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Measuring Sugar Content of a Liquid using a Laser Pointer
Group 1 Raian Razal Jachy Calibo Marc Damayo Mikail Edralin Kath Ilagan Jasmin Fellizar
Abstract In this project, we will use the physics of refraction to measure the sugar content of a clear liquid solution (e.g., apple juice, or a clear soda drink). A laser pointer and a hollow glass prism will be used. (to be updated and fully versed until the project is done.) Objectives General To observe the wonderful world of optics in our daily life To apply the breathtaking applications of lasers Generally, to have an enjoyable experience with actual physics through experimentation and this scientific breakthrough Specific The objective of this experiment is to see if sugar concentrations in water can be determined using the index of refraction of the solution Introduction No doubt you have noticed the odd "bending" effect that you see when you put a straw (or pencil) in a glass of water. The water refracts the light, so the straw appears to bend at an angle when you look at the interface between the air and the water. Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly seen when a wave passes from one medium to another. Refraction of light is the most commonly seen example, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth. Refraction is also responsible for rainbows and for the splitting of white light into a rainbow-spectrum as it passes through a glass prism. Glass has a higher refractive index than air and the different frequencies of light travel at different speeds (dispersion), causing them to be refracted at different angles, so that you can see them. The different frequencies correspond to different colors observed. While refraction allows for beautiful phenomena such as rainbows it may also produce peculiar optical phenomena, such as mirages and Fata Morgana. These are caused by the change of the refractive index of air with temperature. Snell's law is used to calculate the degree to which light is refracted when traveling from one medium to another. In optics, angles are measured from a line perpendicular to the surface with which the light is interacting. This line is called the surface normal, or simply, the normal (dashed gray line in Figure 2). The angle of incidence, θ1, and the angle of refraction, θ2, are shown in Figure 2. Snell's Law says that the relative index of refraction of the two materials (RI = n2/n1) is equal to the the sine of the angle of incidence (sine θ1) divided by the sine of the angle of refraction (sine θ2). What Snell's Law tells us is that the greater the relative index of refraction, the more the light bends. The index of refraction of a liquid depends on the density of the liquid. Dissolving sugar in water results in a solution with density greater than that of water alone. Since sugar water is more dense than plain water, sugar water should have a higher index of refraction than plain water. Recently some metamaterials have been created which have a negative refractive index. With metamaterials, we can also obtain the total refraction phenomena when the wave impedances of the two media are matched. There is no reflected wave. Also, since refraction can make objects appear closer than they are, it is responsible for allowing water to magnify objects. First, as light is entering a drop of water, it slows down. If the water's surface is not flat, then the light will be bent into a new path. This round shape will bend the light outwards and as it spreads out, the image you see gets larger. A useful analogy in explaining the refraction of light would be to imagine a marching band as they march from pavement (a fast medium) into mud (a slower medium) The marchers on the
side that runs into the mud first will slow down first. This causes the whole band to pivot slightly toward the normal (make a smaller angle from the normal). Review of Related Literature This form of Snell's law was actually published by Descartes as the law of Sines. Snell did discover the relationship but articulated it in a different way. Today it is the form used by Descartes that is called Snell's law. The law is defined as: n1 sinQ1 = n2 sinQ2 Where n is the refractive index and Q the corresponding angles as shown. The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given medium. So, if the top part of the diagram is air, n1 is the speed of light in air and if the bottom part is glass, n2 is the speed of light in glass, both relative to the speed of light in a vacuum. Snell and Descartes realized that when light went from one medium to another, the angles & refractive indexes of the media determined the path that light took. The relationship is a function of the sine of the angles. (http://www.yorku.ca/eye/snell.htm) Refraction is the bending of the path of a light wave as it passes across the boundary separating two media. Refraction is caused by the change in speed experienced by a wave when it changes medium. We have learned that light can either refract towards the normal (when slowing down while crossing the boundary) or away from the normal (when speeding up while crossing the boundary). To begin, consider a hemi-cylindrical dish filled with water. Suppose that a laser beam is directed towards the flat side of the dish at the exact center of the dish. The angle of incidence can be measured at the point of incidence. This ray will refract, bending towards the normal (since the light is passing from a medium in which it travels fast into one in which it travels slow FST). Once the light ray enters the water, it travels in a straight line until it reaches the second boundary. At the second boundary, the light ray is approaching along the normal to the curved surface (this stems from the geometry of circles). The ray does not refract upon exiting since the angle of incidence is 0-degrees (recall the If I Were An Archer Fish page). The ray of laser light therefore exits at the same angle as the refracted ray of light made at the first boundary. These two angles can be measured and recorded. The angle of incidence of the laser beam can be changed to 5-degrees and new measurements can be made and recorded. This process can be repeated until a complete data set of accurate values has been collected. The data below show a representative set of data for such an experiment. Angle of Incidence (degrees) Angle of Refraction (degrees) 0.00 5.00 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 0.00 3.8 7.5 11.2 14.9 18.5 22.1 25.5 28.9 32.1 35.2 38.0 40.6 43.0
70.0 75.0 80.0 85.0
45.0 46.6 47.8 48.5
An inspection of the data above reveal that there is no clear linear relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. For example, a doubling of the angle of incidence from 40 degrees to 80 degrees does not result in a doubling of the angle of refraction. Thus, a plot of this data would not yield a straight line. If however, the sine of the angle of incidence and the sine of the angle of refraction were plotted, the plot would be a straight line, indicating a linear relationship between the sines of the important angles. If two quantities form a straight line on a graph, then a mathematical relationship can be written in y = m*x + b form. A plot of the sine of the angle of incidence vs. the sine of the angle of refraction is shown below.
The equation relating the angles of incidence ("theta i") and the angle of refraction ("theta r") for light passing from air into water is given as Observe that the constant of proportionality in this equation is 1.33 - the index of refraction value of water. Perhaps it's just a coincidence. But if the semi-cylindrical dish full of water was replaced by a semi-cylindrical disk of Plexiglas, the constant of proportionality would be 1.51 the index of refraction value of Plexiglas. This is not just a coincidence. The same pattern would result for light traveling from air into any material. Experimentally, it is found that for a ray of light traveling from air into some material, the following equation can be written. where nmaterial = index of refraction of the material This study of the refraction of light as it crosses from one material into a second material yields a general relationship between the sines of the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. This general relationship is expressed by the following equation: where ("theta i") = angle of incidence ("theta r") = angle of refraction ni = index of refraction of the incident medium nr = index of refraction of the refractive medium This relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction and the indices of refraction of the two medium is known as Snell's Law. Snell's law applies to the refraction of light in any situation, regardless of what the two media are. (http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/Phys/Class/refrn/u14l2b.html) Materials and Costing several 1" × 3" glass microscope slides P 50 diamond scribe or glass cutter (rented) ruler (own materials) electrical tape P 50 epoxy glue (either 5-minute or 30P 50 minute epoxy) toothpicks P 10
laser pointer cardboard tape tape measure paper pencil piece of string sugar water graduated cylinder gram scale calculator with trigonometric functions (sine,arctangent) TOTAL Schematic Diagram
P 200 P 100 (own materials) (own materials) (own materials) (own materials) (own materials) (own materials) (own materials) Borrowed from laboratory Borrowed from laboratory (own materials) P 460
Figure1. Diagram of setup for measuring the index of refraction of a liquid using a laser pointer and a hollow triangular prism (not to scale; based on the diagram in Nierer, 2002).
Figure 2. Diagram of the sequence of steps for making a hollow glass prism (equilateral triangle) from microscope slides. The steps are explained below. (Edmiston, 1999) Methodology The goal is an equilateral prism that can hold liquid. It will be constructed from microscope slides and epoxy. Put a piece of black electrical tape across the face of the slide as shown above . The tape should hang over the edge. Score the other side of the microscope slide with a diamond scribe or glass cutter as shown (Figure 2a). Use a straightedge to guide the diamond scribe. The two scribe lines should be one inch apart and perpendicular to the long edge of the slide. (If desired, before scribing you can mark the positions for the scribe lines with marker. The marker can later be cleaned off with a small amount of rubbing alcohol on a paper towel.)
Now you will break the glass along the scribe lines. Hold the slide on either side of the first scribe line and bend the glass toward the taped side. Bend just enough to break the glass. Repeat for the second scribe line (Figure 2b). Now bend the glass away from the tape, allowing the tape to stretch (Figure 2c). Continue bending until the triangle closes. Place the prism on a flat surface to align the bottom edges. Use the overhanging tape to secure the prism in this configuration (Figure 2d). Adjust the edges of each face so that they align correctly. At each apex of the prism, the inside edges should be in contact along their entire vertical length. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for mixing the epoxy cement (usually you mix equal amounts from each of two tubes). Use a toothpick to apply epoxy to the inside corners of the prism to glue the three faces together (Figure 2e). The corners need to be water-tight, but keep the epoxy in the corners and away from the faces of the prism. Keep the bottom surface flat and allow the epoxy to set. When the epoxy in the corners has set firmly, mix up fresh epoxy and use a toothpick to apply it to the bottom edge of the prism. Glue the prism to a second microscope slide as shown (Figure 2f). The bottom edge needs to be water-tight, but keep the epoxy away from the faces of the prism. Allow the epoxy to set overnight, and then your prism will be ready for use. Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Liquid Figure 3, below, is a diagram of the setup you will use for measuring the index of refraction of a liquid. (Note that the diagram is not to scale.)
Figure 3. Diagram of setup for measuring the index of refraction of a liquid using a laser pointer and a hollow triangular prism (not to scale; based on the diagram in Nierer, 2002). The laser pointer should be set up so that its beam (dotted red line in Figure 3) is perpendicular to a nearby wall. You should attach a big piece of paper to the wall for marking and measuring where the beam hits. The height of the laser pointer should be adjusted so that it hits about halfway up the side of the prism. The laser pointer should be fixed in place. Check periodically to make sure that the beam is still hitting its original spot. When the prism is empty (filled only with air), then placing it in the path should not divert the beam. Mark the spot where the beam hits the wall when the prism is empty. When the prism is filled with liquid, the laser beam will be refracted within the prism (solid blue line). The emerging beam (solid red line) will hit the wall some distance away from the original spot of the undiverted beam. You will measure the distance, x, between these two points (see Figure 3). Figure 4, below, is a more detailed view of the prism which illustrates how to measure the angle of minimum deviation, θmd. You need to mark points a, b, and c in order to measure the angle. Points a and b are easy, because they are project on the wall. Marking point c is more difficult, because it is under the prism. The next several steps describe how to mark point c.
Figure 4. Detail diagram showing how to measure the angle of minimum deviation (not to scale; based on the diagram in Nierer, 2002). Tape a sheet of paper to the table, centered underneath the prism. With the prism empty, on the sheet of paper mark the point where the beam enters the prism (point d in Figure 4). Then mark the point where the beam exits the prism (point e in Figure 4). Later you will draw a line between d and e to show the path of the undiverted beam. On the wall, mark the point where the undiverted laser hits (point b in Figure 4). (As long as the laser pointer stays fixed, this point should be remain constant throughout your experiment. It's a good idea to check it for each measurement.) Now add liquid to the prism. You want to rotate the prism so that the path of the refracted beam within the prism (solid blue line from d to f in Figure 4) is parallel with the base of the prism. (A pinch of non-dairy creamer in the liquid can help you visualize the beam within the prism, and should not have a significant effect on the index of refraction of the liquid.) When the prism is rotated correctly, mark the position of the emerging beam on the paper on the wall (point a in Figure 4). On the paper on the table, mark the point where the beam emerges from the prism (point f in Figure 4). Now you can move the prism aside. Leave the paper taped in place. Use a ruler to draw a line from point d to point e. This marks the path of the undiverted beam. Next, you want to extend a line from point a (on the wall) through point f (on the table). To do this, stretch a string from point a so that it passes over point f. Mark the point (c) where the string crosses the line between d and e. Measure the distance, x, between points a and b, and record it in your data table. Measure the distance, L, between points b and c, and record it in your data table. The distances you have measure define the angle of minimum deviation, θmd. The ratio x/L is the tangent of the angle. To get the angle, use your calculator to find the arctangent of x/L. (The arctangent of x/L means "the angle whose tangent is equal to x/L.") Record the angle in your data table. Now that you have the angle of minimum deviation, you can use equation 4 to calculate the index of refraction, n, of the liquid in the prism.
To check that your setup is working, plain water should have an index of refraction of 1.334. Standard Sugar Solutions for Comparison Use the following table for amounts of sugar and water to use in order to make 5%, 10%, and 15% sugar solutions. desired concentration 5% 10 15 amount sugar (g) 5 10 15 amount water (mL) 95 90 85
Measure the index of refraction of each sugar solution.
Now measure the index of refraction of a solution with unknown sugar concentration (e.g., a clear soft drink or fruit juice). If you measure a carbonated beverage, make sure that there are no bubbles in the path of the laser (gently dislodge them from the side of the glass, if necessary). With the index of refraction of the unknown solution, combined with the data you have from your known sugar solutions, you should be able to estimate the sugar concentration of the unknown solution. References: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/Phys_p028.shtml?from=Home
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