CBB 2082 PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION GROUP ASSIGNMENT

STUDENT NAME
EDDIE CHANG JEE TED JEREMY MELVIN AMBOI THIAN JUN YI

ID.

12595 12884

SUBMISSION DATE: 22ND APRIL 2011

The main purpose of the wastewater treatment process is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream. Five basic steps to a complete wastewater treatment process include a preliminary treatment. three core treatment processes and a solids processing phase.removes particles such as grit and slit which are abrasive to plant equipment .wastewater is passed through a sedimentation tank .solid particles of organic material are removed from the suspension by gravity settling .screens and removes larger inorganic material such as paper and plastics . as well as practice a proper and suitable disposal or reuse of solid waste. or sometimes known as sewage treatment.Domestic Wastewater Treatment Process Domestic wastewater treatment.the first stage of the wastewater treatment process . The domestic wastewater treatment process can generally be summarized by the above figure. Preliminary treatment .resultant sludge is concentrated and pumped away Primary treatment . is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage.

wastewater is then passed through a secondary sedimentation tank where the biomass settles under gravity and is concentrated as sludge .the methane gas produced in this process is used to heat the digesting sludge. incinerated or used as fertilizers Tertiary treatment Solids processing One of the many instruments used in the domestic wastewater treatment process is the butterfly valve. which do not need oxygen for growth .the remaining bio-solids are then sent to landfills.Secondary treatment .wastewater enters an aeration tank where oxygen is provided to promote the growth of microorganisms .water is removed from the digested sludge through centrifugation or solar evaporation in lagoons .the sludge can be recycled to the inlet of the aeration tank . . and sometimes also used to generate electricity .these microorganisms consume organic pollutants and nutrients in the wastewater to grow and reproduce .treatment of biodegradable sludge with anaerobic bacteria.wastewater is disinfected using chlorine to reduce pathogens and other microorganisms .

enabling less torque being required to move the disc Double Offset . and a rod passes through the disc and connects to an actuator n the outside of the valve. a disc and an actuator.The Butterfly Valve The butterfly valve is widely used in chemical applications involving fluids. the bladder will inflate pneumatically. the disc is turned either parallel or perpendicular to the flow of fluid.it can withstand temperature up to 1200°F and pressure up to 1440 psig . Essentially. typically if the material is air. gas. There are generally three main types of butterfly valve: Inflatable Seated . The disc is positioned in the center of the valve. By rotating the actuator. It is used to control the flow of material through a circular pipe or tube. steam or liquid.inflatable seated butterfly valve uses an inflatable bladder to create a seal around the disc . a stem. which include the domestic wastewater treatment process. a seat.once the disc is closed.double offset butterfly valve is ideal for applications involving high temperatures and high pressures . a butterfly valve is made up of a body.

triple offset butterfly valve is often used in refinery and offshore applications .Triple Offset .it can withstand extreme conditions and is fire safe .

has lower cost of installation and maintenance 3. viscosity and volatility of fluid etc. which involves factors like temperature. Cavitation may occur if flow rate of the fluid passing through the valve is slow . Has high capacity for larger flow rate and lower pressure drop 4. flow rate. hence the valve seat does not require grinding. Precise flow control is difficult to achieve 6. The normal operating pressure ranges tend to be low or medium 4. Resilient seat is held in place by mechanical means – no need for bonding or cementing Disadvantages 1. Usually has to be either fully shut or fully open 3. High torque is required to control the valve 5. Not a good throttling valve as it creates turbulence once it is opened 2. Economic – sold at cheaper price. But for comparison purposes. Lightweight.Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages and disadvantages of butterfly valves are generally depending on the work condition. relatively small and has simple structure which is quick-acting 2. Has replaceable seat. working pressure. the common advantages and disadvantages of the butterfly valve are listed as followed: Advantages 1. lapping or machine work 5.

When the valve is fully open. depending on the requirement to fit a piping system The butterfly valve belongs to a family of valves called the quarter-turn valves.Working Mechanism of the Valve The ranges of working condition for a butterfly valve is listed as followed: Pressure Temperature Size .150-psi to 740-psi cold working pressure . whereby it only rotates 90° or less. By turning the handle by a quarter. The high performance butterfly valve (e. For example.g.25°F to 450°F . the triple offset butterfly valve) features a slight offset in the way the disc is positioned. has the lowest pressure rating. The valve may also be opened incrementally to throttle flow. which is commonly known as the ‘butterfly. . which increases the valve’s sealing ability and decreases its tendency to wear. The metal disc. Different kinds of butterfly valves have different working principles to adapt to different pressures and usage. the disc is turned so that it completely blocks of the passageway. hence closing the valve. which uses the flexibility of rubber.’ can be controlled by a handle which is connected to a rod the metal disc is attached to. the inflatable seated butterfly valve.Can be built in any sizes. the disc is rotated a quarter turn in the opposite direction so that it allows an almost unrestricted passage of the fluid.

thus reducing amount of force and time needed. The advantage of this actuator is purely due to its mechanical build that only requires a small rotation to open the valve. In the case of butterfly valves.Actuator used in Butterfly Valves Actuators used in valves depend on the working consideration. In more modern equipment. electrical actuators are used compared to pneumatic actuators for conditions such as large valve diameter and high torque requirement. time is an essence to everyone since domestic waste comes in a large and frequent amount.e. Due to the type of working environment in the wastewater industry. In this case. i. . size and application of the valve. which is an actuator that transmits torque to the valve for less than one full round. one whole round means a movement of less than 90O. The diameter of the actuator ranges from a few inches to a couple of meters while the torque requirements to run the actuator is around 10 Nm and up to 100 00 Nm. we use the part-turn actuators.

thus generating voltage. High temperatures are needed to solidify for easiness to dispose the material. temperature measurement device is required to maintain the temperature of the dryer.Other Instruments involved In wastewater treatment. The working principle of a thermocouple is based on metals having different thermal resistance. injected into land or dispose in a landfill. drying is also an important process in treating the water. The most suitable instrument for this process is a thermocouple. This sludge is dehydrated to reduce its volume and is channeled into an incinerator. Thermocouple is a device that contains a junction between two different metals that produces voltage based on temperature difference. we can obtain the temperature of the metal by measuring the voltage of the metal being heated. This is also known as thermoelectric effect or the Seebeck effect. Thermocouple is chosen as compared to other temperature measuring devices because it is commonly available and cheap. Finally. Therefore. .

methane Eliminates odor Optical Sensor Pressure Sensor Has lens that emits lasers to measure the wavelength of the specified solid. causing microorganism to work on dissolving and removing hydrogen sulphide from the wastewater Consists of an oxygen sensor to sense the level of oxygen concentration Function Maintain and adjust pH level of wastewater Detect harmful gases that might accumulate in the plant i.e. one is able to obtain the concentration through the acquired wavelength Has pressure indicator and detector to gather how much pressure is exerted onto the device Controls the oxygen concentration in a reactor (to be supplied to microorganism for aerobic respiration to degrade organic matter) Measure solid concentration Sense changes in pressure in piping system . Through spectrophotometric process.Instrument pH Controller Gas Detector Odor Controller Oxygen Controller Mechanism Consists of acid discharging device to releases acid upon activation to adjust the level of pH in the wastewater Consists of a Wheatstone Bridge transducer (by working principle of gas detection through heat) that senses these gases and signals it to the alarm system Releases nitrate oxygen into the wastewater stream.

Feb).).gov. (n. from Butterfly Valve.tpub.com/en_web/pro_valve/butterfly-valve. Retrieved 2011. Valve Actuator. Retrieved 2011.biotek. Retrieved 2011.d. Thermocouple: http://www.References SA Water.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWastewaterSystems/Wastewater+Treat ment+Process.d.rmpv. from RMPV. (n.pdf RegulatoryStaff. (n.d.org/ .htm Abdullah.com.d.gov/orscontent.sawater. J. Retrieved 2011.). Sewage Sludge System.).).asp?pageid=654 Remy Valve.sc.).regulatorystaff. Retrieved 2011.com/fireman/69. (2004. Retrieved 2011.d.html TPUB. from http://www. (n.htm Wikipedia. (n. from http://www. from http://www.wikipedia.com: http://www.my/nbs2010/program/oral/ind/abstract/day2/Jaafar%20Abdullah%20SI RIM. from http://www. Biotek.

Thermocouple: http://www.rmpv.Remy Valve. (n.org/ .htm Wikipedia. from http://www.d. (n.d.com: http://www. Retrieved 2011. (n. Sewage Sludge System.wikipedia.).com. Retrieved 2011.tpub. from RMPV.).com/en_web/pro_valve/butterfly-valve. Retrieved 2011.com/fireman/69. Valve Actuator.html TPUB. from Butterfly Valve.).d.

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