.habendumper castrum teriumduranteJulii." 21 VII.Archibold, fiendorum, cunagii infraDublinie cap. magis 18. vel Galmole Rot. Hen. worker se deputatum,6 same was andpredictum beneplacito. "masterthe Thomas the person This ofwas in cities and in of money probablywho of and the the of silver, exchanges Waterford," keeper Devylyn 1483. Ruding, vol.376. ii. p. h2

60 DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. the Henry Ihave shewn,the year the (1425), that third Henry in alreadyDublin of toSixth the the of coinage was by master in the coins bound, make of same allay, as silver which in the weight, assay, indenture; and the money, made was from time the which thirty-eighth reign until of same(1460), the London, itdoes nor probable,year standard it that in the took; not is any be but latter Irishwaschange" theplace in appear, groat to made weight ordered of of the year the three sterling." ordenier of time, deniers The " sterling" weighed penny, 1460 that fifteenconsequently should forty-five Irish of the weigh grains, less groat the onlyAnd value English was in and anda grains,"fourth and thanthegroat. standard from the difference betwixt of this first weight time inequalityDavisthe and Irish is be andas to dated, Sir English monies" at not, John supposed, from year the which the the of fifth Edward however, Fourth,time, standard. the was in was changed, its Ireland proportion groat again while to English pre from which reduced 1464 forty-eight had served, been in the tohis grains. During standardmoney of the years reign,sixty Irish was of Edward's subsequent the of times, the fre the altered, to exigencies to in first quently according was and year made of the 1483, money be according Richard his Third, Irish ordered the to standard year the at time the of twelfthEdward which the of Fourth, than or a of groat the about grains, less weightIrish was thirty-twothird the English. that reduced to It been has just Edward Englishforty-eight the groat stated, of the which was in standard adhered until grains, The to England,of year latter Edward's the Irish during eighteenth Henry was athird the partthatsame Eighth. groat, the andthe andof that than about less English, reign Richard, was in part reign observed of the Seventh, proportion a early the of the is Henry a from evident, inletter, by Archbishop Octavian, passage written to of for to king "recommending that Armagh, the in Arthur 1487, prince, Magennis isthe revenue ,not of of he Dromore,says,the is thatthird bishopric whereinthatwhich diocese worth pounds, of above of coin the Ireland,lessthe part by also fact, than forty From andfrom that of the sterling.1 evidence the some coin this when preservation,grains,be Henry's inconclude thirty-twoaltered groats,goodthatstandard which weighIreland I not lievenever I the in was they exceed,that less the of duringthe andhis groat athird Henry, Irishwas always than of same the reign period. English 50. See 31. p. fSimon, p.

the DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. 61 Henry for purpose to Some is necessary, ofmints. absence attempting arrangementthe from Indetermine were the the order several issued the in the coins which of documents dates be the safe which which fixed, by the might the from only of types arecoins and deliberateguide the remains themselves, consideration Ihave se which and varieties come my numerous have under observation, the best the the the as character cross lected on reverse, which divide which to three into Iproposethem. distinguishes sections THE SECTION. FIRST on The included have obverse the coins in sectionthe ashield, this bearing a the of are which arms and quartered extremities of France, bycross, crowns England the three on terminated ;and reverse, pale generallyby annulets the three in :all whichseen I asimilar of arms with cross groats have (the Ireland), under letter crowns have one the H the ;they (with and never exceed usually about exceptionIbelievethirty. weigh twenty-eight of numerous type The grains, varieties willfacilitated the of description coinsthis bethose them classes into :1st, three at Dublin by dividingWaterfordminted of which bearname ;3rd, without ;2nd, of the of coins the the name place mintage. there Of Dublin are half-groats, the mint groats, and pennies. The (P1. haslegendsDI and V. HENRIC groat on thetheirdoubledCIVITAS DVBIANIE.1shield tails GRACIA, lions The Fig. have the inmanner a back which this from crownof the coin the Edward Fourth distinguishes three and the The crownreverse arch, Richard upperonmoney double Third. a the has surmounted It evidentartist inserted a and is the at byballcross. that to first the E the of and attempted blunder in letter namecity,afterwards his the conceal over v. it by hasthe found the of isfrom punchingletterat A been obverse groatthe hasTrim, over latelythe and which the same fig. reversecross die 1, as arches upper the crown, but legend as : CIVIT-ASDV-BLIN-IEE, the is afleur-de-lis divided with follows after letter.cointhe of Rev. asmall the last The is cabinet R. in the Butler, is broken and twenty-seven portion off, itweighs grains. 37. SeeCoins IV., IrishEdward of p.

the 62 DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. Henry the It not thatcoin Simon (Pl. fig. was is unlikely whichpublished 63 III. andin that the to restore was substituted defaced, inattemptthe REX partlyfleurs-de-lisare legend,ends the for ;the ACIA also and at the the legendsomitted, of of annulets. crossare instead there annulets the on but All half-groatsat ends cross side, have the of thepellets each under havethe H the ;they from to not letter crowns thirteen weightwelve grains. 2haslegends DI and DVBBL-. the HENRICVS CIVITAS letter The ORAL, Fig. ohas substitutedvery on obversewhich been forasalsoevident of 3, the G,is is from diethe on the ; same the of fig. latter the undoubtedlythe legendreverse coin is DEB-1111.legends D, CIVITAS CiV-ITA 4, are and DEBLIN, On HENRICVS and5reads fig.and DEBLI. CIVITAS DIO, fig. HENRICVS The published III. 67), the Simon fig. withremarkable half-groat if HENRIC by (P1. perhaps DOM OBAR, legend DOM correctly shouldbe VBER, of VBERNIE,several pre the an abbreviation represented, groats DOMINOS on of the be to described. legend sently The (Fig. acircle on side,pellets of each the penny has he-NRICVSand atit and DVBLIN ends cross, are pellets CIVITAS REX of the the 6 AN, -, seven legends weighsthe coins are from at grains. which Groats known mint the Waterford. are The on only within of four outside shield obverse atressure arches, the is which sometimes but single line. is circle, formed more aplain a of generally pellets,GRACIA The in most form, DI REX,the its HENRICVS on and is, legend, completeletters omitted. CIVITASone more are or The reverse, crownsreverse atressure arches, of double number on WATERFORDE, the the are within of generally which nine marks in legends a occur atrefoil, is ;the generally which the are, star rays,small of and cross. five a and CIVITAS GRAIA HENRICVS wA-terfor-DE, 7has REX,the Fig. theterminated some three the armscross on of are by as of crown the legends there on reverse of the the pellets, has eight groats Edward tressure only Fourth, in the outsideaarches, and at are trefoils and anglesit, fleur-de-lis small at points,the its has eachof middleanothertype legend side similarthe HENRICVS the crown of ; DI RX. GRACIA 8hascircle side pellets, HEN each on formed legends Fig. theCIVITAS of the are RICVS D REX, WATERFORD. and GRACIA

DR. on _Irish Henry SMITH Coins the the Seventh. 63 of acircle the aplainon ; the 9has pellets and Fig.are ofDIon obverse, circlereverse the HENRICVS CIVTAS GRACI and legends of REX, WATERFOR. a each all other isformed line The on side the varieties byplain circle ; are DI R, the On10 HENRICVSCIVITASin GRACIA WATERFORDE, legends tressure andis of a two anglesthe on obversestar rays. of fig. the outside the there five HENRICVS civ-ITAs On 11 legends DI and WATERFORD. fig.the ofare at GRAE, 12 astar has five eachof lower and the Fig.HENRICVS sidethe crown, and are DI rays WATERFOR. CIVITAS GRACIA, legends14 of 13 areruder and across and have the Figs.the on workmanship,in lower tressure outside the ;on reverse the of the be one, angles on atobverse while legend and other, the crowns, third a on specimen below,thethe leftthe gins commences ofthesecoins from the ; legend in usual rudeIhavewithout place which seen weigh twenty 14the groat five to is only thetwenty-six letter grains. H the Fig. under crowns. are other which from differ There varieties only those in the of letters of cross.described, the in arrangementthe the the there half are name of Of coins the quarters the withoutof place groats, mintage, and groats, varieties pennies. of are several the Fig.is remarkably There 15 coin, groats. a in fine itweighs ; afleur-de-lis placeslegends in occurs three thirty DOMINOS16 the HENRICVS VBERNIE.REXFRANC, DI grains and ANLIE GRACIA, Fig.reads VBERNIE and VBERNIE. for DOMINOS is DOMINOS17remarkable on both andmint on obverseformed pel the Fig.the a having small sides, mark the is cross five lets. next fig. has borders by the The variety, of shield, circles the and 18, formed;the are ANGLIEDOMINOS of and ; legendshas pelletsa REX F-rancie, VBERNIE and19, isofsimilar on reverse HIBERN. ;it fig. which type, the DOMINVS weighslast grains. of lions back same only twenty-two the doubled These groats tails four have the in the as the groat. mannerDublin on 20 has the arms of at each the legends Fig.PLVI. FitzgeraldsideH the REX FRA, VRERNIE.shield, and are ANLIEDOMINOSletter the The under crowns it similar in reign from coins the Edward Fourth. distinguishes minted of the Thename on groats Waterford, those the king's occurs Dublin on invariably without is it found of and while the mintageongroat. this place-of only

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 64 DR. on Irish of the Henry Fourth Ihaveeither Edward or of Every this whichseen, of theP1. groattype on reverse, one,HI. the the has Seventh,and66 the Simontressure Henryhas VRERNIEbut gives on HYBERNIE, samehas 65, the fig. of the asa 64. plate fig. which and the same each Waterford legends his side like groats, the a fig. terminated cross few are ;fig. on obverse half-groats 21 ANGL;reverse Very aroseknownhas FRANCIE DOMNOS the and before REX legend pellets, by the iiunder and them instead letter the crowns, cross NIE, at other the over athirteen of patee, of ;it ends cross The three as the annulets coin with to thisweighs groat, crosson reverseidentify the grains. the fig. patee seemswith of Dublin 1, of Edward some half-groats while corresponds the the obverse exactly the Fourth. the Simon's fig. appears same as coin 68, have obverse half-groat, toDO1V1 the just butlegend is HIBERNIE. the the described, on reverse has pellets circle each cross Pennies rare22 a of on the are also the on obverse eitheror at extremities, the is very;fig. annulets side, without legend pellets isits is across, not the was angl-IE. which Rex probably On reverse, quartered the VRERNI, bysmallitweighs and word divided a cross six by were equally be; to grains, itnotthe the it for H coin under would assign to crowns, difficultthis its in properthe series. wit under the place Irish Mr. has a crowns, legends published H the are Lindsay if REX and penny, ANGLIE DOM Simon hesitate all preceding the did " appropriate coins not to the to Henry for are, these struckthe his coins Sixth, wordsWhether were before or year during this had after reassumed short 1460, the 1470, the timeprince year the is to ;butthe H, ison the which pieces hard crown, ascertain letter by believe, all coined with crowns, be to that were the three one tempted they mightbe that short asseems it markthose from during period, to adistinguishingof Edward before IV. struck tirne."T that SeenotEdward 88, practice deceased Irish Coins known 89. monarchsitthe figs. The of theof his was of; is Fourth, Eighth,dies unusual Henry using father'stheof a in cabinetin firstmore diesIhavewell that the which used seen the of Cuff, a inte ;andfact diesaltered.coincoinage, coin Mr. his lately being Mr. isaffords illustration old Cuff'sDrogheda a restingof from Edward was groat Richard a used the which by of struck Third, Fourth, punching thethe135. remains evident.altered letters thedie byvery RIC, P1. over of are :r. 22. VI. Envy, which Page f fig.

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh.65 the Henry the a That nwas under asdistinctive the is letterplaced crowns mark, to the very but is any whatever appropriation there probable,not evidence support of theseto the whoeightprevious coins Sixth, the Henry thedied years to introduction of three type Irish the crown into coinage. Simon's that coins these" were intended for penny three and conjecture to probably Sir James three-halfpenny have grounded pieces,"fwasbeen onthe Ware's that, appears to master in statement, liberty the of mint 1478, granted to " of pence, and tthat the coin three two apenny," in tion pieces the pence, are 2, 1, propor of 2, 1, while of coins4, is, or the as and 3, and and as weights inRic. cap.groats, are 1 III. in pennies, denominated 8, which half-groats, they the is type particularly described. The of coins the these to not Sixth, appropriationHenry wasquestioned untilLindsay, of Coinage transferred hisView Mr. in " the of Ireland,"them to the and they struck his is in Seventh, Henry of that were earlyreign them probable, -fromstyle the and in between andcoins workmanshipThirdsame the of the and the weight Edward correspondence Fourth the Richardof type, from of of the oneEdward'sbeen for obverse of the fact dies used having ofthe Seventh in first 21,-and half-groat,the citiesthe year the ofmaster in of and Henry a fig.coinage Dublin of the appointment the Waterford. This most place asmallwhosevery is convenient is the to notice type different knownanythe coin,mint is The from other coin of Henrys. mark of across any andlegend DNSthe se in centre, HE-nri.cvswords the the RIB,CIVIT pierced is small a its cross rose parated ; by crosses aplainwith on centre, all remainsreverse,grains.-(Fig. that of legend, five the it weighs the and Thisis defaced,the of circle weight, coin from much but size 23.its it to been for have is to a any appears intended ;it difficultitto par assign ticular rose thatpenny to time the itwasstruck the Edward date, proves not previous of the and the coinedwith on reverse,11 arose as Richard pennies the Third Fourth, and crownitisnot thatsuccessor of three groats, his coined roses different rose unlikely havemoney Richardand The Edward suns of types. pennies and Ware's 22. XVIII. Harris, Antiq. Ibid. by p. 215. ISnelling's 215. fPage No. Appendix, to I. II p.Suppl.Pl. 27. Simon, Simon, fig. VOL. XIX.

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 66 Dr. on Irish of the Henu on field obverse, Qf on this Henryof the of these alternatelythe while coin neither appear. now that Sixth badges hand, believed the coinedat the On otheritis Henry and money and brief in London, York, his restoration although Bristol, during 1470, evidence that exists Henry his no to documentaryprove exercised in Irelanditis impossible may been in in not thatpenny prerogatives this haveminted 1470, remark that Without to this question, decide year. presuming difficultIthe of may thatDublincoined in have on centre the pennies Edward, arose 1470, by the reverse. THE SECTION. SECOND The patee to edge cross extendingof three in the the with pellets each is character thereverse,which the common in section, com to coins all this quarter, a two ;one king's open other prisesdouble the headan crown-the typeshaving with crown arch. with a The groats open present they Dublin the crownseveral weigh with varieties, from to GRA thirty-one 24 the HENBICVS twenty-six grains. has legend DI DNS one pellets the no at points or two Fig.words, the HYBEhNIE,between trefoils of the ;reverse, before POSVI MEVM, tressuretwo motto ADIVTORE' pelletsthe has DEVM in inner CIVITAS 25 amint of pellets, the DVBLINIE. mark Fig. in Efour andincircle, apelletCIVITAS,been DE' legend has the ;reverse, after which sub stituted legend26 HENRICVS there for The of c. DEL HYBEB, GRA DNS are at of pointstressure on reverse, trefoils the fig.is, ;mint the a some of the mark the in circle cross in centre, innerCIVITAS the pierced and small the DVBLNNIE. four groats crossbeginning have at a The of the is HENBICVS DNS crossesthe or DE1 HIBER, legend, HENRICVS whichfollowing GRA small between and the of tressure. markreverse trefoils the The on mint the words, at points cross;on of 27,asmallpatee 28,trefoil has small 29, two fig. is the POSVI a ;fig. has fig. before ADIVTORE crosses, motto DEV MEV.30 CIVITAS Fig. is and minton reverse. without mark DVBLIN, a on 30the read name the The of cityfig. has DVBLYM,to it been but to been by letters the ; the twice die mehave blunderedthe IN on appears as taken only doubled for a N, Ipunching m, that letterforis the ;andtakenis double Y, Ai is from the at top letter whereas the of the evidentprojectionthe on left, the Hawkins*Silver of 108. Coins p. England,

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. the 67 Henry is rounded;the is at the does evidentlyand not alwaysof top coin is blundered,war rant the areading which no other adoption for there authority. those Sixth of type the Simon to the agroat sameas now assigns it unfortunate and Henry " was described, that struck this prince conjectures before the was dethroned Fourth." assents Edward Mr. the to but by was " his in as as thinks struck restorationappropriation, the coin afterLindsay well 1470," another which has groathe published.f itcannot that alreadyin section, this be the Although provedcoins described to are Seventh,many against belong the there objections them assigning Henry to the Sixth. Henry thatcoinsminted is evidence were in during Ireland There no any brief nor thattemporaryrecognized was Henry's this even restoration,his authority in and been at ifcoins that itis likely that he country, had strucktime,notwas would have to the of groatin which nearly ventured weight reduce the 1470 forty one to of of theseIhave grains, the greatest any coins met with. thirty-one,weight that the Untillately universally Henry did Seventh very itwas believed, now be this is known an not any with crown, opinion to coinmoney open but " as and to words Mr. it be erroneous,the of Hawkins,considered quote strike an established that the may coins Henry did beyond controversy,Seventh with crown."1 open which Cuff isaYork The led to coin Mr. this discovery, penny thatfromto 1504. of Rotherham, important 1480 Thomas who archbishop was of see with Mr. in ablevaluable apenny king's describes the his Hawkins,and work, " T one of a at side name obverse, the on the and as initial, having with in centre an the and neck (fleur-de- other, H the of re a at lis thearchbishop's the as verse as representation is inasmuch but the of coin ;"theT one of the I 367defective, (fig. the of which it not " at side neck," figure has the subjoin one has come possession. latelyinto my P. and fig. P. Coins70. III. and 37,P1. 104. 22,P1. 120.V. of p. tSilver fig.120. fP. i2 England,

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 68 Dr. on Irish of the Henry the Mr. This coin from varietiesby Hawkins, littlediffers three described in the at interest asmall one of neck it additional havingcross sideof ;and hereafter. will in to othercoins as possesses relation Irish Henry, some appear The It notamiss afew of coins be to notice the themselves. particulars coins may similar small on 27, 29,as marks, to on to crosses 28, 30,mint are those figs. letter substituted fora be hereafter.B frequently R,blunder describedThe is in the Edward whichnot on of coins the struck Ihave observed Fourth, any are of or 1470,which aboutfrom these also the of absence coins distinguished the on king's apeculiarity undoubted hair the forehead, common English to by the and coins the The FIIBER isalso Irish of Seventh. word in legend the and mint IHenry is such of remarkable, it not that avarietymarks would adopted,very period, these have may the short within coins been add, probable which during could struck the have by been Henry Sixth. are One of Waterford ;the which the mint letters is known groat on obverse to itas the are sufficient belongingpreserved to of Henrys. one the just The appears identifyREXFRANC GRA have tiENRIC ;reverse, legendto been DE1 ANGLI and WATERFORD &c. Posy!, CIVITASit thirty-two 31. ;aweighs the Thecoin division cross,grains.-(Fig. last in this has mark, largemint andlegend. HENRICANGLsmall between ;re PEIREXFR, cinquefoils words the GRA with andn and DVBLINIE. Therepresented E, the verse,&c. CIVITAS cis rosy', anreversedtwenty-nine32. by by B ;itweighs as between coins, grains.-(Fig. This appearslink, type, the to the to be and groat those double-archeddivision. with the in next preceding the crown The in second of section, coins the division are the this distinguished double-arched by and The of by arches surmounted crown, aballcross.numberin the varies, have at pointtressure. tressure someapellet of and each the The on groats DE1 ANGL cin the HENRIC The the GRA legend is andREXFR.either name is most reversed, are in divided words king's twoinstances theAIVTOREa by smallor cinque-foils DEVM and cross in the POSVI MEVM, ;reverse, inner CIVITAS in preservationthirty circle, DVBIINIE ;when weigh good they from to thirty-two 33, " a and with 34. grains.-(Figs. Simonhad groats single, a he some othersdouble says not with arched Ido know such and little but crown." of variety, doubt Ihave any his 97incorrectlyThe is AM. GRA. fig.is represented.HENRICVS legend DI REX P. 32,

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh.69 the Henry A andeach of tressure small now the the isa FR, at point I there cross in ; all arched of which seen,haveHENRIC, crown have nor have them Henry the theynext his at the of groats crosses of the ;in only coin any POSVI pointstressure place, hasmottoDEVM whichobserved with the Ihave on coins AIVTORIVM,only across on reverse. the fourchee All differences accounted that these can, be for, Simon supposing agroatperhaps, very that to had him similar 40, itisby before the my and remarkable of lettersreversesand aresame the on fig. of coinmine ; the his relative the position 1NIE Posy' in same of cross, of thus and arethe quarter instead and the Posy' is as other It crvt most coins.probable, on obverse on thatlegend was the the and the thatdeficiency copying with from imperfect, the was by haveagroat archedand ofsupplied mistaken the crown, archestressurebeen for the may of the those crown. The hascrown with arch, with the a surmounted half-groat apparentlythe the and the long curls, at points hair aballcross, in flowing single of tres trefoils letter The and breast on GRA sure, the the vinverted. isHENRIC legend DI ANLIEPOSVI and DVLIN, DEVM CIVITASacross REX; reverse, ADIVTOR, with ahalf.-(Fig. DV.weighs grains and afterIt twenty-one 35.the the arches which arrangement the of v The of crown, the are the the which explain, and on breast, of plain, the hair, Icannot legends, the at points the distinguish the trefoils of tressure,this from The the meaning coin groats. in been an occurs small the circle takenx, asimilar cross innerhas for but cross the and the of penny, which also at end motto, on reverse fig. on it the of the 22, not aletter.weightpiece does this isconsiderably The of represent which seen certainly half than the another Ihave only more of groat; and fourteen ahalf. specimen weighs grains his the fifth the of arched Seventh, introducedthe Henry inandyear, Nicholasheld the coins,t after type who crownEnglish shortly on Flint, in in the (1491 part several connexion mint, earlyof offices with Englishthe Henry's Waterford. of mint the was master in and reign, data thatarched-crown Flint, appointedthe Dublin minted were From Iinfer these groats by if Hawkins pennythe withthe v Edward aonbreast.---Silver Mr. mentionsof 115. of p. a Coins 107.Durham Fourth, England, tHawkins, p.

SMITH Coins Seventh. the 70 Dr. on Irish of the Heny and conjecture by very resemblance this issupported close between the and in workmanship. the Irish type English coins, andits The notwithstandingappears to contem be half-groat, all peculiarities, with the porarygroats. Mr. supposes groat to been by the Waterford Lindsay restoration have struck (fig. of 31 the the " his in The Sixth after 1470." Iletiryfavour is not this andform coin, the legend how, of the have ever, in of appropriation,letters some resemblancecoins Iconceive whilewas to on which were Flint those the struck mastermints and of the of Dublin Waterford. remarkable This is coin for the the forehead. hair king's having on 32 be work Ialso fig.to the of Englishresembles consider an artist, some it the of arched-crown particular and in almost the even in there groats forthe was crown, this issome every except aball, if cross on the arches might be for of crown. of tressure taken resting the resemblance, the readily those THE SECTION. THIRD one have All coins section exception head the in this (with the on across with in king's three each on re the and fourchee pellets quarter, the obverse, be divided ;first, adouble-arched two those verse.may intoclasses having They with crown those open ;second, an crown. a and arched The in firsthave crown, byball the surmounted coins classthe in some are are crossarches formed but specimens ;the numberinof round and usually tressurehead they pellets, the the varies, there lines arches plainthe ofat have the are ; three each of tressure, annulets generally betweenof someis pellets point the the also words the within and tressure, the the ; hair this legend always in hanging resembling long curls, in respectthe of letter centre of the Ihave All specimens seen the Hin groatsre the which have English Henry. and the more are verse, been and legends or defective they executed are less ;they have to rudely weigh twenty-six grains. twenty-eight appear clipped, from to centre of of is A headneatly as I thehethe for boar'sV. 99. occupying reverse that the agroat, instance, Simon, by veryrepresented than boar's publishedfig.Intheinsuspect theH;my and Pl. to this greater last a sus the not represent he mistook head, ifseemshiscoin ;perfection(arched engraving own says, original these is has confirmed, boar'smark supported, piciononreverse,of cross, theofand mint the by crowngroatsfromdescription ; though andtheythe the head, much worn,in centre a grains."--p. clipped weigh to twenty-seven 32. thirty-one

Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. the 71 Henry 36 the GRA and the Fig.hasthe HENRIC ANLIEPOSVI legend DE1REXFR,on reverse CIVITAS motto to been for DEVM DVBLINE have intended ; appears ADIVTORIVM. The on 37 HENRIES ANLI, reverse on GRA the legend is DEIRIESand fig. CIVITAS DVBILINI. On 38 legends DI REXE, CIVITAS and HENRIESA GR fig. the are DVBLINIE. Ido knowhalf-groats not of of type. any the this the and The fig. has obverse crown,letter adouble-arched on H penny, HENR a pierced underlegend .; cross at the 39, is each it, andlegend it reverse,ahalf. extremity, the CIVITVS five and grains with in The cross curious connects coins the this little on weighs piece, itthe the this pierced particularlythem, form with but it is section,more identifiedby of H the name,seemsidenticalfirst in in king'swhichto be with letter the the on the of 38. legendobversethe is to fig. this It difficult for peculiarities The per of penny. artist account didpossess skill ahead ascale,a not sufficient to as execute so hapsfortransferredthe onsmall and substitute the of king'sfrom to initial namethe reverse it, the the on resemblescoins first the the crown on obverse, which, that in section, the the as groat, 34. while aresamethe fig. arches on and The crown, hanging the fourchee arched the the curls, cross on these Henry. all in longappropriation It concur the reverse, establishing of on to groats the not is admitted, cross abandoned coins now thatplainwas the English in untiltime the of the ; andthe someafter accession Seventh Scotch itdoes the -Henry to the series not thatcross was prior reign adoptedinstance appear, fourchee does with ;nor was of the whocontemporary any James Fourth, struck the Edward the coins Ireland reigns it on of occurnumerousin Henry of it or Richard Fourth the and the while duringmore occurs, less all IrishThird, invariably these Iconclude on the of modified, coins the hence that the arched-crown described were subsequent Eighth; the coinsstruck toHenry groats in second andidea the placing the name reverse initial on section, of the of king's the may havederived been from penny.rude in they Rotherham's manner The which are makes that were workEnglish executed itprobable not of they the an artist, See 67. p.

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 72 Dr. on Irish of the Henry while the occurrence and imply were of words RIES, they exe the HENRIES that a cuted byFrenchman. The in second an crown, be into coins class open and divided the have those atressure head, without The the thosemay atressure. having round and varieties kind of firstare the numerous. 40 VII. the HENRICVS ;reverse, haslegend DEI REX GRACIA ALIE Fig.(P1. andthe circle DVBLINIE. POSVI DEVM in inner CIVITAS 41, Fig. readsAIVTORIVM, is henri-cvs REX;the blundered, DEI ANLIE GRATIA motto and inner in the has DVBLINE, circleSIVITAS D representedG. it an the being by inverted 42engraved degree itis is to the to show which on reverse. blundered Fig. the The of in tressurecoins from to number the on arches thesevaries eight and pointis smallthe in hanging at each a hair eleven, on there cross, is long curls, as it the the of with crown just appears groats and archedthey ; from English Henry ahalf. to weigh whichtwenty-eight Thetwenty-sevengrainsas III. to groatSimon (P1.fig. belonging published 69 Henry the is the as Sixth, of same my 40. evidently type is 43 acrossmark, fig. HENRIC REX Fig.has mint the are D-eithe AGL, gra-CIA with crossesthe there crosses tressure, small between legend within words, three in andhairlong curls is DVM MEVM, the is hanging motto ADIVTORIV ;the POSVI The andthe circle DVBLINIE. by and in innerCIVITAS cis E, an D E substituted is inverted for it thirtyrepresented ; grains. 44 the in close;the is de-I hashair weighslegend GRACIA curls HENRI-C short Fig. annulets words is a the REX with between; the L represented ANGLE,three-crownletter andby on as of doublesome &c. ;treverse, 1,it the in centre POSVI, groats and CIVITAS the DVBLINIEH the of reverse, twenty-nine ; hasletter weighs grains. on 45asmallthe has six tressure arches, mint fig. The mark is cross, a each the The the is flat,there at side neck. legend crown and is cross of only very DEVM and HENRIC ALIE is dei REXFR POSVI gr-AciA ;reverse, ADIVTORIVM, DVBLINI twenty-three CIVITAS only ;itweighs grains. the varieties tressurehead the without Of groats the round the are nu very merous. eachof the and in the long 46 across side crown, hair hanging has at Fig. See16,19, 18, figs. PLY.

the Dr. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh.73 Henry HENRICVS ; AN SIVITAS curlslegend D1 REXreverse, ; ;the is it GRACIA 47of DVBLINIE the is motto blundered; twenty-nine is the type, Fig. same bothare butlegendssides the on weighs grains. ;itweighs grains. twenty-seven is withtype, this coinIII. 59 identified wanting Simon.'s fig.unintelligibleby the and(P1. eachof crownthe his cross the ;but details tressure, the at side fromhave of having is different ifseen. coin are correct, it engravingthe very arose I at side 48avery coin, remarkable any eachof has Fig.isalso mark, inor full and the a hair cinquefoil is the andasmint the is longcurls, bust crown, HENBIC the concealed cloak, by resembling is that of legend drapery,a and all remains ; itweighs the is reverse unintelligible, twenty-four altogether this and Plate Simon's The in third(fig.isofonly is grains. coin represented be type,many that the as perfectrespect60to regrettedof every being in he ; itismuchdiscovered. curious which cannot now most coins possessedbe in this The coins division distinguished the absence remaining are the is the round The chiefly by hair of tressurehead.crown and shallow-the in close which from is short,curls,stand the very are out open shoulders face-the more than the coins, without on and are displayed of precedingin most the mint is cross.legendobverse, drapery-and a The on markany the its form, is, DI REX ; reverse, ADIVTORIVM, AGL1E HENRICVS FR POSVIperfect GRACIA DEVM and in the circle DVBLIN1E ; the of city innerMIMS ;afew SIVITAS the is have name and blundered to extreme weigh abridged,are a;lalf. generally severaland an degree; they from to twenty-fourgrains and is twenty-nine or of are Dublin place No this pennies known, the only of half-groats type mintage.exhibits of most varieties The list the the remarkable : following legends IIENRCVSTR. GRACIA CIVI-TAS -DVBL-INIE. 49, DI REX POSVI-DEVM -LIM. Fig. DI REX POSVI-DEVMA HENRCVSFR. -DIVTO-RIVM. 50, DI AGLIE -ADIVT-ORIVM. GRACIA -DVB AGLIE CIVI-TAS IIENRCVS 51, DI REX POSVI-DEVM -BL. GRACIA CIVI-TAS -DVB AGNIE. -ADIVT-ORIVM. 52, GRACIA -IDEV CIV -LIN. HENRCVS POSV -VTOR. -ITA -SDV REX ACME. -1VIADI -SDV 53, DI REX POSV -VTOR. -BLI. IIENRICVS -IDEV CIV -VB. GRACIA -MADI-ITA AGM. -ITA 54, DI REX POSV -TORIV.-LINE. IIENIUCVS -IDEV CIV GRACIA -MDEV -SD AGNL SIVI-TASD-DVB 55, DI REX POSVI-DEVMI-LIE. IIENRICVS GRACIA -ADIVT-ORIVM. AGN. CIVI-TAS 56, DI REX IEMA -VBLA. -JAIL HENRICVS -3IIVI cry -DVB AGN. -TASD -DYE 57, GRACIA Blundered. Blundered -ITAS k VOL. XIX.

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 74 DR. on Irish of the Henry Ihaveoccasion, one to the of had in thaninstance, accuracy more doubt itis he in Simon's ;andplain sometimes to erred engravings that attempting His restore ofdefaced fig. has butfig.has the a coin. 56, GRA, 55 legend my of and with by the NE name is identified having in letters the GRACIA, Simon's, the united as has be and the Rev. them; W. exactly certainly from die agroat represented friend, J. city has which has struck same been my the as Martin, but defective exactly where differs the the mine, in legend in place Simon's from Mr. coinbeen to possession. 55. Martin's Simon's fig. coins has traced Ihave the Of many the whichseen, not without tressure Ihave met withso as engravedEssay.errors,I those Simon's The for such any whichinin perfect must them,appear &c.figs. 58, be consider the of 56, may 57, accounted to legends, while forhis restore letters by attempting defaced the in innercorrespond at coins, the circle with partially known pieces present. In these Iby means insinuate to observations, his on that making the no intend the Simon on coins, I intentionally to attributed misrepresented ofwant am that arelegendsthe of contrary, satisfied his errors be any to en opportunities " styled only," his andwork,hemodestly his by merited from joyedsuccessors,which and an of Essay the author has awell eulogium impartial the able " received of Annals of Coinage the Britain." the writer Mr. was first who the of correctness Simon's Lindsaywithout to the and questioned as of groats tressure the several appropriation the that Fifth;earliest these the numismatists Henry are are of distinguishedstillopinion, intodiscussion in Irish itis the series, to at length the enter some groats of necessary this question. firstbefore an abstract Mr. I shalllay readers, of Lindsay's have against and proceedmy objectionsbeen opinions, then to the which urged them. investigate " must first be records It in the Mr. "that observed," an no says have been place direct, refer Irish hitherto whichor Lindsay, discovered, even to, coinage the Edward 38th VI., from of III., the Henry 1459-1460." reign to until of 9 In Introductionhave arolltheHenry the this I quoted Mr. V., essay, unknown and of 3Henry althoughto Lindsay another VI., the which, of Coinage31. the Ireland, View of p.

the 75 DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. Henry to when tend his that the did coin he wrote, support Henry not opinion Fifth Ireland. in money " Act would imply to He observes,(38 VI. seem that next this Henry from a differentof a for Eng coinage oftypestandard that separate Ireland,andthe assignedV., then was the time ; ifso,have struck Henry land, for firstadopted coins to that not Nos.7, 9, 60, andcould from coins viz., 56,8,in ofSimon, been before more as weight English any they period,differ still in hitherto type, struck." ifany was Ireland coined that the Ihave shown, money in during already it the of Sixth, be the earlyof as silver made to of same part reign the in ought difference The in and the Henry London. weight, allay, hereafter. type willnoticed money be assay, theHenry At adjournedparliament VI., ordered an " sitting the of 38 it was of thatgroat pass andthese Mr. on the shallfor " isnearlyfive-pence,"words, it that mustbeen Lindsay these the remarks, certain coinshave of English then grains otherwise have would standard, to groat, they not been sixty ofthemore new orderedthe apenny the (Irish of to at rate than pass not have or the forty groat five and possibly included given could meant grains, and "letnow the groats by Simon V.,"adds,us consider to coins and Henry them Englishthe Thepeculiarity with coins Henrys. themselves, the first which of compare want doubleround is the the tressure king's presents of "itself, " the head"-the is the the next, cross on reverse," king'sand lastly, " weight." the then, title," their fourchy Mr. with of enlightenedwriter, the an candour and con Lindsay, impartial dudes "having to coins the an different by saying,thus admit appropriation very from Simon, given of otherwhonoticed that or Iwill any writer of indeed has Ithink fair them, it to before the oflearned on readers, a friend whose in lay my English coinage, matters the opinion Ihave Irish the judgment to relating and reliance." greatest of With the Mr. support his I arguments in of and therefore called institutefully a inquiry concur, IfeelLindsay, to appropriation, intoobjections friend,upon deservedly the of learned opinionsrigid his imperatively whose are entitled to highest the respect. See 53. kp.

the SMITH Coins Seventh. 76 DR. on Irish of the Henry The objection first is the to workmanship, "comparing of be which those assignedto V., the says, of with groats Simon that undoubted and VII., say IV. Henry Henry design Edward by Ishouldthe andcoinages of the is very imperfect, that workmanship so former poor, and from same barbarous, the of mint Icannot them to coming less Edward Dublin,conceive IV., still subsequent and with of arched them the of suppose the thoseIrish the Henry contemporaneous crown VII. me are To they of first the series, evidently in command could groats workmanship who of graver, rude, artists,very very ignorant hadimperfectthe and little, less."" design execute form letters-the The of bust-thethe the of blundered round all ;and legends flat -theappearancethe arenoticed adds, crown-the circle he " I cannot that appearance to to them but their head, and fabric me repeat, of VII."appearexclude from the Henry altogetherthe and The coinagethe of bust workmanship theseis coins appearance the onfromcertainly rudethe differencecoins, very;yetin between " the the mint coming same of may, measure, for, fact,Nicholas some be accounted that Dublin," by in was who de pro in the ferris," London, Flint, " mints andmint andsuc " was the etDublin of 1491, was in 1486, Waterford" made sculptor overseer of of ceeded in in by Galmole a in office 1506, his Dublin, Thomasalias Archibold, in Dublin. goldsmith and " letters uncertain"are with those thin when The are they with crown 36, on rude of the yetthe compared the coins Seventh,archeda figs. be Henrythey if bear that not they(seeclose 37, itwilladmitted,are identical, very 38),to them. resemblance " erroneous not remarkable which the blunders The aremore than are on the groats Eighth,f similar some Irish of occur of legends," the andvery the in opinion, the on 42 47, Henry identified to legends andwhich, are with figs. my curls. of time the by the in hanging Seventh, hair " Henry level,"isidenticalon tressured The isquitehaving long the crown that with but it the on close 45), division to crowns the (fig. and a resemblance of groat thebearsthe section. somegroats described of second " in first bymereanaadotted such, no The isencircled head a line,not circle," on them be a thesebut of doubt,to the onfew coins,most which appearscase of 34. P1. 147, VII. 148. Lindsay, p. tIbid. figs.

the DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. 77 Henry more Ihave the is or indented it even met circle less ; on 53is roped, with, acircle fig. have pellets and others of very marked. several the ondistinctlyhave I Mr. correspondent, whichendea Lindsay's whatbe objections fur " internal voured says, is relying the evidence to refute,thisme termed maydecides the nishedcoin and completely the itself, question." by of of to "The Acts of coins," Parliament, &c.not to weight areallowed be much ;but consentup evidence of array Icannotto the derived importance Edward fromauthorities,coins giveFourth such for Irish of the are the found strict withstandard Acts while the generally to in accordance fixed ;and be " the itisadmitted,groat V. by sixty it that the of should grains," Henry issued at low weigh so a to incredible should him me appears thatgroatsbe by any " astwenty-eight" weight that grains. It also is asserted, took in" " the of from Ireland no coinage that such death Edwardaccession place and time II. the of V.," aftera of to Henry be ahundred attempt may lapse expected very (nearly it the as acoinage towould years), at thatTrish be and is.Supposing, the engraver is so natural, wretched, make English copy, as want would the currentgroat as his of his near ability allowthe such see ismore the and Edward Third's we him,copy,as it, the Richard than the Edward the a space Fourth's,-inlarger former, Second's, on latterwhere could wasunoccupied the ;and the left artist the than by bust the he head, scarcely plainsurroundingno that attemptcircle the itis wonder abandoned the tressure." Here the of is in authenticdisregarded, records for1336 again, authority issued and for " Edward was by then the (10 III.a the of proclamation kingcouncil, Irelandin 1339, coiningcuneisand in was andif be pennies, farthings;". and a De Hibemiam writ, " halfpennies, " issued it entitled, in mittendis," admitted coins havename ;t belong thatEnglish the to the Edwardus" which Edward this is respecting ;forFe the in Third, settled the coins question the Irish a afarthing Trim, which of 1841, was at bruary-,and found on obverseis head within the EDW-ARDV-SREX atriangle, and cross reverse, pellets, legend with DVBLINIE."cabinet Richard CIVITAS cointhe ;of Rev. Butler, the Thisis in of Andnearly years"without taking Trim.if" ahundred any elapsed coinage in not the Ireland, follow attempt necessarily place itdoes thatfirst should be II. 16. Simon, p. tIbid. No. Appendix,

SMITH Coins Seventh. the 78 DR. on Irish of the Henry 4very for earliest in of we the minted which wretched," groats Ireland, have authentic as executed coins same were well as English" the of the records, any norI thatcoins morethe cur ; canthan the in are period perceive ofquestionlikeall rent groat" Irish Edward for the the coins the on English the of LondonRichard and theFourth;seen, Second, Third, have I groats the of Edwardwhich Romanin is the while coins the N used namecity, on Irishof these it occurs. of letter different coins form never The the iis also on Henry it Henry's is more forked, square ; asinvariably or and never at ends, is the always less The of thecirclethe the models. case supposed objection round on the head, plain the has already andstriking in every been answered, resemblancerespect almost tressure each neck), 45, the crosses the and at of and (except induces side between tres that abandoned untressured mebelieve artistfig. the groats, to to the a" ornament. from inability such choice rather than execute sure," me It strikes extraordinary, as been also as that so an trifling artist has very invent the his ;and should fourchee of ignorant reverse rude supposed, across for" not coin how did illiterate itis the artist conjectured learn the (who an could which spell"that was for the models, abbreviation is on found GRAsupposedonly GRACIA, as well the without on untressuredas some of which groats, on others exception ifany can they to the as exist, Seventh, little, doubt that belong45and did half Henry the 40 the 35, the groats fig. and but figs. ; his POSVI groat,the tressureditandonwhynot die, adopt motto, of engrave DEVM copyist usual instead ADIVTORIVM. " authorities show REX havealso cited used Several are to thatAGL been but may the in before of VII. the of bEdward Ireland reign ;" Act10 IV., form ordered Henry the on has REX should which thatANGLIE of legendcoins, part with the can known title, there not noticed, is any coin this which been and not Irish an Sixth The Henry the referred date. of be to earlier penny the haslegend DNS HENRICVS HIBNIE. bound In these toconclusion, acknowledge, observationsIfeel to a bringing from all in ifIhaveat that, been successfulto different opinions those ithas establishingIenjoyed been owing advantage of writers, preceding of chiefly the meoneof before so the largefor coins different at the havinganumberof suchtypes to view. reasons warrant to It only me assign as now remains appear the of coins plate Seventh. the in Henry appropriationlast to the 56. See p.

the DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh79 Henry the the arched that admitted with itwill and Assumingbe thatgroat the crown, it the can thein centre (fig.belongs Seventh, H the of reverse 36 to it doubted 41, are Henry with be contemporary figs. of nearly scarcely that 40, 42,hair-and fourchee cross on in legend-the the GRACIA arrangementthe the common reverse both. cross overcrown, the are to The on 43 the which fig. the AGL to have arches, REX the connect seems single andwords in legend,this withdouble-arched while within coin the 33, showcrossesthe figs.34, the groatscurls,how allied the itis to word and the tressure,GRACIA, H thein centre which 40 the of long for closely and latter figs. 44,cross isremarkablethe of the the The at side neckthe on 45, reverse. eachof and tressure fig. connect 43, in other itis identical itwith and almost everyparticular with 50. fig. fig. Mr. correspondent all objectionsLindsay's has the which Notwithstandingthe of to the made the Seventh, assigned against to V.," Henry in Lindsay's Simonappropriation groat"groats the col Henry admits, by withouthe be" curious(Mr. me to an groat To lection,atressure,earlyof VII." this Henryin is Imust measure it, expressing admissionyet in from important,some dissent that the the belief, was in latter Henry's my crosscoinstruck it of the ;the of the each the connect with absence and at side crown part 41,reignhair, of fig. coins the with the SIVITASthree; fig.is on the tressure andword occurs 55, 47 fig. of ablundered 46, fig.is remarkable fig. be the only variety and48avery coin. the coinsneed ; Of remaining said blundered 57 little on fig. not remarkable 47, legends those aremore than on 42, andandwant the figs. 45 the of isthe chief between fig.;the GRACIA them tressure distinction and48, word the on varieties, on obverse-SIVITAS the fourchee three and cross on the the of letters,in form reverse-andthe concur it all the making that probable, in Plateminted same and the the the ; coins last were about time from of andbad of of coins,many theseitis varieties the style type, was unsettled theseevident workmanship Dublin state circumstances in a the of thatmint ;under findarched the crown not to the crown andopen itis surprising very abandoned, re in it. sumed of place theseto latter the of little now in coins Ifeel hesitation appropriating of part that them is the of the It not many Henry reign Seventh.improbable were See 46. fig.

the SMITH Coins Seventh. so Da. on Irish of the Henry was of the Dublin the struck whoappointed mint on 6th Gal-mole, master of by andhe of 1506, abandoned imitationlatest the in of tressure Henry's July, that English without coinage. Icannot conclude and my the of my obligations, to who so those acknowledging expressing me with illustrating gratitude have favoured means of kindly coinage. this obscurethe of Irish the very period History

%Ye-IA.-VOL ,xrx. 1 6












SMITH Coins Seventh. the DR. on Irish of the 81 Henry OF PLATES. THE EXPLANATION I. PLATE NO. ._.... MINT. PAGE. DENOMINATION. REFERENCE. WEIGHT. I. grs. Cuff. 2 Groat. DubJin. 14Mr.55 ,, 27 3 Half-groat. 121 15Dr.Smith. 13 55 ,, ,, 12 55 A.55 4 ,, ,, 12 55DeanPatrick's. St. 5 59 13 7 ,, of 6 Penny. Waterford. Mr. 55 Sainti:ill. 7 Groat, 55 26 ,, DeanPatrick's. 8 ff St. 28 9 55 ,, 30 16 of,, 10 ,, 55 28 73Dr.Smith. 1 ,, I 57 28 55 A.55 95 28 ,, DeanPatrick's. 12 ,, of ,, 26 ,, Mr.St. 13 ,, Sainthill. 55 1 14 ,, 25 55Mr.St. 554 30 .35 Lindsay. 15 59 DeanPatrick's. of 16 ,, 3., 27 ,, Dr.Smith. 30 ,, A. 17 18 55 R. 28 ,, DeanPatrick's. Rev. Butler. of St. 19 ,, 22 ...



the DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. Henry

PLATE II. NO. I DENOMINATION. REFERENCE. MINT. PAGE. WEIGHT. 20Groat. of St. grs. 21Half-groat. 26 16DeanPatrick's. 13 53Rev. J.Butler. W. 22Penny. Dublin 17Rev. Martin. 6 23Groat. Dublin. 18DeanPatrick's. 5 19 R. 1, 24 /3 of53 St. 25 ,, 53 26 53Dr.Smith. 26 /3 28 53 A.St. ,5 30 99DeanPatrick's. 27 39 35 30 33 of 28 93 53 30 55Mr.53 29 9 55 31 59 Sainthill. 30 ,, 35 31 31 ,, 32 Waterford. DeanPatrick's. 32 /3 Dublin. 21 Mr.St. 29 55 of 33 ,, 35 32 35 Sainthill. 34Half-groat. 30 22 Rev. Martin. 35 J.35 35Groat. W. 36 3 of St. 33 21-1,55DeanPatrick's. 26 33 Sainthill. 37 95 32 27 24 Mr. 38Penny. 33 28 55Rev. R. 39 Butler. 5-






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the 83 DR. on Irish of the SMITH Coins Seventh. Henry PLATE III. MINT. PAGE. NO. DENOMINATION. REFERENCE. WEIGHT. 40Groat. Dublin.grs. DeanPatrick's. 27 St. 28 ,, 41 /, 9, 7, 27f 25 of99 42 99 19 1, 30 ,I Rev. 59 R. 43 99 Butler. 99 29 9 DeanPatrick's. 44 59 9, 23 51 of 45 9, 99 29 ,, Mr.St. 46 f ,, 47 )9 of St. ,, 27 7, Lindsay. 48 f ,, 24 26DeanPatrick's. 7, 49 9, ,, 7, 26 ,, 99 24 50 39 ,, 28 !YDr.Smith. 51 ,, A. Patrick's. 99 .25 of 52 1, St. ,, 28 ,, Dean 53 Saintbill. 59 251 Mr. Mr. 54 ,, Lindsay. 55 ,, Dr.Smith. A. !, 29i ,, DeanPatrick's. 56 91 of St. 91 ,, 28 Dr.Smith. A. 57 ,, P f 29