You are on page 1of 51

Bachelor of Business Administration

INTRODUCTION
Absenteeism is one of the factors which counteract a company¶s objectives. It is an aged old ailment suffered by every industrial establishment small or big private or government. It is said that standard of living in a country is adjudged and measured by economic growth and the latter in turn depends upon a stable work force. Absenteeism is a factor which hampers the industry¶s production throughout the year. The problem of absenteeism assumes in a developing country like India because the workforce of the production units are drawn from a different sociocultural and religious background, the adoption of which to a western method of production invariably brings problem to the workforce and industrial

establishments concerned. Therefore in the following pages an attempt is made to study the measures and evaluate the reason of absenteeism of the workers of the Kerala Balers Private Limited, Alappuzha. The questionnaire survey was carried out among employees of the organisation.This study was aimed at understanding the factors influencing the employees absenteeism and find out the trends and also put for suggestion. In this study I have made a humble but a sincere attempt to analyze the various causes of labour absenteeism and the impact it has on the industry. The findings and suggestions of the study are based on the facts and figures arrived through the study and are presented in a more straight forward manner and with almost sincerity.

1

University Institute of Technology, Alappuzha

Bachelor of Business Administration

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are:-

y To study the present rate of labour absenteeism in the Kerala Balers Private limited. y To find out the causes both personal and organizational for absenteeism. y To find out the effects of absenteeism on the organization¶s performance. y To find out the measures taken by the company to control absenteeism. y To recommend certain remedies to minimize the rate of absenteeism.

2

University Institute of Technology, Alappuzha

Bachelor of Business Administration

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A study on labour absenteeism is very significant for proper decision making in the management of business. It helps us to understand the extent to which job absenteeism affects the smooth functioning of a business concern. Also it helps to take timely measures to control absenteeism for maximization of production. The study brings out the reason for the absenteeism of workers and through corrective methods management of business can be made more efficient to achieve better goals.

3

University Institute of Technology, Alappuzha

Bachelor of Business Administration

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In the modern complicated business world management is a vital factor determining the prosperity of business. Labour is the most live factor of production. It plays a crucial role in judging the level of output. The sincerity and dedication of workers increases production. Similarly, the apathy and absenteeism of workers can make a push back in business activities. A study on labour absenteeism has much scope in these aspects. The study enables us to initiate actions to make workers more alert and thereby ensures their sincere participation in production.

4

University Institute of Technology, Alappuzha

Bachelor of Business Administration

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research:
Research in common parlance refers to search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. This advanced learner¶s dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a ³careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge´. Some people consider research as a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. The above description of the types of research brings to light fact that there are two basic approaches to research, viz.quantitative approach and qualitative approach. The former involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis is a formal and rigid fashion. This approach can be further sub classified in to intranasal experimental and simulation approaches to research. Experimental approach is characterized by much greater control over the research environment and in this case some variable are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables. Simulation approach involves the construction information¶s and data can be generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviors of a system for its subsystem under controlled conditions. Simulation approach can also be useful in building model for understanding future conditions.

5

University Institute of Technology, Alappuzha

Its major purpose is description of state of affairs. 6 University Institute of Technology. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.Bachelor of Business Administration TYPES OF RESEARCH The basic types of research are as follows: Descriptive Research It includes the survey and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. Alappuzha .  Quantitative Research It is based on the measurement of quantity or amount.e.  Applied Research It aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization  Fundamental Research It is mainly concerned with generalization and with formulation of a theory.  Qualitative Research It is concerned with quantitative phenomenon. i.  Analytical Research The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.

etc. It may be primary or secondary data. often without due regard for system and theory. Answer questions and return it. It is used to develop new concept or to reinterpret existing ones. A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or type in a definite order in a form or set of forms. 7 University Institute of Technology.Bachelor of Business Administration  Conceptual Research It is related to some abstract ideas of theory. Alappuzha . Primary Data The primary data is the data which collected from the respondents personally and for the time. The secondary data may be external or form within the firm. Secondary Data Any data gathered for some purpose are called secondary data. This is basically first hand data. TYPES OF DATA AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS Data The methodology used for research studies involves the collection data is defined as the fact presented to the researcher from the studies environment. Some of the sources are company profiles and internet.  Empirical Research It lies on experience or observation alone.

primary and secondary data. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data. The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design choked out. the researcher should keep in mind 2 types of data viz. Alappuzha . This method is independent of respondent¶s willingness to respond and thus less demanding respondent¶s active co-operation as in the case of interview method or questionnaire. It can be used through:  Personal interview  Telephone interview  Questionnaire method: In this method a questionnaire is sent to a person concerned along with a request to as secondary data.  Interview method: The interview method of collecting data involves oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses.Bachelor of Business Administration Secondary data can be collected through publish and unpublished sources. While deciding about the method of collection need for the study. Sampling Population¶ refers to all those people with the characteristics which the researcher wants to study within the researcher wants to study within the contract 8 University Institute of Technology. Methods of collecting Primary data:  Observation Method: This is the most commonly used method especially in studies relating to behavioral sciences.

all employees in an organization.g. 9 University Institute of Technology. There each item has its own chance of being selected. Important Random Sampling Methods:  Simple Random Sampling A simple random sample is a sample selected from a population in such a way that every member has equal chance of being selected. A sample is a portion of people drawn from average population having the characteristics of the population. A sample is a part of the population under study in order to make influences about the whole population Different Sampling Techniques: Various methods of sampling can be grouped under two major heads:  Random Sampling  Non-Random Sampling y Random Sampling: It is based on probability for selecting of items.: All students in a college.Bachelor of Business Administration of a particular research problem. Alappuzha . are homogenous.  Systematic Sampling Used in cases where complete list of population is available. Under this method. For e. It will be a representative of a population only if it has some basic characteristics of a population from which it is drawn. the items in the population are included in intervals of magnitude µK¶.  Stratified sampling If the field of enquiry is not homogenous and contains variety of items this method is adopted. The samples are divided in to strata¶s.

different region etc selected for interview. y Non-Random Sampling: There is no basis or probability of selecting sample. different age groups. Here the selection of items entirely depends upon the judgment of investigator and no principle is followed. 10 University Institute of Technology.  Convenience Sampling A convenience sample is obtained by selecting a convenient population unit. Important Non-Random Sampling methods are:  Judgment Sampling Here the investigator exercises his direction in selecting the items that are involved that are to be included. Alappuzha .  Quota Sampling Only definite quotas of person in different social classes.Bachelor of Business Administration  Cluster Sampling Consist forming suitable clusters of units and surveying all the units in sample of cluster selected.

Questionnaires were issued to the employees in service department.Bachelor of Business Administration Methodology used in this study The research methodology is a systematic way to solve a research problem. Methodology involves collecting primary data and secondary data:  Primary Data: The main primary data used for this study are collected by means of: y Interviews : Appointments were fixed with managerial staff and interviews were conducted. It may be understood as a science of studying how research step is done. At most care must be exercised while collecting data because data constitute foundation on which the superstructure of statistical analysis is built. The main source of secondary data collections includes company history. websites and other documents of the company.  Secondary Data: Secondary data are the data collected from the publications of journals. Alappuzha . y Questionnaire The questionnaire was prepared for the workmen sample. 11 University Institute of Technology. In this the researcher makes an attempt to explain the methodology of study-how it had been conducted.

Tools used in the study: The mathematical tool used in this study is simple percentage analysis and pie diagrams are used for the graphical representation of the collected data. 12 University Institute of Technology. Alappuzha .Bachelor of Business Administration Sampling: Sampling method is used in this project is simple random sampling and the sample size was 50.

Bachelor of Business Administration LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The researcher found difficult to explain the aim of study to the respondent because the respondent had a suspicious idea on the study. The main reason for this is the fault of the workers who are careless and have the least commitment towards their work. The researcher found it difficult to convince the respondents that it is a part of curriculum of the researcher. Alappuzha . 13 University Institute of Technology. Since the area of the study topic µLABOUR ABSENTEEISM¶ is vast µthe study was limited to certain important aspects of labour absenteeism of the company. Some of the respondents thought the researcher as management representative.

Bachelor of Business Administration INDUSTRY PROFILE COIR INDUSTRY IN INDIA The coir industry is one of the most ancient.It also during this year that a Spanish born American established the first coir factory in India. Coir industries are of the largest cottage industries in India. which was due to the abundance of coconut trees and adequate facilities for natural retting. As a result of this. The main reasons for this being the increase in manufacturing cost and absence of workers. All 14 University Institute of Technology. Alappuzha . Until 1940¶s the coir industry was in a progressive stage. Later on coir began to be used to building. people started investing in the industry. social and political field. especially in the costal belt of Kerala. Since coir is produced from coconut husks. But since then the coir and coir products have shown a downward tendency. mainly in the southern part of the country. Nearly 15 lakhs of people and their family members are directly depended upon the industry and the cost of labor is going by day by day. which he foresaw led him to establish such a factory. cables feeders and rigging. Workers left their jobs and started producing coir by themselves at a very small scale rate. During that period. His name was James Darrough. Coir is the fibre extracted from the husk of coconut. traditional industries in Kerala. it meets with its own difficulties. coir was mostly used in ships. It must have been due to prosperity of the industry in India. the industry is deep ± rooted in the economic. Its history goes back to 1859. through still earns a good percentage of foreign currency each year. Kerala had a major part to play a role in coir industry which is the largest manufacturer of coir products in India. Extending from the southernmost to the extreme north of Kerala.

But due to the importance of such an industry. Later the softest husk is boated to separate the fibre from the husk. Some traditional industries is based on coir and coir products. The coconut husk is immersed in water for rubberizing about a month. Coir industry occupies a unique place among the rural traditional cottage industries in India. Andhra Pradesh. Adequate raw materials have to be available for this purpose. Therefore success of coir industry in India mainly vests with coir producers in Kerala. The jewellery made out of coir is fascinating because of its intricate and delicate designs. The basic reason for this is that coir products cannot be produced by every country. Secondly. Many states have contributed for the growth of coir industry in India.Bachelor of Business Administration these led to the declining of coir industry. The preparation of coir is a lengthy process.Coir being an environment friendly product has found its market in many European countries. Orissa. Karnataka. many measures were taken to co-ordinate the efforts of the primary producers of coir and coir products. These have gained popularity due to their softness and durability. Pondicherry and Tripura are all producers of coir and products in the coir industry. West Bengal. The state of Kerala also known as the µland of coconuts¶ is the largest producer of coir in India. 15 University Institute of Technology. This is then woven into coir. Government assistance in this field has also encouraged many people to enter the industry. Coir foam rubberized coir is used to make mattresses and pillow covers. It accounts for more than 75% of total production. Alappuzha . the increasing global awareness . The economy of the state is based on agriculture and marine products. The coir industry of India had now become as internationally compatible one. Tamilnadu. such as Kerala. Goa. Maharashtra. marine products.

d different types of handicraft etc. Despite the various setbacks faced by it an account of competition from products of over countries. This highlights the necessity for concentrated efforts to keep the industry going. Coir fiber is extracted from both green/dry husks as well as wetted husks. which is used as the real material by the manufacturing sector. Fibre is used for spinning yarn. 16 University Institute of Technology. four lakh persons are directly employed in the industry. The exports sector. Karnataka and Andrapradesh. This agro-based industry provides substance to around 2.Bachelor of Business Administration handloom. Most of the workers live poverty line and transferring them from this sector to another to ameliorate their living conditions is practically impossible in our labor surplus economy. Alappuzha .: 1) 2) 3) 4) The husk rattling and fiber extraction sector. The yarn ± spinning sector. including natural and synthetics.8 lakhs females in the costal belt of the state. The wet process of extraction of fiber is predominant in Kerala and the dry process in the states of Tamilnadu.Coir industry enjoys the status as the largest cottage industry weaving sector. Keeping them in their own sphere to the extent possible seems to be the only solution. The coir industry has been classified into four sectors viz. The product¶s manufacturing sector. Coir yarn and other products have good market both at home and abroad. As aforesaid.

Nearly 15 lakhs of people and their family members are directly depended upon the industry and cost of labour is going up day by day. alone is not enough. which have helped the growth of coir industry in Kerala. the presence of lakes and lagoons at regular distance and above all the presence of hard working and industrious people who carry on this industry were accountable to the advancement of coir industry in alleppey. it meets with its own difficulties. Extending from the south most to the extreme north Kerala the industry is deep rooted in economic. especially in the costal belt of Kerala. This availability of coconut from low land on either sides of lakes and even from the higher land accessible by good roads and canals. Intervals by fresh water. The significance of coir industry in Alleppey is due to a variety of factors.Bachelor of Business Administration COIR INDUSTRY IN KERALA The coir industry is considered to be traditional cottage industry whose earliest history is totalizing to Kerala. Alappuzha . so as to wash away the contaminated water by selling of green husks. The main factors are the presence of more backwaters. alone is not enough. The main factor is the presence of mere backwaters. but it has to be replenished at regular. social and political and political field. Such sources are abundant in the district and these are favorable factors. 17 University Institute of Technology. The significance of coir industry in alleppey is due to a variety of factors. through still earn a good percentage of foreign currency each year. but it has to be replenished at regular. Kerala had a major part to play a role in coir products in India.

And it¶s fair pricing policy has made it even more so. All these led to the declining of coir industry. the innovative range of products including 18 University Institute of Technology. This was mainly due to transport facility for raw materials and finished products.there is a central coir marketing society for the export of the produce of primary societies. There are present 15 mechanized looms too. A string of Regional offices and national network of over 100 showrooms ensures that for the lovers of things natural and beautiful. Based on the coir capital. coir products are within the reach. Until 1940¶s the coir industry was in progressive stage. Government assistance to this field has also encouraged many people to enter the industry. There are about four thousand production units including a few big factories for coir in the district. Crafted by the women of the picturesque coir villages of the land of coconuts. In Kerala. coir fed is the apex federation of 600 odd coir cooperatives. There are 41 co-operative societies in the coir sector .Bachelor of Business Administration Alappuzha is the major production centre of coir and coir products in the state. Simple and elegant. Alleppey was main center of investment. But since then the coir and coir products have shown a download tendency. In fact it has been rightly called the Venice of the east due to this reason. But due to the importance of such an industry. The water linkage between Alleppey town and yarn producing centers and the port facility for shipment of finished products to various countries abroad accelerated the growth of coir industry in Alleppey. Workers left their jobs and started producing coir by themselves at a very small scale rate. Alappuzha. many measures were taken to co-ordinate the efforts of the primary producers of coir and coir products. Attempts are being made for the revival and revitalization of the industry through co operative societies. Alappuzha . The main reasons for this being the increase in manufacturing cost and absence of workers. the beautifully crafted coir products of Kerala give an aesthetic touch to any home or office.

Karnataka. Goa. door pieces. Tamil Nadu.The basic reason for this is that coir products cannot be produced by every country. hammocks.cushions. West Bengal. Alappuzha . Maharashtra. Orissa. Adequate raw materials have to be available for this purpose.beds. 19 University Institute of Technology.little show pieces. rugs . carpets. Coir being an environmental friendly product has found its market in many European countries . Pondicherry and Tripura are all producers of coir and products in the coir industry in India mainly vests in the hands of coir producers in Kerala. The coir industry of India had now become as international compatible one . blinds. Second is the increasing global awareness. ceiling/floor furnishing. Andhra Pradesh.Bachelor of Business Administration mats. bags.Many states have contributed for the growth of coir industry in India such as Kerala.walls hangings.

a member of Karan group companies is acclaimed as one of the leading exporters of coir and coir products in India. The parent company.The Kerala Balers (P) Ltd is the member of the Travancore chamber 20 University Institute of Technology. the Karan group comprising of three companies: William good acre and sons India (p) Ltd (since 1862) Alleppey Company (since 1927) Kerala Balers (p) Ltd (since 1948) They have been in the coir business for more than a century and form a group of private sector companies. Backed with more than a century long tradition. The registered office of the Kerala Balers (P) ltd is situated in Thumboly by the side of NH 47 inAlappuzha. Alappuzha . Karan Group is widely recognized as the indisputable leaders in the natural floor covering industry starting as coir yarn spinners in late 1800¶s they presently own the largest integrated factory in Asia for weaving natural fibre floor coverings. Factories are equipped with the latest yarn preparation and dyeing equipment imported automated shaft / jacquard looms finishing equipment supported by the industries finest weaving talents.Bachelor of Business Administration COMPANY PROFILE History of Kerala Balers (p) ltd Kerala Balers (p) ltd. Karan group is the pioneer in Asia for the manufacture of vinyl backed coir mats/ rolls. KERALA BALERS (P) LTD Kerala Balers (p) ltd was incorporated in the year 1948 for the manufacturing and selling of coir and allied products.

21 University Institute of Technology.Bachelor of Business Administration of commerce Alleppey. Alappuzha District Name of possession: Free hold Area: About 25 acres Activity: Manufactures and export of mats. Kerala Balers is ISO 9001. federation of Indian export organization-New Delhi and Indian Standards Institution-New Delhi. rubberized coir matting¶s. matting¶s. jute.USA. The coir cochin Association ±London. Uk & Canada. and rubber backed edged mats etc. Business status: Two star Export House Major Buying countries. COMPANY DETAILS Company Name: Kerala Balers (p) Ltd Address: Kerala Balers (p) Ltd Thumboly Alappuzha Years of Establishment: 1948 Constitution: private company Associate firms: William good acre and sons India (p) Ltd Alleppey Company Situation: Ambalapuzha Taluk. sisal. The coir yarn Balers Association ² Cochin. 2000 certified. Alappuzha .

Alappuzha . The Board of directors shall meet at least once in 3 months.A.N.k kurian  Shri.Vivek.Nair Management of the organization is vested with the board of directors consisting of 6 members.Bachelor of Business Administration Factories at  Alleppey  Paravur (quilon)  Palluruthi (cochin)  Pollachi (Tamilnadu) Fully owned units  Madurai coir ± Palluruthy (cochin)  Floor company ± Paravur (quilon)  Cocoplast ± (Alleppey)  Pollachi ± Tamilnadu Board of Directors  Smt.Ashok venugopal (MD)  Shri.Subhadra Ravi Karunakaran (chair person)  Shri. Working capital The working capital of the Kerala Balers mainly consists of the share capital 22 University Institute of Technology.Venugopal  Shri.Venugopal  Shri.P.

50. Trade union All the disputes in Kerala balers (P) Ltd are settled through the discussion between management and trade unions. Competitors DC mills. 20.Bachelor of Business Administration Authorized capital ± Rs 7.000 Issued ± Rs 620000 Subscribed and paid up ± Rs 6. NC john. Awards owned by the company They have own the reward for the highest exporter of coir yarn during the year 1998 -1999 and also the award for growth in export of coir products during the year 1999-2000.Ltd is 10 %. Alappuzha . 23 University Institute of Technology. Palm fibre. The recognized trade unions are CITU and AITUC.000 Market share The market share of Kerala Balers Pvt.

imported automatic shaft /jacquard looms and finishing equipment. supported by the industries finest weaving talents. Imperial Mats  Thick heavy-duty coir mats up to 38 mm (1. Our continuing commitment to design and product development is evident by the extended inhouse design studio which is supported by inputs from the leading home furnishing designers worldwide. We are the pioneers in Asia for industries finest weaving talents.to fit every need and budget  Thick coir pile ± unmatched scraping and moisture absorption  Printed versions available at great value prices ± ideal for promotions 24 University Institute of Technology. demonstrates our leadership position in technology up gradation with the natural floor covering industry. once again. Karan group widely recognized as the indisputable leader in the natural floor covering industry.Bachelor of Business Administration Product profile Backed with more than a century long tradition. Alappuzha . Our factories are equipped with the latest yarn preparation and dyeing equipment. Starting as coir yarn spinners in late 1800¶s we presently own the largest integrated factory in Asia for weaving natural fibre floor coverings. Addition of the fully automatic latex backing and flocking machines during 2001.5´) thick  Dense hand tufted pile ± ideal for printed designs  Inlaid versions available for enhanced definition Velour mats  Available in a range of pile heights. We are the pioneers in Asia for the manufacture of vinyl backed coir mats trolls.

 Can be cut or dir punched to any desired shape ± ideal for shaped mats  Also available in roll form ±ideal for custom ± entrance mat /commercial applications  Large in ± house production capacity ± helps fulfill promotional orders Coir Broad loom and rugs  Highly durable and pleasantly resilient ± suitable for kitchens/entry ways/stairs/halls and other medium /high traffic areas  Most textural of all natural fiber floor coverings-providers an elegant surface for modern as well as contemporary furniture  Tight. Alappuzha . with elegant woven motifs-suitable for indoors  Elegant woven motifs in a thin construction. dense weave  All four sides finished with latex glued edges ± extra durable and slip resistant  Available in a range of unique textures and weaves.Bachelor of Business Administration Budgeted coco mats  Rod mats : utility brush mats ideal for low /medium traffic areas  Corridor mats: thin mats. uniform machine ±woven quality for straighter wefts and better durability.ideal for indoors Power loom coco mats  Woven on imported German looms for uniform. 25 University Institute of Technology.

Bachelor of Business Administration Sisal broad loom and rugs  One of the most hard weaving of all natural fibers  Smooth surface with a characteristics natural sheen offers a sophisticated look  Sisal /jute blends available with hard weaving sisal on surface and jute for inner chains. smooth and soft under foot ±ideal choice for living and sleeping areas  Clean. Alappuzha . Jute ± broad loom rugs  Hard wearing. durable surface with classic natural look ideal for medium/high traffic areas  Almost impermeable fibre is naturally stain resistant 26 University Institute of Technology.  Wide range of weaves/textures/colors available in both hand-woven and machine ± woven qualities Printed jute area rugs  Wide range of popular traditional/contemporary design themes  Advanced dye recipe offers excellent fastness properties  A great casual look is achieved by applying layers of stencil colours on a hand woven jute rug. Sea grass  One of the versatile floor coverings  Hard. casual understated style natural enhancement to any décor.

job description. placement. It is appreciable that all the staff members are dedicated to their work. The important departments in Kerala Balers (P) Ltd as follows. The Kerala Balers (P) Ltd is providing employment to number of persons. and job evaluation. 27 University Institute of Technology. Alappuzha . training. The shape. It has about 27 permanent office staffs that work under salary system and about 155 employees. merit ratings ± its devices.Bachelor of Business Administration DEPARTMENTAL PROFILE The departmentation of the officer in Kerala Balers is made on fundamental basis. They give greater importance in case of arranging departments. size and number of department in Kerala Balers (P) Ltd are depend upon the size of the business operations such as other similar organizations are doing regarding departmentation. method and enter in to contracts for employees. and development of staff. who work under values sections.  Personnel department  Production department  Marketing department  Finance department  Quality control Department Personnel department Personnel department is an important department of the officer performing a number of functions recruitment.

etc. The personnel department keeps the bio data of each employee. ITI holders and coir board trainees are usually taken. There is a unique code number for each employee by which each of them is identified. 27 permanent Offices staff that various sections. The workman of the Kerala Balers can be classified as follows: Permanent. temporary. Alappuzha . They also give training for safety and health measures.  Employee placement First of all there is an identification of vacancies preference is given to the employees inside the company. It is appreciable that all the staff members are dedicated to their work. Proper training is given to the selected employees.  Recruitment Direct recruitment has been adopted to fill the vacancies. is also kept in the department. trainees. Attendance is recorded through punching system. Youngsters at the age of 18-25 are generally taken and give training in skilled jobs in the different department of the company.  Training Kerala Balers give training in skilled jobs in the different department of the company. which is a confidential record. Every employee has one punch cum identity card.In Kerala Balers.Bachelor of Business Administration Functions of Personnel Department:  Manpower planning: Man power planning is one of the requirements of hands in a projected production program. 28 University Institute of Technology. on the existing types of and categories of machines in different departments.

75% of salary as employee contribution and 3.8% bonus and allowance is given once in a year. skills.75% as employee¶s contribution. the time rate is used to pay wages. 29 University Institute of Technology. conduct etc of the workmen. The basis for promotion will be seniority. In the mechanical works.8 paid leaves are given to the workers. The percentage bonus is given as 29. The percentage of ESI is 1. suitability of the post. Alappuzha . wage slips are using for payment of wages.  Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal and high ranked performance of employees are awarded sometimes with promotions and other times with increase in increments given to them. efficiency. In production. piece rate system is employed and employees very well accept it. c) Provident Fund ± Both the employee and employees contribution for PF is 12 % of their earning per month. d) Leave ± For 160 working days in a year.  Employees remuneration a) Salary ± The salary system followed by Kerala Balers in payment of wage is piece rate system and time rate system.Bachelor of Business Administration  Promotion Promotion of employees is at the direction of management. Daily wage workers are paid weekly and staff is paid monthly. b) Employee State Insurance (ESI) ± All the employees of Kerala Balers are eligible for ESI benefits. Employees are also provided extra amount for the overtime work done by them.

Kerala Balers (P) Ltd has 5 production units: o Cocoplast o Coco flock o Floor coll o Bailing o Dye House  Cocoplast ± Cocoplast was established in the year 1992 by the parent company. product documentation. it provides relevant data for production planning and budgeting and performs miscellaneous clerical functions to production quality control.  Coco flock ± coco flock is one of the finishing production units of Kerala Balers. The flocking machine is imported from Germany. Kerala Balers (P) Ltd with an aim to create fully automated manufacturing facility for vinyl backed coir mats and rolls.Bachelor of Business Administration \ Production department The production department deals with various activities of production of finished products. Alappuzha . control of stocks etc. material handling. The machine capacity is depending upon the size of the mat 30 University Institute of Technology. The objective of setting up this facility was to cater high quality conscious foreign customers a quality vinyl backed coir mats and matting¶s which would live up to their expectations with world class quality.

Bailing processes include receipt of coir yarn. The types of looms are:  Jacquard loom  Computer loom  Shaft loom  Brush mat loom The H.D is factory manager. incoming inspection. final inspections and despatch. two supervisors assist the financial manager in his work. jute and sisal yarns are dyeing in to different shades. incoming inspection.O.This unit is fully automated. weighing. Alappuzha . Raw materials are: Coir yarns Jute yarns Sisal Polypropylene  Bailing ± The Kerala Balers started their business with coir yarn bales exporting.  Dye house ± In the dye house coir. labeling. Dyeing or bleaching manufacturing processes includes receipt of materials. bailing.Bachelor of Business Administration Floor co II ± floor co II is manufacturing power loom mats and mattings. Floor co II has 20 weaving machines and 2 cops winding machines. dyeing or bleaching and drying after bleaching or drying. 31 University Institute of Technology.

Japan. The whole salers of the company make bulk purchase. Mexico. The company exports its products to: USA. The Bacova Guild Ltd (USA). The company gives advertisement in coir news magazines. Trading Company (USA) and International Trading Company are the whole salers. It faces competition from India as well as Srilanka and some other foreign countries. Germany. etc. A production executive and three office assistants work under the assistant manager. the orders are send by courier or by flight. Important buyers of Kerala Balers (P) Ltd are:  BACOVA GUILD LTD  MEDICI 888  BOSTOV WAREHOUSE TRADING CORP  HABITAT 32 University Institute of Technology. France. Boston. Canada. Pakistan. Spain. Denmark. It also has a domestic market. The company mainly produces about fifteen products.Bachelor of Business Administration Marketing department Kerala Balers focuses on exporting even though they have a domestic market for the products. Portugal. The assistant manager assists the manager in marketing functions. Lebanon. which held in Frankfurt. They places orders by participating in international exhibition. Italy. Delhi and Mumbai. The representatives are sending to Germany with the sample of their products. UK. Ware house. The company has many competitors. Germany. Alappuzha . Netherlands.

Finance department is responsible for all financial activities done by the organizations and the finance management controls all the activities of financial department. long term fund as well as short term. etc are imported from Thailand. Bangladesh. Financial management is an internal part of overall management. 33 University Institute of Technology. etc. A raw material like coir is produced from India. jute. Financial department is concerned with all the receipts and payments of coir products. Alappuzha . The main policy of the department is to concentrate revenue and dealing in payment. Finance department is headed with chief accountant then followed by assistant account officer. They keep a different account for keeping different transactions. The company collects funds by way of shares.Bachelor of Business Administration Kerala Balers direct exporting to  Wal-Mart stores  Smith & Hawken  Arget stores Kerala Balers purchase the raw materials needed for processing is obtained from India as well as in foreign countries. three computer assistants and 2 clerks. It is not a totally independent area. machine spun. A main function of finance department is that to maintain sufficient fund for the smooth and efficient flow of the organization. Finance Department Finance is the lifeblood of every business. Raw materials like sisal.

Quality control Department Quality control department is the process of checking the quality of both raw materials and products with predetermined standards of quality. journals and ledgers  Preparation of budget such as cash and sales budget etc. The quality policy of Kerala Balers (P) Ltd as follows: ³We are committed to enhance customer satisfaction through reviewing and improving our performance. We remain committed to excellence in all spheres of our activities´. In order to implement the quality policy.Bachelor of Business Administration Important functions of finance department:  Creating and maintaining books of accounts  Keeping of records  Calculation of salary of staffs  Preparation of various contract accounts  Calculation of commission. balance sheet  Preparation of vouchers. Alappuzha . preparation of income tax.etc  Preparation of P&L accounts. stock valuation etc  Analysis of companies with other companies  Calculation of advanced tax.VAT. the quality objectives are established as follows:  Reduce wastage  Reduce internal failures  Reduce incoming failures  Timely delivery 34 University Institute of Technology.

Alappuzha .Bachelor of Business Administration  Better productivity It is insured that quality and objectives are understood. 35 University Institute of Technology. implemented and maintained by all personnel in the organization.

Our continuing commitment to design and product development is evident by the extended inhouse design studio which is supported by inputs from the leading home furnishing designers worldwide.5´) thick  Dense hand tufted pile ± ideal for printed designs  Inlaid versions available for enhanced definition Velour mats  Available in a range of pile heights. Our factories are equipped with the latest yarn preparation and dyeing equipment.Bachelor of Business Administration Product profile Backed with more than a century long tradition. supported by the industries finest weaving talents. Addition of the fully automatic latex backing and flocking machines during 2001. demonstrates our leadership position in technology up gradation with the natural floor covering industry.to fit every need and budget  Thick coir pile ± unmatched scraping and moisture absorption  Printed versions available at great value prices ± ideal for promotions Budgeted coco mats 36 University Institute of Technology. We are the pioneers in Asia for the manufacture of vinyl backed coir mats trolls. Alappuzha . imported automatic shaft /jacquard looms and finishing equipment. We are the pioneers in Asia for industries finest weaving talents. Karan group widely recognized as the indisputable leader in the natural floor covering industry. once again. Starting as coir yarn spinners in late 1800¶s we presently own the largest integrated factory in Asia for weaving natural fibre floor coverings. Imperial Mats  Thick heavy-duty coir mats up to 38 mm (1.

Bachelor of Business Administration  Rod mats : utility brush mats ideal for low /medium traffic areas  Corridor mats: thin mats. Alappuzha .  Can be cut or dir punched to any desired shape ± ideal for shaped mats  Also available in roll form ±ideal for custom ± entrance mat /commercial applications  Large in ± house production capacity ± helps fulfill promotional orders Coir Broad loom and rugs  Highly durable and pleasantly resilient ± suitable for kitchens/entry ways/stairs/halls and other medium /high traffic areas  Most textural of all natural fiber floor coverings-providers an elegant surface for modern as well as contemporary furniture  Tight. with elegant woven motifs-suitable for indoors  Elegant woven motifs in a thin construction. Sisal broad loom and rugs  One of the most hard weaving of all natural fibers  Smooth surface with a characteristics natural sheen offers a sophisticated look 37 University Institute of Technology.ideal for indoors Power loom coco mats  Woven on imported German looms for uniform. uniform machine ±woven quality for straighter wefts and better durability. dense weave  All four sides finished with latex glued edges ± extra durable and slip resistant  Available in a range of unique textures and weaves.

durable surface with classic natural look ideal for medium/high traffic areas  Almost impermeable fibre is naturally stain resistant 38 University Institute of Technology.Bachelor of Business Administration  Sisal /jute blends available with hard weaving sisal on surface and jute for inner chains. Jute ± broad loom rugs  Hard wearing. Alappuzha . smooth and soft under foot ±ideal choice for living and sleeping areas  Clean. Sea grass  One of the versatile floor coverings  Hard. casual understated style natural enhancement to any décor.  Wide range of weaves/textures/colors available in both hand-woven and machine ± woven qualities Printed jute area rugs  Wide range of popular traditional/contemporary design themes  Advanced dye recipe offers excellent fastness properties  A great casual look is achieved by applying layers of stencil colours on a hand woven jute rug.

well in advance. absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an µabsentee¶ and µabsentee¶ is one who habitually stays away. The rate of absenteeism varies from 7% to nearly 30%. Magnitude of Absenteeism It has been observed that the phenomena of absenteeism doesn¶t only exist in Indian industry is a universal truth. In some occupations it has been risked to the abnormal level of 40% in some seasons. According to the Webster¶s dictionary. The extent of absenteeism may differ from industry to industry. It may also differ according to the make up of the work force. absence may be authorized or unauthorized willful or caused by circumstances beyond one¶s control. to which he is entitled. Any employee may stay away from work if he has taken leave. In other words it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work.Bachelor of Business Administration ABSENTEEISM: Absenteeism the title given to a condition that exists when a person fails to come to work when properly scheduled to work. place to place and occupation. or without any previous sanction of leave. Alappuzha . or on the ground of sickness or some accident. 39 University Institute of Technology. According to the µLabour¶ Bureau. that the employee will not be available for work at the specialized time. Thus. It is unauthorized explained avoidable and willful absence from work. The difference is only in terms of magnitude. and when the employer has no reason to expect. simla absenteeism is ³the total man shifts lost because of absences at a percentage of the total number of man shift scheduled to work´. An employee is to be considered scheduled to work when the employee has work available and the employee is aware of it.

who after a late night on Sunday find it difficult to get up and come on time and concentrate on work and it is the lowest on pay day. Alappuzha . The rate of absenteeism varies from month to month. Absenteeism in Indian industry is not a new phenomenon. The Royal commission on Labour reported that high absenteeism prevails among industrial labour mainly due to their rule orientation since then a number of individual researcher have investigated the problem and have pointed out that absent gated in our industries varies from 10 percent to 15 percent its incidence is high in plantations and in Northern India than in South India. including restless and a sense of irresponsibility. Young men are generally found to be absent for a variety of reasons. There have been many systematic studies of absenteeism in western industrialized countries. Absenteeism is a universal phenomenon. In USA it has been observed that curiously enough that the extent of absenteeism is greater among youngsters than among the older employees greater among women than men. shift to shift and day on the basic of micro studies 40 University Institute of Technology. FEATURES OF ABSENTEEISM Peculiar features of Absenteeism: 1.Bachelor of Business Administration Absenteeism may be extensive in a particular department of an industry or a concern. In some cases absenteeism of particular workers is due to reasons connected with the job of worker for example he may be absent because he doesn¶t like his job for some reason or because he has unsatisfactory relations with his supervisor or with other employee. Absenteeism may also be due to real sickness real or fringed. For example it has been observed that absenteeism among the younger workmen is extensive on Mondays after the weekend. particularly among unmarried men.

It increases considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus. It is the highest during March. 5. 6. April. The young employees are not regular and punctual. and also in the harvest season the rate goes as high as 40%. The high percentage of absenteeism is due to the engagement of labours in the fields. absenteeism is due to lack of commitment on the part of the work force. both before and after a holiday. The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the night shifts than in day shifts. Reason for Absenteeism The phenomenon of absenteeism has been explained in various places. May when land has to be prepared for monsoon sowing. marriages and festivals. The percentage of absenteeism is much higher in coal and mica mining industries than in organized industries. 2. The incidence of absenteeism. This is of because workers in the night shift experience greater discomfort and uneasiness the course of their work than they do during day-time. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit 4.Bachelor of Business Administration undertaken in different parts of the country certain observation may be made the rate of absenteeism is the lowest o pay day. Clark keer and his associates are of the opinion that since 41 University Institute of Technology. Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. Absenteeism is generally higher among the workers below 25 years of age and those above the 40. According to one line of thought. has also been found to be higher than that of normal days. Alappuzha . 3.

According to Acharya in modern industry establishments except perhaps in very small ones the individual personality is more or less irretrievably submerged in the general mass through the sheer incidence of being thrown together with other individuals for a certain purpose during a good bit of each day¶s life. 4. Personal causes. 3. Sinha Analysis is classified in to 3 heads: 1. Unfavorable mental attitude arising out of boredom. 42 University Institute of Technology. SITRA¶S Publication refers to the following causes. discontent with wages resentment against supervisors. Alappuzha . Lack of provision for general welfare. The individual has no elbowroom & is hammered into a set pattern.Bachelor of Business Administration the degree of commitment varies with the degree of a country¶s industrial growth or maturity. Inadequate medical facilities for minor injuries. The royal commission on labour observed that high absenteeism among Indian labour is due to its rural orientation and its frequent urge for rural exodus. The attitude and practice of the management also contribute to absenteeism various empirical studies on the micro level in India have been undertaken to find out the cause which have contributed to a high percentage of absenteeism. 5. In plant causes. 1. A few are quoted below. Unsuitable working conditions. absenteeism is inversely related to industrial development. 2. 2. while the human spirit clamors for open spaces and unfettered all so that if many kicks its legs about for a change. Increased distance between management and workers.

43 University Institute of Technology. 4. 9. 5% to 7% on account of genuine personal sickness. the rate of absenteeism is high. In a study undertaken on behalf of the national productivity council of Bhutani arrived at these causes. 6. Leniency towards absenteeism causes high rate of absenteeism. The following organizational factors have been found responsible for absenteeism. 3. Organizational factors There are various organizational factors which causes work alienation resulting into absenteeism. Alappuzha . In some industries where work is monotonous. The general causes may be grouped into three categories: 1. 7. 15% to 20% on account of drinkness. Personal factors. Environmental factors & 3. 2. 1. 5% on account of distance from factories. 2. 5% to 7% because of disharmony with foreman. Community and social causes. 2. Organizational factors. 5% to 7% on account of genuine family sickness. 5% due to bonafide emergences. 1% to 2% on account of bonafide relaxation needed because of overtime work.Bachelor of Business Administration 3. 1. 15% to 20% on account of earning higher wages inside. 5% due to social exigencies. 8. 5.

These festivals take considerable time to celebrate. Workers generally have more number of dependent children coupled with unhygienic living conditions to face the problem if sickness quite frequently which result into absenteeism. 2. Workers generally live in unhygienic and pool economic conditions because of these condition they lack commitment their work. as workers become frustrated because of these attitudes.Bachelor of Business Administration 3. Environmental factors Various environmental factors of the country particularly all socioeconomic factors and religious cultural factors are responsible for high rate of absenteeism in the following ways. Religious and Cultural factors Indian population consists of multi religious and cultural groups with each group having its own religious festival customs and traditions. Militant attitudes of traditions also cause high absenteeism. which causes absence. It has been observed that during these festivals absenteeism rate is quite high because of these festivals workers tend to remain absent from the workplace 44 University Institute of Technology. 3. 4. Some organizations resort to badly system of employment by appointing temporary / casual workers. Alappuzha . Due to migratory nature of labour force workers don¶t develop emotional belongingness with their work places hence their high absence. This leads to high absenteeism in these organizations. Socio-Economic factors Following socio-economic factors are responsible for absenteeism 1. I. II.

adequate wages. Measures to control absenteeism Absenteeism is a serious problem for management because it involves heavy additional expenses. c) Workers who are alcoholic and drug addict show higher tendency of absenteeism. The management is generally uncertain about the probable duration of an employee¶s absence and cannot take appropriate measures to fill the gap. The Labour Investigation Committee 1946 of the opinion that proper conditions of work in the factory. The Encyclopedia of social suggests the following measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism: 45 University Institute of Technology. protection from accidents and sickness and facilities for obtaining leave for rest and recreation constitute the most effective means of absenteeism. d) Indebtedness of workers causes absenteeism. e) Some workers tend to be chronicle absence either because of their personality factors or because of their other problems. b) Woman workers are more prone to absenteeism because of their personal and family problems. Alappuzha .Bachelor of Business Administration Personal factors The more frequent personal causes are as follows a) Unskilled and young workers have higher rate of absence because of their personal problems. Employees don¶t ask for leave of absence in advance or origin notice during their absence as to how they would be away.

Absenteeism is probably a natural human reaction to be routine modern factory life. 5. 2. The personal management should encourage notification. The following are some of the measure to control absenteeism: i) Adoption of well defined recruitment procedure The selection of employees on the basis of commercial. Application blanks should invariably be used for a preliminary selection and tools for interviews. It should be noted. Regularity in attendance can be encouraged to social to extent by the offer of a bonus and other peculiarly inducements. To reduce unavoidable absence due to sickness and industrial accidents. There are maladjustments between man¶s instincts and desires and the regular working habit that are imposed upon him. leave should be granted liberally. programs like industrial hygiene and safety should be strengthened. linguistic and family consideration should be discourage or avoided. The personnel officer 46 University Institute of Technology. The management should be apt and show ability in the perspective employees and should not easily yield to pressure on personnel likes and dislike. In case of personal and family circumstances like illness of children in the case of married women employee. no single measure can effective in controlling absenteeism but a skillful combination of various measures would be definitely lead to the desired results. especially in case of sickness when the duration of absence is likely to be long. by having employee living nearer to the places of work and by adjusting the physical conditions of the plant especially noise and ventilation. Alappuzha .Bachelor of Business Administration 1. which make absences unavoidable. 4. This labour can be relaxed or modified by grant of leave with pay. by shifting or redistributing scheduled hours. 3.

In India where climate is warm most of the work involves manual labour. The management should therefore pay reasonable wages and allowances taking into account the capacity of the industry to pay. their reliance. The allowances that may be paid to worker should include old age allowance length of service allowance position allowance. They should as far as possible relies on employment exchange. ii) Provision for healthful and hygienic working conditions. The facilities of drinking water. iii) Provision for reasonable wages and allowances and job security for workers.Bachelor of Business Administration should pay a more effective role as a coordinator of information. Some of the wages of employees determine his as well as his family¶s standard of living. good attendance allowance. transportation allowance and housing 47 University Institute of Technology. provided that ha has acquired job knowledge in the function of selection. It is essential that workers should be provided with proper and healthy working conditions. The level of wages prevailing in different units of the same industry in the same area in neighboring areas the productivity of labour and general effect of rising wages in neighboring industries. lighting and ventilation need to be improved. good attendance allowance. special job allowance. therefore on intermediaries for the recruitment of employees should be entirely done away with. This single factor is important for him than any other. transportation allowance. canteens. Alappuzha . restrooms. Employees also take into account the fact that selections should be for employee¶s development.

and free educational facilities for their children and other monetary and non-monetary benefits. tempts workers to go on ESI leave for under this scheme they can have 56days in a year on half pay is an effective way of dealing with absenteeism is to liberalize leave rules. vi) Improved communication and prompt redressal of grievances. The management should recognize the needs of worker and offer those adequate and cheap housing facilities.Bachelor of Business Administration allowance so that the work may have and know security of employment. As for grievance settlement the management should recognize that a delayed grievance may become a 48 University Institute of Technology. v) Liberal grant of leave. Their genius difficulties should be recognized by the management and it should try to help them in this regard. journals and booklets. free or subsidized food. Since a majority of the workers are illiterate they do not understand bulletins and written notices. The management¶s strict attitude in granting leave and holidays even when the need for them is genuine. Alappuzha . free medical aid and transportation facilities. ESI facilities gratuity and pension all these need to be improved so that workers may have a service of belonging. iv) Motivation of workers welfare and social measures. As far social security measures such as the provision of provident fund. Therefore timely illustration and instructions meetings and counseling are called for written communication becomes meaningful only when workers can read and understanding.

over confidence. Job satisfaction and cordial relations between the workers and the employers would help to eliminate most of the personal factors. shunts the development of the human personality and embitters human relations for it is then a denial of freedom to the individual cordial relation between the supervisor and the workers are therefore essential for without them. viii) Cordial Relation between Supervisors and workers. Alappuzha . when there is no common aim between the disciplines and the disciplined. defective equipment and hand tools. The supervisor should recognize that industrial work is a group task and cannot be properly done unless discipline is enforced and maintained. Safety at work can be maintained and accidents can be prevented if the management tries to eliminate such personal factors as negligence. discipline cannot be maintained and productivity cannot be increased. vii) Safety and Accident Prevention.Bachelor of Business Administration complicated case. vanity etc« and such material factors as unguarded machinery and explosives. The system of worker¶s education should be so designed as to take into account there educational needs as individuals for there 49 University Institute of Technology. The problem of industrial discipline become serious when the end is not accepted as necessary or desirable. ix) Development of worker¶s Education. and discipline then becomes a more frustration of the human purpose. carelessness. A procedure for fair and prompt redressal of grievances is therefore essential.

Other Measures a) There should be clear and definite rules and regulation on authorized and unauthorized leave.Bachelor of Business Administration personal evaluation. they are:  Authorized absenteeism  Unauthorized absenteeism  Caused by circumstances beyond ones control  Willful absenteeism Authorized absenteeism: If an employee is absent himself from work by taking permission from his superiors and applying for leave such absenteeism is called authorized absenteeism. as per activities for their efficiency and advancement as citizens for the protection of their interests. b) The rule and regulation relating to attendance must be explained to workers. d) Supervision should not be regarded as ³another worker´ and should be given definite authority to take action in all cases of absenteeism. TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM There are 4 types of absenteeism. Alappuzha . 50 University Institute of Technology. c) A plover record of each worker attendance should be Nintendo on a special daily attendance clad.

Caused by circumstances beyond ones control: Employee is absent himself from duty owing to the circumstances beyond his control.Bachelor of Business Administration Unauthorized absenteeism: If an employee is about himself from work without informing or taking permission and without applying for leave such absenteeism is called unauthorized absenteeism. thus the absenteeism is called absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond ones control. Alappuzha . which takes involvement in accident or sickness. Willful absenteeism: As an employee is absent himself from duty wilfuly. 51 University Institute of Technology.Such absenteeism is called willful absenteeism.