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Cutting Force Measurement

Ravi Agarwal

09003017
Background:- The knowledge of cutting forces developing in the various machining processes
under given cutting factors is of great importance, being a dominating criterion of material machinability, to both: the designer-manufacturer of machine tools, as well as to user. Furthermore, their prediction helps in the analysis of optimization problems in machining economics, in adaptive control applications, in the formulation of simulation models used in cutting databases. Turning process is one of the most important processes used for machine elements construction in manufacturing industries i.e. aerospace, automotive, and shipping. At turning process the workpiece material is rotated and the cutting tool, travelling to the left, removes a surface layer (chip) of the workpiece material, producing three cutting forces components, i.e. the main cutting force Fc, which acts on the cutting speed direction, the feed force Fz, which acts on the feed rate direction and the thrust force Ft, which acts on the direction which is normal to the cutting speed. The instrument used to measure the components of force is known as Dynamometer. The tool force is measured using the strain developed in the strain gauges or in some cases piezoelectric loads are also used for increased resolution and stiffness. The forces measured using this are very helpful in calculation many variables in the process of chip formation. The force helps us in optimizing the cutting parameter also we can analyze the cutting process. The power consumed by the machine largely depends on the cutting force and is given as below: Pm = Fc V Where; Fc is cutting force & v is the cutting speed. Feed power is calculated as: Pz = Fz V There is also an important parameter that tells us about the efficiency of the process and is given by the specific cutting energy (ps) or the energy consumed per unit volume of metal removed, ps = Where; Fc cutting force & Ac is cross-sectional area of uncut chip. The Strain gauge type dynamometers are inexpensive but less accurate and consistent, whereas, the piezoelectric type are highly accurate, reliable and consistent but very expensive for high material cost and stringent construction.

Aim:-To study the influence of turning process parameters (v-r.p.m,f-feed rate,t-depth of cut) on
cutting forces (Feed force, radial force, thrust force).

Method description: Mount the mild steel cylinder on the lathe. Fix up a turning dynamometer on the carriage; it can measure all the three forces. Also mount a tool on the same. Vary v(r.p.m), f(feed rate),t(depth of cut) and measure Px,Py,Pz. Two values of each of the above mentioned parameters are taken and hence are varied to get 8 readings. Calculate the power for cutting. Repeat the same procedure for aluminum cylinder too.

Experimental data and calculations: Cutting velocity= r.p.m * feed rate Initial Radius of Mild steel=14mm. Initial Radius of aluminium=17.5mm.

For mild steel:R.P.M Feed rate T (mm/rev) Depth of cut (mm) 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.32 0.25 0.32 0.50 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.32 0.25 0.32 0.50 Vz cutting speed (m/sec) 0.0026 0.0026 0.0048 0.0048 0.0089 0.0089 0.0168 0.0168 Fx Px Fy Py (watt) Fz Pz (watt) (Fz*Vz) 0.128 0.204 0.188 0.376 0.349 0.436 24.72 1.648

90 90 90 90 315 315 315 315

3 5 7 8 3 3 140 8

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 15 12 23 8 14 26 25

1.17 1.80 1.53 2.87 3.69 5.66 10.08 9.49

5 8 4 8 4 5 150 10

For Aluminum:R.P.M Feed rate T (mm/rev) Depth of cut (mm) 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.50 Vz Fx cutting speed (m/sec) 0.0026 3 0.0026 3 Px Fy Py Fz Pz (watt) (Fz*Vz) 0.076 0.102

90 90

0 0

4 7

0.60 1.04

3 4

90 90 315 315 315 315

0.32 0.32 0.17 0.17 0.32 0.32

0.25 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.50

0.0048 0.0048 0.0089 0.0089 0.0168 0.0168

3 5 3 3 5 5

0 0 0 0 0 0

6 13 4 7 6 6

0.86 1.84 2.21 3.81 3.46 3.40

2 3 1 2 2 1

0.090 0.141 0.087 0.174 0.329 0.165

Analysis and Conclusions: Increasing cutting depth, Keeping R.P.M and feed rate constant, P y(thrust power) and Pz(feed power) are found to increase for both aluminum and mild steel. Increment in aluminum is more compared to mild steel. Increasing feed rate, keeping other parameters constant, Py(thrust power) and Pz(feed power) are found to increase in both the metals. Increasing R.P.M, keeping other parameters constant, Py(thrust power) and Pz(feed power) are found to increase in both the metals. Mild steel consumes more feed and thrust power than aluminum. Radial power does not contribute towards power consumption.

Sources of Error: Error may be introduced to due to fluctuating readings of dynamometer. Possible human error in setting the depth of cut. Tool may not be aligned properly. Before taking reading set the dynamometer to zero initially. This may result into the wrong value as the initial value was not set to zero.