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What is the estimated worth of the goods and services provided by wild species? ___________ trillion Biological Wealth 2. We presently know of the existence of ________ million species of plants, animals, and microbes. 3. How many plant and animal species have become extinct in the United States? __________ Two Kinds of Values 4. ________________ value exists if an organism’s existence or use benefits some other entity. 5. ________________ value considers the organism’s value for its own sake. 6. List the four values of natural species a. ___________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________ d. ___________________________________________________________ Sources for Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture, and Animal Husbandry 7. Indicate whether the following statements pertain to [a] wild populations of plants or animals or [b] cultivated (cultivar) populations of plants or animals. [ ] highly adaptive to changing environmental conditions [ ] highly nonadaptable to changing environmental conditions [ ] have numerous traits for resistance to parasites [ ] lack genetic vigor [ ] can only survive under high controlled environmental conditions [ ] have a high degree of genetic diversity in the gene pool of the population [ ] represents a reservoir of genetic material commonly called genetic bank 8. Of the estimated 7,000 plant species existing in nature, how many have been used in agriculture? ____________ 9. What is the significance of the winged bean in regard to your answer to question 8 _________________________________________________________________ _ Sources of Medicine 10. Of what value is the chemical called vincristine? _________________________________________________________________ _ 11. Vincristine is an extract from the _________________________________________________________________ _ 12. Of what value is the chemical called capoten? _________________________________________________________________ _
. animals. Intrinsic value arguments center on _____________________ rights and ______________________. [b] aesthetic. decreases) the commercial benefits of the natural environment. and Scientific Value 15. There is the potential of discovering innumerable drugs in natural plants. false) f. or [d] intrinsic values of the biota of natural ecosystems. Aesthetic. false) 23. Restrictions on hunting that represent wildlife management are a. (true. Capoten is an extract from the _________________________________________________________________ _ 14. (Commercial or Regulated) hunting caused the extinction or near extinction of some game animals. false) d.g. 16. 18. 17. smaller) portions of the economy become connected to supporting activities related to the natural environment. Saving Wild Species Game Animals in the United States 21. Requiring a hunting license (true. false) b. (larger. 22. 19. false) e. One of the largest income-generating enterprises in many developing countries is ___________________________. [c] scientific.13. Setting size and/or sex limits on harvested animals (true. raccoons [ ] lack of natural predators [ ] wildlife as vectors for certain diseases [ ] cougar predation on humans [ ] urban Canada geese populations . Indicate whether the following are [a] recreational. skunks. Pollution (increases. Limiting the type of weapon used in the harvest (true. As leisure time increases. Which of the following do [+] and do not [-] represent contemporary wildlife management issues? [ ] near extinction of the wild turkey [ ] road killed animals [ ] urban wildlife. e. Prohibiting commercial hunting (true. Limiting the number that can be harvested (true. Hunting within specified seasons (true. and microbes. opossums. false) Recreational. The process of visiting a place in order to observe wild species or unique ecological sites is called ___________________________. false) c. [ ] hunting [ ] sport fishing [ ] hiking [ ] camping [ ] being in a forest rather than a city dump [ ] study of ecology [ ] just knowing that certain plant and animal species are alive Value for Their Own Sake 20.
Snowy egrets were heavily exploited in the 1800s for their (a. 28. d. How many species. feathers) that were used in (a. nests. What are two major concerns of opponents of the ESA that surfaced in the spotted owl and coho salmon controversy? a. _________________________________________________________ b. uprooting. 34. Over geological time. native to the United States. meat. fancy restaurants. the net balance between ___________________ and _________________ has favored the gradual (accumulation. 27. _____________________________ Biodiversity and Its Decline 32. or commerce of endangered species [ ] controls on government development projects in critical habitats [ ] enforcement of the act [ ] recovery programs [ ] taxonomic status of some animals protected by the act 29. Indicate whether the following provisions are strengths [+] or weaknesses [-] of the Endangered Species Act. b. List the three crucial elements in the process of designating a species as endangered or threatened. The number of plant and animal species on Earth today is estimated at ________ million. grocery stores). Globally. b. What environmental or commercial factors led to the decline of the Peregrine falcon: _____________________________________________________ Whooping crane: _____________________________________________________ Spotted owl: _________________________________________________________ Coho salmon: ________________________________________________________ 31. loss) of species. The law that forbids interstate commerce in illegally killed wildlife is called the __________________________ Act. ____________________________ b. d. 25. c. curiosity shops. a. List four sources of evidence that a decline of biodiversity is occurring . eggs. The law that protects species from extinction is called the __________________________ Act of __________________________. with the greatest species richness found in _______________ plants and ____________________. _________________________________________________________ 30. _________________________________________________________ c. _________ species of animals and _________ species of plants have become extinct. 33. The two states that were first to pass laws protecting plumed birds were _____________________ and ________________________. 37. ladies’ hats. trapping. Which country has at least 5 percent of all living species? _______________________________________________________ The Decline of Biodiversity 35. have become extinct since the early days of colonization? ____________________ 36.[ ] pets predation by coyotes Acts Protecting Endangered Species 24. [ ] the need for official recognition [ ] stiff fines for the killing. c. 26.
________________________________________________________ d. simplification. fragmentation. Examples Fragmentation Clear-cut logging Expansion of the human population over the globe The brown tree snake The greenhouse effect Prospects of huge immediate profits The growing fad for exotic pets. _______________________________ c. In what type of ecosystem can one find the greatest biodiversity? ____________________________ 39. birds. and house plants Simplification Endocrine disrupters Black bear gallbladders Factors a. As human population increases. _______________________________ 38. overuse 42. Indicate whether the following examples of habitat alteration represent (a conversion. pollution d. For which two groups of organisms are estimates of the actual numbers of species good a. c. ________________________________________________________ 41. Match examples with the factors that represent evidence of or contribute to the decline in biodiversity. [ ] stream channelization [ ] shopping malls [ ] highway development [ ] telecommunications towers 43. 45. ________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________ b. decrease). a. reptiles. Africa and Asia have lost more than __________ of their original natural habitat. intrusion). List five factors that represent evidence of or contribute to the decline in biodiversity. 44. _______________________________ b. human population growth c. species survival worldwide will (increase. b. exotic introductions e. fish. _________________________________ Reasons for the Decline 40. The greatest catastrophe to hit natural biota will be . _______________________________ d. ________________________________________________________ e.a. habitat alterations b. or d. _________________________________ and b.
decrease). Exploiters of natural biota will (encourage. Species adapt very (quickly. decreases) biodiversity. a. consumer tourist 55. Bear gallbladders: ____________________________________________ d. List four steps that must be taken to protect our biological wealth. 49. List two international steps that have been taken to protect biodiversity. 50. Does not yet have political support in the United States? _____________________________ Stewardship Concerns 59. global warming d. a. trading post c. Give three examples of exotic species introduced into the United States. tourist shop e. Give an example of human use of the following wildlife or plant species or their parts. 47. human population growth c. Focuses on trade in wildlife and wildlife parts? _____________________ b. the price people are willing to pay will (increase. 48. 54. hunter b. ____________________________________ 58. Exotic species are responsible for ________ percent of all animal extinctions since 1600. an exotic species is a (more. urbanization 46. The two greatest causes of species extinctions are ______________________ and __________________________. Tropical hardwoods: __________________________________________ c. Usually. Parrots: ____________________________________________________ Consequences of Losing Biodiversity 56. 51. Below is a chain of events that perpetuates overuse of natural biota. slowly) to environmental change. ____________________________________ b. As certain plants and animals become increasingly rare. Which of the above steps a. 53.a. __________________________ b. Focuses on conserving biological diversity worldwide? ___________________________ c. Acid rain b. ________________________________________________________ . Small songbirds: _____________________________________________ b. Explain why keystone species are such an important group to consider as a consequence of losing biodiversity _________________________________________________________________ _ Protecting Biodiversity International Developments 57. taxidermist d. the introduction of exotic species into a country (increases. __________________________ c. discourage) public education on poaching and black market trade. a. less) effective competitor for resources. a. __________________________ 52. Usually. Which link in the chain needs to be removed to most effectively curtail overuse? a.
Grassland b. The consequence(s) of species extinctions is (are) a. and ______________ biodiversity. Biodiversity is measured by the _____________________ of different species in an ecosystem. Indicate whether the following activities conserve [+] or destroy [-] biodiversity. 61. [b] CITES.b. Cornfield 63. ________________________________________________________ 60. [ ] conversion of habitat [ ] pollution [ ] introduction of exotics [ ] expansion of human population globally [ ] overuse [ ] regulated hunting [ ] recovery plans [ ] ecosystem management Complete statements 7 and 8 using the terms MORE or LESS 64. It was (commercial. Tropical rain forest c. regulated) hunting that caused the extinction or near extinction of some wild animals. and _________________ biodiversity. ________________________________________________________ c. More expansion of the human population leads to _______________ pollution. All of the above 67. [ ] focuses on the trade of wildlife or their parts [ ] uses recovery plans to re-establish species numbers [ ] emphasizes sovereignty of a nation over its biodiversity . More introduction of exotics leads to _________________ competition for resources. The intrinsic value of wild species is rooted in ___________________ right and _______________ beliefs. Indicate whether the following statements pertain to [a] ESA. 66. Loss of genetic banks d. _____________ predation on endemic prey species. ________________________________________________________ d. [c] Convention on Biological Diversity or [d] more than one of these. 65. Which of the following types of ecosystems has the greatest biodiversity? a. Cascading loss of other species b. Urban development d. 62. Loss of nature’s services c. _______________ use of wildlife species.
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