You are on page 1of 4

Concept and Definition

1.Human Resources Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who comprise the workforce of an organization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals (i.e. the human resources). This function title is often abbreviated to the initials HR Human resources is a relatively modern management term, coined as early as the 1960s when humanity took a shift as human rights came to a brighter light during the Vietnam Era .The origins of the function arose in organizations that introduced 'welfare management' practices and also in those that adopted the principles of 'scientific management'. From these terms emerged a largely administrative management activity, cordinating a range of worker related processes and becoming known, in time as the 'personnel function'. Human resources progressively became the more usual name for this function, in the first instance in the United States as well as multinational or international corporations, reflecting the adoption of a more quantitative as well as strategic approach to workforce management, demanded by corporate management to gain a competitive advantage, utilizing limited skilled and highly skilled workers. The term 'human resources' as used in organizations describes the workforce capacity available to devoted to achievement of their objectives. The subject has drawn upon concepts developed in industrial/organizational psychology and system theory. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production. This perspective has shifted as a consequence of further ongoing research into more applied approaches. The subject has expanded to 'human resources development', also called 'investment in human capital'. Such development may apply to individuals within an organization or applied beyond the level of the oganization to that industry sectors and nations. 2. Labor Force Ineconomics, the people in the labor force (or labour force) are the suppliers of labor. The labor force is all the nonmilitary people who are officially employed or unemployed. In 2005, the worldwide labor force was over 3 billion people. Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment. People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work. In the United

state, the labor force is defined as people 16 years old or older who are employed or looking for work. Child labor laws in United state forbid employing people under 18 in hazardous jobs. In the United States, the unemployment rate is estimated by a household survey called the Current Population Survey, conducted monthly by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. The unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed persons by the size of the workforce. An unemployed person is defined as a person not employed but actively seeking work. The size of the workforce is defined as those employed plus those unemployed.

Vietnam Labor force

3. Globalization of human resources Globalization symbolizes the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of technology and human resources across national boundaries presenting an ever- changing and competitive business environment. A vital aspect of globalization is the way diverse challenges are being faced by nations in an increasingly inter dependent world. No country can meaningfully progress today without efficiently responding to demands and pressures generated by international organizations and processes. World Trade Organization (WTO) for instance is bound to lead in a whole new system of trading relations.we can see: the human factor is the key in the new era of globalization The globalization of HR is characterized by increasing levels of decentralization.

Half of all international organizations reported having one primary HR department with independent regional HR staff. Many international (37 percent) and domestic (42 percent) companies reported using a more centralized approachone primary HR department with dependent regional HR staff. More than a third of domestic organizations reported having only a primary HR department with no regional HR staff.

Consistency of HM practices A majority of international (79 percent) and domestic (87 percent) organizations reported that their parent organizations are taking action to make HR practices more

consistent across all locations/ offices.

International organizations use consistent HR practices to help develop a common corporate culture (75 percent) and to improve the effectiveness of the HR function (73 percent). Domestic organizations are creating consistent HR practices to improve both the effectiveness (81 percent) and the efficiency (71 percent) of the HR function. Selection practices vary greatly across locations in international organizations. Selection practices that vary the most include:

Assessments (role plays and simulations). Testing for selection purposes.

Internet advertising (recruiting). Challenges to consistency International companies face many challenges when trying to make HR practices consistent across all locations/offices. The top three challenges include:

Variations in social, political, and economic circumstances. Different locations/offices have their own way of doing things and are resistant to change.

The perceived value of the HR function varies across locations/offices. General challenges for global HR function

Functions such as operations, sales, and marketing have generally made great progress in adapting to the global reality. However, the HR function has typically lagged behind in developing policies and structures that support globalization. The top challenges HR faces in the globalization process include:

Coordination of activities in many different locations. Understanding the continual change of the globally competitive environment. Building a global awareness in all HR departments/divisions. Creating a multicultural HR team.