Subject name:- Elements of IT

Subject Code: INT 102

Submitted to:- MR. MAHANTESH M.

Submitted by :GURPREET KAUR M.C.A. 1st Sem. ROLL NO : R277B49




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In computer technology and In today’s world internet has found its so much utility. Internet has brought a revolution in today’s information age. As we have to compete in this competitive world so we right information at right time. Beside providing information internet has so much features and found its application in every field. In this term paper I have made a discussion that what is internet and its various applications are also discussed.




This is to certify that “GURPREET KAUR ” student of “M C A “ from “ LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY” is presenting term paper based on “ INTERNET AND ITS APPLICATIONS”

A lot of help was being provided by “ MR.MAHANTESH M.KODABAGI” our class lecturer… Term paper was completed by the help of visiting various sites and help of our teacher..


What is the Internet?
It seems like everyone's talking about the Internet these days. But what is it really? How does it work? How do you access it? And most important, what can it do for you at work or at home? Fortunately, accessing and using the Internet is fairly simple.

How Does the Internet Work?
The Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks, cooperating with each other to exchange data using a common software standard. Through telephone wires and satellite links, Internet users can share information in a variety of forms. The size, scope and design of the Internet allows users to: connect easily through ordinary personal computers and local phone numbers; exchange electronic mail (E-mail) with friends and colleagues with accounts on the Internet; post information for others to access, and update it frequently; access multimedia information that includes sound, photographic images and even video.


The History of the Internet
Many people think that the Internet is a recent innovation, when in fact the essence of it has been around for over a quarter century. The Internet began as ARPAnet, a U.S. Department of Defense project to create a nationwide computer network that would continue to function even if a large portion of it were destroyed in a nuclear war or natural disaster. During the next two decades, the network that evolved was used primarily by academic institutions, scientists and the government for research and communications. The appeal of the Internet to these bodies was obvious, as it allowed disparate institutions to connect to each others' computing systems and databases, as well as share data via E-mail.
According to a survey conducted by CommerceNet and Nielsen Media Research in early 1997, nearly one out of every four Americans over the age of 16 is an Internet user. And the number of users worldwide is believed to be well into the tens of millions. Other statistics are equally startling:

How Do People Use the Internet?
Obviously, the Internet can bring you a whole host of capabilities. But how can they be put to practical use? Among the ways that users like yourself are taking advantage of the Internet are:

Sharing research and business data among colleagues and like-minded individuals. Communicating with others and transmitting files via Email. Requesting and providing assistance with problems and Questions. Marketing and publicizing products and services. Gathering valuable feedback and suggestions from customers and business partners. The most popular and important systems are: E-mail, for exchange of electronic mail messages. USENET newsgroups, for posting and responding to public "bulletin board" messages. However, the disparity of growth led to a digital divide that is still a concern today. Investor speculation in new markets provided by these innovations would also lead to the inflation and collapse of the Dot-com bubble, a major market collapse. But despite this, the Internet continues to grow.

Before the Internet
In the 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited by their nature to only allow communications between the stations on the network. Some networks had gateways or bridges between them, but these bridges were often limited or built


specifically for a single use. One prevalent computer networking method was on the central mainframe method, simply allowing its terminals to be connected via long
leased lines.

Packet switching
At the tip of the inter-networking problem lay the issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logical network, with much wasted capacity inside the assorted separate networks. The notion that the Internet was developed to survive a nuclear attack has its roots in the early theories developed by RAND, but is an urban legend, not supported by any Internet Engineering Task Force or other document. Early networks used for the command and control of nuclear forces were message switched, not packet-switched, although current strategic military networks are, indeed, packet-switching and connectionless.

IETF and a standard for standards
The Internet has developed a significant subculture dedicated to the idea that the Internet is not owned or controlled by any one person, company, group, or organization. Nevertheless, some standardization and control is necessary for the system to function.

History of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web As the Internet grew through the 1980s and early 1990s, many people realized the increasing need to be able to find and organize files and information.

Applications of these are:
• E-mail (SMTP) - for sending electronic mail messages. • Usenet News (NNTP) - for having electronic group discussions. • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - for transferring files between computers. • WAIS - for searching remote collections of indexed information. • Gopher - for browsing remote text information through a menu interface.

The ability to send and receive messages with people throughout the world has been one of the strengths of

Internet. Electronic mail allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user has an e-mail address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a few seconds. A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments. MIME stands for multimedia Internet mail extension and was developed to help email software to handle a variety of file types. Example : A document created in Microsoft word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program such as pine, Eudora. Internet e-mail addresses look like this: sanl198@yahoo.co. in Sanl198 is the account name assigned to user by the administrator of yahoo e-mail server. Yahoo is the e-mail service provider, .co represents that yahoo is a commercial e-mail service provider..in represents the country to which the user belongs. No two users on the same server can have same account name. In e-mail compose box cc stands for carbon copy and bcc stands for blind carbon copy.


Usenet news is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on different topics. The major difference between usenet news and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that usenet messages are stored on central computers and users have to logon to these server computer to read the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from email distribution in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member. Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages or articles from usenet discussion forums called newsgroups UseNet administrators control their own server and decide to which newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system. Usenet newsgroups constitute the Internet's system of bulletin board posting and response. Unlike e-mail, in which messages are intended to be read only by the recipient, usenet newsgroup messages can be read by anyone participating in the newsgroup. Most newsgroups function as discussion groups, where people post and respond to public messages.

FTP is the internet file transfer protocol. It allows us to connect to a remote computer and transfer files back and forth. We connect to a computer with FTP the same way we do with telnet except we use the command FTP instead of telnet. This Internet utility allows us to upload and download files from Internet sites around the world. Information available includes text files, programs, graphics, images and sound files. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers attached to the

Internet. To upload or download file from any server we must have account on that server. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to log on to that server and download files that are accessible to all users. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia,course work, data sets and much more information. If our computer is directly connected to the Internet via an internet cable, we can use any one of several available FTP programs, such as ws_ftp/cute ftp to transfer a file from one computer to another computer.

Example: FTP lyallpur-khalsacollege.com If we have an account on the remote computer we will enter our user name and password. If we do not have an account, we can often use the words anonymous or FTP in place of a user name. For password we use our e-mail address. Example: Username: anon or ftp Password: sood3@hotmail.com Provided that site has provided the option for anonymous user account. Files are stored on the remote computer in a tree structure much like DOS or UNIX operating system. We can use either DOS or UNIX commands to traverse the tree. Example: cd /pub/pictures


To download data we use the 'get' command. To upload we use 'put'. If we are uploading or downloading a program, picture, sound or graphic file we should use the command 'binary' before the operation.

Before the popularity of the World Wide Web, gopher was in very much use. Gopher is an interface for information management and retrieval of information. This facility allows Internet sites to organize, manage and present various text files, programs and graphic images in an easy and efficient manner. Gopher provides menu access to mainly text-based documents on the Internet. A gopher screen consists of numbered menu items. We need to highlight the desired item with the cursor keys and press enter. When we select a menu item, gopher tunnels through Internet pathways to find the information we requested and retrieve it to our computer. Over the past few years, gopher has nearly disappeared from the Internet as the web has become the interface of choice. Using a gopher client such as Hgopher or WS gopher, we can scan and retrieve the information. WIDE-AREA INFORMATION SERVERS (WAIS) WAIS is an Internet system in which specialized subject databases are created at multiple server locations and made accessible for searching to users with WAIS client programs. The user of WAIS is provided with or obtains a list of distributed databases. The user enters a search argument for a selected database and the client then accesses all the servers on which the database is

distributed. The results provide a description of each text that meets the search requirements. The user can then retrieve the full text. WAIS (pronounced ways) uses its own Internet protocol, an extension of the Z39.50 standard (information retrieval service definition and protocol specification for library applications) of the national information standards organization. Web users can use WAIS by either downloading a WAIS client and a gateway to the web browser or by using telnet to connect to a public WAIS client. Most web users will find that the abundance of server files and search engines already available on the web will make WAIS superfluous. However librarians, medical researchers and others may find some specialized information available through WAIS that is not currently available on the web.

There many advantages to using the internet such as:


Email is now an essential communication tools in business. It is also excellent for keeping in touch with family and friends. The advantages to email is that it is free ( no charge per use) when compared to telephone, fax and postal services.

There is a huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every subject known to man, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and conferences, market information, new ideas and technical support.

Many services are now provided on the internet such as online banking,job seeking and applications, and hotel reservations. Often these services are not available offline or cost more.

Buy or sell products.
The internet is a very effective way to buy and sell products all over the world.



Communities of all types have sprung up on the internet. Its a great way to meet up with people of similar interest and discuss common issues.




There are many advantages of using the Internet, such as : Global Audience Content published on the World Wide Web is immediately available to a global audience of users. This makes the World Wide Web a very cost-effective medium to publish information. Reaching more than 190 countrieS Operates 24 hours, 7 days a week You don't need to wait until resources are available to conduct business. From a consumer's perspective as well as a provider's business can be consummated at any time. The fact that the Internet is operational at all times makes it the most efficient business machine to date. Relatively Inexpensive It is relatively inexpensive to publish information on the Internet. At fraction of the cost to publish information by traditional methods, various organizations and individuals can now distribute information to millions of users. It costs only a few thousand dollars to establish an Internet presence and publish content on the Internet. Product Advertising You can use the World Wide Web to advertise various products. Before purchasing a product, customers will be able to look up various product

specification sheets and find out additional information. You can use the multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web to make available not only various product specification sheets but also audio files, images, and even video clips of products in action. The beauty of the Web is that it allows customers to explore products in as much detail as they desire. If the client just wants a general overview, he or she can look at the advertising information. For those wanting more in depth information, you can provide white papers and product descriptions for download. The Web allows a business to provide timely information, you can simply place the information on the Web page and it is available immediately for your customers. Distribute Product Catalogs The World Wide Web is a very effective medium for distributing product catalogs. In the old days, putting together a product catalog used to be very costly in terms of time and money needed to publish and distribute it. The World Wide Web changes all this by allowing content developers to put together a sales catalog and make it available to millions of users immediately. Online Surveys Traditional methods of performing surveys are often relatively slow and expensive compared to online surveys conducted on the Internet. For example, in order to fill out various needs of customers or what they would like to see in a future product, it's often necessary to compile a list of address and mail a questionnaire to many customers. The success of such an attempt is not always guaranteed and can be very costly in terms of mailing the questionnaires and entering responses to a


databases and analyzing it. On the other hand, you can use the World Wide Web to automate the whole process. Obtain Customer Feedback The interactive nature of the World Wide Web is ideal for obtaining customer feedback. You can easily set up a CGI script to obtain customer feedback about a product or service. Because customer feedback submitted by customers can be read immediately, it's possible to respond to various customer concerns in a timely manner, increasing customer satisfaction and quality of customer service. Immediate Distribution of Information When information is added to a Web site, it's immediately available for browsing by millions of Internet users. The World Wide Web is an ideal medium of information distribution because it takes away the time lag associated with publishing content and actually making it available to the users. Easy Integration with Internal Information Systems Internet information systems deployed on the Internet can be easily integrated with internal information systems managed with office productivity applications such as Microsoft Office. Powerful Content Publishing Tools A new breed of Internet aware applications will start emerging in software stores by the time you read this. These applications will enable users to develop content for the World Wide Web by simply saving as an HTML file. In addition to software developers making existing applications Internet aware, various new, powerful, and easy-to use


Internet content publishing applications are also being developed. These applications will make the task of publishing content on the Internet even easier. Most of these applications are developed for Windows users. Multimedia The capability to incorporate multimedia into Web pages is a major advantage of using World Wide Web to publish information. For example, many Web sites use sounds and video clips to make the content easier and more interesting to browse. Formatting Capabilities Content published on the World Wide Web can be richly formatted by using various HTML tags and graphic formats. The capability to do this is a major reason for the success of the World Wide Web. In addition to using HTML tags and various multimedia formats in Web pages, various interactive controls can also be added to a web page. This capability allows Web site content developers to create "active" Web sites. Using the Internet Reasons why people use the Internet To find general information about a subjectThe Web is like a huge encyclopedia of information - in some ways it's even better. The volume of information you'll find on the Web is amazing. For every topic that you've ever wondered about, there's bound to be someone who's written a Web page about it. The Web offers many different perspectives on a single topic.

To access information not easily available elsewhere One of the great things about the Web is that it puts information into your hands that you might otherwise have to pay for or find out by less convenient means. To correspond with faraway friends Email offers a cheap and easy alternative to traditional methods of correspondence. It's faster and easier than writing snail mail and cheaper than using the telephone. Of course, there are disadvantages too. It's not as personal as a handwritten letter - and not as reliable either. If you spell the name of the street wrong in a conventional address, it's not too difficult for the post office to work out what you mean. To learn Online distance education courses can give you an opportunity to gain a qualification over the Internet. To read the news The Christchurch Press On-Line is the first NZ newspaper to make it on to the Web. To find software The Internet contains a wealth of useful downloadable shareware. Some pieces of shareware are limited versions of the full piece of software, other are time limited trials (you should pay once the time limit is up). Other shareware is free for educational institutes, or for noncommercial purposes. Why do people put things on the Web?


To advertise a product Most company Web sites start up as a big advertisement for their products and services. It may be hard to see why anyone would willingly visit a 10 page ad - but these advertisements are very useful to anyone genuinely interested in finding out about their products. Companies may also give away some information for free as an incentive for people to visit their pages. To sell a product Internet shopping (e-commerce) is still in its infancy - it takes a very good marketing strategy to actually make money out of selling items over the Web, but that doesn't stop lots of people from trying. To make money A popular way to make money out of the Web is from advertising revenue. Popular sites have banners at the top of the page enticing people to click them and be taken to the advertiser's Web site. These banners are generally animated and very appealing, with mysterious messages to makeusers wonder where they will be taken. To share their knowledge with the world Many individuals write Web pages to share information about their interests or hobbies. They don't expect to make any money out of it - they just feel that the Web has given them so much information that the least they can do is put something into it that may be useful for others. Other rewards come from the prestige of having their site recognised as something good and the contact inspired by their pages with others sharing the same interest.



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