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# Groundwork for Analysis and Design 2

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Spring Models for a Lateral Load Resisting System

Two Birds Solutions

10.30.2009

a continuous beam analysis (semirigid diaphragm) or in proportion to their distances and stiffnesses (rigid diaphragm). The floor plan to the left shows lateral force resisting system elements (LLRSE) “A”. the upper half of the floor plan is stiffer than the lower half. semi-rigid and flexible by building codes. we consider a statically equivalent set of loads: calculate the center of stiffness. we often assume – and it must ultimately be verified – that the LLRSE’s in the north-south direction can resist the moment. and a clockwise rotation may occur. it is suggested to use the center of the diaphragm as the origin and maintain +/.g.g. apply the lateral load “F” at that point. A LLRSE has a lateral stiffness that may be idealized by a spring. Using this approach. CMU). NOTICE: Floor diaphragms are often classified as rigid. The basic concepts of elastic springs in series and in parallel are presented in Groundwork for Analysis and Design 1: Elastic Springs. braced frames (e. The calculation for center of stiffness is similar to the calculation of the centroid of a cross section. See Groundwork for Analysis and Design: Diaphragm Analysis for more information. steel). or any other element that resists lateral loads such as wind and seismic forces. “B” and “C”. These classifications define the manner that applied forces may be considered to be distributed.Matter Floor plan of diaphragm with 3 shearwalls: SW A SW B Discussion The intent of this document is to provide a basis for performing hand calculations for the analysis of lateral load resisting systems. That is. this spring may be assumed to have a linear elastic response. These elements may be walls (e. it may be evident that the floor will want to twist if the 3 springs are of equal stiffness. SW C Equivalent spring model and resisting forces for a floor with applied lateral load: kA EQ kB FA FB F kC EQ FC F Geometric center of versus center of stiffness: kA kB F kC CENTER OF DIAPHRAGM kA kB F e kC M CENTER OF STIFFNESS Determine the center of stiffness: C ∑k y= i= A C i ⋅ yi i ∑k i=A Eccentricity and moment with “F” applied at center of stiffness (origin is at center of diaphragm): e= y M = − F ⋅ e (positive rotation counterclockwise) M = −F ⋅ y Springs and forces for a floor assuming load applied at center of stiffness (springs in parallel): FA = F ⋅ kA k A + k B + kC . concrete. and consider a moment equal to F*e.signs for “yi” values. moment frames (e. To simplify analysis. The LLRSE’s in the east-west direction may then resist the load “F” in proportion to tributary area (flexible diaphragm). The stiffness of this spring depends on the flexural and shear stiffnesses of the element which in turn depend on the plan cross section properties and height of the story. When calculating center of stiffness. steel). For simplicity. If the lateral force “F” is applied to the center of the diaphragm.g. concrete.

Matter Discussion FB = F ⋅ FC = F ⋅ Discussion kB k A + k B + kC kC k A + k B + kC So. “kB” and “kC” are needed in order to obtain the forces on each element at each floor. the LLRSE stiffnesses “kA”. The determination of spring values for lateral load resisting system elements is presented in Groundwork for Analysis and Design 3: Spring Values for Lateral Load Resisting System Elements. .