Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an organization's environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented

manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection. An Environmental Management System (EMS):    Serves as a tool to improve environmental performance Provides a systematic way of managing an organization¶s environmental affairs Is the aspect of the organization¶s overall management structure that addresses immediate and longterm impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment  Gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes  Focuses on continual improvement of the system.

What is the EMS Model?
An EMS follows a Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle, or PDCA. The diagram shows the process of first developing an environmental policy, planning the EMS, and then implementing it. The process also includes checking the system and acting on it. The model is continuous because an EMS is a process of continual improvement in which an organization is constantly reviewing and revising the system.[1] This is a model that can be used by a wide range of organizations ² from manufacturing facilities to service industries to government agencies.

What are ISO, ISO 14000, and ISO 14001?
ISO stands for the International Organization for Standardization, located in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO 14000 refers to a family of voluntary standards and guidance documents to help organizations address environmental issues. Included in the family are standards for Environmental Management Systems, environmental and EMS auditing, environmental labeling, performance evaluation and life-cycle assessment. In September 1996, the International Organization for Standardization published the first edition of ISO 14001, the Environmental Management Systems standard. This is an international voluntary standard describing specific requirements for an EMS. ISO 14001 is a specification standard to which an

How are these standards developed? All the ISO standards are developed through a voluntary. like various non-government organizations. Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001. government (federal and state). Draft versions of the standards are sent out for formal written comment and each country casts its official vote on the drafts at the appropriate stage of the process. These organizations include industry. For example. should lead to improve environmental performance. 14002. 14004 . Each member country develops its position on the standards and these positions are then negotiated with other member countries. PPG18 and PPG21 into requirements where failure to comply can result in fines and more significantly reformation / reinstatement costs which can run into many millions of Euro or Dollars. ISO14001 is the dominant environmental management system in the world. allowed voluntary participation by organizations in a Community eco-management and audit schemeEcoManagement and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The ISO 14000 standards reflect different aspects of environmental management. The implementation of a robust EMS. It came into force across Europe during 2009 and for example it became law on the 1st March 2009 converting the various national Pollution Prevention Guidelines (PPGs) such as the UK PPG11. consensus-based approach. and other interested parties. ISO 14001 is considered the foundation document of the entire series.organization may receive certification or registration. Within each country. The following list outlines the broad coverage of each:  Environmental Management Systems:  14001-2004. updating the standard. the latter is the runoff from fires. Within the European Union (EU) legislation was introduced to encourage businesses to voluntarily adopt ISO 14000. which may incorporate ISO 14001. EPA and states participated in the development of the ISO 14001 standard and are now evaluating its usefulness through a variety of pilot projects. Within this Directive is a requirement to mitigate the effects of events such as spills and firewater. ISO has different member countries across the globe. including better and more consistent legal compliance. Legislation and standards The Environmental Liability Directive [ELD] 2004/35/EC is one of the most important instruments that your business will need to comply with and must be included in you EMS. various types of organizations can and do participate in the process. A second edition of ISO 14001 was published in 2004.

14041. and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.  Reduction in insurance costs by demonstrating better risk management. water. Environment primarily refers to the . Environmental policy is any [course of] action deliberately taken [or not taken] to manage human activities with a view to prevent.. reduce. gas and fuels. 14022. Environmental Auditing:  14011  Environmental Labeling:  14020. 14024. Operational and Internal   Improved overall performance and efficiency. 14025  Life Cycle Assessment:  14040. or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources. 14023. 14042.)  Avoiding fines and penalties from not meeting environmental legislation by identifying environmental risks and addressing weaknesses.[1] Definition It is useful to consider that environmental policy comprises two major terms: environment and policy. 14043 Financial  Cost savings through the reduction of waste and more efficient use of natural resources (electricity.. Able to monitor and reflect (audit) your business and see which areas need intervention. 14021.

biodiversity protection. Examples of tragedies of the common are overfishing and overgrazing. For example. each individual has an incentive to utilize common resources as much as possible. Thus. environmental policy focuses on problems arising from human impact on the environment. Without governmental involvement. the commons is overused. economic incentives and market-based instruments such as taxes and tax exemptions. An example of an externality is a factory that engages in water pollution in a river. and fees can be very effective to encourage .ecological dimension (ecosystems). business or individual". The tragedy of the commons is the problem that. but can also take account of social dimension (quality of life) and an economic dimension (resource management). and the protection of natural resources. The free rider problem is when the private marginal cost of taking action to protect the environment is greater than the private marginal benefit. including the free rider problem and the tragedy of the commons. party. wildlife and endangered species. because no one person owns the commons. environmental policy has also attended to the communication of environmental issues. Governments may use a number of different types of instruments. ecosystem management. which retroacts onto human society by having a (negative) impact on human values such as good health or the 'clean and green' environment. tradable permits. Policy can be defined as a "course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government. The cost of such action is paid by society-at-large. Relatively recently. but the social marginal cost is less than the social marginal benefit. waste management. Instruments Environmental policy instruments are tools used by governments to implement their environmental policies. Rationale The rationale for governmental involvement in the environment is market failure in the form of externalities. when they must clean the water before drinking it and is external to the costs of the factory. Environmental issues generally addressed by environmental policy include (but are not limited to) air and water pollution.

such as bilateral agreements negotiated between the government and private firms and commitments made by firm¶s independent of government pressure. Often. several policy instruments may be needed to adequately address each one. several instruments are combined in an instrument mix formulated to address a certain environmental problem. The current reliance on a market based framework is controversial. The site www. overarching. energy efficiency measures may actually increase energy consumption in the absence of a cap on fossil fuel use. Thus. to deal coherently with the scale of the climate change challenge. Also. with many prominent environmentalists arguing that a more radical. as people might drive more efficient cars further and they might sell better. making implementation of environmental policies more costly than necessary[8] In order to help governments realize their environmental policy goals. Since environmental issues often have many different aspects. Another instrument is the implementation of greener public purchasing programs. however. For an example of the problems. the OECD Environment Directorate studies and collects data on the efficiency of the environmental instruments governments use to achieve their goals as well as their consequences for other policies. are other instruments used in environmental policy.compliance with environmental policy. Furthermore. instrument mixes may allow firms greater flexibility in finding ways to comply with government policy while reducing the uncertainty in the cost of doing so. History . Voluntary measures. for example.economicinstruments. overlapping instruments lead to unnecessary administrative costs. approach is needed than a set of specific initiatives. However. instrument mixes must be carefully formulated so that the individual measures within them do not undermine each other or create a rigid and cost-ineffective compliance framework. Aubrey Meyer calls for a 'framework based market' of convergence examples of which are ideas such as the recent Cap and Share and 'Sky Trust' proposals.com serves as a complementary database detailing countries' experience with the application of instruments for environmental policy.

. 1970.[11] During this period. President Nixon signed the Clean Air Act in 1970 which set the United States of America as one of the world leaders in environmental conservation. legislation was passed to regulate pollutants that go into the air. On January 1. At the time. and solid waste disposal. President Richard Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental Policy was a bipartisan issue and the efforts of the United States of America helped spark countries around the world to create environmental policies.The 1970's marked the beginning of modern environmental policy making. water tables.

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