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Screw and ladder Fishing rod and pliers Nutcracker and paper cutter Wheel-barrow and bottle opener PMR 2008 Which crowbar uses the least effort to pull out the nail?

PMR 2008

Diagram 14 shows the position of a workers hands lifting sand using a spade.

Diagram 14 A B C D 4 Move both hand to P. Move the right hand to Q and the left hand to S. Move the left hand to S without changing the position of the right hand. Move the left hand to R without changing the position of the right hand. PMR 2007 Diagram 15 shows a nail being pulled out uing tools, P and Q.

Diagram 15 Which of the following statements is correct about the effort that was used? A B C D P needs less effort than Q to pull out the nail. Q needs less effort than P to pull out the nail. The distance of the nail from the fulcrum does not influence the effort used. If the distance of effort is nearer to the fulcrum, the effort used will decreased. PMR 2007

Diagram 4 The tool used can be classified as a first class lever because A B C D The load is between the fulcrum and the force The fulcrum is between the load and the force The force is between the load and the fulcrum The load is the same position as the fulcrum PMR 2006 6 Diagram 20 shows a vegetable seller carrying two baskets, F and G. F has a mass of 40 kg and G has a mass of 60 kg. The distance between G and the seller is 1.0 m.

Diagram 20 What should be the distance between the seller and F in order to balance both the baskets? 0.5m 1.0m 1.5m 2.5m PMR 2006

A B C D

What is the load of X? A B C D 10N 20N 40N 80N PMR 2005 7 The diagram shows a lever system. The distance between each of the point on the lever is the same. At which A, B ,C or D should the fulcrum be, so that the lever is balanced?

PMR 2004

wheelbarrow.

Figure 1.1 (a) On Figure 1.1, label the position of the fulcrum. (1 mark) (b) (i) Based on Diagram 1.1, state the class of lever of the wheelbarrow. ______________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (ii) Give one reason for your answer in (b)(i). ____________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (c) Based on Figure 1.2, choose one tool with the same class of lever as the wheelbarrow in Figure 1.1. Mark ( ) in the box for the tool.

Fishing rod

Pliers

(1 mark)

(d) Figure 1.3 shows the situation when a force and a load are balanced.

Figure1.3 Calculate force P needed to balance the metre rule. Use the following formula: Load x Distance of load from fulcrum = Force x Distance of force from the fulcrum (2 marks)

Diagram 2.1

_____________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (ii) State one reason for the answer in 2(a) (i). _____________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

(b) Based on Diagram 2.1, why is it easier to cut the wire when we hold the pliers

at K rather than at L? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (c) Diagram 2.2 shows a worker carrying a load using a wheel barrow.

Diagram 2.2 Draw a lever system for the wheel barrow and label the position of load, force and fulcrum. ( 2 marks)

(d) Diagram 2.3 shows a system when a force and a load are balanced.

Load W

80 cm Diagram 2.3 Calculate load W when the system is in equilibrium. Use the following formula : Load x Distance of load from the fulcrum = Force x Distance of force from the fulcrum

W = _________________ N (2 marks) (e) Diagram 2.4 shows two persons, P and Q, rowing their boats.

Figure 2.4 Why does P use less force than Q to row his boat? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

(a) Diagram 3.1 shows four devices, P, Q, R and S that use the principle of lever.

(PMR 2008)

Diagram 3.1 State one characteristic that can be observed from any three devices by referring to the positions of fulcrum, load and force. Device Characteristic

(3 marks)

(b) Classify the devices, P, Q, R and S into two groups based on their common

characteristics. P, Q, R, S

Common characteristics

Devices

(4 marks)

(c) Diagram 3.2 shows three situations, J, K and L, of a device using principle of

lever.

Diagram 3.2 Based on Diagram 3.2 (i) State one inference about the device. ____________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (ii) Predict the force needed to lift the rock at L. ____________________________________________________________ (1 mark) (iii) State the relationship between the length of the crow-bar and the force needed to lift the rock. ____________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

SIMPLE MACHINES

ANSWER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A C D B B C B

1(a)

fulcrum

(b) (c) (d) (i) Second class lever (ii) Load is between fulcrum and effort. Nutcracker 40 x 20 = 100 x P 800 = 100P 8N = P

PMR 2007 2(a) (i) First class lever (ii) The fulcrum is between the effort and load / The fulcrum is in the middle (b) (c) The longer the distance of the effort from the fulcrum, the less effort is required. Force / E

F / Fulcrum

Distance of the applied force from the fulcrum is longer. / Distance of the load from the fulcrum is shorter.

PMR 2008 3(a) Able to state one characteristic of any three devices. P : Load is between effort and fulcrum.

Q : Effort is between load and fulcrum. R : Fulcrum is between effort and load. S : Fulcrum is between effort and load. (b) P, Q, R, S

The fulcrum is not between the load and effort Bottle opener Ice tongs

(i) The length of the crow bar influences the force needed to lift the rock. (ii) 100 N (iii) The longer the length of the crow bar, the less force needed to lift the rock.

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