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Orthogonal Machining

Ravi Agarwal 09003017

Background:- Machining is the process of removing unwanted material from a work piece in
the form of chips. If the work piece is metal, the process is often called metal cutting or metal removal.The following figure illustrates the orthogonal machining process:-

The feed of the tool is now called to, the uncut chip thickness. The DOC is the width of the plate w. The cutting edge of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of motion V. The angle that the tool makes with respect to a vertical from the work piece is called the back rake angle . A positive angle is shown in the schematic. The chip is formed by shearing. The onset of shear occurs at an angle with respect to the horizontal. Basically, the chip is formed by a localized shear process that takes place over a very narrow zone. This large-strain, high-strain-rate, plastic deformation evolves out of a radial compression zone that travels ahead of the tool as it passes over the work piece. This radial compression zone has, like all plastic deformations, an elastic compression region that changes into a plastic compression region when the yield strength of the material is exceeded. The applied stress level increases as the material approaches the tool where the material has no recourse but to shear. The onset of the shear process takes place along the lower boundary of the shear zone defined by the shear angle .

Disadvantages:-It is a time consuming process. It takes a lot of time as compared to other


processes like casting, powder metallurgy, foaming.

Aim:-To understand the basic chip formation process and the effect of rake angle, material and
tool properties on it.

Method description:1. Mount the rectangular slab of aluminum on vice and 10 degree () cutting tool in fixture. 2. Adjust the r.p.m as per requirement. 3. Give three different depths for the same r.p.m. 4. Repeat the same procedure by varying the r.p.m three times keeping the material same. 5. Repeat steps from 1 to 4 for a rectangular plastic slab too and tabulate the readings for both.

Experimental Data: Formula used:-

rc-Chip ratio

Observation Table:o Aluminum:Sr.No R.P.M Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00 Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.3 1.04 1.33 Chip Ratio (Rc) 0.83 0.72 0.75 (shear angle) (degrees) 43.68 39.02 40.34

1. 2. 3.

20 20 20

Sr.No

R.P.M

Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00

1. 2. 3.

36 36 36

Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.32 1.34 1.28

Chip Ratio (Rc) 0.78 0.56 0.78

(shear angle) (degrees) 41.62 31.42 41.62

Sr.No

R.P.M

Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00

1. 2. 3. o Plastic:Sr.No

50 50 50

Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.34 1.26 1.30

Chip Ratio (Rc) 0.74 0.60 0.77

(shear angle) (degrees) 39.90 33.41 41.20

R.P.M

Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00

1. 2. 3.

20 20 20

Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.09 0.18 0.26

Chip Ratio (Rc) 2.78 4.17 3.85

(shear angle) (degrees) 79.3 86.16 85.00

Sr.No

R.P.M

Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00

1. 2. 3.

36 36 36

Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.11 0.18 0.25

Chip Ratio (Rc) 2.27 4.17 4.00

(shear angle) (degrees) 74.84 86.16 85.57

Sr.No

R.P.M

Depth given (to) (mm) 0.25 0.75 1.00

1. 2. 3.

50 50 50

Chip thickness (tc) (mm) 0.09 0.19 0.22

Chip Ratio (Rc) 2.78 3.94 4.54

(shear angle) (degrees) 79.30 85.38 87.32

Results and conclusions: Continuous chips were obtained in plastic unlike aluminum which is in confirmation of plastic being more ductile. As we increase the speed of ram, continuous chips are obtained. At lower speeds, discontinuous chips are seen. As we increase the depth given for cutting, shear angle increases. Chip ratio for aluminum would never be greater than unity. Average shearing stress on the shear plane remains constant and is independent of normal stress in cutting speed. As we increase the shear angle, chip thickness increases, hence force required increases. Increasing cutting angle and cutting speed, chip ratio increases for plastic.

Sources of error: Discontinuous chips are obtained at lower speeds. Error may be introduced due to varying thickness of a chip at different heights. Human error may lead to wrong observations. Zero count of vernier caliper should be taken into account.